Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural machinery total

  1. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  2. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  3. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--POWER. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILL, DURWIN; VENABLE, BENNY MAC

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENTS PREPARING FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OCCUPATIONS IN A VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS, TRIED IN OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS, AND REFINED BY A TEACHER.…

  4. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY ASSEMBLY AND LUBRICATION. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, SKILL IN THEIR SELECTION, AND UNDERSTANDING OF…

  5. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  6. Navigation of Construction and Agriculture Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempfhuber, Werner

    2008-09-01

    Over the last two decades terrestrial and global 3D measurement sensors in the field of engineering geodesy have seen a significant upturn. With modern measurement techniques, a 3D trajectory of a moving object can be determined within a few centimetres (mostly with Global Navigation Satellite Systems, GNSS), under certain circumstances and with an overall understanding of the applied method accuracies of within 5 to 10 millimetres can be achieved (tracking total station). New application areas have been now created in the fields of construction, mining and agriculture. The guidance or control of heavy machinery demands a navigation sensor with an appropriate measurement rate and accuracy, as well as stable and reliable performance. The 3D position, together with the orientation as well as the long and cross inclination information is hereby just one part of the absolute machine guidance or control unit. Data collection, verification, management and interaction of the position information with the 6 degrees of freedom, together and the machine controller, are needed for the overall system. Rotation ring sensors for height control or height guidance are well-known amongst construction jobs and have been in use for more than 20 years. The first GPS-based guidance system for yield mapping was used 15 years ago (Auernhammer 1995). Optimization and improvements in efficiency are the principal reasons for the current developments in the area of 3D-based machine control and guidance. This paper will describe the state-of-the-art and general approaches as well as the real-time 3D measurement techniques in construction and agriculture environment.

  7. Agricultural Machinery Service. A Curriculum Guide for Agricultural Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Agricultural Education Program.

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist teachers, administrators, and supervisors in organizing and conducting vocational programs which meet the needs of high school students who desire vocational training in the off-farm agribusiness of agricultural machinery service. The three-year course for grades 10, 11, and 12 involves operation,…

  8. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  9. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED FOR HELPING TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN ADJUSTING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING CROP HARVESTING MACHINERY. SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCTION OF THE…

  10. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  11. COURSE OUTLINE FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THE 16-MODULE COURSE OUTLINED IN THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE FORMER FARMERS, HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND GRADUATES, AND UNEMPLOYED, AND EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL ENTRY AS AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SETUP MEN, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, MECHANICS, PARTS MEN, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

  12. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Machinery Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for agriculture machinery service technician are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among…

  13. Soil structural changes caused by agricultural machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of tractor traffic with high axle load on the aggregate size distribution, the total soil porosity, and the aggregate porosity were studied in a field experiment on a silty clay loam Greyzem soil. One and three tractors passes were made at pre-irrigated and non-irrigated 10x10 m plots. The v...

  14. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  15. COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXWELL, ROBERT HAWORTH

    LISTS OF 39 AGRICULTURAL AND 37 NONAGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, ABILITIES, AND UNDERSTANDINGS NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION WERE DEVELOPED BY 18 SELECTED EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS AND SENT IN QUESTIONNAIRE FORM TO 180 EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS THAT WERE COOPERATING MEMBERS OF…

  16. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  17. HYDRAULIC POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING BASIC HYDRAULICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

  18. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  19. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  20. METAL FUSION AND FABRICATION WELDING. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE, NUMBER 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE IN A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF WELDING EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES, AND ABILITY TO PERFORM SKILLS REQUIRED OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS. IT WAS…

  1. An Analysis of the Skills Required of Agricultural Mechanics at Retail Farm Machinery Dealerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Clinton O.; Mulcahy, John V.

    In order to determine needs for teaching various competencies in agricultural mechanics courses, a study was conducted to determine the types and frequencies of service/repair operations performed by an Arizona agricultural machinery company from January 1 to June 30, 1981. Data were obtained from 1,232 service orders at the Arizona Machinery…

  2. Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

    The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

  3. Competencies in Welding Needed for Agricultural Machinery Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Herbert Eugene

    To determine needed competencies in welding for agricultural maintenance, questionnaires from 185 farmers familar with welding and 96 job-shop welders representing 40 percent of the Iowa vocational agriculture departments were rated and evaluated. The ten most needed competencies in arc welding were found to be: (1) understanding of the effect of…

  4. Safety signs on agricultural machinery: Pictorials do not always successfully convey their messages to target users.

    PubMed

    Caffaro, Federica; Mirisola, Alberto; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a sample of Italian users comprehended safety pictorials used on agricultural machinery. A questionnaire with 12 safety pictorials was administered to 248 users of agricultural machinery. For each of the pictorials, the participants were asked to select the most appropriate description of four written choices. The investigated safety pictorials were, in general, not well comprehended. Two different classes of participants were identified, each with a different level of comprehension. The participants with better comprehension were characterized by the regular use of agricultural machinery and frequent previous exposure to pictorials. The need for training courses focusing on safety pictorials and their meanings, as well as the need for improvement to the pictorials themselves to make them more easily comprehended, is discussed.

  5. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  6. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, OR SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN THE ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK…

  7. DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

  8. GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION, COMPONENTS, AND FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

  9. MECHANICAL POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT COMPETENCY IN UNDERSTANDING AND APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION IN AGRICULTURAL…

  10. The need for ergonomics considerations for the design and development of agricultural machinery in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mamansari, D U; Salokhe, V M

    1995-06-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in developing countries which are mainly located in tropical regions. Agriculture is an industry with tremendous opportunities for the application of ergonomics principles. Working conditions are extremely difficult due to severe environmental conditions, long working hours, strenuous work and the use of mobile equipment. The ignorance of the majority of ergonomics principles in the design of agricultural equipment make the conditions more difficult. Thailand is one of the important suppliers of agricultural products in the world. Mechanization has expanded tremendously during the last 10 years and the number of agricultural machinery has rapidly increased. This paper looks at ergonomics principles which must be considered in the design and development of agricultural machines and equipment used in Thailand. It was identified that the common farming system in Thailand is rice-based cultivation, mostly in swampy conditions with heavy clay soil. It was also found that the most energy-consuming task in agriculture was primary cultivation. The most widely used machine is a power tiller which is suitable for the farm sizes available and can be operated easily. Most of the power tillers and other equipment were found to be locally made, with less than 5% imported. Unfortunately, there was no standardization in power tiller manufacturing which led to increasing farmers' strain. There is still a need to collect more ergonomics data of Thai farmers such as anthropometry, strength and physical work capacity for the design and development of agricultural machines and equipment used in Thailand. Different ergonomic consideration for the design and development of agricultural machinery have been suggested.

  11. Nonfatal work-related injuries among agricultural machinery operators in northern China: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Na; Chen, Dingyan; Hu, Meirong; Fu, Xianghua; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun; Wang, Zengzhen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify the annual prevalence and potential risk factors of nonfatal agricultural machinery injuries among agricultural machinery operators in the northern areas of China. Methods A quota sampling method was used to study 1921 agricultural machinery operators in 5 provinces in northern China. Agricultural machinery injuries that occurred between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2009 were investigated. Data on nonfatal injuries and related factors were obtained by in-person interviews. Results The prevalence of agricultural machinery-related injuries among the surveyed operators was 13.1%. Being male, having lower family income and/or poor hearing, being in debt, and feeling stressed were five significant risk factors for injuries. The majority of injuries took place on farmlands (46.6%), roads (26.3%), or in backyards (17.5%). The four most common causes of injuries were being stuck by starting handles that slipped, being slashed or stabbed by sharp objects, being struck by falling objects, and falls from stationary vehicles. Conclusions The prevalence of agricultural machinery-related injuries in our study was high. Males, low family income, poor hearing, and stress were associated with high risk of injury occurrence. PMID:23915490

  12. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  13. Agricultural machineries wheeling and soil qualities mapping in climatic changes conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergonzoli, S.; Servadio, P.

    2012-04-01

    As argued in the Fourth Assessment Report of the UN International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2007 the global climate is changing and will continue to change in the near future. Due to the changing in time distribution and intensity of rainfall, the available time to carry out soil tillage operations, seedbed preparation and fertilizers distribution is becoming shorter. These issues are worsened by soil compaction that is one of the major problems facing modern agriculture. Soil compaction impedes infiltration of rainfall, so the increasing scale of mechanization might well be responsible for greater runoff, soil loss by water erosion and water-logging. Overuse of machinery, intensive cropping, short crop rotations, intensive grazing and inappropriate soil management leads to compaction. The objective of this research was to study the compacting effect of two wheeled tractors fitted with different type of tires during fertilizing operations with soil water content over field capacity. Field tests were carried out in a farm near Rome (41°52'502'' Latitude (N); 12°12'866" Longitude (E)) in March 2010 on a clay soil (Vertic Cambisol) during wheat fertilizing. One tractor was fitted with very narrow and high aspect ratio tires with mounted broadcaster coded (WTN), the other tractor was equipped with extra large and low aspect ratio tires with trailed broadcaster for a total of four axles coded (WTEL). Immediately after fertilising operations, such effects have been quantified through spatial variation of some soil parameters: soil water content, soil penetration resistance (CI) and soil shear strength (SS). Soil samplings have been carried out on the tracks left by the tractors and on soil not interested by the passage (control). To monitor all tractors passes across the field and to compute the total area covered by tractors tires a DGPS receiver was placed into the tractors; to map soil parameters studied, both on tracks left by the tractors passes

  14. Opportunities and Requirements for Entry into the Agricultural Machinery Mechanics Trade. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.

    Data about the farm machinery mechanics trade were obtained from 51 managers of farm machinery dealerships in Texas to determine the content that should be included in courses of study designed to train persons to enter the occupation, and to obtain information about the occupation that would be useful to persons considering the trade as an…

  15. Soil conservation under climate change: use of recovery biomasses on agricultural soil subjected to the passage of agricultural machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergonzoli, S.; Beni, C.; Servadio, P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass administration is a good practice to preserve the soil fertility in climate change conditions. A test regarding the use of compost derived by wine distillation residues was conducted in the coastal area sited west of Rome, on a sandy soil in continuous cropping with carrot, two cycles per year, with a consequent deep environmental impact. The soil was fertilized with different systems: T = unfertilized soil; F = fertigation 200 kg N ha-1; FC = fertigation 100 kg N ha-1 plus half agronomic dose of compost 4 t ha-1; C2 = double compost dose 16 t ha-1; C4 = quadruple compost dose 32 t ha-1. The functional qualities of the soil, subjected to the passage of agricultural machineries, were determined through the following parameters: bulk density, shear strength, water infiltration rate, organic matter and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity. At the summer harvest, yield of carrots, their sugar content, firmness and nutrients concentration were determined. The plots only amended (C2 and C4), compared to other treatments, presented lower bulk density (1.36 and 1.28 Mg m-3 respectively), higher shear strength (9 and 8 kPa respectively), as well as increased hydraulic conductivity. In these treatments (C2 and C4), in addition, occurred a higher content of organic matter (0.95 and 1.07% respectively) and nitrogen (0.11 and 0.12% respectively) and increased CEC (541 and 556 respectively) respect to the T treatment that was 521 meq 100g-1. In plots T and F, the organic matter content was reduced at the end of the field test. The yield of carrots increased in FC, C2, and C4, compared to the other treatments. In plots C4, however, morphological changes were induced in approximately 30% of tap-roots, due to the excessive compost dose. In treatments C2 and C4 was observed a reduction of the concentration of Na in the roots, as opposed to the higher concentration of Ca and K and trace elements. The administration of compost has also induced the increase of soluble

  16. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981–2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making. PMID:28265075

  17. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G; Schmoldt, Daniel L; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A

    2017-03-21

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981-2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making.

  18. Total Program Efficacy: A Comparison of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine agriculture teachers' perceived levels of efficacy as they relate to managing the total program of agricultural education, both for traditionally and alternatively certified teachers. The constructs used in this study were technical content, FFA/leadership development/SAE, teaching and learning, and…

  19. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    PubMed Central

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor

  20. Wi-Fi and satellite-based location techniques for intelligent agricultural machinery controlled by a human operator.

    PubMed

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-10-22

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems' (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor. From

  1. Productivity Growth Average in Farm Machinery Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Arthur S.; Ferris, John W.

    1982-01-01

    Productivity in farm machinery manufacturing is examined. The authors discuss how the national economy affects productivity, how the growth of agriculture and technology has changed the industry, and how future trends may cause change in the industry. (CT)

  2. [Contribution of Base Flow to Total Nitrogen Loading in Subtropical Agricultural Catchments].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiu-mei; Li, Wei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xin-liang; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-04-15

    With the fast development of economics and improvement of people's living standard, non-point source pollution of the agricultural catchments in subtropical China has become more and more severe, where water quality deterioration has become a main barrier for sustainable development and ecological restoration. The process of ecohydrology in catchment is greatly influenced by the process of base flow in channel. This study selected the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments located in Changsha County, Hunan Province, to quantify and compare the contribution of base flow to total nitrogen (TN) loading from January 2011 to December 2013, through field observation and model estimation. The results suggested that the Tuojia catchment with higher intensity of rice agriculture had the greater volume of base flow, higher average flow-weighted TN concentration in base flow, and greater monthly TN loading via base flow [15.2 mm · month⁻¹, 4.14 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.54 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively] than those in the Jianshan catchment with lower intensity [11.4 mm · month⁻¹, 1.72 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.20 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively]. The base flow contribution to TN loading showed an apparently seasonal pattern. During rice-growing seasons, the contributions of base flow to TN loading were 23.2% and 18.6% in the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments, respectively, lower than those in the fallow seasons (46.9% and 40.0% correspondingly. These results suggested that rice agriculture increased the contribution of base flow in the fallow season to TN loading. Therefore, to alleviate the suffering of non-point source pollution in the rice agriculture catchments, reasonable management measure of rice fields should be implemented to decrease contrihution of base flow to TN loading.

  3. Optimal Allocation of Maximum Allowable Discharged Total Nitrogen Load among Field Plots in Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shigeya; Yoshikawa, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Junichiro; Kawachi, Toshihiko; Chono, Shunsuke; Unami, Koichi

    A multiobjective optimization model is developed for controlling TN (Total Nitrogen) load discharged from field plots in an agricultural watershed. In optimization, maximizations of allowable TN discharge per unit area and total yield of rice are intended while complying with an effluent limitation standard prescribed for river water quality management. The discharge from a field plot is separated into two components, i.e., direct runoff and baseflow. As discharged TN from a plot travels with these components toward an outlet of the watershed, the amount of TN is assumed to decrease due to distance-related self-purification occurring in subsurface zone, drainage canal and river. Locations of field plots and traveling routes of TN are identified or predicted by a GIS (Geographic Information System) with a digital elevation model and by field surveys. The model developed is applied to an agricultural watershed bordering with Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. The result demonstrates that the optimal allocation of maximum allowable discharged TN load among field plots is helpful in prioritizing plots where fertilization should be reduced.

  4. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  5. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  6. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  7. Risk of Total and Aggressive Prostate Cancer and Pesticide Use in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lubin, Jay H.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Barry, Kathryn Hughes; DellaValle, Curt T.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lynch, Charles F.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Because pesticides may operate through different mechanisms, the authors studied the risk of prostate cancer associated with specific pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study (1993–2007). With 1,962 incident cases, including 919 aggressive prostate cancers among 54,412 applicators, this is the largest study to date. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using Poisson regression to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prostate cancer incidence. Three organophosphate insecticides were significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer: fonofos (rate ratio (RR) for the highest quartile of exposure (Q4) vs. nonexposed = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.17; Ptrend < 0.001); malathion (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88; Ptrend = 0.04); and terbufos (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.64; Ptrend = 0.03). The organochlorine insecticide aldrin was also associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.18; Ptrend = 0.02). This analysis has overcome several limitations of previous studies with the inclusion of a large number of cases with relevant exposure and detailed information on use of specific pesticides at 2 points in time. Furthermore, this is the first time specific pesticides are implicated as risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:23171882

  8. Effect of policy-induced measures on suspended sediments and total phosphorus concentrations from three Norwegian agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Marianne; Stålnacke, Per

    2005-05-15

    In Norway, agricultural subsidies have, since the late 1980s, been targeted to reduce soil erosion, transfer of soil particles and phosphorus (P) losses. The subsidies led to, e.g., a fourfold increase in the area not ploughed from 1991 to 2001 and a reduced P fertiliser consumption by 60%, especially in areas with high livestock density. Moreover, in the late 1980s agricultural point sources of P from storage facilities of manure and fodder were reduced. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of these policy-induced measures and changed agricultural practices on suspended sediment (SS) and total P (TP) concentrations in three agricultural catchments (1, 3 and 87 km2). Results from the statistical trend analyses for the study period (14-17 years) showed weak, but statistically significant (p<0.05), downward trends in concentrations of TP and SS in the two streams with a high initial TP or SS concentration. In the stream with low initial concentrations of TP and SS, however, no statistically significant trends were shown. The stream with the highest initial concentration of SS showed a statistically significant downward trend in both TP and SS concentrations. The catchment with low initial concentration of SS and medium livestock density showed no detectable trends, while the catchment with high livestock density and low concentrations of SS in the stream showed a statistically significant downward trend in TP concentrations. The results from this study suggest that subsidies and mitigation measures can reduce concentrations of TP and SS in streamwater in highly polluted catchments, although the reduction is small compared to the variations between catchments.

  9. Characterizing response of total suspended solids and total phosphorus loading to weather and watershed characteristics for rainfall and snowmelt events in agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven; Brooks, Wesley R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the response of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) to influential weather and watershed variables is critical in the development of sediment and nutrient reduction plans. In this study, rainfall and snowmelt event loadings of TSS and TP were analyzed for eight agricultural watersheds in Wisconsin, with areas ranging from 14 to 110 km2 and having four to twelve years of data available. The data showed that a small number of rainfall and snowmelt runoff events accounted for the majority of total event loading. The largest 10% of the loading events for each watershed accounted for 73–97% of the total TSS load and 64–88% of the total TP load. More than half of the total annual TSS load was transported during a single event for each watershed at least one of the monitored years. Rainfall and snowmelt events were both influential contributors of TSS and TP loading. TSS loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at five watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds, and nearly equal at one watershed. The TP loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at three watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds and nearly equal at three watersheds. Stepwise multivariate regression models for TSS and TP event loadings were developed separately for rainfall and snowmelt runoff events for each individual watershed and for all watersheds combined by using a suite of precipitation, melt, temperature, seasonality, and watershed characteristics as predictors. All individual models and the combined model for rainfall events resulted in two common predictors as most influential for TSS and TP. These included rainfall depth and the antecedent baseflow. Using these two predictors alone resulted in an R2 greater than 0.7 in all but three individual models and 0.61 or greater for all individual models. The combined model yielded an R2 of 0.66 for TSS and 0.59 for TP. Neither the individual nor the combined models were

  10. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  11. Improve machinery vibration data

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, I. )

    1993-03-01

    Continuous monitoring and periodic logging of machinery information are the best ways to measure current performance and predict availability. Decisions made on time-based information analysis are only as good as the quality of the data. Methods for data acquisition must conform to standards that ensure data are free of errors and ambiguity. This paper discusses the data acquisition framework; data collection techniques; conventions and documentation; transduces operation; transduces selection and application; transducer noise; and vital features of a diagnostic instrument.

  12. Instability in Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

  13. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-Wamwiza, L; Milla, S; Pierrard, M-A; Rurangwa, E; Mandiki, S N M; Van Look, K J W; Kestemont, P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM and maize meal (diet 1); 25% FM mixed with crude sunflower oil cake (SFOC) and bean meal (BM) (diet 2); 12.5% FM mixed with sunflower oil cake, BM and ground nut oil cake (GOC) (diet 3) and 0% FM mixed with de-hulled sunflower oil cake (SFOCD), BM and ground nut oil cake (diet 4). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm quality, plasma sex steroids (11-keto testosterone [11-KT]; testosterone [T]; estradiol-17beta [E2]) were evaluated on 10 to 24 fish fed on each diet. Sperm quality was assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Total replacement of fish meal by plant products markedly increased sperm volume, spermatocrit, spermatozoa integrity, and sperm motility. Fish fed diet 3 (12.5% fish meal) provided intermediate results on sperm quality whereas the lowest values were obtained in fish fed diets 1 and 2. In fish fed 0% fish meal (diet 4), androgen levels were higher and estrogen levels were lower than in fish fed fish meal diets. Based on dietary lipid and fatty acid analyses, these results suggest a positive impact of short chain n-6 fatty acids on androgen synthesis and sperm quality. In conclusion, a combination of ground nut oil cake, bean meal and sunflower oil cake (preferably when the sunflower is dehulled) in African catfish diet improves the sperm quality.

  14. Autophagy: machinery and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhangyuan; Pascual, Clarence; Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation process that targets cytoplasmic materials including cytosol, macromolecules and unwanted organelles. The discovery and analysis of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins have unveiled much of the machinery of autophagosome formation. Although initially autophagy was regarded as a survival response to stress, recent studies have revealed its significance in cellular and organismal homeostasis, development and immunity. Autophagic dysfunction and dysregulation are implicated in various diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize the physiological roles, molecular mechanism, regulatory network, and pathophysiological roles of autophagy. PMID:28357331

  15. 49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Machinery rooms on north tower. Facing north. Machinery rooms contain all motors, motor controllers, and gears for operating one span, in this case, the north span. Note bell with continuous operating clapper for use as fog signals. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. [Total contents of heavy metals and their chemical fractionation in agricultural soils at different locations of Beijing City].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Fan; Zhao, Ye; Guo, Ting-Zhong; Wang, Shui-Feng; Tian, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this study, 23 groups of suited typical soil-wheat grain samples were collected from different locations of Beijing city (central city, suburban plain and exurban plain), the accumulation, chemical forms and bioavailability of heavy metals in arable soils under different human activity intensity were analyzed, and their source identifications and health risk were discussed. The results showed that (1) Urban soils exhibited Pb contamination with an average concentration (35.59 mg x kg(-1)) above the WHO limit, probably due to the emission of traffic activities and industrial processes. In addition, long-term sewage irrigation and other agricultural activities led to local metal contamination in the suburban agricultural soils. (2) Cu, Zn and Pb were predominantly associated with the residual (35%-75%) and organic (23%-53%) fractions, followed by Fe/Mn oxide (1%-19%), and very small proportion of carbonate (n. d.-5%) and exchangeable (n. d.-2%) fraction. Furthermore, compared with the suburban agricultural soils, Pb, Zn and Cu in the urban agricultural soils showed higher mobility, whereas the exurban agricultural soils presented the lowest mobility. For Cd, the order was contrary. Besides, Cd showed the highest bioavailability among the four metals in suburban and exurban arable soils due to its considerable proportion of exchangeable (13% -31%) and carbonate fractions (11%-27%). (3) Cd and Zn contents in wheat grains were largely dependent on the Fe/Mn ox. fractions in the studied soils (P < 0.05, r were 0.43-0.7). (4) Pb and Zn concentrations in wheat grains in some of the urban and suburban agricultural soils were above the standard limit, which might bring potential risk for the health of the local residents.

  17. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  18. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values.

  19. Practical machinery management for process plants. Volume 3: Machinery component maintenance and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.; Geitner, F.K.

    1985-01-01

    This work is a reference for machinery engineers concerned with machinery and component installation, maintenance, and repair. This third volume covers maintenance organization, machinery turnaround management, turbomachinery overhauls, machinery foundations and grouting, process machinery piping, alignment and balancing of machinery components, ball bearing maintenance and replacement, mechanical seals, welded repairs to pump shafts and other rotating equipment components, centrifugal compressor rotor repair, selection and application of O-rings, and more.

  20. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  1. Selected References and Aids for Teaching Agricultural Mechanics to Students of Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzucco, April

    The booklet lists references and materials intended for both the student and the teacher of agricultural mechanics. The materials are grouped under nine topics: agricultural shop; metalwork and welding; agricultural machinery; agricultural power; drawing, construction, and maintenance; electricity; water management, soil and water conservation;…

  2. 12 CFR 208.23 - Agricultural loan loss amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... farm machinery; (iii) Other loans that a bank proves to be sufficiently related to agriculture for...) Loans that finance agricultural production or are secured by farm land for purposes of Schedule RC-C...

  3. 12 CFR 208.23 - Agricultural loan loss amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... farm machinery; (iii) Other loans that a bank proves to be sufficiently related to agriculture for...) Loans that finance agricultural production or are secured by farm land for purposes of Schedule RC-C...

  4. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  5. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  6. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  7. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  8. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  10. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  11. 36. MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 1 (LOCATED AT A ON SITE PLAN), SHOWING HYDRAULIC GATE HOIST (SIX, TOTAL, MANUFACTURED BY JOSHUA HENDRY IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO) ON LEFT AND INSPECTION GALLERY ON RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  12. Concentrations of DDTs and enantiomeric fractions of chiral DDTs in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China, and correlations with total organic carbon and pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Chen, Zhouyin; Ahrens, Lutz; Liu, Weiping; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-08-29

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) are persistent organic pollutants that were widely used in China, especially eastern China, as insecticides. This work investigated the concentration, dissipation, and volatilization of DDTs and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT in agricultural soils collected in 2006 from 58 sites in Zhejiang province. Correlations between DDT residues and soil properties were assessed to determine the effect of soil properties on the environmental attenuation of DDTs. High concentrations and detection frequencies were found for DDTs in agricultural soils in the region even though large-scale use of DDTs was banned over 20 years ago. The amount of DDTs was about 485 tons in the upper 20 cm of the soil column of cropland in the province in 2010, with a dissipation half-life of ~9 years. The mass flux of DDTs was 43 ng m(-2) h(-1), which corresponds to emissions of 7.6 tons with an emission factor of 1.6% in 2006. The low p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios and high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios suggest that there were no recent inputs of DDTs but fresh application of dicofol, which contains DDT (o,p'-DDT in particular) impurities. The significant positive correlation between concentrations of DDTs and total organic carbon content (TOC) indicates the distribution of DDTs fit a typical "secondary distribution" pattern. DEVrac of o,p'-DDD, which is defined as the absolute value of EFs subtracted from 0.5, was significantly related with most of the physicochemical and microbial soil properties. The most significant correlation is that between DEVrac of o,p'-DDD and soil pH (p < 0.001), indicating that the soil pH plays a key role in enantioselective residues of DDTs.

  13. USSR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: SOVIET TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY NO. 57.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    by I. I. Trepenenkov The conditions and prospects of work on the development of mechanization means for harvest ing ensilage crops, by K. Klement’ev PPN-30 picker loader, by I. P. Shvetsov and A. V. Petrovskii

  14. Membrane manipulations by the ESCRT machinery.

    PubMed

    Odorizzi, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) collectively comprise a machinery that was first known for its function in the degradation of transmembrane proteins in the endocytic pathway of eukaryotic cells. Since their discovery, however, ESCRTs have been recognized as playing important roles at the plasma membrane, which appears to be the original site of function for the ESCRT machinery. This article reviews some of the major research findings that have shaped our current understanding of how the ESCRT machinery controls membrane dynamics and considers new roles for the ESCRT machinery that might be driven by these mechanisms.

  15. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Agriculture Power and Machinery. (Program CIP: 01.0204 - Agricultural Power Machinery Operation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lee; James, Terry; Washington, Lee; Taylor, John Grady; Rushing, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  16. 5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N4) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N-4) FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  18. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges; and (i) Test of machinery alarms including bilge... managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of machinery... ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of engine control mechanisms including primary...

  19. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges; and (i) Test of machinery alarms including bilge... managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of machinery... ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of engine control mechanisms including primary...

  20. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges; and (i) Test of machinery alarms including bilge... managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of machinery... ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of engine control mechanisms including primary...

  1. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges; and (i) Test of machinery alarms including bilge... managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of machinery... ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of engine control mechanisms including primary...

  2. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges; and (i) Test of machinery alarms including bilge... managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of machinery... ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of engine control mechanisms including primary...

  3. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure that, when machinery or boilers are operating at full power in...

  8. Agricultural Accident Prevention--Problems and Accomplishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Benton K.

    1976-01-01

    Titles of bulletins, for persons who are interested in agricultural accident prevention, are listed as well as examples of farm machinery manufacturers who are making special efforts to produce valuable teaching aids and to inform all segments of agriculture about important safety development. (HD)

  9. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing an... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation...

  10. Study on the relationship between basic and applied subjects in Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, A.; Gallego, E.; Garcia, N.; Fernandez, P.; Lleo, L.

    2012-04-01

    The engineer is someone who carries out develops technological solutions to social, industrial or economic by using knowledge of science, mathematics and appropriate experience to find the best solutions to specific problems. Therefore, all engineering studies include core subjects that are taught mainly in the first courses such as mathematics and physics, they provide essential training in order to pursue certain subjects that are applied directly related, such as electrical, construction, topography or engines and machinery, among others, that solve certain technological problems specific to the engineer. A study was carried out with a total of 206 students, focused on the degree of Agricultural Engineer (Curriculum 1999) which is taught at the Technical University of Madrid, was designed to determine the degree of correlation between the results obtained by students in basic engineering materials ("Mathematics I", "Mathematics II", "Physics I" and "Physics II"), and certain applied subjects in the agricultural Technical engineering degree ("Electrical", "Engines and agricultural machinery" "Agro-industrial machinery and engines," "Design and calculation of structures", "Building agri-food," "Surveying, photogrammetry and cartography").

  11. Use laser-optics for machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    Many sources attribute most bearing overload and destructive vibration in industrial machinery to shaft misalignment. There is considerable disagreement as to the alignment quality required. There is also little agreement on suitable calculation methods and achievable accuracy for anticipated thermal growth of machinery (necessary if running alignment is to remain acceptable). This article examines existing alignment quality guidelines for relevance and consistency, and reviews the application of laser-optic alignment systems based on three years of field experience.

  12. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  13. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  14. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  16. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  17. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  18. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  19. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  2. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO...

  3. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main propulsion system must be provided in duplicate unless the...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO...

  9. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  10. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  11. 46 CFR 42.15-35 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 42.15-35 Section 42.15-35... BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-35 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space..., funnel, or machinery space ventilators in an exposed position on the freeboard or superstructure...

  12. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  13. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  14. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO...

  16. Architecture and regulation of negative-strand viral enzymatic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Kranzusch, Philip J.; Whelan, Sean P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses initiate infection with a unique polymerase complex that mediates both mRNA transcription and subsequent genomic RNA replication. For nearly all NS RNA viruses, distinct enzymatic domains catalyzing RNA polymerization and multiple steps of 5′ mRNA cap formation are contained within a single large polymerase protein (L). While NS RNA viruses include a variety of emerging human and agricultural pathogens, the enzymatic machinery driving viral replication and gene expression remains poorly understood. Recent insights with Machupo virus and vesicular stomatitis virus have provided the first structural information of viral L proteins, and revealed how the various enzymatic domains are arranged into a conserved architecture shared by both segmented and nonsegmented NS RNA viruses. In vitro systems reconstituting RNA synthesis from purified components provide new tools to understand the viral replicative machinery, and demonstrate the arenavirus matrix protein regulates RNA synthesis by locking a polymerase–template complex. Inhibition of gene expression by the viral matrix protein is a distinctive feature also shared with influenza A virus and nonsegmented NS RNA viruses, possibly illuminating a conserved mechanism for coordination of viral transcription and polymerase packaging PMID:22767259

  17. Cancer gene therapy targeting cellular apoptosis machinery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin-Tao; Chen, Si-Yi; Yang, An-Gang

    2012-11-01

    The unraveling of cellular apoptosis machinery provides novel targets for cancer treatment, and gene therapy targeting this suicidal system has been corroborated to cause inflammation-free autonomous elimination of neoplastic cells. The apoptotic machinery can be targeted by introduction of a gene encoding an inducer, mediator or executioner of apoptotic cell death or by inhibition of anti-apoptotic gene expression. Strategies targeting cancer cells, which are achieved by selective gene delivery, specific gene expression or secretion of target proteins via genetic modification of autologous cells, dictate the outcome of apoptosis-based cancer gene therapy. Despite so far limited clinical success, gene therapy targeting the apoptotic machinery has great potential to benefit patients with threatening malignancies provided the availability of efficient and specific gene delivery and administration systems.

  18. Mitochondrial Machineries for Protein Import and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2017-03-15

    Mitochondria are essential organelles with numerous functions in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Most of the >1,000 different mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and are imported into mitochondria by five transport pathways. The protein import machineries of the mitochondrial membranes and aqueous compartments reveal a remarkable variability of mechanisms for protein recognition, translocation, and sorting. The protein translocases do not operate as separate entities but are connected to each other and to machineries with functions in energetics, membrane organization, and quality control. Here, we discuss the versatility and dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machineries. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial protein translocation is crucial for understanding the integration of protein translocases into a large network that controls organelle biogenesis, function, and dynamics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  19. The machinery of mitochondrial inheritance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, M P

    1999-03-05

    The distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division is an essential feature of cell proliferation. Until recently, it was commonly believed that inheritance of mitochondria and other organelles was a passive process, a consequence of their random diffusion throughout the cytoplasm. A growing recognition of the reticular morphology of mitochondria in many living cells, the association of mitochondria with the cytoskeleton, and the coordinated movements of mitochondria during cellular division and differentiation has illuminated the necessity for a cellular machinery that mediates mitochondrial behavior. Characterization of the underlying molecular components of this machinery is providing insight into mechanisms regulating mitochondrial morphology and distribution.

  20. 75 FR 8652 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE Application for Subzone CNH America, LLC (Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... (Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing) Grand Island, NE An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade...-purpose subzone status for the agricultural combine and hay tools manufacturing facilities of CNH...

  1. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  2. EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAUER, FREDERICK L.

    RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

  3. Active Vibration Dampers For Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascack, Albert F.; Ropchock, John J.; Lakatos, Tomas F.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan; Lin, Reng Rong

    1994-01-01

    Active dampers developed to suppress vibrations in rotating machinery. Essentially feedback control systems and reciprocating piezoelectric actuators. Similar active damper containing different actuators described in LEW-14488. Concept also applicable to suppression of vibrations in stationary structures subject to winds and earthquakes. Active damper offers adjustable suppression of vibrations. Small and lightweight and responds faster to transients.

  4. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... watertight bulkhead pipe penetration valves; (h) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges... certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel... the main propulsion machinery both ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of...

  5. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... watertight bulkhead pipe penetration valves; (h) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges... certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel... the main propulsion machinery both ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of...

  6. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... watertight bulkhead pipe penetration valves; (h) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges... certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel... the main propulsion machinery both ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of...

  7. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... watertight bulkhead pipe penetration valves; (h) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges... certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel... the main propulsion machinery both ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of...

  8. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... watertight bulkhead pipe penetration valves; (h) Operational test of the means provided for pumping bilges... certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel... the main propulsion machinery both ahead and astern; (b) Operational test and inspection of...

  9. Health hazards to children in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wilk, V A

    1993-09-01

    Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture.

  10. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of... refrigeration compressor spaces shall be effectively ventilated and drained and shall be separated from...

  11. 52. Detail of electrical contacts in the south machinery room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Detail of electrical contacts in the south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing south. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 54. West emergency brake in the south machinery room (interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. West emergency brake in the south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing west. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 51. Electrical contacts and relays in the south machinery room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Electrical contacts and relays in the south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing south. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  15. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by... sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served....

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  18. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  19. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  20. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  1. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  2. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  3. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  4. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  5. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery driving forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  6. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery driving forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  11. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  12. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  13. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  14. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  15. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall...

  16. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  17. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  18. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.352 Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required...

  19. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  20. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  1. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  2. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  3. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  4. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  5. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  6. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  7. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  8. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  15. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery....

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  19. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  20. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels...

  1. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  2. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  3. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  5. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  6. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  7. 46 CFR 185.352 - Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of gasoline machinery spaces. 185.352... machinery spaces. The mechanical exhaust for the ventilation of a gasoline machinery space, required by... sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served....

  8. The Face of the Future: Agriculture, the Office, Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This group of three articles discusses changes in the following three areas: agriculture (machinery, in-home computers, agricultural research, soil and water conservation, new crops), the office (word processing, personal computers, electronic mail, computer assisted retrieval, teleconferencing), and marketing (electronic catalogs, electronic…

  9. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  10. GPCR signalling to the translation machinery.

    PubMed

    Musnier, Astrid; Blanchot, Benoît; Reiter, Eric; Crépieux, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in most physiological processes, many of them being engaged in fully differentiated cells. These receptors couple to transducers of their own, primarily G proteins and beta-arrestins, which launch intracellular signalling cascades. Some of these signalling events regulate the translational machinery to fine-tune general cell metabolism or to alter protein expression pattern. Though extensively documented for tyrosine kinase receptors, translational regulation by GPCRs is still poorly appreciated. The objective of this review paper is to address the following questions: i) is there a "GPCR signature" impacting on the translational machinery, and ultimately on the type of mRNA translated? ii) are the regulatory networks involved similar as those utilized by tyrosine kinase receptors? In particular, we will discuss the specific features of translational control mediated by GPCRs and highlight the intrinsic properties of GPCRs these mechanisms could rely on.

  11. Laser-optic instruments improve machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-12

    Laser-optic alignment systems are fast becoming cost-effective devices that improve the accuracy and speed of machinery shaft alignment. Because of the difficulty, if not impossibility, of aligning operating machinery, cold alignment specifications must be determined to compensate for thermal growth so that the shaft alignment remains within tolerances when the machine reaches normal operating temperature. Some methods for accomplishing this are reviewed here. Three years' field experience with laser-optic alignment systems shows that many of these limitations can be eliminated, resulting in a more accurate alignment in less time. Some actual field alignments are given as examples of the improvement achieved by the use of laser equipment, and a procedure is given that shows how the laser-optic system may be used to determine running alignment changes caused by thermal growth.

  12. Machinery vibration: Origins, impressions and cures

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, I. )

    1995-01-01

    The current trend toward high performance (speed, power, flow, etc.) and low eight are causing new machinery dynamics problems. Vibration diagnostics engineering of rotor-bearing-casing systems must consider both internal and external influences to effectively predict and diagnose these problems. It is assumed that machinery vibration data are free from ambiguity, error, conform to a standard and clearly identify the physical cause(s) responsible for vibration. Rotor vibration due to internal forces are described: unbalance force characteristics; response characteristics; and rules of rotor fundamental response. Rotor vibration due to external forces include: rotating aerodynamic stall; oil whirl; oil whip; structural resonance; vane/blade passing vibration; misalignment; rotor rubbing; gear mesh vibrations; and shaft crack. These are also discussed.

  13. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jeffrey K F; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-27

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  14. The exportomer: the peroxisomal receptor export machinery.

    PubMed

    Platta, Harald W; Hagen, Stefanie; Erdmann, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment of almost all eukaryotic cells. Depending on environmental changes and cellular demands peroxisomes can acquire diverse metabolic roles. The compartmentalization of peroxisomal matrix enzymes is a prerequisite to carry out their physiologic function. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol and are ferried to the peroxisomal membrane by specific soluble receptors. Subsequent to cargo release into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptors are exported back to the cytosol to facilitate further rounds of matrix protein import. This dislocation step is accomplished by a remarkable machinery, which comprises enzymes required for the ubiquitination as well as the ATP-dependent extraction of the receptor from the membrane. Interestingly, receptor ubiquitination and dislocation are the only known energy-dependent steps in the peroxisomal matrix protein import process. The current view is that the export machinery of the receptors might function as molecular motor not only in the dislocation of the receptors but also in the import step of peroxisomal matrix protein by coupling ATP-dependent removal of the peroxisomal import receptor with cargo translocation into the organelle. In this review we will focus on the architecture and function of the peroxisomal receptor export machinery, the peroxisomal exportomer.

  15. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

  16. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed.

  17. Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

    2002-05-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long

  18. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  4. Increased risk of agricultural injury among African-American farm workers from Alabama and Mississippi.

    PubMed

    McGwin, G; Enochs, R; Roseman, J M

    2000-10-01

    Research on the epidemiology of agriculture-related injuries has largely ignored African-Americans and farm workers. This cohort study is the first to estimate injury rates and to evaluate prospectively risk factors for agriculture-related injuries and compare them among African-American and Caucasian farmers and African-American farm workers. A total of 1,246 subjects (685 Caucasian owners, 321 African-American owners, and 240 African-American workers) from Alabama and Mississippi were selected from Agricultural Statistics Services databases and other sources and were enrolled between January 1994 and June 1996. Baseline data included detailed demographic, farm and farming, and behavioral information. From January 1994 to April 1998, subjects were contacted biannually to ascertain the occurrence of an agriculture-related injury. Injury rates were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.3) higher for African-American farm workers compared with Caucasian and African-American owners. Part-time farming (relative risk (RR) = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), prior agricultural injury (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), and farm machinery in fair/poor condition (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) were also independently associated with injury rates. The results demonstrate the increased frequency of agricultural injury among farm workers and identify a number of possible ways of reducing them.

  5. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  6. Impact of land-use induced changes on agricultural productivity in the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gui; Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhan; Chu, Xi; Li, Zhihui

    The water resource allocation is greatly influenced by the land use, agricultural productivity and farmers' income. Therefore analyzing the impacts of land use changes on agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income is an important basis of the further study on the management mechanism and optimal water resource allocation. Taking the Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin as the study area, this study examined the impacts of conversion from cultivated land to built-up land from 2000-2005 and 2005-2008. Then the agricultural productivity was estimated with the Estimation System for Agricultural Productivity model, and the changes in agricultural productivity caused by land conversion were analyzed. Thereafter, Simultaneous Equations Model was used to analyze the impacts of the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land on the agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farmer's income. The results showed that: (1) The agricultural productivity was stable during the whole period, reaching about 2.84 ton/ha, 3.09 ton/ha and 2.80 ton/ha on average in 2000, 2005 and 2008, respectively, but the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had important influence on the spatial pattern of agricultural productivity. (2) The land productivity, total power of agricultural machinery and the conversion from cultivated land to built-up land had an overall positive effect on the agricultural productivity. (3) The agricultural productivity and gross domestic product had positive influence on the farmers' income, while the cultivated land area per capita and percentage of farming employee had negative influence, indicating that the farmer's income was mainly contributed by non-agricultural income. These results in this study showed that optimal land use management can play an important role in promoting virtuous ecosystem cycle and sustainable socioeconomic development, which can also lay an important foundation for further research on the optimal

  7. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  8. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  9. The Autophagic Machinery in Viral Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the molecular machinery of autophagy, namely Atg proteins, was awarded with the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi in 2016. While this machinery was originally identified by its ability to allow cells to survive starvation via lysosomal degradation to recycle cellular components, it has recently become apparent that it also is used by cells to secrete cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, viruses have learned to use this Atg supported exocytosis to exit cells, acquire envelopes in the cytosol and select lipids into their surrounding membranes that might allow for increased robustness of their virions and altered infection behavior. Along these lines, picornaviruses exit infected cells in packages wrapped into autophagic membranes, herpesviruses recruit autophagic membranes into their envelopes and para- as well as orthomyxoviruses redirect autophagic membranes to the cell membrane, which increases the robustness of their envelope that they acquire at this site. These recent findings open a new exciting field on the regulation of degradation vs. release of autophagic membranes and will be discussed in this minireview. PMID:28270807

  10. The Ubiquitination Machinery of the Ubiquitin System

    PubMed Central

    Callis, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The protein ubiquitin is a covalent modifier of proteins, including itself. The ubiquitin system encompasses the enzymes required for catalysing attachment of ubiquitin to substrates as well as proteins that bind to ubiquitinated proteins leading them to their final fate. Also included are activities that remove ubiquitin independent of, or in concert with, proteolysis of the substrate, either by the proteasome or proteases in the vacuole. In addition to ubiquitin encoded by a family of fusion proteins, there are proteins with ubiquitin-like domains, likely forming ubiquitin's β-grasp fold, but incapable of covalent modification. However, they serve as protein-protein interaction platforms within the ubiquitin system. Multi-gene families encode all of these types of activities. Within the ubiquitination machinery “half” of the ubiquitin system are redundant, partially redundant, and unique components affecting diverse developmental and environmental responses in plants. Notably, multiple aspects of biotic and abiotic stress responses require, or are modulated by, ubiquitination. Finally, aspects of the ubiquitin system have broad utility: as components to enhance gene expression or to regulate protein abundance. This review focuses on the ubiquitination machinery: ubiquitin, unique aspects about the synthesis of ubiquitin and organization of its gene family, ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin ligases, or E3s. Given the large number of E3s in Arabidopsis this review covers the U box, HECT and RING type E3s, with the exception of the cullin-based E3s. PMID:25320573

  11. The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsson, Hans Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery are genetic disorders that involve disruption of the various components of the epigenetic machinery (writers, erasers, readers, and remodelers) and are thus expected to have widespread downstream epigenetic consequences. Studying this group may offer a unique opportunity to learn about the role of epigenetics in health and disease. Among these patients, neurological dysfunction and, in particular, intellectual disability appears to be a common phenotype; however, this is often seen in association with other more specific features in respective disorders. The specificity of some of the clinical features raises the question whether specific cell types are particularly sensitive to the loss of these factors. Most of these disorders demonstrate dosage sensitivity as loss of a single allele appears to be sufficient to cause the observed phenotypes. Although the pathogenic sequence is unknown for most of these disorders, there are several examples where disrupted expression of downstream target genes accounts for a substantial portion of the phenotype; hence, it may be useful to systematically map such disease-relevant target genes. Finally, two of these disorders (Rubinstein-Taybi and Kabuki syndromes) have shown post-natal rescue of markers of the neurological dysfunction with drugs that lead to histone deacetylase inhibition, indicating that some of these disorders may be treatable causes of intellectual disability. PMID:26430157

  12. Autophagy: molecular machinery for self-eating

    PubMed Central

    Yorimitsu, T; Klionsky, DJ

    2006-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process in eukaryotes in which the cytoplasm, including excess or aberrant organelles, is sequestered into double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the degradative organelle, the lysosome/vacuole, for breakdown and eventual recycling of the resulting macromolecules. This process has an important role in various biological events such as adaptation to changing environmental conditions, cellular remodeling during development and differentiation, and determination of lifespan. Auto-phagy is also involved in preventing certain types of disease, although it may contribute to some pathologies. Recent studies have identified many components that are required to drive this complicated cellular process. Autophagy-related genes were first identified in yeast, but homologs are found in all eukaryotes. Analyses in a range of model systems have provided huge advances toward understanding the molecular basis of autophagy. Here we review our current knowledge on the machinery and molecular mechanism of autophagy. PMID:16247502

  13. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a) General requirements—(1) Machine guarding. Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with... omitted; and (ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... with the saw. (9) All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... with the saw. (9) All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... with the saw. (9) All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... with the saw. (9) All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.213 - Woodworking machinery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements. (a) Machine construction general. (1) Each machine shall be so constructed... with the saw. (9) All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts shall be guarded in...

  20. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery... provide adequate ventilation in all ordinary weather conditions. Provided that paragraph (a) of...

  1. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery... provide adequate ventilation in all ordinary weather conditions. Provided that paragraph (a) of...

  2. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery... provide adequate ventilation in all ordinary weather conditions. Provided that paragraph (a) of...

  3. Oblique view of southeast machinery house, SF 109, with NE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast machinery house, SF 109, with NE machinery house in background, at downstream end of lock, view towards north northwest - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  4. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner,...

  5. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner,...

  6. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall...

  7. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an...

  8. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an...

  9. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner,...

  10. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an...

  11. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall...

  12. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner,...

  13. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an...

  14. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall...

  15. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall...

  16. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall...

  17. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an...

  18. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner,...

  19. 4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  1. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  2. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating machines are installed in which anhydrous ammonia is used as a... a solution of aqua ammonia and machines using carbon dioxide are exempt from this requirement...) Machinery compartments containing equipment for ammonia shall be fitted with a sprinkler system providing...

  3. Machinery Management. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Wendell

    This text is intended to provide a basic understanding of selecting, maintaining, and managing farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: dealing with typical problems in farm machinery management; measuring machine capacity; improving field efficiency; matching machine size and capacity; estimating power…

  4. Automated Recognition of Advanced Vibration Features for Machinery Fault Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    fault " using transitional failure data for commercial grade gearboxes . Features will be extracted from accelerometer data obtained on the Mechanical...Machinery Fault Classification DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: New...thru ADP013516 UNCLASSIFIED AUTOMATED RECOGNITION OF ADVANCED VIBRATION FEATURES FOR MACHINERY FAULT CLASSIFICATION Katherine McClintic, Robert Campbell

  5. Dynamic organization of the mitochondrial protein import machinery.

    PubMed

    Straub, Sebastian P; Stiller, Sebastian B; Wiedemann, Nils; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria contain elaborate machineries for the import of precursor proteins from the cytosol. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) performs the initial import of precursor proteins and transfers the precursors to downstream translocases, including the presequence translocase and the carrier translocase of the inner membrane, the mitochondrial import and assembly machinery of the intermembrane space, and the sorting and assembly machinery of the outer membrane. Although the protein translocases can function as separate entities in vitro, recent studies revealed a close and dynamic cooperation of the protein import machineries to facilitate efficient transfer of precursor proteins in vivo. In addition, protein translocases were found to transiently interact with distinct machineries that function in the respiratory chain or in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane architecture. Mitochondrial protein import is embedded in a regulatory network that ensures protein biogenesis, membrane dynamics, bioenergetic activity and quality control.

  6. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  8. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  9. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  10. Global Design Optimization for Fluid Machinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Tucker, Kevin; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Griffin, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiences in utilizing the global optimization methodology, based on polynomial and neural network techniques for fluid machinery design are summarized. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. Another advantage is that these methods do not need to calculate the sensitivity of each design variable locally. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables and methods for predicting the model performance. Examples of applications selected from rocket propulsion components including a supersonic turbine and an injector element and a turbulent flow diffuser are used to illustrate the usefulness of the global optimization method.

  11. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  12. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  13. Applications of WEPS and SWEEP to non-agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious problem on agricultural lands throughout the United States and the world. Dust from wind erosion obscures visibility and pollutes the air. It fills road ditches where it can impact water quality, causes automobile accidents, fouls machinery, and imperils animal an...

  14. Farm Laboratory Aids Post-Secondary Instruction in Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statler, Larry L.; Juhl, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Reports a farm laboratory of 1500 swine, 40 beef cattle, 52 sheep, a 300-crop acres, and a full line of leased new farm machinery for post-secondary agricultural production students. A student board of directors manages the demonstration farm. (DM)

  15. Agricultural Body-Building: Incorporations of Gender, Body and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandth, Berit

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with gendered embodiment of agricultural work, particularly the connection between women's gender identity and the body at work. Focussing on how the body enters into relations with the tools of work, four processes are identified by which women's bodies, work and machinery are incorporated into each other and give each…

  16. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  17. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  18. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  19. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  20. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  1. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  2. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATOR HOUSE, SHOWING CONCRETE MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATOR HOUSE, SHOWING CONCRETE MACHINERY FOOTINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  3. Therapeutic interventions to disrupt the protein synthetic machinery in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Gregory R; Robertson, Gavin P

    2015-09-01

    Control of the protein synthetic machinery is deregulated in many cancers, including melanoma, to increase the protein production. Tumor suppressors and oncogenes play key roles in protein synthesis from the transcription of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis to mRNA translation initiation and protein synthesis. Major signaling pathways are altered in melanoma to modulate the protein synthetic machinery, thereby promoting tumor development. However, despite the importance of this process in melanoma development, involvement of the protein synthetic machinery in this cancer type is an underdeveloped area of study. Here, we review the coupling of melanoma development to deregulation of the protein synthetic machinery. We examine existing knowledge regarding RNA polymerase I inhibition and mRNA translation focusing on their inhibition for therapeutic applications in melanoma. Furthermore, the contribution of amino acid biosynthesis and involvement of ribosomal proteins are also reviewed as future therapeutic strategies to target deregulated protein production in melanoma.

  4. 87. DAM TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY TRAVELING HOIST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. DAM - TAINTER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY - TRAVELING HOIST - AMERICAN TYPE ASSEMBLY (ML-5-55/111-FS), February 1938 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  5. 101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. STARBOARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR MACHINERY ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD PORT TO STARBOARD SHOWING ELEVATOR ENGINE, LIFTING WIRES, HYDRAULIC PIPING WITH REMOTE OPERATOR. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL FRAME, JACK NUT HOUSING, JACK NUT, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  7. 62. VIEW SHOWING INSTALLATION TAINTER VALVE MACHINERY MONOLITH NO. 321, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW SHOWING INSTALLATION TAINTER VALVE MACHINERY MONOLITH NO. 32-1, LOOKING WEST Photograph No. 8571. October 24, 1949 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  8. 15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MACHINERY DETAILS: LATCH WHEEL BRACKET, LATCH POCKET, LOCK BAR, LATCH CRADLE, SPLIT COLLAR, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  9. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE OPERATING MACHINERY LOCATED IN INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  10. 51. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST: Winding machinery to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST: Winding machinery to right, and belt-driven machine tools to left. Museum mezzanine in upper portion of photo. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building, roof, with machinery penthouses on left and harbor control tower on right. Camera facing south - Naval Supply Center, Broadway Complex, Warehouse, 911 West Broadway, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  12. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  14. 46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Interior detail of barge crane engine house with machinery. Lambert Hoisting Engine Company Winder Powered by A Gray Marine Diesel. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  15. 5. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WEST VIEW OF MACHINERY FRAME, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WEST VIEW OF MACHINERY FRAME, SHOWING MAIN VERTICAL SHAFT WITH CAST-IRON WALLOWER GEAR AT LOWER END, AND THE GREAT SPUR WHEEL OF ALL WOODEN CONSTRUCTION - Robeson-Williams Grist Mill, Roslyn, Nassau County, NY

  16. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  17. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Overview of bay without sluice gate machinery to northeast - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  19. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION COMPLETED IN 1965-66 IN THE PACIFIC REGION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOREEN, C.O.

    THIRTY STAFF STUDIES AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, CURRICULUM, EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, FARM LABORERS, GRADUATE FOLLOWUP, INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION, OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS, PROGRAM EVALUATION, AND STUDENT ACTIVITIES. THE PURPOSE, METHOD, AND FINDINGS OF EACH STUDY ARE…

  20. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology.

  1. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    PubMed

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  2. Precision optical angular position marker system for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An optical system is described which generates one or more markers of the angular shaft position of rotating machinery. The system consists of a light source, an optical cable, a machinery mounted lens assembly, a light detector, and a signal conditioner. Light reflected by targets on the rotor is converted to a digital output signal. The system is highly immune to extreme environments of vibration and temperature and achieved a 0.002 percent precision under operational test conditions.

  3. 65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY - WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of February 1955 photograph showing the winding machinery of the California Street Cable Railroad. The two suspended sheaves on the right of the photograph bore down on the cable as it left the winders, supplying tension to the cable and eliminating the need for a long tension run. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  5. How well can we assess impacts of agricultural land management changes on the total greenhouse gas balance (CO2, CH4 and N2O) of tropical rice-cropping systems with biogeochemical models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, David; Weller, Sebastian; Janz, Baldur; Klatt, Steffen; Santabárbara, Ignacio; Haas, Edwin; Werner, Christian; Wassmann, Reiner; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by physical and economic irrigation water scarcity. This already results in the trend of converting paddy rice to upland crop cultivation (e.g., maize, aerobic rice) in large parts of South East Asia. Such land management change from flooded lowland systems to well-aerated upland systems drastically affects soil C and N cycling and related emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will most likely increase. In addition to such fast evolving 'pollution swapping' it is expected that on longer time scales significant amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will be lost in form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Within the DFG-funded research unit ICON (Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water cycles), we investigated environmental impacts of land management change from historical paddy rice cultivation to the upland crops maize and aerobic rice at experimental sites at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions under different fertilization regimes have been collected. In addition, measurements of SOC contents and bulk densities in different soil horizons allow for an overall very good characterization of the environmental impacts of mentioned land management change. In this contribution we will show how well mentioned land management change effects in tropical agricultural systems can be represented and thus better understood by the help of process-based biogeochemical models. Seasonal emissions of CH4 and N2O are simulated with r2 values of 0.85 and 0.78 and average underestimations of 15 and 14 %, respectively. These underestimations predominantly originate from treatments in which no fertilizer is applied (CH4) as well as uncertainties of soil hydrology (N2O). Long

  6. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Michael E; Bruder, Mark R; Moo-Young, Murray; Chung, Duane A; Chou, C Perry

    2016-05-09

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 result in poor transformation of Clostridium. To address this barrier and establish proof-of-concept, we focus on characterization and exploitation of the C. pasteurianum Type I-B CRISPR-Cas system. In silico spacer analysis and in vivo interference assays revealed three protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences required for site-specific nucleolytic attack. Introduction of a synthetic CRISPR array and cpaAIR gene deletion template yielded an editing efficiency of 100%. In contrast, the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system generated only 25% of the total yield of edited cells, suggesting that native machinery provides a superior foundation for genome editing by precluding expression of cas9 in trans. To broaden our approach, we also identified putative PAM sequences in three key species of Clostridium. This is the first report of genome editing through harnessing native CRISPR-Cas machinery in Clostridium.

  7. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Michael E.; Bruder, Mark R.; Moo-Young, Murray; Chung, Duane A.; Chou, C. Perry

    2016-01-01

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 result in poor transformation of Clostridium. To address this barrier and establish proof-of-concept, we focus on characterization and exploitation of the C. pasteurianum Type I-B CRISPR-Cas system. In silico spacer analysis and in vivo interference assays revealed three protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences required for site-specific nucleolytic attack. Introduction of a synthetic CRISPR array and cpaAIR gene deletion template yielded an editing efficiency of 100%. In contrast, the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system generated only 25% of the total yield of edited cells, suggesting that native machinery provides a superior foundation for genome editing by precluding expression of cas9 in trans. To broaden our approach, we also identified putative PAM sequences in three key species of Clostridium. This is the first report of genome editing through harnessing native CRISPR-Cas machinery in Clostridium. PMID:27157668

  8. 46 CFR 119.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 119... MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.465 Ventilation of spaces containing diesel... installation of ventilation system for such engines, plans or sketches showing machinery arrangement...

  9. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  10. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  11. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  12. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  13. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  14. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  15. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  16. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  17. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  18. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  19. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  20. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  1. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  2. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  3. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  4. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  5. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  6. Selection of operating machinery parameters for a bucket excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrichnyi, Y.F.; Baboshin, K.V.; Etinger, I.M.; Mekk, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    The mining industry uses extensively single-bucket excavators of the straight shovel type, like the EKG-4.6, as the most effective way of loading previously loosened hard and abrasive excavated rocks. Therefore, an increase in their working efficiency, mainly as regards increasing productivity, reducing load on the operating machinery, and reducing wear of the operating machinery elements, is of particular importance. Analysis shows that the possibilities for this lie in the correct selection of movement trajectory parameters for the excavator bucket, which for existing excavators are inadequate for loading excavated rock. The authors study here the effect of trajectory parameters on excavator bucket filling, and on their basis they select parameters for the operating machinery.

  7. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  8. Composite Profiles of Agricultural Machinery Service Occupations As Derived from Comparative Analyses Across Incumbents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Howard Robert

    Employers and service department employees in 10 Deere and Company dealerships in Ohio were interviewed to identify by job title each of the service occupations in the sample of dealerships and to develop both duty and non-duty descriptive profiles of each service occupation identified. Although 22 sub-titles were identified, similarities…

  9. The Rise and Fall of Industrial Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geno, Larry M.

    1976-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of industrial agriculture in Canada. Population pressures and technology caused the development of industrial agriculture. Although total crop yields have increased, energy efficiency and nutritional quality have decreased. Also intensive agriculture has degraded the soil and lowered air and water qualities. (MR)

  10. 39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. REBUILT ENGINES AND WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of December 1906 photograph of the steam engines and winding machinery at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. View towards west. United Railroads of San Francisco rebuilt the damaged engines and winders shown in CA-12-60 and CA-12-61. There are no cables strung over the winders in this photograph, indicating that the firm had yet to resume service. Note the rough shed erected over the engines to protect them from weather while work continued on the reconstruction of the powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Functional Integration of Transcriptional and RNA Processing Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Shatakshi; Wang, Dong; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Co-transcriptional RNA processing not only permits temporal RNA processing before the completion of transcription, but also allows sequential recognition of RNA processing signals on nascent transcripts threading out from the elongating RNAPII complex. Rapid progress in recent years has established multiple contacts that physically connect the transcription and RNA processing machineries, which centers on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNAPII. While co-transcriptional RNA processing has been substantiated, the evidence for “reciprocal” coupling starts to emerge, which emphasizes functional integration of transcription and RNA processing machineries in a mutually beneficial manner for efficient and regulated gene expression. PMID:18436438

  12. Recovery of soil physical properties and microbiology in foresty drained peatlands from the impact of forest machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepilin, Dmitrii; Kimura, Bryn; Uusitalo, Jori; Laiho, Raija; Fritze, Hannu; Lauren, Ari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    Forestry-drained peatlands occupy approximately 5.7 million ha and represent almost one fourth of the total forest surface in Finland. They are subjected to the same silvicultural harvesting operations as upland forests. However, although the potential of timber harvesting to cause detrimental effects on soil is well documented in upland forests, the knowledge on environmental impact of harvesting machinery on peat soils is still lacking. To assess the impact of harvesting machines on peat physical properties and biology we collected soil samples from six peatland forests that were harvested by commonly employed Harvester and Forwarder. Samples were taken from trails formed by harvesting machinery (treatment plots) and outside of trails (control plots unaffected by machinery traffic) to a depth of 15 cm. To adders the recovery of soil properties after disturbance we sampled sites that form a chronosequence in respect to time since harvesting: 1 month (class I), 3-4 years (class II) and 14-15 years (class III). The physical and microbiological properties of soil samples were analyzed in laboratory. Harvesting operations with heavy machinery appeared to significantly increase the bulk density of peat in the machines' trails at recently harvested sites in comparison to control plots. Following change in bulk density there was change of pore size distribution with decreasing macrospores quantity. This led to slight decrease of total porosity and decrease of air filled porosity. Water retention capacity increased with increasing bulk density. CO2 evolution increased in the trails of class I site with where dissolved organic carbon concurrently decreased. While there was not impact of harvesting on microbial biomass or carbon, PLFA analysis indicated that machinery traffic caused a shift in microbial community structure. Results of class II and class III sites showed a recovery of physical properties within 16 years: treatment plots and control plots started to resemble

  13. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutthichaimethee, Pruethsan; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  14. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel oil service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  15. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... spaces). (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel must be properly ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided to close off all vents and ventilators....

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel...

  18. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  19. [Contemporary features of occupational morbidity formation in major machinery enterprise].

    PubMed

    Kondrova, N S

    2010-01-01

    The author studied occupational morbidity among workers exposed to occupational hazards at major machinery enterprise in Bashkortostan Republic since 1997 to 2006, in reference to occupation, sex, age, length of service, type and conditions of work. The article covers hygienic evaluation of work conditions and their influence on occupational morbidity formation.

  20. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

    1999-06-28

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

  1. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  2. 13. Photocopy of 1961. tracing of 1920. drawing. BASIC MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1961. tracing of 1920. drawing. BASIC MACHINERY LAYOUT. Drawing was made by the Berlin Construction Company and is in the possession of the Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield, Connecticut. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  3. 11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Forward machinery space looking aft toward starboard side, showing blower engine in foreground with belt running to blower. Steering engine lies in background; note sheave for port side steering cable in upper right hand corner of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  4. Oblique view of southeast machinery house, SF 109, at downstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast machinery house, SF 109, at downstream end of lock, with interior of lack gate at left, view towards southeast - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  5. Oblique view of southeast and southwest sides of southeast machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast and southwest sides of southeast machinery house, SF 107, showing interior of lower lock wall and closed interior of upper lock gate to right, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  6. Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view from downstream of lock with southeast machinery house, SF 109, and timber guide wall on left, exterior view of closed lower lock gates and hydro-electric power house and dam in background, view towards west - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  7. View from downstream of lock with northeast machinery house, SF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from downstream of lock with northeast machinery house, SF 107, at center, exterior view of closed lower lock gates and concrete pylon on right, view towards west - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  8. 23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  11. 35. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY BASCULE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY - BASCULE LEAF RAISED - LARGE GEAR AT LEFT CENTER IS 'D' - REFER TO STRAUSS SHEETS #15 AND #18 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY, OUTER FIXED GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY, OUTER FIXED GEAR RING AND ROLLERS ON CENTER CONCRETE PEDESTAL; THE TWO DRIVE GEARS MESH INTO THIS RING TO TURN BASCULE (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  13. 33. EAST ABUTMENT, VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY SMALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. EAST ABUTMENT, VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY - SMALL GEAR IS IDENTIFIED AS 'C' - LARGE GEAR IS 'B' REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 30. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. BASCULE LEAF IN CLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. BASCULE LEAF IN CLOSED POSITION - DRIVE GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE VERNACULAR WEIGHT SUSPENDED ON COUNTERWEIGHT AT TOP LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH TO COMPENSATE FOR AN UNDERWEIGHT COUNTERWEIGHT - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 34. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY LARGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST ABUTMENT OF OPERATING MACHINERY - LARGE GEAR AT LEFT CENTER IS 'D' - REFER TO STRAUSS SHEETS #15 AND #18 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. 32. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'D' IS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW NORTHEAST OF OPERATING MACHINERY. GEAR 'D' IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH, EMERGENCY BRAKE ON THE PEDESTAL TO THE LEFT OF CENTER - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 82 dB(A) when noise is measured using a sound-level meter and an A-weighting filter. (b) Except as... around machinery—90 dB(A) (c) If adding a source of noise would cause a machinery space to exceed...

  18. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than 82 dB(A) when noise is measured using a sound-level meter and an A-weighting filter. (b) Except as... around machinery—90 dB(A) (c) If adding a source of noise would cause a machinery space to exceed...

  19. 49. WORTHINGTON ENGINE AND AIRCOMPRESSOR SYSTEM FOR UPSTAIRS TEXTILE MACHINERY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. WORTHINGTON ENGINE AND AIR-COMPRESSOR SYSTEM FOR UPSTAIRS TEXTILE MACHINERY. THIS SYSTEM WAS REPLACED BY ONE ON THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING AFTER 1945, BUT WAS NEVER REMOVED. LOCATED IN AIR COMPRESSOR ROOM BETWEEN MILL NO. 2 AND BOILER ROOM. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. The Machinery of Management: Leadership (MM2). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on leadership--the machinery of management for supervisors, auditors, and training instructors has been developed by the Workforce 2000 Partnership, a network of industries and educational institutions that provides training in communication, computation, and creative thinking to employees and supervisors in textile,…

  1. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... spaces). (a) All enclosed spaces within the vessel must be properly ventilated in a manner suitable for the purpose of the space. (b) A means must be provided to close off all vents and ventilators....

  2. Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southwest and southeast side of northwest machinery house and hydro-electric power house, concrete pylon at upstream entrance to lock in foreground, view towards north - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  3. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pretty, Jules

    2008-02-12

    Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food

  4. Multi-State Initiatives---Agriculture Security Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Service, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 742, July 1998. 6 farming, including seed , feed, fertilizer, machinery, food processing...pathological organism. • This lack of diversity is compounded by the fact that 80 percent of the nation’s seed derives from one locale, the Idaho valley...due to the exceptionally dry climate in the region. • A notable percentage of imported hybrid seed used for crop production in the United States

  5. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  6. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  7. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  8. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  9. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  10. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with... structure. Prior to installation of ventilation system for such engines, plans or sketches showing...

  11. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  12. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel...

  13. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  15. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  16. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  17. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  18. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  19. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  20. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  1. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  2. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  3. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  4. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  5. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  6. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  7. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  8. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  9. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  10. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  11. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  12. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a...

  13. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  14. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  15. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  16. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  17. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintenance, a roving watch, or similar activities in the machinery spaces but not at the ECC, both alarms and... specific location of fires that are not in machinery spaces need not be indicated. (d) Fire pumps. (1) The ECC must include control of the main machinery space fire pumps. (2) Remote control of a required...

  18. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintenance, a roving watch, or similar activities in the machinery spaces but not at the ECC, both alarms and... specific location of fires that are not in machinery spaces need not be indicated. (d) Fire pumps. (1) The ECC must include control of the main machinery space fire pumps. (2) Remote control of a required...

  19. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintenance, a roving watch, or similar activities in the machinery spaces but not at the ECC, both alarms and... specific location of fires that are not in machinery spaces need not be indicated. (d) Fire pumps. (1) The ECC must include control of the main machinery space fire pumps. (2) Remote control of a required...

  20. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintenance, a roving watch, or similar activities in the machinery spaces but not at the ECC, both alarms and... specific location of fires that are not in machinery spaces need not be indicated. (d) Fire pumps. (1) The ECC must include control of the main machinery space fire pumps. (2) Remote control of a required...

  1. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance, a roving watch, or similar activities in the machinery spaces but not at the ECC, both alarms and... specific location of fires that are not in machinery spaces need not be indicated. (d) Fire pumps. (1) The ECC must include control of the main machinery space fire pumps. (2) Remote control of a required...

  2. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.465... structure. Prior to installation of ventilation system for such engines, plans or sketches showing machinery... operation of main engines and auxiliary engines. (b) Air-cooled propulsion and auxiliary diesel...

  3. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must...

  4. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  5. Manifold learning-based subspace distance for machinery damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; He, Zhengjia; Shen, Zhongjie; Chen, Binqiang

    2016-03-01

    Damage assessment is very meaningful to keep safety and reliability of machinery components, and vibration analysis is an effective way to carry out the damage assessment. In this paper, a damage index is designed by performing manifold distance analysis on vibration signal. To calculate the index, vibration signal is collected firstly, and feature extraction is carried out to obtain statistical features that can capture signal characteristics comprehensively. Then, manifold learning algorithm is utilized to decompose feature matrix to be a subspace, that is, manifold subspace. The manifold learning algorithm seeks to keep local relationship of the feature matrix, which is more meaningful for damage assessment. Finally, Grassmann distance between manifold subspaces is defined as a damage index. The Grassmann distance reflecting manifold structure is a suitable metric to measure distance between subspaces in the manifold. The defined damage index is applied to damage assessment of a rotor and the bearing, and the result validates its effectiveness for damage assessment of machinery component.

  6. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  7. Visualizing the functional architecture of the endocytic machinery.

    PubMed

    Picco, Andrea; Mund, Markus; Ries, Jonas; Nédélec, François; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-02-12

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an essential process that forms vesicles from the plasma membrane. Although most of the protein components of the endocytic protein machinery have been thoroughly characterized, their organization at the endocytic site is poorly understood. We developed a fluorescence microscopy method to track the average positions of yeast endocytic proteins in relation to each other with a time precision below 1 s and with a spatial precision of ~10 nm. With these data, integrated with shapes of endocytic membrane intermediates and with superresolution imaging, we could visualize the dynamic architecture of the endocytic machinery. We showed how different coat proteins are distributed within the coat structure and how the assembly dynamics of N-BAR proteins relate to membrane shape changes. Moreover, we found that the region of actin polymerization is located at the base of the endocytic invagination, with the growing ends of filaments pointing toward the plasma membrane.

  8. Condition based machinery maintenance (helicopter fault detection), phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotherton, T. W.; Pollard, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    A problem of current interest to the Navy is the automatic detection and classification of faults in mechanical systems such as the transmissions, gearboxes, and bearings of helicopters. The problem is important for both economic and safety reasons. Using automated fault detection and classification, machinery repair can be undertaken as needed and can prevent catastrophic failure. This condition-based maintenance approach is more efficient and cost-effective than the use of predetermined maintenance schedules. Additionally, automated fault detection and classification systems can alert machinery operators, such as helicopter pilots, of the onset of a mechanical problem, thus allowing the pilot to take precautions, such as landing the aircraft, before a potentially catastrophic failure occurs.

  9. Study on musculoskeletal disorders in a machinery manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guo-Bing; Dempsey, Patrick G; Lei, Ling; Ma, Zao-Hua; Liang, You-Xin

    2004-04-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders and related risk factors in machinery manufacturing were investigated using interviews, postural analysis, and the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health lifting equation. Sixty-nine workers involved in manual materials handling (Job A) and 51 machinery workers less involved with manual material-handling tasks (Job B) were studied. Low back pain (LBP) (at least one episode lasting for 24 hours or more in past 12 months) prevalence rates were 63.8% and 37.3% for Jobs A and B, respectively. Prevalence rates of LBP every day for a week or more attributed to lifting were 26.09% and 5.88% for Jobs A and B, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that lifting repetitiveness and work age contributed to the occurrence of LBP. The "composite load" (object weight x activity repetitiveness) had a significant adverse effect on LBP.

  10. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  11. The protein machinery of vesicle budding and fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    A general protein machinery that buds and fuses transport vesicles is harnessed to generate the complex web of intracellular transport pathways critical for such diverse processes as cell growth, endocytosis, hormone release, and neurotransmission. With this appreciation, the challenge of understanding the precise molecular mechanisms of these many facets of cell biology has been reduced to a series of problems in protein structure and chemistry. PMID:8745395

  12. Manipulation of host membrane machinery by bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cossart, Pascale; Roy, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Subversion of host membrane machinery is important for the uptake, survival, and replication of bacterial pathogens. Understanding how pathogens manipulate host membrane transport pathways provides mechanistic insight into how infection occurs and is also revealing new information on biochemical processes involved in the functioning of eukaryotic cells. In this review we discuss several of the canonical host pathways targeted by bacterial pathogens and emerging areas of investigation in this exciting field. PMID:20542678

  13. Sensors for noncontact vibration diagnostics in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with electromagnetic sensors for noncontact vibration diagnostics in rotating machinery. The sensors were designed for operational measurements in turbomachinery by means of the tip-timing method. The main properties of eddy-current, Hall effect, induction and magnetoresistive sensors are described and compared. Possible arrangements of the experimental systems for static and dynamic calibration of the sensors are suggested and discussed.

  14. siRNA Machinery in Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci)

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Dixit, Sameer; Sharma, Shailesh; Singh, Harpal; Kumar, Jitesh; Verma, Praveen C.; Chandrashekar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background RNA interference has been emerged as an utmost tool for the control of sap sucking insect pests. Systemic response is necessary to control them in field condition. Whitefly is observed to be more prone to siRNA in recent studies, however the siRNA machinery and mechanism is not well established. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify the core siRNA machinery, we curated transcriptome data of whitefly from NCBI database. Partial mRNA sequences encoding Dicer2, R2D2, Argonaute2 and Sid1 were identified by tblastn search of homologous sequences from Aphis glycines and Tribolium castaneum. Complete encoding sequences were obtained by RACE, protein sequences derived by Expasy translate tool and confirmed by blastp analysis. Conserved domain search and Prosite-Scan showed similar domain architecture as reported in homologs from related insects. We found helicase, PAZ, RNaseIIIa, RNaseIIIb and double-stranded RNA-binding fold (DSRBF) in Dicer2; DsRBD in R2D2; and PAZ and PIWI domains in Argonaute2. Eleven transmembrane domains were detected in Sid1. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that RNAi machinery of whitefly is close to Aphids. Real-time PCR analysis showed similar expression of these genes in different developmental stages as reported in A. glycines and T. castaneum. Further, the expression level of above genes was quite similar to the housekeeping gene actin. Conclusions/Significance Availability of core siRNA machinery including the Sid1 and their universal expression in reasonable quantity indicated significant response of whitefly towards siRNA. Present report opens the way for controlling whitefly, one of the most destructive crop insect pest. PMID:24391810

  15. Fault Detection of Rotating Machinery using the Spectral Distribution Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    1997-01-01

    The spectral distribution function is introduced to characterize the process leading to faults in rotating machinery. It is shown to be a more robust indicator than conventional power spectral density estimates, but requires only slightly more computational effort. The method is illustrated with examples from seeded gearbox transmission faults and an analytical model of a defective bearing. Procedures are suggested for implementation in realistic environments.

  16. Machinery Diagnostics Via Mechanical Vibration Analysis using Spectral Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    based on the economics of the situation, it is more advantageous to opt for a continuous monitoring system and or there are a very large number of...etc. 3 formats, to systems where permanently installed sensors feed into a computer equipped with diagnostic software. 3. Applictkon to Machinery...the intervals will only be optimal for those units which degrade exactly as does the average unit of the class. Those which perform below average may

  17. Controlled traffic conservation tillage using small to middle sized machinery in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Hongwen; Gao, Huanwen; Du, Bing; He, Jin; Li, Wenying

    2005-09-01

    Research and farmers' experiences have demonstrated that reduced tillage helps maintain surface residues and provide substantial benefits in terms of water use efficiency, soil condition and productivity. However, the impact of field traffic and its influence on the soil when tillage is reduced or eliminated have been ignored, for small to middle-sized machinery are mostly used in Chinese agriculture. There is a need to study on wheel traffic impacts and to test controlled traffic farming system for Chinese conditions. This paper reports the five-year controlled traffic conservation tillage experiment in North China. Two trial plots (Spring Maize and Winter wheat) with four treatments and five replications were set up. The results indicated that controlled traffic conservation tillage could minimize the compaction of wheel traffic, make field operation timely and precisely, improve soil structure and increase soil moisture on crop zone which is beneficial to crop establishment and growth. With the accumulation of damages year after year, the impacts of random wheeling are becoming more notable. Heavier machinery appeared to compact soil to a greater depth, but even small tractors could compact the surface 10cm, critical to rainfall infiltration, to a remarkable degree. For the small-scaled controlled traffic system tested in this study, traffic lanes occupy about 20% of the land, but the yields were similar to those in the non-controlled traffic fields. Further test is needed for the long-term impacts of the traffic lanes on soil structure and crop yield and detailed analysis is necessary to develop a suitable controlled traffic farming system.

  18. Viral strategies to subvert the mammalian translation machinery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa O; Jopling, Catherine L; Jackson, Richard J; Willis, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    Viruses do not carry their own protein biosynthesis machinery and the translation of viral proteins therefore requires that the virus usurps the machinery of the host cell. To allow optimal translation of viral proteins at the expense of cellular proteins, virus families have evolved a variety of methods to repress the host translation machinery, while allowing effective viral protein synthesis. Many viruses use noncanonical mechanisms that permit translation of their own RNAs under these conditions. Viruses have also developed mechanisms to evade host innate immune responses that would repress translation under conditions of viral infection, in particular PKR activation in response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Importantly, the study of viral translation mechanisms has enormously enhanced our understanding of many aspects of the cellular protein biosynthesis pathway and its components. A number of unusual mechanisms of translation initiation that were first discovered in viruses have since been observed in cellular mRNAs, and it has become apparent that a diverse range of translation mechanisms operates in eukaryotes, allowing subtle regulation of this essential process.

  19. The Ubiquitination, Disaggregation and Proteasomal Degradation Machineries in Polyglutamine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Samir R.; Lieberman, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Polyglutamine disorders are chronic, progressive neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansion of a glutamine tract in widely expressed genes. Despite excellent models of disease, a well-documented clinical history and progression, and established genetic causes, there are no FDA approved, disease modifying treatments for these disorders. Downstream of the mutant protein, several divergent pathways of toxicity have been identified over the last several decades, supporting the idea that targeting only one of these pathways of toxicity is unlikely to robustly alleviate disease progression. As a result, a vast body of research has focused on eliminating the mutant protein to broadly prevent downstream toxicity, either by silencing mutant protein expression or leveraging the endogenous protein quality control machinery. In the latter approach, a focus has been placed on four critical components of mutant protein degradation that are active in the nucleus, a key site of toxicity: disaggregation, ubiquitination, deubiquitination, and proteasomal activity. These machineries have unique functional components, but work together as a cellular defense system that can be successfully leveraged to alleviate disease phenotypes in several models of polyglutamine toxicity. This review will highlight recent advances in understanding both the potential and role of these components of the protein quality control machinery in polyglutamine disease pathophysiology. PMID:28381987

  20. Characterization of the late endosomal ESCRT machinery in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jason S; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

    2013-10-01

    The multivesicular body (MVB) is a specialized Rab7+ late endosome (LE) containing multiple intralumenal vesicles that function in targeting ubiquitinylated cell surface proteins to the lysosome for degradation. African trypanosomes lack a morphologically well-defined MVB, but contain orthologs of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery that mediates MVB formation. We investigate the role of TbVps23, an early ESCRT component, and TbVps4, the terminal ESCRT ATPase, in lysosomal trafficking in bloodstream form trypanosomes. Both localize to the TbRab7+ LE and RNAi silencing of each rapidly blocks growth. TbVps4 silencing results in approximately threefold accumulation of TbVps23 at the LE, consistent with blocking terminal ESCRT disassembly. Trafficking of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, but not default lysosomal reporters, is also negatively affected. Others reported that TbVps23 mediates ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG65) (Leung et al., Traffic 2008;9:1698-1716). In contrast, we find that TbVps23 ablation does not affect ISG65 turnover, while TbVps4 silencing markedly enhances lysosomal degradation. We propose several models to accommodate these results, including that the ESCRT machinery actually retrieves ISG65 from the LE to earlier endocytic compartments, and in its absence ISG65 traffics more efficiently to the lysosome. Overall, these results confirm that the ESCRT machinery is essential in Trypanosoma brucei and plays important and novel role(s) in LE function in trypanosomes.

  1. The Ubiquitination, Disaggregation and Proteasomal Degradation Machineries in Polyglutamine Disease.

    PubMed

    Nath, Samir R; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Polyglutamine disorders are chronic, progressive neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansion of a glutamine tract in widely expressed genes. Despite excellent models of disease, a well-documented clinical history and progression, and established genetic causes, there are no FDA approved, disease modifying treatments for these disorders. Downstream of the mutant protein, several divergent pathways of toxicity have been identified over the last several decades, supporting the idea that targeting only one of these pathways of toxicity is unlikely to robustly alleviate disease progression. As a result, a vast body of research has focused on eliminating the mutant protein to broadly prevent downstream toxicity, either by silencing mutant protein expression or leveraging the endogenous protein quality control machinery. In the latter approach, a focus has been placed on four critical components of mutant protein degradation that are active in the nucleus, a key site of toxicity: disaggregation, ubiquitination, deubiquitination, and proteasomal activity. These machineries have unique functional components, but work together as a cellular defense system that can be successfully leveraged to alleviate disease phenotypes in several models of polyglutamine toxicity. This review will highlight recent advances in understanding both the potential and role of these components of the protein quality control machinery in polyglutamine disease pathophysiology.

  2. Rotating machinery prognostics: State of the art, challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Aiwina; Zhang, Sheng; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph

    2009-04-01

    Machinery prognosis is the forecast of the remaining operational life, future condition, or probability of reliable operation of an equipment based on the acquired condition monitoring data. This approach to modern maintenance practice promises to reduce downtime, spares inventory, maintenance costs, and safety hazards. Given the significance of prognostics capabilities and the maturity of condition monitoring technology, there have been an increasing number of publications on rotating machinery prognostics in the past few years. These publications covered a wide spectrum of prognostics techniques. This review article first synthesises and places these individual pieces of information in context, while identifying their merits and weaknesses. It then discusses the identified challenges, and in doing so, alerts researchers to opportunities for conducting advanced research in the field. Current methods for predicting rotating machinery failures are summarised and classified as conventional reliability models, condition-based prognostics models and models integrating reliability and prognostics. Areas in need of development or improvement include the integration of condition monitoring and reliability, utilisation of incomplete trending data, consideration of effects from maintenance actions and variable operating conditions, derivation of the non-linear relationship between measured data and actual asset health, consideration of failure interactions, practicability of requirements and assumptions, as well as development of performance evaluation frameworks.

  3. Source attribution of agriculture-related deposition by using total nitrogen and δ¹⁵N in epiphytic lichen tissue, bark and deposition water samples in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie; Werner, Willy

    2013-06-01

    Compared with physico-chemical deposition measurement methods, lichens are able to identify the long-term overall effects of high N pollution concentrations in the air. In addition, the natural abundances of the stable isotope of N, (15)N, are being widely used in research on N cycling in ecosystems. They can also be used as instruments for source attribution. In this study, epiphytic lichens were tested to determine whether their respective N content and δ(15)N ratios can be used to estimate N deposition rates and to locate various sources of N compounds. Epiphytic lichen and bark samples were collected from around various deposition measurement field stations at different sites in the western part of Germany. The N content of epiphytic lichens reflects the species-specific, agriculture-related circumstances of N deposition at various sites in Germany. At the same time, δ(15)N signatures of the different investigated epiphytic lichen species and bark samples are highly depleted in (15)N under high ammonium deposition. The different surface types of lichens and barks exhibit different concentrations of N and δ(15)N ratios, despite being exposed to similar N deposition rates. The verification of highly negative δ(15)N ratios at sites with local and regional emitters shows that source attribution is possible by comparing different δ(15)N signatures in areas with a wide range of different N deposition types and the corresponding differences in δ(15)N among various source N pools. Especially nitrophytic lichens can support the on-site instrumentation measuring N deposition by qualification and quantification.

  4. Public health focus: effectiveness of rollover protective structures for preventing injuries associated with agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    1993-01-29

    Agriculture ranks fourth among U.S. industries for work-related fatalities (1). Fatalities associated with agricultural machinery commonly involve farm tractors, and rollover incidents (i.e., the tractor tips sideways or backward and overturns, crushing the operator) account for 46% (Minnesota) to 76% (Georgia) of all farm tractor-related fatalities (2). Annually, agricultural tractor rollovers result in approximately 132 work-related deaths among persons aged > or = 16 years* (3). This report summarizes information regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on agricultural tractors.

  5. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector.

  6. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... evidencing purchases of farm machinery, supplies, equipment, home appliances, and other items of a capital....5172 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... of the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank and each production credit association...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing purchases of farm machinery, supplies, equipment, home appliances, and other items of a capital....5172 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... of the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank and each production credit association...

  8. INSTRUCTION IN FARM MECHANICS, SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS IN FARM MECHANICS IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLLENBERG, A.H.; JOHNSON, E.J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN TRAINING YOUNG FARMERS AND FARM WORKERS IN THE SELECTION, OPERATION, UTILIZATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF FARM TOOLS, MACHINERY, AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT. DESIGNED BY NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION SPECIALISTS, THE DOCUMENT INCLUDES CHAPTERS ON THE CHANGING FARM, SETTING UP PROGRAMS, FARM…

  9. AGRICULTURAL LABOR--THE PROBLEM, ATTEMPTS AT ORGANIZATION, CURRENT LAWS, AND WHAT ARE THE ISSUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALL, DAVID

    THE NUMBER OF HIRED FARM WORKERS IS DECREASING WITH THE INCREASED USE OF LABORSAVING FARM MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH ALLOWS GREATER OUTPUT PER WORKER. THE LOW WAGE SCALE PREVALENT IN AGRICULTURE IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE FARM LABOR PROBLEM. WAGE RATES ARE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE ACCURATELY BECAUSE OF A GREAT DIVERSITY IN METHODS OF PAYMENT AND…

  10. AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS INSTRUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MISSISSIPPI, THE LABORATORY-WORK AREA APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POWELL, G.G., JR.; WALKER, G.M.

    TO MEET THE NEEDS RESULTING FROM INCREASED FARM MECHANIZATION, AN INTENSIFIED AND EXPANDED CURRICULUM IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS HAS BEEN PROPOSED COVERING--(1) FARM MACHINERY, (2) FARM BUILDINGS, (3) ELECTRICITY, (4) WELDING, (5) CONCRETE AND MASONRY, (6) PLUMBING, (7) METAL WORKING, AND (8) TOOL FITTING. DISCUSSION OF EACH OF THESE AREAS INCLUDES…

  11. Agricultural Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 3212

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Agricultural Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair, diagnose and maintain by skill and knowledge gained through training and experience any of the working parts of diesel engines as well as the various components of mobile farm machinery; (2) use, competently,…

  12. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  13. Energy for agriculture in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, M.

    1982-05-01

    The energy implications of different farm mechanization and macronutrient supply scenarios were examined. Results show that up to the year 2000, fertilizer production and irrigation-drainage account for 45 % and 40 %, respectively, of total energy input to agriculture. Tractors, threshers, and pesticides share the rest.

  14. Designing a Machinery Control System (MCS) Security Testbed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    network LED light emitting diode LHD landing helicopter dock amphibious ship LVL level MCM mine countermeasure ship MCS machinery control systems...valve is still closed. Observe: FLSD: the red “Low Tank LVL ” LED is lit. Observe: HOS: the green “PUMP ON” LED is lit 110 Step 5. FLSD...FLSD: the red “High Tank LVL ” LED is lit and the red “Low Tank LVL ” LED is extinguished. 112 Step 6. FLSD: adjust the dial to “50”% Observe

  15. 16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SOUTH TO VIEW OF CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS WITH WOOD-BURNING HEATING STOVE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. BESIDE THE HEATING STOVE, POINTING TOWARD THE PUNCH PRESS, IS A JIG USED TO POSITION ANGLE STEEL COMPONENTS OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER LEGS FOR PUNCHING BOLT HOLES. THE SUPPORT FOR THE BRICK FLUE OF THE HEATING STOVE IS CONSTRUCTED FROM SALVAGED GALVANIZED ANGLE STEEL OF THE TYPE USED IN FABRICATING WINDMILL TOWERS MANUFACTURED IN THE FACTORY. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  16. 173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. AS THE LOCK TENDER TURNS THE CRANK, A SMALL COGGED WHEEL (PINION) ON THE CRANK TURNS A LARGER COGGED WHEEL, (MAIN GEAR). MAIN GEAR ENGAGES A COGGED BAR CALLED A TRAVELLER WHICH MOVES FORWARD OR BACK DEPENDING ON WHICH WAY THE CRANK IS TURNED. CONNECTED TO THE TRAVELLER ARE TO LONG RODS (GATE ARMS) WHICH IN TURN ARE CONNECTED TO THE GATE'S TOP BEAM (ONE FOR EACH GATE). AS THE TRAVELLER MOVES FORWARD THE GATE ARMS EXTEND PUSHING THE GATES OPEN. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  17. Elements of active vibration control for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    The success or failure of active vibration control is determined by the availability of suitable actuators, modeling of the entire system including all active elements, positioning of the actuators and sensors, and implementation of problem-adapted control concepts. All of these topics are outlined and their special problems are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to efficient modeling of systems, especially for considering the active elements. Finally, design methods for and the application of active vibration control on rotating machinery are demonstrated by several real applications.

  18. Fatal work-related injuries in the agriculture production sector among youth in the United States, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Hard, David L; Myers, John R

    2006-01-01

    Youth working on farms face unique risks that are not present for many other young workers, including machinery, large animals, electrical hazards, chemical hazards and excessive noise. This research identified the number and rate of occupational fatalities for youth working in the agriculture production industry, which is most closely affiliated with farming, for the years 1992-2002. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), was the database used for the analysis. There were 310 work-related deaths to youth less than 20 years of age from 1992 through 2002 in the agriculture production sector. This compares to 1,958 total fatalities for all workers less than 20 years of age for the same time period. The number of agricultural production fatalities to youth has shown a general downward trend over this time period. The rates were higher for young workers in agriculture production than for young workers in all industries by a factor of 3.6. Fifteen year olds had the highest fatality rates with the crop production sector having a rate six times that of all 15 year old workers. The objective of this descriptive research was to identify, prioritize and publicize the risks to children and youth who work on farms in order to provide public health and safety professionals relevant information upon which to base decisions for interventions or other prevention activities for this priority population. This research also has direct applications for farm parents and safety and health professionals who work with the priority population of young agricultural workers.

  19. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  20. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  1. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  2. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenza, Andy J.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  3. Rapid detection of biothreat agents based on cellular machinery.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; Gantt, Richard W.

    2004-12-01

    This research addresses rapid and sensitive identification of biological agents in a complex background. We attempted to devise a method by which the specificity of the cellular transcriptional machinery could be used to detect and identify bacterial bio-terror agents in a background of other organisms. Bacterial cells contain RNA polymerases and transcription factors that transcribe genes into mRNA for translation into proteins. RNA polymerases in conjunction with transcription factors recognize regulatory elements (promoters) upstream of the gene. These promoters are, in many cases, recognized by the polymerase and transcription factor combinations of one species only. We have engineered a plasmid, for Escherichia coli, containing the virA promoter from the target species Shigella flexneri. This promoter was fused to a reporter gene Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). In theory the indicator strain (carrying the plasmid) is mixed with the target strain and the two are lysed. The cellular machinery from both cells mixes and the GFP is produced. This report details the results of testing this system.

  4. Visualizing the functional architecture of the endocytic machinery

    PubMed Central

    Picco, Andrea; Mund, Markus; Ries, Jonas; Nédélec, François; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an essential process that forms vesicles from the plasma membrane. Although most of the protein components of the endocytic protein machinery have been thoroughly characterized, their organization at the endocytic site is poorly understood. We developed a fluorescence microscopy method to track the average positions of yeast endocytic proteins in relation to each other with a time precision below 1 s and with a spatial precision of ∼10 nm. With these data, integrated with shapes of endocytic membrane intermediates and with superresolution imaging, we could visualize the dynamic architecture of the endocytic machinery. We showed how different coat proteins are distributed within the coat structure and how the assembly dynamics of N-BAR proteins relate to membrane shape changes. Moreover, we found that the region of actin polymerization is located at the base of the endocytic invagination, with the growing ends of filaments pointing toward the plasma membrane. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04535.001 PMID:25675087

  5. Regulation of the autophagic machinery in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Kambas, Konstantinos; Rafail, Stavros; Chrysanthopoulou, Akrivi; Speletas, Matthaios; Ritis, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The induction of the autophagy machinery, a process for the catabolism of cytosolic proteins and organelles, constitutes a crucial mechanism in innate immunity. However, the involvement of autophagy in human neutrophils and the possible inducers of this process have not been completely elucidated. In this study, the induction of autophagy was examined in human neutrophils treated with various activators and detected by the formation of acidified autophagosomes through monodansylcadaverine staining and via LC-3B conversion screened by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In addition, the expression of the ATG genes was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. We provide evidence that autophagy is implicated in human neutrophils in both a phagocytosis-independent (rapamycin, TLR agonists, PMA) and phagocytosis (Escherichia coli)-dependent initiation manner. ROS activation is a positive mechanism for autophagy induction in the case of PMA, TLR activation and phagocytosis. Furthermore, LC3B gene expression was uniformly upregulated, indicating a transcriptional level of regulation for the autophagic machinery. This study provides a stepping stone toward further investigation of autophagy in neutrophil-driven inflammatory disorders.

  6. Adaptive feature extraction using sparse coding for machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Liu, Chengliang; Huang, Yixiang

    2011-02-01

    In the signal processing domain, there has been growing interest in sparse coding with a learned dictionary instead of a predefined one, which is advocated as an effective mathematical description for the underlying principle of mammalian sensory systems in processing information. In this paper, sparse coding is introduced as a feature extraction technique for machinery fault diagnosis and an adaptive feature extraction scheme is proposed based on it. The two core problems of sparse coding, i.e., dictionary learning and coefficients solving, are discussed in detail. A natural extension of sparse coding, shift-invariant sparse coding, is also introduced. Then, the vibration signals of rolling element bearings are taken as the target signals to verify the proposed scheme, and shift-invariant sparse coding is used for vibration analysis. With the purpose of diagnosing the different fault conditions of bearings, features are extracted following the proposed scheme: basis functions are separately learned from each class of vibration signals trying to capture the defective impulses; a redundant dictionary is built by merging all the learned basis functions; based on the redundant dictionary, the diagnostic information is made explicit in the solved sparse representations of vibration signals; sparse features are formulated in terms of activations of atoms. The multiclass linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier is used to test the discriminability of the extracted sparse features and the adaptability of the learned atoms. The experiments show that sparse coding is an effective feature extraction technique for machinery fault diagnosis.

  7. High-Dimensional Statistical Learning: Roots, Justifications, and Potential Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2015-01-01

    High-dimensional data generally refer to data in which the number of variables is larger than the sample size. Analyzing such datasets poses great challenges for classical statistical learning because the finite-sample performance of methods developed within classical statistical learning does not live up to classical asymptotic premises in which the sample size unboundedly grows for a fixed dimensionality of observations. Much work has been done in developing mathematical–statistical techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data. Despite remarkable progress in this field, many practitioners still utilize classical methods for analyzing such datasets. This state of affairs can be attributed, in part, to a lack of knowledge and, in part, to the ready-to-use computational and statistical software packages that are well developed for classical techniques. Moreover, many scientists working in a specific field of high-dimensional statistical learning are either not aware of other existing machineries in the field or are not willing to try them out. The primary goal in this work is to bring together various machineries of high-dimensional analysis, give an overview of the important results, and present the operating conditions upon which they are grounded. When appropriate, readers are referred to relevant review articles for more information on a specific subject. PMID:27081307

  8. Vesicle Formation and Endocytosis: Function, Machinery, Mechanisms, and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Nihal S.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Nitsche, Ludwig C.; Wedgewood, Lewis E.; Place, Aaron T.; Sverdlov, Maria S.; Chaga, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1301–1312. PMID:19113823

  9. Towards a comprehensive understanding of brain machinery by correlative microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-06-01

    Unraveling the complexity of brain structure and function is the biggest challenge of contemporary science. Due to their flexibility, optical techniques are the key to exploring this intricate network. However, a single imaging technique can reveal only a small part of this machinery due to its inherent multilevel organization. To obtain a more comprehensive view of brain functionality, complementary approaches have been combined. For instance, brain activity was monitored simultaneously on different spatiotemporal scales with functional magnetic resonance imaging and calcium imaging. On the other hand, dynamic information on the structural plasticity of neuronal networks has been contextualized in a wider framework combining two-photon and light-sheet microscopy. Finally, synaptic features have been revealed on previously in vivo imaged samples by correlative light-electron microscopy. Although these approaches have revealed important features of brain machinery, they provided small bridges between specific spatiotemporal scales, lacking an omni-comprehensive view. In this perspective, we briefly review the state of the art of correlative techniques and propose a wider methodological framework fusing multiple levels of brain investigation.

  10. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase machinery

    PubMed Central

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten; Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Brodersen, Ditlev E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphorous is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use organic phosphonate compounds, which require specialised enzymatic machinery for breaking the stable carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolises phosphonate remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240 kDa Escherichia coli C-P lyase core complex (PhnGHIJ) and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that likely couple organic phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C-P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy and show that it binds to PhnJ via a conserved insertion domain. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown. PMID:26280334

  11. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase machinery.

    PubMed

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten; Russo, Christopher J; Passmore, Lori A; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Brodersen, Ditlev E

    2015-09-03

    Phosphorus is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use phosphonate compounds, which require specialized enzymatic machinery to break the stable carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C-P lyase core complex (PhnG-PhnH-PhnI-PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero-octamer comprising an intertwined network of subunits with unexpected self-homologies. It contains two potential active sites that probably couple phosphonate compounds to ATP and subsequently hydrolyse the C-P bond. We map the binding site of PhnK on the complex using electron microscopy, and show that it binds to a conserved insertion domain of PhnJ. Our results provide a structural basis for understanding microbial phosphonate breakdown.

  12. End users "Feedback" to improve ergonomic design of machinery.

    PubMed

    Strambi, F; Bartalini, M; Boy, S; Gauthy, R; Landozzi, R; Novelli, D; Stanzani, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Feedback method designed to collect the contribution of users for the reconstruction and comprehension of the actual work and real activity for the improvement of the technical standards, design, manufacturing and use of machinery. The Feedback method has since now been applied successfully - in collaboration with public authorities, market surveillance bodies, social partners organization and technical institutes - to five different types of machines: woodworking machinery, forklift trucks, angle grinder and combine harvester. After ten years of experimentation in seven European countries Feedback has proved to be trans-nationally comparable and has attracted the interest of as much as 250 expert users - mostly workers, but also employers and technicians - who have shared their knowledge and experience by taking part in almost 30 working groups. The information collected with the Feedback method can be used by: -CEN and ISO standardization committees and working groups to become aware of the problems relating to the real use of specific machines in different work contexts, and thus to be able to draw up new or to revise existing standards accordingly; - Designers and manufacturers to produce better, more comfortable and safer machines and to provide precise instructions for use; - Employers, users and workers for training purposes and for defining appropriate work procedures; - Inspection bodies to enhance their knowledge and improve the efficiency of their interventions and advice.

  13. UN system machinery for coordinating follow-up to the World Food Summit.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    FAO [UN Food and Agriculture Organization] does not stand alone in implementing and monitoring the Summit Plan of Action. Commitments 7.2 and 7.3 give responsibility to the UN's Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) for coordinating interagency follow-up and to the Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC) for receiving progress reports from FAO and other agencies. The UN General Assembly in December 1996 welcomed the outcome of the Summit and received FAO's first report on it at its 1997 session. The ACC has launched interagency follow-up by establishing the ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security, as proposed jointly by FAO and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). More than 16 UN agencies have joined and the UN Secretary-General has welcomed the intention to involve civil society and the emphasis placed on country-level action in the two-tiered network. All FAO country representatives and UN resident coordinators have been asked to help in setting up interagency thematic groups on rural development and food security at the country level. FAO has introduced a website for the network within SD Dimensions (http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/sustdev). ECOSOC has welcomed the ACC's decision to include follow-up to the World Food Summit within the context of the integrated follow-up process of all major UN conferences and summits. With these decisions, the machinery has been set in motion for early and sustained support from both interagency and intergovernmental bodies to national efforts to implement the Plan of Action.

  14. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  15. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  16. Regulation of Host Translational Machinery by African Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sánchez, Elena G.; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2α, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV

  17. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sánchez, Elena G; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

    2009-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV

  18. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  19. Role of energy in the structure of agriculture. Special report 639

    SciTech Connect

    Wyckoff, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The impact of energy on agriculture in general and efficient use of energy in agriculture are discussed. The major inputs in the agricultural production process that reflect energy costs are fuels, fertilizer, chemicals, machinery, and equipment. These items are analyzed specifically for Oregon's farms and ranches. A measure of sales per dollar of energy-related costs was derived for comparisons among types of farms. Data for livestock, grain, field crops, vegetables and melons, fruit and tree nuts, and dairy farms are presented. (MCW)

  20. The U.S. Department of Labor's Tractor and Machinery Certification Program: management styles and perceptions held by community stakeholders and instructors.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, S D

    2012-07-01

    A mixed-mode, descriptive study was conducted on the U.S. Department of Labor's (DOL) Tractor and Machinery Certification Program. Legislated by the Fair Labors Standards Act, the Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (HOOA) was enacted in 1968 as a public policy measure to reduce the number of injuries to youth on farms. An educational exemption allows youth 14 and 15 years of age to work for hire after they successfully complete a training program. In the 40+ years since the legislation went into effect prescribing such training exemptions, deficiencies and variations have occurred in the quality of the educational program and the system by which agencies certify young people. To gain a better understanding of the DOL Tractor and Machinery Certification program, community stakeholders were asked to identify management practices, curriculum resources, and perceptions of the DOL program. The study design used qualitative data from 49 agricultural representatives participating in regional focus groups and quantitative data from 330 community instructors responding to an electronic-formatted questionnaire (representing a 70.7% response rate) in an effort to answer the question: "What is the current status of the DOL Tractor and Machinery Certification program in the United States?" The findings revealed that 55.2% of the instructors taught a qualifying DOL program. Of these, the certification was administered through an Extension or 4-H program (68.7%), an agricultural education program (24.7%), or as a combination of Extension and agricultural education (6.0%). Course instructors believed the training was beneficial to students and had opportunity to attract more students than currently enrolled These instructors placed a higher value on standardized teaching materials than on standardized testing procedures; they also supported the need for additional teaching aids, which included hands-on activities, videotapes, student workbooks, and DVDs. Study participants

  1. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  2. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  3. Choreography of the Mycobacterium Replication Machinery during the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Damian; Ginda, Katarzyna; Pióro, Monika; Hołówka, Joanna; Skut, Partycja; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has recently been demonstrated that bacterial chromosomes are highly organized, with specific positioning of the replication initiation region. Moreover, the positioning of the replication machinery (replisome) has been shown to be variable and dependent on species-specific cell cycle features. Here, we analyzed replisome positions in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a slow-growing bacterium that exhibits characteristic asymmetric polar cell extension. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed that the replisome is slightly off-center in mycobacterial cells, a feature that is likely correlated with the asymmetric growth of Mycobacterium cell poles. Estimates of the timing of chromosome replication in relation to the cell cycle, as well as cell division and chromosome segregation events, revealed that chromosomal origin-of-replication (oriC) regions segregate soon after the start of replication. Moreover, our data demonstrate that organization of the chromosome by ParB determines the replisome choreography. PMID:25691599

  4. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  5. Data presentation techniques for rotating machinery malfunction diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spettel, T.

    1985-01-01

    Baseline steady state data is excellent for documentation of vibration signals at normal operating conditions. Assuming that a set of initial data was acquired with the machinery in a good state of repair, any future changes or deterioration in mechanical condition can be easily compared to the baseline information. Often this type of comparison will yield sufficient information for evaluation of the problem. However, many malfunctions require the analysis of transient data in order to identify the malfunction. Steady-state data formats consist of: Time Base Waveform, Orbit, Spectrum. Transient data formats consist of: Polar, Bode, Cascade. Our objective is to demonstrate the use of the above formats to diagnose a machine malfunction. A turbine-driven compressor train is chosen as an example. The machine train outline drawing is shown.

  6. Pictet–Spengler reaction-based biosynthetic machinery in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Ge, Hui Ming; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Nan; Mei, Ya Ning; Jiang, Rong; Li, Sui Jun; Chen, Chao Jun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Xu, Qiang; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Pictet–Spengler (PS) reaction constructs plant alkaloids such as morphine and camptothecin, but it has not yet been noticed in the fungal kingdom. Here, a silent fungal Pictet–Spenglerase (FPS) gene of Chaetomium globosum 1C51 residing in Epinephelus drummondhayi guts is described and ascertained to be activable by 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT). The activated FPS expression enables the PS reaction between 1-MT and flavipin (fungal aldehyde) to form “unnatural” natural products with unprecedented skeletons, of which chaetoglines B and F are potently antibacterial with the latter inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. A gene-implied enzyme inhibition (GIEI) strategy has been introduced to address the key steps for PS product diversifications. In aggregation, the work designs and validates an innovative approach that can activate the PS reaction-based fungal biosynthetic machinery to produce unpredictable compounds of unusual and novel structure valuable for new biology and biomedicine. PMID:25425666

  7. Engineering yeast transcription machinery for improved ethanol tolerance and production.

    PubMed

    Alper, Hal; Moxley, Joel; Nevoigt, Elke; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2006-12-08

    Global transcription machinery engineering (gTME) is an approach for reprogramming gene transcription to elicit cellular phenotypes important for technological applications. Here we show the application of gTME to Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved glucose/ethanol tolerance, a key trait for many biofuels programs. Mutagenesis of the transcription factor Spt15p and selection led to dominant mutations that conferred increased tolerance and more efficient glucose conversion to ethanol. The desired phenotype results from the combined effect of three separate mutations in the SPT15 gene [serine substituted for phenylalanine (Phe(177)Ser) and, similarly, Tyr(195)His, and Lys(218)Arg]. Thus, gTME can provide a route to complex phenotypes that are not readily accessible by traditional methods.

  8. Ultra-short pulses to signal neuronal growth cone machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Manoj; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Andres, Rosa; Cormack, Iain G.; Artigas, David; Soriano, Eduardo; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2007-02-01

    Measurable change in the sensory motor machinery of growth cones are induced by non contact femtosecond laser. The focused laser beam with an average power of 3 mW was positioned at some distance away from the closest fillopodia of cortical neurons from primary cell cultures (mice E15). By identifying a set of preliminary parameters we were able to statistically analyze the phenomenological behavior of the fillopodia and classify the effects different conditions of laser light has on the growth cone. Results show that fillopodia become significantly biased towards the focused femtosecond laser light. The same experiment performed with continuous wave (CW) produced results which were indistinguishable from the case where there is no laser light present (placebo condition) indicating no clear effects of the CW laser light on the fillopodia at a distance. These findings show the potential for ultrashort pulsed light to become a new type of pathfinding cue for neuronal growth cones.

  9. Hormonal control of the metabolic machinery of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui; Wong, Chun-Ming; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal malignancies worldwide. It is an aggressive cancer with low cure rate, frequent metastasis, and highly resistant to conventional chemotherapies. Better knowledge regarding the molecular and metabolic alterations in HCC will be instrumental to the development of novel therapeutic interventions against HCC. In the August 2015 issue of Hepatology, Nie et al. reports an important molecular pathway that contributes to the Warburg Effect in HCC. They have beautifully demonstrated that the loss of a component of a hormonal system, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), reprogrammed the metabolic machinery of HCC cells to aerobic glycolysis through the miR-338-3p-PKL/R axis. The implication could be that in addition to drugs that directly target the metabolic enzymes in cancer cells, more translational efforts could be focused on the development of drugs that involve the activation of the MR-aldosterone system or other hormonal systems to target the Warburg effect.

  10. Cholinergic Machinery as Relevant Target in Acute Lymphoblastic T Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Valencia-Cruz, Georgina; Castro-Sánchez, Luis; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar O; Liñan-Rico, Liliana; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Various types of non-neuronal cells, including tumors, are able to produce acetylcholine (ACh), which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. T lymphocytes represent a key component of the non-neuronal cholinergic system. T cells-derived ACh is involved in a stimulation of their activation and proliferation, and acts as a regulator of immune response. The aim of the present work was to summarize the data about components of cholinergic machinery in T lymphocytes, with an emphasis on the comparison of healthy and leukemic T cells. Cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemias of T lineage (T-ALL) were found to produce a considerably higher amount of ACh than healthy T lymphocytes. Additionally, ACh produced by T-ALL is not efficiently hydrolyzed, because acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is drastically decreased in these cells. Up-regulation of muscarinic ACh receptors was also demonstrated at expression and functional level, whereas nicotinic ACh receptors seem to play a less important role and not form functional channels in cells derived from T-ALL. We hypothesized that ACh over-produced in T-ALL may act as an autocrine growth factor and play an important role in leukemic clonal expansion through shaping of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. We suggest that cholinergic machinery may be attractive targets for new drugs against T-ALL. Specifically, testing of high affinity antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors as well as antagomiRs, which interfere with miRNAs involved in the suppression of AChE expression, may be the first choice options.

  11. Cholinergic Machinery as Relevant Target in Acute Lymphoblastic T Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Valencia-Cruz, Georgina; Castro-Sánchez, Luis; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar O.; Liñan-Rico, Liliana; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Various types of non-neuronal cells, including tumors, are able to produce acetylcholine (ACh), which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. T lymphocytes represent a key component of the non-neuronal cholinergic system. T cells-derived ACh is involved in a stimulation of their activation and proliferation, and acts as a regulator of immune response. The aim of the present work was to summarize the data about components of cholinergic machinery in T lymphocytes, with an emphasis on the comparison of healthy and leukemic T cells. Cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemias of T lineage (T-ALL) were found to produce a considerably higher amount of ACh than healthy T lymphocytes. Additionally, ACh produced by T-ALL is not efficiently hydrolyzed, because acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is drastically decreased in these cells. Up-regulation of muscarinic ACh receptors was also demonstrated at expression and functional level, whereas nicotinic ACh receptors seem to play a less important role and not form functional channels in cells derived from T-ALL. We hypothesized that ACh over-produced in T-ALL may act as an autocrine growth factor and play an important role in leukemic clonal expansion through shaping of intracellular Ca2+ signals. We suggest that cholinergic machinery may be attractive targets for new drugs against T-ALL. Specifically, testing of high affinity antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors as well as antagomiRs, which interfere with miRNAs involved in the suppression of AChE expression, may be the first choice options. PMID:27630569

  12. Ketamine regulates the presynaptic release machinery in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Wegener, Gregers; Liebenberg, Nico; Zarate, Carlos A; Popoli, Maurizio; Elfving, Betina

    2013-07-01

    In the search for new drug targets, that may help point the way to develop fast-acting treatments for mood disorders, we have explored molecular pathways regulated by ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, which has consistently shown antidepressant response within a few hours of administration. Using Sprague-Dawley rats we investigated the effects of ketamine on the presynaptic release machinery responsible for neurotransmitter release at 1, 2 and 4 h as well as 7 days after administration of a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg). A large reduction in the accumulation of SNARE complexes was observed in hippocampal synaptic membranes after 1, 2 and 4 h of ketamine administration. In parallel, we found a selective reduction in the expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I and an increase in the levels of synapsin I in hippocampal synaptosomes suggesting a mechanism by which ketamine reduces SNARE complex formation, in part, by regulating the number of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Moreover, ketamine reduced Thr(286)-phosphorylated αCaMKII and its interaction with syntaxin 1A, which identifies CaMKII as a potential target for second messenger-mediated actions of ketamine. In addition, despite previous reports of ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK-3, we were unable to detect regulation of its activity after ketamine administration. Our findings demonstrate that ketamine rapidly induces changes in the hippocampal presynaptic machinery similar to those that are obtained only with chronic treatments with traditional antidepressants. This suggests that reduction of neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus has possible relevance for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine.

  13. Ketamine regulates the presynaptic release machinery in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Wegener, Gregers; Liebenberg, Nico; Zarate, Carlos A.; Popoli, Maurizio; Elfving, Betina

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new drug targets, that may help point the way to develop fast-acting treatments for mood disorders, we have explored molecular pathways regulated by ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, which has consistently shown antidepressant response within a few hours of administration. Using Sprague-Dawley rats we investigated the effects of ketamine on the presynaptic release machinery responsible for neurotransmitter release at 1, 2 and 4 h as well as 7 days after administration of a single subanesthetic dose of ketamine (15 mg/kg). A large reduction in the accumulation of SNARE complexes was observed in hippocampal synaptic membranes after 1, 2 and 4 h of ketamine administration. In parallel, we found a selective reduction in the expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I and an increase in the levels of synapsin I in hippocampal synaptosomes suggesting a mechanism by which ketamine reduces SNARE complex formation, in part, by regulating the number of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminals. Moreover, ketamine reduced Thr286-phosphorylated αCaMKII and its interaction with syntaxin 1A, which identifies CaMKII as a potential target for second messenger-mediated actions of ketamine. In addition, despite previous reports of ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK-3, we were unable to detect regulation of its activity after ketamine administration. Our findings demonstrate that ketamine rapidly induces changes in the hippocampal presynaptic machinery similar to those that are obtained only with chronic treatments with traditional antidepressants. This suggests that reduction of neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus has possible relevance for the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. PMID:23548331

  14. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  15. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  16. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  17. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  18. Assessing the Agriculture Teacher Workforce in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uricchio, Cassandra Kay

    2011-01-01

    High quality teachers are an essential piece of the agricultural education model and directly influence the quality of the total program. However, there has been a steady consolidation and elimination of agricultural education teacher preparation programs in New England. In order to understand how this trend affected agricultural education in this…

  19. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  20. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... dividing the total of underwriter's absorptions for particular average domestic repair claims paid and estimated by the total of underwriter's absorptions for all claims paid and estimated (excluding total...

  1. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  2. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  3. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  4. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  5. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  6. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  7. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  9. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  10. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  11. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  13. 46 CFR 32.56-40 - Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Insulation-T/ALL. 32.56-40 Section 32.56-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On...

  14. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL. 32.56-30 Section 32.56-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel...

  15. Machinery Repairman 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Michael H.; Taylor, Edward A.

    This Rate Training Manual (textbook) and Nonresident Career Course form a correspondence self-study package to teach the theoretical knowledge and mental skills needed by the Machinery Repairman Third Class and Second Class. The 15 chapters in the textbook are (1) Scope of the Machinery Repairman Rating; (2) Toolrooms and Tools; (3) Layout and…

  16. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  17. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers...

  18. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  19. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  20. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  1. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  2. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers...

  3. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  4. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  5. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers...

  6. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers...

  7. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  8. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-60 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers...

  9. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... Classing Steel Vessels” regarding the construction of hulls, boilers and machinery in effect on the date...

  10. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly....

  11. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. 173.222 Section 173.222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...

  12. 49 CFR 173.222 - Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.222 Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. Hazardous... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous goods in equipment, machinery or apparatus. 173.222 Section 173.222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...

  13. The Negro in the Farm Equipment and Construction Machinery Industries. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozanne, Robert; Klemp, Elsa

    This study covers two related industries in which Negro employment has historical roots, the farm machinery and construction machinery industries. As in several other studies in this series, emphasis is on the major companies in the industries. This emphasis may reflect a more favorable picture of black employment progress than the average, due to…

  14. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Typical Products in Metal Products and... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Typical Products in Metal Products and... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL PRODUCTS AND MACHINERY POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors AEROSPACE...

  17. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  18. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  19. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  20. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…