Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural pest management

  1. Technological advances to enhance agricultural pest management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas A; Lauzon, Carol R; Lampe, David J

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology offers new solutions to existing and future pest problems in agriculture including, for the first time, possible tools to use against insect transmitted pathogens causing plant diseases. Here, we describe the strategy first described as Autocidal Biological Control applied for the development of conditional lethal pink bollworm strains. When these strains are mass-reared, the lethal gene expression is suppressed by a tetracycline repressor element, which is activated by the presence of chlorotetracycline, a normal component of the mass-rearing diet. Once removed from the tetracycline diet, the lethal genes are passed on to offspring when ordinary lab-reared pink bollworms mate with special lethal strains. Lethality is dominant (one copy sufficient for lethality), expressed in the egg stage and affects all eggs (100% lethal expression). The initial investment by the California Cotton Pest Control Board is an outstanding example of research partnerships between agriculture industry, the USDA and land grant universities.

  2. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management

  3. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  4. Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash

    2012-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research. It opens up a wide array of opportunities in various fields like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agriculture. The potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. These include insect pests management through the formulations of nanomaterials-based pesticides and insecticides, enhancement of agricultural productivity using bio-conjugated nanoparticles (encapsulation) for slow release of nutrients and water, nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect pest-resistant varieties and use of nanomaterials for preparation of different kind of biosensors, which would be useful in remote sensing devices required for precision farming. Traditional strategies like integrated pest management used in agriculture are insufficient, and application of chemical pesticides like DDT have adverse effects on animals and human beings apart from the decline in soil fertility. Therefore, nanotechnology would provide green and efficient alternatives for the management of insect pests in agriculture without harming the nature. This review is focused on traditional strategies used for the management of insect pests, limitations of use of chemical pesticides and potential of nanomaterials in insect pest management as modern approaches of nanotechnology.

  5. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  6. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    PubMed

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  7. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    PubMed

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  8. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  9. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  10. Mosquitocidal Carbamates With Low Toxicity to Agricultural Pests: An Advantageous Property For Insecticide Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    Swale, Daniel R.; Carlier, Paul R.; Hartsel, Joshua A.; Ma, Ming; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is well documented and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. We have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of An. gambiae: human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. The purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests. RESULTS Experimental carbamates were potent inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Similar potencies were observed for Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster enzymes. Although meta-substituted carbamates were potent inhibitors, two ortho-substituted carbamates displayed poor enzyme inhibition (IC50 ≥ 10−6 M) in honey bee (Apis mellifera), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), and lepidopteran agricultural pests (Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis). Enzyme inhibition results were confirmed by toxicity studies in caterpillars, where the new carbamates were 2- to 3-fold less toxic than propoxur and up to 10-fold less active than bendiocarb, indicating little utility of these compounds for crop protection. CONCLUSION The experimental carbamates were broadly active against mosquito species but not agricultural pests, which should mitigate selection for mosquito insecticide resistance by reducing agricultural uses of these compounds. PMID:25185896

  11. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  12. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  13. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  14. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2015-03-05

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4-$19 (€3-15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM's impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  15. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  16. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  17. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  18. Sugarcane pests and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

  19. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  20. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  1. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  2. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  3. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  4. The Impact of Crop, Pest, and Agricultural Management Practices on Mycotoxin Contamination of Field Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by several fungal genera which occur in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide. Health issues and economic losses due to mycotoxin contamination occur at all stages of the food and feed production process. Mycotoxigenic fungi...

  5. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  6. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  7. Role of research and regulation in 50 years of pest management in agriculture. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Willis B

    2002-07-17

    Pest management techniques have evolved over the past 50 years. Inorganic chemical pesticides were replaced by synthetic organic chemicals, and now biopesticides constitute a significant part of pest management technology. Requirements for the regulatory approval of pesticides changed dramatically in 1996 with the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). The FQPA directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make more rigorous and conservative evaluation of risks and hazards and mandates a special emphasis on the safety of infants and children. The EPA provides incentives for the industry to register materials that are designated "reduced risk". The future for the registrant industry will include continued reduction in numbers of registrants through mergers and acquisitions. Conventional chemicals will remain as important pest management components, and the processes of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput bioassays will allow the rapid synthesis and testing of large numbers of candidate compounds. Biopesticides will become more important tools in pest management, with microbial pesticides and transgenic crops being likely to play important crop protection roles. There will be a continuing need for research-based approaches to pest control.

  8. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  9. Pest management with natural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  10. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  15. Extension Has Key Role in "Pest" Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Ovid

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the Department of Agriculture's new program which provides a combination of biological and cultural pest control techniques in combination with chemicals, as well as long-range pest control research. (Author/JB)

  16. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  17. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an...

  18. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  19. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  20. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems.

  1. Wildlife and integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Robert H.

    1980-09-01

    A number of options are available to those professionals interested in pest management through an integrated approach. The components of this approach are manipulation of vegetation; manipulation of population structure, dynamics, and interaction; and manipulation of the values associated with animal and plant crop production. Each component has numerous methods, which when used alone or in combination, offer a nearly infinite number of alternatives to the successful use of pesticides.

  2. Urban Pest Management of Ants in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping pace with the dynamic and evolving landscape of invasive ants in California presents a formidable challenge to the pest management industry. Pest management professionals (PMPs) are on the frontlines when it comes to battling these exotic ant pests, and are often the first ones to intercept ...

  3. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  4. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  5. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  6. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  7. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  8. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  9. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  10. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  11. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests.

  12. Research of spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural pest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changwei; Li, Deren; Hu, Yueming; Wu, Xiaofang; Qi, Yu

    2009-10-01

    The increase of agricultural pest disasters in recent years has become one of major problems in agriculture harvest; how to predict and control the disasters of agricultural pest has thus attracted great research interest. Although a series of works have been done and some achievements have been attained, the knowledge in this area remains limited. The migration of agricultural pest is not only related to the time variation, but also the space; consequently, the population of agricultural pest has complex spatio-temporal characteristics. The space factor and the temporal factor must be considered at the same time in the research of dynamics changes of the pest population. Using plant hoppers as an object of study, this study employed the biological analogy deviation model to study the distribution of pest population in different periods of time in Guangdong Province. It is demonstrated that the population distribution of plant hoppers is not only related to the space location, but also has a certain direction. The result reported here offers help to the monitor, prevention and control of plant hoppers in Guangdong Provinces.

  13. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  14. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    PubMed

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  15. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions.

  16. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

  17. A high incidence of parthenogenesis in agricultural pests

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ary A; Tracy Reynolds, K; Nash, Michael A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    Parthenogenetic species are assumed to represent evolutionary dead ends, yet parthenogenesis is common in some groups of invertebrates particularly in those found in relatively constant environments. This suggests that parthenogenetic reproduction might be common in pest invertebrates from uniform agricultural environments. Based on the evaluations of two databases from North America and Italy, we found that parthenogenetic species comprised 45 per cent (North America) or 48 per cent (Italy) of pest species derived from genera where parthenogenesis occurred, compared with an overall incidence of 10 per cent or 16 per cent in these genera. In establishing these patterns, we included only genera containing at least some member species that reproduced by parthenogenesis. The high incidence of parthenogenesis in pest species is spread across different families and several insect orders. Parthenogenetic reproduction may be favoured in agricultural environments when particular clones have a high fitness across multiple generations. Increasing the complexity and variability of agricultural environments represents one way of potentially controlling parthenogenetic pest species. PMID:18647717

  18. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  19. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  20. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  1. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  2. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  3. Pest Management Records Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Schrader, Kurt [D-OR-5

    2014-11-14

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management.

    PubMed

    Gould, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems.

  5. Pheromone-based pest management in china: past, present and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologi...

  6. Agricultural pest monitoring using fluorescence lidar techniques. Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, L.; Guan, Z. G.; Zhou, H. J.; Lv, J.; Zhu, Z. R.; Cheng, J. A.; Chen, F. J.; Löfstedt, C.; Svanberg, S.; Somesfalean, G.

    2012-03-01

    The fluorescence of different types of planthopper ( Hemiptera) and moth ( Lepidoptera), which constitute important Chinese agricultural pests, was investigated both in situ in a laboratory setting and remotely using a fluorescence light detection and ranging (lidar) system operating at a range of about 50 m. The natural autofluorescence of different species, as well as the fluorescence from insects that had been dusted with fluorescent dye powder for identification were studied. Autofluorescence spectra of both moths and planthoppers show a maximum intensity peak around 450 nm. Bleaching upon long-time laser illumination was modest and did not affect the shape of the spectrum. A single dyed rice planthopper, a few mm in size, could be detected at 50 m distance by using the fluorescence lidar system. By employing various marking dyes, different types of agricultural pest could be determined. We suggest that lidar may be used in studies of migration and movement of pest insects, including studies of their behavior in the vicinity of pheromone traps and in pheromone-treated fields.

  7. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  8. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-04-14

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed.

  9. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  10. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  11. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  12. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  13. Ecologically sustainable chemical recommendations for agricultural pest control?

    PubMed

    Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-12-01

    Effective pest control remains an essential part of food production, and it is provided both by chemicals and by natural enemies within agricultural ecosystems. These methods of control are often in conflict because of the negative impact of chemicals on natural enemies. There are already well-established approaches such as those provided by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control-Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms for testing, collecting, and publishing information on responses of natural enemies to chemicals based on laboratory responses of specific organisms; however, these tests do not assess the cumulative impact of chemical inputs across an entire season or consider impacts on the complex communities of natural enemies that can provide effective pest control on a farm. Here, we explore the potential of different approaches for assessing the impact of chemicals on agricultural ecosystems and we propose a simple metric for sustainable chemical use on farms that minimizes overall impact on beneficial groups. We suggest ways in which the effectiveness of metrics can be extended to include persistence and habitat features. Such metrics can assist farmers in developing targets for sustainable chemical use as demonstrated in the viticultural industry.

  14. Ecologically sustainable chemical recommendations for agricultural pest control?

    PubMed

    Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-12-01

    Effective pest control remains an essential part of food production, and it is provided both by chemicals and by natural enemies within agricultural ecosystems. These methods of control are often in conflict because of the negative impact of chemicals on natural enemies. There are already well-established approaches such as those provided by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control-Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms for testing, collecting, and publishing information on responses of natural enemies to chemicals based on laboratory responses of specific organisms; however, these tests do not assess the cumulative impact of chemical inputs across an entire season or consider impacts on the complex communities of natural enemies that can provide effective pest control on a farm. Here, we explore the potential of different approaches for assessing the impact of chemicals on agricultural ecosystems and we propose a simple metric for sustainable chemical use on farms that minimizes overall impact on beneficial groups. We suggest ways in which the effectiveness of metrics can be extended to include persistence and habitat features. Such metrics can assist farmers in developing targets for sustainable chemical use as demonstrated in the viticultural industry. PMID:18232389

  15. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Precision Areawide Pest Management: Implications for Homeland Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areawide pest management represents coordinated adoption of integrated pest management to conduct preventive suppression of a pest species throughout its geographic distribution. Scientists in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies an...

  16. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  17. Health-related aspects of integrated pest management.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R F; Calvert, D J

    1976-01-01

    Basic concepts and philosophy of integrated pest management are presented in order to dispel several misconceptions and to provide the necessary background information for discussion of its relationship to the health-related effects of pesticide use. Implications for human health of current pesticide practices in Central America are examined to illustrate major problems associated with the injudicious use of insecticides, i.e., human pesticide poisonings, development of insect resistance, and persistence in the environment. Mitigation of these problems would ideally be achieved through the efforts and cooperation of a multidisciplinary team of scientists and technical people in the medical and agricultural sciences. The dilemma associated with the development of integrated pest control systems in developing countries is discussed. The FAO/UNEP Global Programme was reviewed. PMID:976225

  18. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  19. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  20. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  1. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  2. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  3. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

    2008-10-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  4. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  5. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  6. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  7. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  8. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  9. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  11. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  12. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings.

  13. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. PMID:21910640

  14. Insect pest management for raw commodities during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides an overview of the pest management decision-making process during grain storage. An in-depth discussion of sampling methods, cost-benefit analysis, expert systems, consultants and the use of computer simulation models is provided. Sampling is essential to determine if pest...

  15. An Integrated Pest Management Tool for Evaluating Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Blake; Hurley, Janet; Merchant, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Having the ability to assess pest problems in schools is essential for a successful integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such expertise can be costly and is not available to all school districts across the United States. The web-based IPM Calculator was developed to address this problem. By answering questions about the condition of…

  16. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  17. Weakening density dependence from climate change and agricultural intensification triggers pest outbreaks: a 37-year observation of cotton bollworms.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang; Hui, Cang; Ge, Saiying; Men, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Zi-Hua; Shi, Pei-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2014-09-01

    Understanding drivers of population fluctuation, especially for agricultural pests, is central to the provision of agro-ecosystem services. Here, we examine the role of endogenous density dependence and exogenous factors of climate and human activity in regulating the 37-year population dynamics of an important agricultural insect pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in North China from 1975 to 2011. Quantitative time-series analysis provided strong evidence explaining long-term population dynamics of the cotton bollworm and its driving factors. Rising temperature and declining rainfall exacerbated the effect of agricultural intensification on continuously weakening the negative density dependence in regulating the population dynamics of cotton bollworms. Consequently, ongoing climate change and agricultural intensification unleashed the tightly regulated pest population and triggered the regional outbreak of H. armigera in 1992. Although the negative density dependence can effectively regulate the population change rate to fluctuate around zero at stable equilibrium levels before and after outbreak in the 1992, the population equilibrium jumped to a higher density level with apparently larger amplitudes after the outbreak. The results highlight the possibility for exogenous factors to induce pest outbreaks and alter the population regulating mechanism of negative density dependence and, thus, the stable equilibrium of the pest population, often to a higher level, posing considerable risks to the provision of agro-ecosystem services and regional food security. Efficient and timely measures of pest management in the era of Anthropocene should target the strengthening and revival of weakening density dependence caused by climate change and human activities. PMID:25535553

  18. Weakening density dependence from climate change and agricultural intensification triggers pest outbreaks: a 37-year observation of cotton bollworms

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Hui, Cang; Ge, Saiying; Men, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Zi-Hua; Shi, Pei-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding drivers of population fluctuation, especially for agricultural pests, is central to the provision of agro-ecosystem services. Here, we examine the role of endogenous density dependence and exogenous factors of climate and human activity in regulating the 37-year population dynamics of an important agricultural insect pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in North China from 1975 to 2011. Quantitative time-series analysis provided strong evidence explaining long-term population dynamics of the cotton bollworm and its driving factors. Rising temperature and declining rainfall exacerbated the effect of agricultural intensification on continuously weakening the negative density dependence in regulating the population dynamics of cotton bollworms. Consequently, ongoing climate change and agricultural intensification unleashed the tightly regulated pest population and triggered the regional outbreak of H. armigera in 1992. Although the negative density dependence can effectively regulate the population change rate to fluctuate around zero at stable equilibrium levels before and after outbreak in the 1992, the population equilibrium jumped to a higher density level with apparently larger amplitudes after the outbreak. The results highlight the possibility for exogenous factors to induce pest outbreaks and alter the population regulating mechanism of negative density dependence and, thus, the stable equilibrium of the pest population, often to a higher level, posing considerable risks to the provision of agro-ecosystem services and regional food security. Efficient and timely measures of pest management in the era of Anthropocene should target the strengthening and revival of weakening density dependence caused by climate change and human activities. PMID:25535553

  19. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  20. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  1. Integrated pest management approach for a new pest, Lacanobia subjuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Michael D; Brunner, Jay F; Schrader, Lawrence E

    2004-10-01

    Bioassays of Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote and Robinson) larvae established baseline LC50 values and identified the potential of reduced-risk, organophosphate replacement and naturally derived insecticides (eg chloronicotinyls, spinosyns, oxadiazines, insect growth regulators, microbial insecticides and particle films) to control this pest. The toxicities of these products were compared with those of organophosphate, carbamate, chlorinated cyclodiene and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides used in the management of lepidopteran pests in Washington apple orchards. Field trials were conducted comparing candidate insecticides to conventional alternatives. Several new insecticides (eg spinosad, methoxyfenozide, indoxacarb and an aluminosilicate particle film) proved to be effective for the management of L subjuncta. We summarize the goals and challenges of developing an integrated pest management program for new and resurgent pests as insecticide tools continue to change, and propose a hypothesis for the sudden increase in pest status of L subjuncta based on organophosphate tolerances. The role of novel insecticides with unique modes of action in resistance management and the encouragement of biological control are also discussed.

  2. Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Arends, J J

    1990-01-01

    The worldwide spread of modern, high-density confined poultry production systems under the direction of integrators has intensified the importance of a select number of arthropod ectoparasites and habitat pests. This concentrated production of poultry provides artificial ecosystems that are sometimes ideal for the development of large populations of arthropod pests. At the same time the systems are amenable to integrated pest management involving a multipest and multimethod approach to reducing or eliminating arthropod pests. Since rodents are major pests, they should be included in an integrated pest management program to make the program most cost-effective and attractive to the integrators and producers (5). Quantitative data are scarce on economic effects, and the concept of economic thresholds is difficult to apply either to ectoparasites or to habitat pests. The risk of transporting ectoparasites among flocks is difficult to evaluate and necessitates treatment after early detection of the arthropods. Flies and litter beetles present a threat of disease transmission and the potential for lawsuits from neighbors or public health agencies that are factors not subject to easy cost estimates. The monetary losses of a flock devastated by disease or a farm forced to close are so great that the risks are unacceptable. Production losses from lowered feed conversion ratios and insulation damage are likely to be detected by the sophisticated record-keeping of the integrators. Minimal use of pesticides and other chemicals on poultry and in poultry housing is an objective of the integrators and, consequently, an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that reduces the need for pesticides is attractive. The key to further development of effective arthropod management programs for poultry is the implementation of pest and disease monitoring programs for the complete system. Improvements in arthropod sampling methods and more attention to monitoring the biosecurity systems

  3. Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodek, Ivo

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

  4. Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Christian M.

    This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

  5. Principles and practices of integrated pest management on cotton in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, and humane. These four goals for sustainability can be applied to all aspects of any agricultural system, from production and marketing, to processing and consumption. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be conside...

  6. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  7. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    PubMed

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  8. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    PubMed

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  9. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

  10. Pheromone-Based Pest Management in China: Past, Present, and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gen Zhong; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2016-07-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologies for the integrated pest management. However, in China, similar research lagged 15 to 20 years and was not initiated until the late 1980s. In this review, we present the early history of pheromone research that has led to the current practical applications in China, particularly in the development of pheromone-based pest management products. We also provide information regarding the current status of pheromone-based product manufacturing, marketing, and regulatory issues related to local semiochemical industries, which may be useful to other international companies interested in pursuing business in China. In addition, we share some research topics that represent new directions of the present pheromone research to explore novel tools for advancing semiochemical-based pest management in China. PMID:27481347

  11. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S; Tatchell, G Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P

    2011-07-12

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  12. Pheromone-Based Pest Management in China: Past, Present, and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gen Zhong; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2016-07-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologies for the integrated pest management. However, in China, similar research lagged 15 to 20 years and was not initiated until the late 1980s. In this review, we present the early history of pheromone research that has led to the current practical applications in China, particularly in the development of pheromone-based pest management products. We also provide information regarding the current status of pheromone-based product manufacturing, marketing, and regulatory issues related to local semiochemical industries, which may be useful to other international companies interested in pursuing business in China. In addition, we share some research topics that represent new directions of the present pheromone research to explore novel tools for advancing semiochemical-based pest management in China.

  13. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  14. The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place.

  15. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  16. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  17. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  18. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  19. Measuring integrated pest management programs for public buildings.

    PubMed

    Greene, Albert; Breisch, Nancy L

    2002-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) tends to be perceived by different stakeholder groups either as a methodology for effective pest control or as an ideology of responsible environmental stewardship. The IPM process has never been subjected to a rigorous empirical test as a control methodology in buildings; published studies have either tested isolated program components or have presented uncontrolled, sequential descriptions of IPM replacing traditional pest control service procedures. Because ideological measurement is simpler, cheaper, and more relevant than methodological testing to evaluate structural IPM performance in the public sector, data on pesticide use/risk and customer satisfaction, rather than control efficacy, are used by the General Services Administration (GSA) IPM program to demonstrate success compatible with Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) guidelines. Implementation of IPM in 1989 resulted in significant decreases both in quantities of insecticide applied indoors and requests for pest control service by building occupants throughout the first decade of the program. Although these results do not provide an empirical test of structural IPM methodological superiority as a means of reducing pest populations, they indicate that replacing sprayed insecticide formulations with baits and using client reporting as the primary pest surveillance method can successfully achieve the policy goals of a large-scale IPM program for public buildings. PMID:11942743

  20. Measuring integrated pest management programs for public buildings.

    PubMed

    Greene, Albert; Breisch, Nancy L

    2002-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) tends to be perceived by different stakeholder groups either as a methodology for effective pest control or as an ideology of responsible environmental stewardship. The IPM process has never been subjected to a rigorous empirical test as a control methodology in buildings; published studies have either tested isolated program components or have presented uncontrolled, sequential descriptions of IPM replacing traditional pest control service procedures. Because ideological measurement is simpler, cheaper, and more relevant than methodological testing to evaluate structural IPM performance in the public sector, data on pesticide use/risk and customer satisfaction, rather than control efficacy, are used by the General Services Administration (GSA) IPM program to demonstrate success compatible with Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) guidelines. Implementation of IPM in 1989 resulted in significant decreases both in quantities of insecticide applied indoors and requests for pest control service by building occupants throughout the first decade of the program. Although these results do not provide an empirical test of structural IPM methodological superiority as a means of reducing pest populations, they indicate that replacing sprayed insecticide formulations with baits and using client reporting as the primary pest surveillance method can successfully achieve the policy goals of a large-scale IPM program for public buildings.

  1. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  2. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  3. Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...

  4. The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…

  5. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  6. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  7. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  8. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  9. Agricultural pests under future climate conditions: downscaling of regional climate scenarios with a stochastic weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stöckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Rotach, M. W.; Calanca, P.; Samietz, J.

    2010-09-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously unaffected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests have been developed, which model the infestation depending on actual weather conditions. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages therefore requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. In particular, pest forecast models are often not based on screen temperature and precipitation alone (i.e., the most generally projected climate variables), but might require input variables such as soil temperature, in-canopy net radiation or leaf wetness. Here, we use a stochastic weather and a re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather data from regional climate change scenarios for 2050 in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios were derived from multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly temperature, precipitation and radiation data were produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather time series were then used for modeling important phases in the lifecycle of codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. First results indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of phases relevant for pest disease control for projected as compared to current climate (e.g. the flight of the codling moth starts about ten days earlier in future climate), continuing an already observed trend towards more favorable conditions for this insect during the last 20 years.

  10. Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species.

  11. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  12. Managing Risk of Pest Introduction, Establishment and Spread in a Changing World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the topics of pest risk analysis, risk management, and host status, including the nonhost concept. Pest-free status and production areas as phytosanitary measures are also di...

  13. The case and opportunity for public-supported financial incentives to implement integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Hoard, Robert J; Landis, Joy N; Elworth, Lawrence E

    2004-12-01

    Food, water, and worker protection regulations have driven availability, and loss, of pesticides for use in pest management programs. In response, public-supported research and extension projects have targeted investigation and demonstration of reduced-risk integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. But these new techniques often result in higher financial burden to the grower, which is counter to the IPM principle that economic competitiveness is critical to have IPM adopted. As authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill and administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), conservation programs exist for delivering public-supported financial incentives to growers to increase environmental stewardship on lands in production. NRCS conservation programs are described, and the case for providing financial incentives to growers for implementing IPM is presented. We also explored the opportunity and challenge to use one key program, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), to aid grower adoption of IPM. The EQIP fund distribution to growers from 1997 to 2002 during the last Farm Bill cycle totaled approximately 1.05 billion dollars with a portion of funds supporting an NRCS-designed pest management practice. The average percentage of allocation of EQIP funds to this pest management practice among states was 0.77 +/- 0.009% (mean +/- SD). Using Michigan as an example, vegetable and fruit grower recognition of the program's use to implement IPM was modest (25% of growers surveyed), and their recognition of its use in aiding implementation of IPM was improved after educational efforts (74%). Proposals designed to enhance program usefulness in implementing IPM were delivered through the NRCS advisory process in Michigan. Modifications for using the NRCS pest management practice to address resource concerns were adopted, incentive rates for pest management were adjusted, and an expanded incentive structure for IPM

  14. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible.

  15. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    PubMed

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. PMID:27085997

  16. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance. PMID:26823990

  17. Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

  18. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  19. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Brad

    This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

  20. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests.

  1. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests. PMID:15285134

  2. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  3. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars.

  4. Invasion and Management of Agricultural Alien Insects in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang-Hao; Yang, Nian-Wan

    2016-01-01

    China is the world's fourth-largest country in terms of landmass. Its highly diverse biogeography presents opportunities for many invasive alien insects. However, physical and climate barriers sometimes prevent locally occurring species from spreading. China has 560 confirmed invasive alien species; 125 are insect pests, and 92 of these damage the agricultural ecosystem. The estimated annual economic loss due to alien invasive species is more than $18.9 billion. The most harmful invasive insects exhibit some common characteristics, such as high reproduction, competitive dominance, and high tolerance, and benefit from mutualist facilitation interactions. Regional cropping system structure adjustments have resulted in mono-agricultural ecosystems in cotton and other staple crops, providing opportunities for monophagous insect pests. Furthermore, human dietary shifts to fruits and vegetables and smallholder-based farming systems result in highly diverse agricultural ecosystems, which provide resource opportunities for polyphagous insects. Multiple cropping and widespread use of greenhouses provide continuous food and winter habitats for insect pests, greatly extending their geographic range. The current management system consists of early-warning, monitoring, eradication, and spread blocking technologies. This review provides valuable new synthetic information on integrated management practices based mainly on biological control for a number of invasive species. We encourage farmers and extension workers to be more involved in training and further research for novel protection methods that takes into consideration end users' needs.

  5. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  6. Role of soil microbial processes in integrated pest management

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play a significant role in the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles in nature and are critical to the functioning of ecosystems. Microorganisms affect plant growth directly by regulating the availability of plant nutrients in soil, or indirectly by affecting the population dynamics of plant pathogens in soil. Any adverse effect on soil microorganisms or on the microbial processes will affect the soil fertility, availability of plant nutrients and the overall biogeochemical cycling of elements in nature. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the degradation and detoxification of pesticides; they control many insect pests, nematodes, and other plant pathogenic microorganisms by parasitism, competition, production of antibiotics and other toxic substances. Also, they regulate the availability of major and minor nutrients as well as essential elements. The long-term effects of continuous and, in some instances, excessive application of pesticides on soil fertility is not fully understood. Although much information is available on the integrated pest management (IPM) system, we have very little understanding of the extent of soil microbial processes which modulate the overall effectiveness of various strategies employed in IPM. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the key microbial processes and their relationship to the IPM system.

  7. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  8. Agricultural waste utilization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

  9. Experimental manipulation of melanism demonstrates the plasticity of preferred temperature in an agricultural pest (Phaulacridium vittatum).

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature.

  10. Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.

    PubMed

    Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

    2001-01-01

    Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips.

  11. Advanced techniques in IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2006-04-01

    Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  12. Movement of entomophagous arthropods in agricultural landscapes: links to pest suppression.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, N A; Bianchi, F J J A; Hsu, C L

    2014-01-01

    Entomophagous arthropods can provide valuable biological control services, but they need to fulfill their life cycle in agricultural landscapes often dominated by ephemeral and disturbed habitats. In this environment, movement is critical to escape from disturbances and to find resources scattered in space and time. Despite considerable research effort in documenting species movement and spatial distribution patterns, the quantification of arthropod movement has been hampered by their small size and the variety of modes of movement that can result in redistribution at different spatial scales. In addition, insight into how movement influences in-field population processes and the associated biocontrol services is limited because emigration and immigration are often confounded with local-scale population processes. More detailed measurements of the habitat functionality and movement processes are needed to better understand the interactions between species movement traits, disturbances, the landscape context, and the potential for entomophagous arthropods to suppress economically important pests.

  13. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    .... II. Background Tick-borne diseases, including Lyme, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and anaplasmosis... Environmental protection, Community IPM, Insect Repellents, Integrated Pest Management, Lyme Disease, IPM, Tick... AGENCY Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick- Borne Diseases; Notice of...

  14. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-01

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  15. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  16. Full Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Sugar Beet Wireworm Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), a Common Agricultural Pest

    PubMed Central

    New, Daniel D.; Robison, Barrie D.; Rashed, Arash; Hohenlohe, Paul; Forney, Larry; Rashidi, Mahnaz; Wilson, Cathy M.; Settles, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the full mitochondrial genome sequence of Limonius californicus, a species of click beetle that is an agricultural pest in its larval form. The circular genome is 16.5 kb and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. PMID:26798113

  17. Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Wearing, C H; Byers, J A

    2006-10-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests: mass trapping, "lure and kill," and mating disruption. In this article, we review the potential of mass trapping in long-term pest management as well as in the eradication of invasive species. We discuss similarities and differences between mass trapping and other two main approaches of semiochemical-based pest management programs. We highlight several study cases where mass trapping has been used either in long-term pest management [e.g., codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders); bark beetles, palm weevils, corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.); and fruit flies] or in eradication of invasive species [e.g., gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.); and boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We list the critical issues that affect the efficacy of mass trapping and compare these with previously published models developed to investigate mass trapping efficacy in pest control. We conclude that mass trapping has good potential to suppress or eradicate low-density, isolated pest populations; however, its full potential in pest management has not been adequately realized and therefore encourages further research and development of this technology. PMID:17066782

  18. Possible impact of radar on pest management operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

  19. The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Cook, Samantha M; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A

    2007-01-01

    Push-pull strategies involve the behavioral manipulation of insect pests and their natural enemies via the integration of stimuli that act to make the protected resource unattractive or unsuitable to the pests (push) while luring them toward an attractive source (pull) from where the pests are subsequently removed. The push and pull components are generally nontoxic. Therefore, the strategies are usually integrated with methods for population reduction, preferably biological control. Push-pull strategies maximize efficacy of behavior-manipulating stimuli through the additive and synergistic effects of integrating their use. By orchestrating a predictable distribution of pests, efficiency of population-reducing components can also be increased. The strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management programs reducing pesticide input. We describe the principles of the strategy, list the potential components, and present case studies reviewing work on the development and use of push-pull strategies in each of the major areas of pest control.

  20. A survey of phytotoxic microbial and plant metabolites as potential natural products for pest management.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Andolfi, Anna; Cantrell, Charles L; Cimmino, Alessio; Duke, Stephen O; Osbrink, Weste; Wedge, David E; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Phytotoxic microbial metabolites produced by certain phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a group of phytotoxic plant metabolites including Amaryllidacea alkaloids and some derivatives of these compounds were evaluated for algicide, bactericide, insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide activities in order to discover natural compounds for potential use in the management and control of several important agricultural and household structural pests. Among the various compounds evaluated: i) ophiobolin A was found to be the most promising for potential use as a selective algicide; ii) ungeremine was discovered to be bactericidal against certain species of fish pathogenic bacteria; iii) cycasin caused significant mortality in termites; iv) cavoxin, ophiobolin A, and sphaeropsidin A were most active towards species of plant pathogenic fungi; and v) lycorine and some of its analogues (1-O-acetyllycorine and lycorine chlorohydrate) were highly phytotoxic in the herbicide bioassay. Our results further demonstrated that plants and microbes can provide a diverse and natural source of compounds with potential use as pesticides.

  1. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  2. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  3. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  4. Integrated pest management is the lucrative bridge connecting the ever emerging knowledge islands of genetics and ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management has long been considered a profit- and product (or technology)-driven multidisciplinary research field that maximizes crop yield and minimizes pest-inflicted economic losses. The introduction of transgenic crops has revolutionized crop protection and pest management by com...

  5. Who Wants To Be an IPM Super Sleuth? Integrated Pest Management Educational Activities & Resources for Kids of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walejko, Gina K.; Colon, Joseph L.

    This guide presents games and activities on integrated pest management (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pest management. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two activities--"Word Searches"…

  6. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W.; Stiller, Warwick N.; Wilson, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  7. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance.

    PubMed

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W; Stiller, Warwick N; Wilson, Lewis J

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  8. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  9. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  10. Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.

    PubMed

    Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

    2008-11-01

    There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets.

  11. Determination of pesticide residues in Turkey's table grapes: the effect of integrated pest management, organic farming, and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Cafer; Ornek, Hakan; Cutright, Teresa J

    2011-02-01

    Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of table grapes. Growing social concerns over excessive pesticide use have led to farming to move from conventional to organic practices. Table grapes were collected from 99 different farms in three Aegean regions. Pesticide residues were only detected in farms using conventional agriculture practices while no pesticides were detected in grapes from farms using organic or integrated pest management. A risk assessment model indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin posed the most significant risk at conventional farms.

  12. Nonchemical management of soilborne pests in fresh market vegetable production systems.

    PubMed

    Chellemi, D O

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Nonchemical methods including host resistance, organic amendments, crop rotation, soil solarization, and cultural practices have been used to control soilborne pests in fresh market vegetable production systems. Their suitability as alternatives to methyl bromide will depend on the approach to pest management used by the grower. Traditionally, methyl bromide is used in production systems that rely on the single application of a broad-spectrum biocide to disinfest soils prior to planting. Non-chemical methods are not suitable for a single tactic approach to pest management because they do not provide the same broad spectrum of activity or consistency as fumigation with methyl bromide. Nonchemical methods are compatible with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach, where multiple tactics are used to maintain damage from pests below an economic threshold while minimizing the impact to beneficial organisms. However, adoption of IPM is hindered by the paucity of economically feasible sampling programs and thresholds for soilborne pests and by a reluctance of growers to commit additional resources to the collection and management of biological information. A novel approach to the management of soilborne pests is to design the crop production system to avoid pest outbreaks. Using this "proactive" approach, a tomato production system was developed using strip-tillage into existing bahia-grass pasture. By minimizing inputs and disruption to the pasture, growers were able to reap the rotational benefits of bahiagrass without cultivating the rotational crop. While minimizing the need for interventive procedures, a proactive approach is difficult to integrate into existing crop production systems and will require several years of testing and validation.

  13. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  14. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  15. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Padula, Matthew P.; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a “beneficial substance”. This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  16. Cell-Penetrating Recombinant Peptides for Potential Use in Agricultural Pest Control Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Stephen R.; Dowd, Patrick F.; Johnson, Eric T.

    2012-01-01

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance. PMID:24281256

  17. Cell-penetrating recombinant peptides for potential use in agricultural pest control applications.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2012-09-28

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  18. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels.

  19. Advances in organic insect pest management in pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. The market for organic pecans has been growing. However, in the Southeastern USA, there are a number of insect pests and plant diseases that challenge the ability of growers to produce organic pecans in an economically sound ma...

  20. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  1. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits.

  2. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    PubMed

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P < 0.001) and reduced the occurrence of mating by 93%, compared with three equivalent untreated control plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications.

  3. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    PubMed

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P < 0.001) and reduced the occurrence of mating by 93%, compared with three equivalent untreated control plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. PMID:26470337

  4. Natural history of crop-related wild species: Uses in pest habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The natural histories of crop-related wild species in their native habitats can be used to develop novel pest management strategies. Traditionally, such information has provided insights for biological control, plant breeding, crop management, and applied ecology Further insights can be garnered.

  5. Concepts of sustainability, motivations for pest management approaches, and implications for communicating change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective communication with farmers is an essential component of impacting their decision processes and encouraging changes in pest management practices, but requires a system of research and extension management that differs from that to which most biological scientists are accustomed. We present...

  6. Agribusiness Management. The Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    These materials in agribusiness management for the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum were designed for use in the following areas: Animal Science; Plant Science; Agricultural Mechanics; and Natural Resources and Aquaculture. Each unit of this competency-based guide contains title of unit, unit length, grade level, objectives, teacher…

  7. Annotated ESTs from various tissues of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens: A genomic resource for studying agricultural pests

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Hiroaki; Kawai, Sawako; Koizumi, Yoko; Matsui, Kageaki; Zhang, Qiang; Furukawa, Shigetoyo; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei

    2008-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is a serious insect pests of rice plants. Major means of BPH control are application of agricultural chemicals and cultivation of BPH resistant rice varieties. Nevertheless, BPH strains that are resistant to agricultural chemicals have developed, and BPH strains have appeared that are virulent against the resistant rice varieties. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and related applications are useful to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance and virulence and to reveal physiological aspects of this non-model insect, with its poorly understood genetic background. Results More than 37,000 high-quality ESTs, excluding sequences of mitochondrial genome, microbial genomes, and rDNA, have been produced from 18 libraries of various BPH tissues and stages. About 10,200 clusters have been made from whole EST sequences, with average EST size of 627 bp. Among the top ten most abundantly expressed genes, three are unique and show no homology in BLAST searches. The actin gene was highly expressed in BPH, especially in the thorax. Tissue-specifically expressed genes were extracted based on the expression frequency among the libraries. An EST database is available at our web site. Conclusion The EST library will provide useful information for transcriptional analyses, proteomic analyses, and gene functional analyses of BPH. Moreover, specific genes for hemimetabolous insects will be identified. The microarray fabricated based on the EST information will be useful for finding genes related to agricultural and biological problems related to this pest. PMID:18315884

  8. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  9. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  10. Expanding Integrated Pest Management Capacity: Rwanda Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baributsa, Dieudonne; Flores, Luis; Rukazambuga, Daniel; Wise, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rwanda is developing its agricultural capacity to meet the needs of national food security while addressing food demands and requirements of regional and international markets. The Rwanda Horticultural Export Standards Initiative was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in collaboration with Michigan State…

  11. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  12. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  13. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

  14. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied.

  15. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy.

  16. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy. PMID:22205243

  17. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  18. Compatibility of Two Systematic Neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam with various Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of a number of insect pests in cotton, vegetables, and citrus. We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods including four parasitoid species, Aphytis melinus Gonatocerus ashmeadi, ...

  19. Agricultural Business and Management Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains 5 teaching units for 44 agricultural business and management cluster problem areas. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. The five units are as follows: (1) agribusiness operation and…

  20. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Kapantaidaki, Despoina E; Ovčarenko, Irina; Fytrou, Natasa; Knott, K Emily; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci.

  1. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals.

  2. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals. PMID:25413219

  3. Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

    2015-03-01

    There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems.

  4. Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

  5. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. PMID:25987228

  6. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  7. Emerging issues in Integrated Pest Management implementation and adoption in the North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a long tradition of integrated pest management (IPM) in the North Central region of the U.S. IPM is difficult to define, and it means different things to different people. But in general it is a philosophy based on multiple tactics to prevent a population from building up to unacceptable da...

  8. Effect of pest management system on 'Empire' apple leaf phyllosphere populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phyllosphere of plant tissues is varied and dynamic. Pest management, time of sampling, proximity to immigration sources, tissue and tissue status such as leaf/fruit age and location within the canopy, and other environmental and biological factors interact to influence the composition and abun...

  9. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  10. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores. PMID:26495038

  11. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-10-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores.

  12. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed. PMID:26470135

  14. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  15. An impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey for integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruiqing; Chen, Lansun

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, an impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey is investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. In the first part of the main results, we get the sufficient condition for the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the pest will be doomed. In the second part of the main results, we also get the sufficient condition for the permanence of the system. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the prey and the predator will coexist. In the last section, we interpret our mathematical results. We also point out some possible future work.

  16. Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Maartje J; Hopkins, Anna J M; Eriksson, Louise; Pettersson, Maria; Schroeder, Martin; Lindelöw, Åke; Rönnberg, Jonas; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Kenis, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  17. Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Maartje J; Hopkins, Anna J M; Eriksson, Louise; Pettersson, Maria; Schroeder, Martin; Lindelöw, Åke; Rönnberg, Jonas; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Kenis, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens. PMID:26744056

  18. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    PubMed

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. PMID:26299755

  19. Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  20. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.

  1. General rules for managing and surveying networks of pests, diseases, and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Chadès, Iadine; Martin, Tara G; Nicol, Samuel; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2011-05-17

    The efficient management of diseases, pests, or endangered species is an important global issue faced by agencies constrained by limited resources. The management challenge is even greater when organisms are difficult to detect. We show how to prioritize management and survey effort across time and space for networks of susceptible-infected-susceptible subpopulations. We present simple and robust rules of thumb for protecting desirable, or eradicating undesirable, subpopulations connected in typical network patterns (motifs). We further demonstrate that these rules can be generalized to larger networks when motifs are combined in more complex formations. Results show that the best location to manage or survey a pest or a disease on a network is also the best location to protect or survey an endangered species. The optimal starting point in a network is the fastest motif to manage, where line, star, island, and cluster motifs range from fast to slow. Managing the most connected node at the right time and maintaining the same management direction provide advantages over previously recommended outside-in strategies. When a species or disease is not detected and our belief in persistence decreases, our results recommend shifting resources toward management or surveillance of the most connected nodes. Our analytic approximation provides guidance on how long we should manage or survey networks for hard-to-detect organisms. Our rules take into account management success, dispersal, economic cost, and imperfect detection and offer managers a practical basis for managing networks relevant to many significant environmental, biosecurity, and human health issues. PMID:21536884

  2. Evolutionary-thinking in agricultural weed management.

    PubMed

    Neve, Paul; Vila-Aiub, Martin; Roux, Fabrice

    2009-12-01

    Agricultural weeds evolve in response to crop cultivation. Nevertheless, the central importance of evolutionary ecology for understanding weed invasion, persistence and management in agroecosystems is not widely acknowledged. This paper calls for more evolutionarily-enlightened weed management, in which management principles are informed by evolutionary biology to prevent or minimize weed adaptation and spread. As a first step, a greater knowledge of the extent, structure and significance of genetic variation within and between weed populations is required to fully assess the potential for weed adaptation. The evolution of resistance to herbicides is a classic example of weed adaptation. Even here, most research focuses on describing the physiological and molecular basis of resistance, rather than conducting studies to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of selection for resistance. We suggest approaches to increase the application of evolutionary-thinking to herbicide resistance research. Weed population dynamics models are increasingly important tools in weed management, yet these models often ignore intrapopulation and interpopulation variability, neglecting the potential for weed adaptation in response to management. Future agricultural weed management can benefit from greater integration of ecological and evolutionary principles to predict the long-term responses of weed populations to changing weed management, agricultural environments and global climate.

  3. Returns to integrated pest management research and outreach for soybean aphid.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Swinton, Scott M

    2009-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major invasive pest that has caused substantial yield loss and increased insecticide use in the United States since its discovery in 2000. Using the economic surplus approach, we estimate the economic benefits of U.S. research and outreach for integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean aphid. We calculate ex ante net benefits from adoption of an IPM economic threshold (ET). The ET triggers insecticide application only if the value of predicted yield damage from pest scouting is expected to exceed the cost of pest control. Our research finds that gradual adoption of an ET for soybean aphid management will generate a projected economic net benefit of $1.3 billion, for an internal rate of return of 124%, over the 15 yr since soybean aphid IPM research began in 2003. Lower and upper bound sensitivity analysis brackets the estimated net benefit to U.S. consumers and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., growers in the range of $0.6 to $2.6 billion in 2005 dollars. If a 10% rate of return is attributed to IPM applied research and outreach on soybean aphid, that would leave nearly $800 million to compensate prior activities that contribute to the development and adoption of IPM.

  4. History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panizzi, A R

    2013-04-01

    The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time.

  5. Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization.

  6. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  7. PsOr1, a potential target for RNA interference-based pest management.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Y; Liu, F; Yang, G; You, M S

    2011-02-01

    Insect pests cause billions of dollars in agricultural losses, and attempts to kill them have resulted in growing threats from insecticide resistance, dietary pesticide pollution and environmental destruction. New approaches to control refractory insect pests are therefore needed. The host-plant preferences of insect pests rely on olfaction and are mediated via a seven transmembrane-domain odorant receptor (Or) family. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of PsOr1, the first candidate member of the Or gene family from Phyllotreta striolata, a devastating beetle pest that causes damage worldwide. PsOr1 is remarkably well conserved with respect to other insect orthologues, including DmOr83b from Drosophila melanogaster. These insect orthologues form an essential non-conventional Or sub-family and may play an important and generalized role in insect olfaction. We designed double-stranded (ds) RNA directly against the PsOr1 gene and exploited RNA interference (RNAi) to control P. striolata. The chemotactic behavioural measurements showed that adult beetles were unable to sense the attractant or repellent odour stimulus after microinjection of dsRNA against PsOr1. Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR analysis showed specific down-regulation of mRNA transcript levels for this gene. Furthermore, host-plant preference experiments confirmed that silencing PsOr1 by RNAi treatment impaired the host-plant preferences of P. striolata for cruciferous vegetables. These results demonstrate that this insect control approach of using RNAi to target PsOr1 and its orthologues might be effective in blocking host-plant-seeking behaviours in diverse insect pests. The results also support the theory that this unique receptor type plays an essential general role in insect olfaction. PMID:20854479

  8. Ecological approaches and the development of “truly integrated” pest management

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Matthew B.

    1999-01-01

    Recent predictions of growth in human populations and food supply suggest that there will be a need to substantially increase food production in the near future. One possible approach to meeting this demand, at least in part, is the control of pests and diseases, which currently cause a 30–40% loss in available crop production. In recent years, strategies for controlling pests and diseases have tended to focus on short-term, single-technology interventions, particularly chemical pesticides. This model frequently applies even where so-called integrated pest management strategies are used because in reality, these often are dominated by single technologies (e.g., biocontrol, host plant resistance, or biopesticides) that are used as replacements for chemicals. Very little attention is given to the interaction or compatibility of the different technologies used. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that such approaches rarely yield satisfactory results and are unlikely to provide sustainable pest control solutions for the future. Drawing on two case histories, this paper demonstrates that by increasing our basic understanding of how individual pest control technologies act and interact, new opportunities for improving pest control can be revealed. This approach stresses the need to break away from the existing single-technology, pesticide-dominated paradigm and to adopt a more ecological approach built around a fundamental understanding of population biology at the local farm level and the true integration of renewable technologies such as host plant resistance and natural biological control, which are available to even the most resource-poor farmers. PMID:10339522

  9. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  10. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and

  11. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  12. Toxins for transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Bonning, Bryony C

    2012-06-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  13. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  14. The role of databases in areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...

  15. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation and Soil Borne Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD; also referred to as Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD)) is a pre-plant soil treatment method developed to control plant disease and manage yield decline in many crop production systems. The practice involves induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing m...

  16. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  17. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  18. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  19. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards. PMID:27145580

  20. Bridging Disciplines, Knowledge Systems and Cultures in Pest Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

  1. Bridging disciplines, knowledge systems and cultures in pest management.

    PubMed

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

  2. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior.

  3. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior. PMID:27145629

  4. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  5. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  6. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  7. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  8. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  9. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    PubMed

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  10. Compatibility of two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, with various natural enemies of agricultural pests.

    PubMed

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Castle, Steven J; Naranjo, Steven E; Toscano, Nick C; Morse, Joseph G

    2011-06-01

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of several insect pests in cotton (Gossypium spp.), vegetables, and citrus (Citrus spp.). We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods, including four parasitoid species--Aphytis melinus Debach, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsia formosa Gahan--and two generalist predators--Geocoris punctipes (Say) and Orius insidiosus (Say)--in the laboratory by using a systemic uptake bioassay. Exposure to systemically treated leaves of both neonicotinoids had negative effects on adult survival in all four parasitoids, with higher potency against A. melinus as indicated by a low LC50. Mortality was also high for G. ashmeadi, E. eremicus, and E. formosa after exposure to both compounds but only after 48 h posttreatment. The two predators G. punctipes and O. insidiosus were variably susceptible to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam after 96-h exposure. However, toxicity to these predators may be related to their feeding on foliage and not just contact with surface residues. Our laboratory results contradict suggestions of little impact of these systemic neonicotinoids on parasitoids or predators but field studies will be needed to better quantify the levels of such impacts under natural conditions.

  11. Pest and disease management: why we shouldn't go against the grain.

    PubMed

    Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A; Garrett, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal ('humpbacked') relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness.

  12. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Oumar; Lemoyne, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin). Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops. PMID:27761325

  13. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  14. Ecdysone agonists: mechanism and importance in controlling insect pests of agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Retnakaran, Arthur; Krell, Peter; Feng, Qili; Arif, Basil

    2003-12-01

    Molting is the result of the expression of a cascade of genes that is sequentially both up and down-regulated by the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which is secreted as a pulse during each instar. Benzoyl hydrazine analogs of 20E act like the native molting hormone at the molecular level by binding with the ecdysone receptor complex and transactivating a succession of molt initiating transcription factors that, in turn, induce the expression of a group of molt-related genes. As a result of the expression of these up-regulated genes, the larva undergoes apolysis and head capsule slippage and takes on the appearance of the pharate larva. However, unlike 20E, which is cleared at this juncture, allowing the down-regulated genes to be expressed, these synthetic analogs bind strongly to the receptors and remain in place and repress all the down-regulatory genes such as the ones necessary for cuticle elaboration, sclerotization, and ecdysis resulting in a developmental arrest in this state. As a result, the treated larva goes into a precocious incomplete molt that is lethal. Two of the analogs, tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide, are lepidopteran specific and have good control potential for open feeding larvae that ingest this material while a third one, halofenozide, acts on coleopteran larvae. Since they specifically act through an insect receptor complex, they have little or no effect on non-target species, making them environmentally attractive pest control agents. Some insects, however, show resistance to these analogs and this could be, inter alia, due to an ATP Binding Cassette Transporter like system that selectively pumps out the analogs.

  15. Cry1F resistance among lepidopteran pests: a model for improved resistance management?

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-06-01

    The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. PMID:27436741

  16. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID

  17. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  19. Spatial variability in ecosystem services: simple rules for predator-mediated pest suppression.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F J J A; Schellhorn, N A; Buckley, Y M; Possingham, H P

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural pest control often relies on the ecosystem services provided by the predators of pests. Appropriate landscape and habitat management for pest control services requires an understanding of insect dispersal abilities and the spatial arrangement of source habitats for pests and their predators. Here we explore how dispersal and habitat configuration determine the locations where management actions are likely to have the biggest impact on natural pest control. The study focuses on the early colonization phase before predator reproduction takes place and when pest populations in crops are still relatively low. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model in which pest populations grow exponentially in pest patches and predators disperse across the landscape from predator patches. We generated 1000 computer-simulated landscapes in which the performance of four typical but different predator groups as biological control agents was evaluated. Predator groups represented trait combinations of poor and good dispersal ability and density-independent and density-dependent aggregation responses toward pests. Case studies from the literature were used to inform the parameterization of predator groups. Landscapes with a small nearest-neighbor distance between pest and predator patches had the lowest mean pest density at the landscape scale for all predator groups, but there can be high variation in pest density between the patches within these landscapes. Mobile and strongly aggregating predators provide the best pest suppression in the majority of landscape types. Ironically, this result is true except in landscapes with small nearest-neighbor distances between pest and predator patches. The pest control potential of mobile predators can best be explained by the mean distance between a pest patch and all predator patches in the landscape, whereas for poorly dispersing predators the distance between a pest patch and the nearest predator patch is the best

  20. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, K.W.

    1997-12-01

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly`s strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile.

  1. Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. peach orchards: effects on arthropod predators, parasitoids, and select pests.

    PubMed

    Biddinger, David J; Leslie, Timothy W; Joshi, Neelendra K

    2014-06-01

    We developed new integrated pest management programs for eastern U.S. peaches with minimal use of organophosphates. From 2002-2005, we assessed the ecological impacts of these reduced-risk programs versus grower standard conventional programs that still relied primarily on the use of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides. Using a split-plot design replicated at four commercial Pennsylvania peach orchards, we quantified pesticide rates, environmental impact, and arthropod community response. We used Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) analysis based on the growers' pesticide records from each orchard to calculate seasonal cumulative EIQ field ratings for all years. Ecological effects of the reduced-risk and conventional program were also measured as the abundance and diversity of nontarget arthropod predators, parasitoids, and selected pest taxa. Pesticide inputs and EIQ values were substantially lower in reduced-risk programs compared with conventional spray programs. Arthropod arrays differed significantly between pest management programs: most beneficial predator and parasitoid taxa were positively associated with the reduced-risk program and negatively associated with the standard grower program. Regardless of the pest management program, we observed significant differences in species arrays in the peach tree canopy compared with the ground cover of the orchards, but the arthropod community did not differ among the field sites or based on distance from the edge of the orchard. We conclude that reduced-risk programs not only provide control comparable with that of conventional programs, but they also reduce negative environmental effects while conserving key arthropod biological control agents within eastern U.S. peach orchards.

  2. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  3. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  4. Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.

    PubMed Central

    Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

    1976-01-01

    In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

  5. Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: A suburban wildlife management model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Deblinger, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations. Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes how some wildlife populations can fluctuate between extremely low (rare, threatened, or endangered status) and extremely high (overabundant) numbers over time. Changes in wildlife abundance can induce changes in human perceptions, which continually redefine species as a valuable resource to be protected versus a pest to be controlled. Management programs thatincorporate a number of approaches and promote more stable populations of wildlife avoid the problems of the resource versus pest transformation, are less costly to society, and encourage more positive and less negative interactions between humans and wildlife. We presenta case example of the beaver Castor canadensis in Massachusetts to illustrate how this model functions and can be applied. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  6. Genetic variation and geographic differentiation among populations of the nonmigratory agricultural pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θ(II), and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  7. Genetic Variation and Geographic Differentiation Among Populations of the Nonmigratory Agricultural Pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θII, and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  8. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-04-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.

  9. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-04-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.

  10. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits. PMID:27032369

  11. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits. PMID:27032369

  12. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

  13. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  14. Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  15. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O₂) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO₂), and ozone (O₃). Results showed that both low O₂ and high CO₂ levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O₂ and high CO₂ had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO₂ and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O₂. Both low O₂ and high CO₂ trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O₃ has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O₃ is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O₂ or high CO₂. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  16. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J.; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O2) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3). Results showed that both low O2 and high CO2 levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O2 and high CO2 had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO2 and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O2. Both low O2 and high CO2 trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O3 has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O3 is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O2 or high CO2. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  17. Management of plant species for controlling pests, by peasant farmers at Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Andréia de Souza; Mourão, José da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Ethnoecological knowledge may be understood as spontaneous knowledge, culturally referenced of any society's members, learned and transmitted through social interactions and that are targeted at resolution of daily routine situations. The traditional knowledge in small scale economy societies as well as the non-academic knowledge in urban-industrial societies might be included in this concept. An ethnoecological approach study was performed here on people living at the communities of Alvinho, Almeida, Chã do Marinho, Floriano, and Chã de Oiti, all located in the municipality of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil. The general objective pursued here was to study the knowledge that peasant farmers have on management of plant species utilized for pest control. For this, the methodological instruments employed here to investigate the ethnoecological knowledge were: direct observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and tours conducted by local peasant farmers. We analyzed the data obtained under an emic/etic view and also by comparing the local knowledge with those obtained from the literature. The results showed that people in those communities utilize management alternatives for controlling pests, which are mainly: (i) fallowing; (ii) crop rotation; (iii) destruction of crop remains and fruits attacked by pests; (iv) alternations of crops with repellent plants; and/or (v) mixed cropping; (vi) insect's larvae covered with soil; (vii) crops irrigated abundantly; and (viii) soil preparation. The recovery and comprehension we get about this knowledge as well as the farmers' savoir faire, are extremely important to the revival of ancient agricultural practices, which have been forgotten due to advances in modern agriculture. The data obtained here showed that a huge body of knowledge the farmers have on many forms or strategies of management are generally compatible with scientific knowledge. PMID:17026748

  18. Benefits of collaborative learning for environmental management: applying the integrated systems for knowledge management approach to support animal pest control.

    PubMed

    Allen, W; Bosch, O; Kilvington, M; Oliver, J; Gilbert, M

    2001-02-01

    Resource management issues continually change over time in response to coevolving social, economic, and ecological systems. Under these conditions adaptive management, or "learning by doing," offers an opportunity for more proactive and collaborative approaches to resolving environmental problems. In turn, this will require the implementation of learning-based extension approaches alongside more traditional linear technology transfer approaches within the area of environmental extension. In this paper the Integrated Systems for Knowledge Management (ISKM) approach is presented to illustrate how such learning-based approaches can be used to help communities develop, apply, and refine technical information within a larger context of shared understanding. To outline how this works in practice, we use a case study involving pest management. Particular attention is paid to the issues that emerge as a result of multiple stakeholder involvement within environmental problem situations. Finally, the potential role of the Internet in supporting and disseminating the experience gained through ongoing adaptive management processes is examined.

  19. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. PMID:26470329

  20. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems. PMID:19424439

  1. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  2. Symbiotic microorganisms: untapped resources for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Angela E

    2007-08-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms offer one route to meet the anticipated heightened demand for novel insect pest management strategies created by growing human populations and global climate change. Two approaches have particular potential: the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests, and manipulation of microorganisms with major impacts on insect traits contributing to their pest status (e.g. capacity to vector diseases, natural enemy resistance). Specific research priorities addressed in this article include identification of molecular targets against which highly specific antagonists can be designed or discovered, and management strategies to manipulate the incidence and properties of facultative microorganisms that influence insect pest traits. Collaboration with practitioners in pest management will ensure that the research agenda is married to agricultural and public health needs.

  3. Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee a slow incremental raising of temperatures base their predictions mainly on the available empirical evidence and the notion that long term weather is basically a cyclical phenomena that continually adjusts and readjusts through time. The other scenario interprets the available empirical data as a gradual buildup that pushes the climatic picture towards a threshold or a trigger point that, once arrived at, is irreversible and dramatic. This paper explores the possible climatic scenarios as they relate to the ecological principles that affect pest abundance and the distribution and impact on domestic and international agriculture.

  4. Innovations in information management to enhance agriculture: A research perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information management should be the cornerstone for innovative agricultural systems; however, the challenge remains on how to utilize all of the components to enhance agriculture. The enhancement of agriculture is often considered from only a yield perspective. This is an important factor and effo...

  5. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  6. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  7. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by "exciting students about science", who perceived increases in "student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts" and/or students as "more interested in termites after participating in this project" were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula.

  8. A Pest Management Approach to the Control of Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Gundy, S. D.; Perez B., J. G.; Stolzy, L. H.; Thomason, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, was clearly demonstrated as a parasite of wheat. It reduced plant stands and stunted plants in the field under the environmental conditions found in Sonora, Mexico. Other soil organisms also may have contributed to the problem. The nematode is widely distributed throughout the wheat-growing region, and may be a problem each growing season. Nematicides controlled the nematode and increased yields, but they were not economical. No resistance was found in existing commercial wheat cultivars. A pest management approach using variety selection, nitrogen fertilizer, planting in cool soil (15 C) and a crop rotation avoiding wheat after wheat was the most practical solution to this problem on a commercial scale. PMID:19308110

  9. An impulsively controlled pest management model with n predator species and a common prey.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Paul; Zhang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of a competitive single-prey n-predators model of integrated pest management, which is subject to periodic and impulsive controls, from the viewpoint of finding sufficient conditions for the extinction of prey and for prey and predator permanence. The per capita death rates of prey due to predation are given in abstract, unspecified forms, which encompass large classes of death rates arising from usual predator functional responses, both prey-dependent and predator-dependent. The stability and permanence conditions are then expressed as balance conditions between the cumulative death rate of prey in a period, due to predation from all predator species and to the use of control, and to the cumulative birth rate of prey in the same amount of time. These results are then specialized for the case of prey-dependent functional responses, their biological significance being also discussed. PMID:23123675

  10. Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential.

    PubMed

    Pathma, Jayakumar; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Vermicomposting is a non-thermophilic, boioxidative process that involves earthworms and associated microbes. This biological organic waste decomposition process yields the biofertilizer namely the vermicompost. Vermicompost is a finely divided, peat like material with high porosity, good aeration, drainage, water holding capacity, microbial activity, excellent nutrient status and buffering capacity thereby resulting the required physiochemical characters congenial for soil fertility and plant growth. Vermicompost enhances soil biodiversity by promoting the beneficial microbes which inturn enhances plant growth directly by production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes and indirectly by controlling plant pathogens, nematodes and other pests, thereby enhancing plant health and minimizing the yield loss. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physiochemical properties, vermicompost may be used to promote sustainable agriculture and also for the safe management of agricultural, industrial, domestic and hospital wastes which may otherwise pose serious threat to life and environment.

  11. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  12. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  13. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  15. Informing Lake Erie agriculture nutrient management via scenario evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Kalcic, Margaret; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Aloysius, Noel; Arnold, Jeffrey; Boles, Chelsie; Confesor, Remegio; DePinto, Joseph; Gildow, Marie; Martin, Jay; Read, Jennifer; Redder, Todd; Robertson, Dale; Sowa, Scott P.; Wang, Yu-Chen; White, Michael; Yen, Haw

    2016-01-01

    Therefore, the overall goal of this study was to identify potential options for agricultural management to reduce phosphorus loads and lessen future HABs in Lake Erie. We applied multiple watershed models to test the ability of a series of land management scenarios, developed in consultation with agricultural and environmental stakeholders, to reach the proposed targets. 

  16. Energy Management Lesson Plans for Vocational Agriculture Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Lowell E., Ed.; Miller, Larry E., Ed.

    This notebook provides vocational agricultural teachers with 10 detailed lesson plans on the major topic of energy management in agriculture. The lesson plans present information about energy and the need to manage it wisely, using a problem-solving approach. Each lesson plan follows this format: lesson topic, lesson performance objectives,…

  17. An integrated Modelling framework to monitor and predict trends of agricultural management (iMSoil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Armin; Della Peruta, Raneiro; Schaepman, Michael; Gomez, Marta; Mann, Stefan; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems lay at the interface between natural ecosystems and the anthroposphere. Various drivers induce pressures on the agricultural systems, leading to changes in farming practice. The limitation of available land and the socio-economic drivers are likely to result in further intensification of agricultural land management, with implications on fertilization practices, soil and pest management, as well as crop and livestock production. In order to steer the development into desired directions, tools are required by which the effects of these pressures on agricultural management and resulting impacts on soil functioning can be detected as early as possible, future scenarios predicted and suitable management options and policies defined. In this context, the use of integrated models can play a major role in providing long-term predictions of soil quality and assessing the sustainability of agricultural soil management. Significant progress has been made in this field over the last decades. Some of these integrated modelling frameworks include biophysical parameters, but often the inherent characteristics and detailed processes of the soil system have been very simplified. The development of such tools has been hampered in the past by a lack of spatially explicit soil and land management information at regional scale. The iMSoil project, funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation in the national research programme NRP68 "soil as a resource" (www.nrp68.ch) aims at developing and implementing an integrated modeling framework (IMF) which can overcome the limitations mentioned above, by combining socio-economic, agricultural land management, and biophysical models, in order to predict the long-term impacts of different socio-economic scenarios on the soil quality. In our presentation we briefly outline the approach that is based on an interdisciplinary modular framework that builds on already existing monitoring tools and model components that are

  18. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  19. Push-Pull: Chemical Ecology-Based Integrated Pest Management Technology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeyaur; Midega, Charles A O; Hooper, Antony; Pickett, John

    2016-07-01

    Lepidopterous stemborers, and parasitic striga weeds belonging to the family Orobanchaceae, attack cereal crops in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe yield losses. The smallholder farmers are resource constrained and unable to afford expensive chemicals for crop protection. The push-pull technology, a chemical ecology- based cropping system, is developed for integrated pest and weed management in cereal-livestock farming systems. Appropriate plants were selected that naturally emit signaling chemicals (semiochemicals). Plants highly attractive for stemborer egg laying were selected and employed as trap crops (pull), to draw pests away from the main crop. Plants that repelled stemborer females were selected as intercrops (push). The stemborers are attracted to the trap plant, and are repelled from the main cereal crop using a repellent intercrop (push). Root exudates of leguminous repellent intercrops also effectively control the parasitic striga weed through an allelopathic mechanism. Their root exudates contain flavonoid compounds some of which stimulate germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, such as Uncinanone B, and others that dramatically inhibit their attachment to host roots, such as Uncinanone C and a number of di-C-glycosylflavones (di-CGFs), resulting in suicidal germination. The intercrop also improves soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, natural mulching, improved biomass, and control of erosion. Both companion plants provide high value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers' income sources. The technology is appropriate to smallholder mixed cropping systems in Africa. Adopted by about 125,000 farmers to date in eastern Africa, it effectively addresses major production constraints, significantly increases maize yields, and is economical as it is based on locally available plants, not expensive external inputs. PMID:27392788

  20. Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  5. Cross-cultural management of pest animal damage: a case study of feral buffalo control in Australia's Kakadu National Park.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control.

  6. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  7. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.

  8. Recent developments and applications of bait stations for integrated pest management of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attract-and-kill approach involves the behavioral manipulation of pest insects through the integration of long-distance olfactory/visual stimuli to attract a particular pest and a killing agent and/or a collection device. Bait stations, an element of an attract-and-kill system, can be defined as...

  9. Efficacy of silk channel injections with insecticides for management of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Control of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers fre...

  10. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  11. The Impact of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Agricultural Pests: The Case of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms. PMID:24014222

  12. The impact of climate change on the potential distribution of agricultural pests: the case of the coffee white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.

  13. Case Analysis of Farm Agriculture Machinery Informatization Management Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Xi; Zhuang, Weidong

    In the process of China's agricultural modernization, especially agricultural machinery modernization, in terms of equipment, we've chose the way that foreign imports (and domestic research) with the combination of self-developed, in the software, it is difficult to fully apply this approach, the specific reasons are: the modernization of China's agriculture development model is diversified, it is difficult to find a unified management model, even in the scale of operations of the representative state-owned farms and the abroad farms are also very different management models. Due to various types of growth models of biological complexity, diverse climatic and geographical environment factors, coupled with the characteristics such as long cycle of agricultural production, high input, high-risk, and decentralized management, industrial management mode it is very difficult to apply. Moreover, the application of modern management tools is also difficult to quantify the benefits, leading to the current research and application are in a state of comparatively dropped behind.

  14. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  15. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  16. Insect bacteria and hazelnut pests' biocontrol: the state of the art in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Turkey is first among all hazelnut producing countries. However, it lags far behind them in terms of amount harvested per unit area. A main reason for this is that hazelnut has many agricultural pests that can not be effectively controlled. Chemical pesticides utilized to control these pests have hazardous effects on the environment. Increasing problems with resistance of these pests to most commonly used synthetic insecticides have spurred the search for alternative pest management strategies that would reduce reliance on synthetic insecticides. Biological control of hazelnut pests is an alternative control method to chemical pesticides. It is very important ecologically because of production of honey, milk and fish in the surrounding areas of hazelnut fields in Turkey. Several promising bacteriological studies have been made to find some biological control agents against these pests in Turkey. This paper presents a review of the current status of bacteriological studies on biological control of hazelnut pests in Turkey. PMID:12852179

  17. Integration of botanicals and microbials for management of crop and human pests.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

    2013-01-01

    Insect pests inflict damage to humans, farm animals, and crops. Human and animal pests put more than 100 million people and 80 million cattle at risk worldwide. Plant pests are the main reason for destroying one fifth of the world's total crop production annually. Anopheles stephensi is the major vector of human malaria in Middle East and South Asian regions. Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous pest of vegetables and field crops. Because of its broad host range, this insect is also known as cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton leafworm, tobacco cutworm, tobacco caterpillar, and tropical armyworm. The toxic effects of methanolic extract of Senna alata and microbial insecticide, Bacillus sphericus, were tested against the polyphagous crop pest, S. litura (Fab.), and the malarial vector, A. stephensi. Results from the present study states that B. sphericus is more toxic than S. alata to both the crop pest and mosquito. The malarial vector, A. stephensi, was found to be susceptible than the crop pest, S. litura. Both the botanical and microbial insecticide showed excellent larvicidal, pupicidal, longevity, fecundity, and growth regulatory activities. Median lethal concentrations of B. sphericus and methanolic extract of S. alata observed to kill the third instar of S. litura were 0.52 and 193.09 ppm and A. stephensi were 0.40 and 174.64 ppm, respectively.

  18. Ecology and management of agricultural drainage ditches: a literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are headwater streams that have been modified or constructed for agricultural drainage, and are often used in conjunction with tile drains. These modified streams are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat within the state. Management o...

  19. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  20. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    PubMed

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  1. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  2. The Role of Pest Control Advisers in Preventative Management of Grapevine Trunk Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Doll, David; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards with trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback) can have negative returns in the long run. Minimizing economic impacts depends on effective management, but adopting a preventative practice after infection occurs may not improve yields. Pest control advisers may reduce grower uncertainty about the efficacy of and need for prevention, which often entails future and unobservable benefits. Here, we surveyed advisers in California to examine their influence over grower decision-making, in the context of trunk diseases, which significantly limit grape production and for which curative practices are unavailable. Our online survey revealed adviser awareness of high disease incidence, and reduced yields and vineyard lifespan. Advisers rated both preventative and postinfection practices positively. Despite higher cost estimates given to postinfection practices, advisers did not recommend preventative practices at higher rates. High recommendation rates were instead correlated with high disease incidence for both preventative and postinfection practices. Recommendation rates declined with increasing cost for preventative, but not for postinfection, practices. Our findings suggest that even when advisers acknowledge the risks of trunk diseases, they may not recommend preventative practices before infection occurs. This underscores the importance of clear outreach, emphasizing both the need for prevention and its long-term cost efficacy. PMID:26645645

  3. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  4. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results.

  5. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results. PMID:27378223

  6. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot. PMID:27330148

  7. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot.

  8. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  9. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  10. 25 CFR 162.201 - Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and objectives in any agricultural resource management plan developed by the tribe, or by us in close... management objectives for the resources; (4) Define critical values of the Indian tribe and its members and identify holistic management objectives; and (5) Identify actions to be taken to reach...

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions. PMID:26848690

  12. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-02-03

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions.

  13. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  14. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    PubMed

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones.

  15. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    PubMed

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. PMID:24817433

  16. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  17. Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

    2010-06-01

    Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people.

  18. The Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Integrated Pest Management in California Rice.

    PubMed

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kushel) is the most damaging insect pest of rice in the United States. Larval feeding on the roots stunt growth and reduce yield. Current pest management against the weevil in California relies heavily on pyrethroids that can be damaging to aquatic food webs. Examination of an environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae chemistry against rice water weevil larvae showed moderate levels of activity in pilot studies. We further examined the performance of different formulations of Bt.galleriae against the leading insecticide used in California rice, λ-cyhalothrin. The granular formulation performed as well as the λ-cyhalothrin in use in California in some of our greenhouse and field studies. This is the first reported use of B. thuringiensis spp. galleriae against rice water weevil.

  19. Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Oakeshott, John G; Fitt, Gary; Southerton, Simon; Burdon, Jeremy J; Sheppard, Andy; Russell, Robyn J; Zalucki, Myron; Heino, Mikko; Ford Denison, R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts increasingly drive ecological and evolutionary processes at many spatio-temporal scales, demanding greater capacity to predict and manage their consequences. This is particularly true for agro-ecosystems, which not only comprise a significant proportion of land use, but which also involve conflicting imperatives to expand or intensify production while simultaneously reducing environmental impacts. These imperatives reinforce the likelihood of further major changes in agriculture over the next 30–40 years. Key transformations include genetic technologies as well as changes in land use. The use of evolutionary principles is not new in agriculture (e.g. crop breeding, domestication of animals, management of selection for pest resistance), but given land-use trends and other transformative processes in production landscapes, ecological and evolutionary research in agro-ecosystems must consider such issues in a broader systems context. Here, we focus on biotic interactions involving pests and pathogens as exemplars of situations where integration of agronomic, ecological and evolutionary perspectives has practical value. Although their presence in agro-ecosystems may be new, many traits involved in these associations evolved in natural settings. We advocate the use of predictive frameworks based on evolutionary models as pre-emptive management tools and identify some specific research opportunities to facilitate this. We conclude with a brief discussion of multidisciplinary approaches in applied evolutionary problems. PMID:25567968

  20. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  1. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B.

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  2. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  3. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. PMID:24681649

  4. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas.

  5. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region.

  6. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722

  7. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  8. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hold significant promise for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are being employed for various reconnaissance purposes (“eyes in the sky”), but not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Luck La...

  9. Advances in managing pest resistance to Bt crops: Pyramids and seed mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing toxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used for the control of insect pests during the last 20 years. Although Bt crops have provided significant environmental and economic benefits, sustainable use of these crops is threatened by the r...

  10. Predator in First: A prophylactic biological control strategy for management of multiple pests of pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of biocontrol agents is critical for success of biological control strategies. Predator-In-First (PIF) is a prophylactic control strategy that aims to establish predators before the appearance of pests in an agro-ecosystem. Predator-In-First uses the characteristics of generalist p...

  11. New Tools for Managing Agricultural P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieber, J. L.; Baker, L. A.; Peterson, H. M.; Ulrich, J.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) generally focus on retaining nutrients (especially P) after they enter the watershed. This approach is expensive, unsustainable, and has not led to reductions of P pollution at large scales (e.g., Mississippi River). Although source reduction, which results in reducing inputs of nutrients to a watershed, has long been cited as a preferred approach, we have not had tools to guide source reduction efforts at the watershed level. To augment conventional TMDL tools, we developed an "actionable" watershed P balance approach, based largely on watershed-specific information, yet simple enough to be utilized as a practical tool. Interviews with farmers were used to obtain detailed farm management data, data from livestock permits were adjusted based on site visits, stream P fluxes were calculated from 3 years of monitoring data, and expert knowledge was used to model P fluxes through animal operations. The overall P use efficiency. Puse was calculated as the sum of deliberate exports (P in animals, milk, eggs, and crops) divided by deliberate inputs (P inputs of fertilizer, feed, and nursery animals x 100. The crop P use efficiency was 1.7, meaning that more P was exported as products that was deliberately imported; we estimate that this mining would have resulted in a loss of 6 mg P/kg across the watershed. Despite the negative P balance, the equivalent of 5% of watershed input was lost via stream export. Tile drainage, the presence of buffer strips, and relatively flat topography result in dominance of P loads by ortho-P (66%) and low particulate P. This, together with geochemical analysis (ongoing) suggest that biological processes may be at least as important as sediment transport in controlling P loads. We have developed a P balance calculator tool to enable watershed management organizations to develop watershed P balances and identify opportunities for improving the efficiency of P utilization.

  12. Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era?

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to

  13. 77 FR 5750 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... CFR Part 422 RIN 0599-AA19 Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management, Departmental Management, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Office...

  14. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  15. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

  16. Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

    2005-02-28

    Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species.

  17. Evaluation of soil, unsaturated, and saturated zone parameter uncertainty using GSFlow and PEST in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, S.; Davis, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    A coupled surface-ground water hydrological model of the Burley-DeMerritt Organic Dairy Research Farm in southeastern New Hampshire is under continued development in support of a long-term mission to understand nutrient dynamics and water use in sustainable New England dairy operations. To build on previous simulations of ground water recharge and nitrogen transport, an estimate of net recharge under an array of climate scenarios is required to facilitate modeling of nutrient dynamics for the projected life span of the dairy farm. The model must therefore incorporate spatially distributed surface and soil zone processes that influence the shallow ground water system. GSFlow couples the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System and MODFLOW codes and is used to simulate surface, soil, and subsurface hydrological processes using a suite of empirical and process-based algorithms and parameters. Topography of the 83 hectare model domain was derived from a 1-meter horizontal resolution LiDAR DEM with centimeter-scale accuracy. Zonation at the soil surface was derived from detailed soils mapping, aerial land cover assessment, and drainage boundaries derived from the LiDAR DEM. Meteorological forcing data are taken from nearby (5 km) NCDC and AIRMAP meteorological towers. The farm's catchment consists of regionally common land covers including pasture, forest, and forested wetland. An array of surface model structures and spatial discretizations are evaluated ranging from fine scale, incorporating areas of consistent land cover or soil types, to the catchment scale. Parameter identification and uncertainty for both PRMS and MODFLOW components is conducted using PEST software, where distributed measurements of hydraulic head, soil moisture, and streamflow are weighted by measurement uncertainty and the relative measurement abundance or redundancy to define a model to measurement misfit objective function. Model validation will be conducted against data collected in the

  18. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  19. Effects of different management practices on fungal biodiversity in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, R.; Lumini, E.; Bonfante, P.; Bianciotto, V.

    2009-04-01

    Symbiotic associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are widespread in natural environments and provide a range of benefits to the host plant. These include improved nutrition, enhanced resistance to soil-borne pests, diseases, and drought, as well as tolerance to heavy metals. In addition, the presence of a well developed AMF hyphal network improve the soil structure. As obligate mutualistic symbionts these fungi colonize the roots of many agricultural crops and it is often claimed that agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and biocides, tillage, dominance of monocultures and the growing of non-mycorrhizal crops) are detrimental to AMF. As a result, agro ecosystems impoverished in AMF may not get the fully expected range of benefits from these fungi. Using molecular markers on DNA extracted directly from soil and roots we studied the effects of different management practices (tillage and nitrogen fertilization) on the AMF populations colonizing an experimental agro ecosystem in Central Italy. Fungi in roots and soil were identified by cloning and sequencing a region of ~550bp of the 18S rDNA and ~600bp of the 28S rDNA. In symbiosis with the maize roots we detected only members of Glomeraceae group A that showed decrement in number under nitrogen fertilization. Instead in soil were mainly present members of two AMF groups, respectively Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae group A. In addition only the low input management practices preserve also members of Diversisporaceae and Glomeraceae group B. From our study we can conclude that agricultural practices can directly or indirectly influence AMF biodiversity. The result of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long term nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on specific groups of fungi playing a key role in arable soils. The research was founded by Biodiversity Project (IPP-CNR) and by SOILSINK (FISR-MIUR)

  20. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-01-01

    As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand. PMID:22308095

  1. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  2. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas

  3. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain, and the possibility for restricted land use in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the transfer of radionuclides in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in the vicinity of the Fukushima plant. PMID:21608113

  4. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  5. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  6. Using aesthetic assessments of azalea lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) feeding injury to provide thresholds for pest management decisions.

    PubMed

    Klingeman, W E; Buntin, G D; Braman, S K

    2001-10-01

    Research on consumer, grower, and landscape manager perception of azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding and on plant productivity parameters, including gas exchange and growth, has increased our understanding of the nature of feeding injury. These studies made it possible to develop decision-making guidelines for cost-effective maintenance of aesthetically pleasing azaleas. Criteria were considered for three management situations: a 0.41-ha (1-acre) nursery production system that may use either insecticidal soap, acephate, or imidacloprid to control lace bugs; a landscape planting of a group of 10 azaleas; or maintenance of a single azalea in the landscape. Lace bug thresholds were calculated using a hybrid economic injury level (EIL) formula. Pesticide application decisions were determined using survey-based data from grower, landscape manager, and consumer perceptions of unacceptably injured azaleas at point-of-purchase for the nursery situation. Additional landscape scenarios incorporated the perceptions of growers, landscape managers, and consumers for those levels of lace bug feeding-injury that prompted the desire for treatment. Hybrid EIL determinations are appropriate for lace bug management in landscape systems where landscape professionals manage large plantings of azaleas and as a component of pest management among nursery production systems. Aesthetic considerations are more appropriate in determining control thresholds among a few or individual azaleas in the landscape.

  7. Integrated Pest Management, Preliminary. Curriculum Guide and Instructional Materials for a Secondary School Vo-Ag Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady County Board of Education, Cairo, GA.

    This curriculum guide presents methods to disseminate information to students interested in dealing with pests, or who have concerns about the environmental impacts of modern pest control methods. Options are encouraged for pest control methods using a combination of natural, biological, cultural, and chemical means of control. Specifically…

  8. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  9. 78 FR 5164 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications From State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic...) for the allocation of organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.425 million...

  10. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications from State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic...) for the allocation of organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.5 million...

  11. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  12. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  13. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  14. Water transfers, agriculture, and groundwater management: a dynamic economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Keith C; Weinberg, Marca; Howitt, Richard; Posnikoff, Judith F

    2003-04-01

    Water transfers from agricultural to urban and environmental uses will likely become increasingly common worldwide. Many agricultural areas rely heavily on underlying groundwater aquifers. Out-of-basin surface water transfers will increase aquifer withdrawals while reducing recharge, thereby altering the evolution of the agricultural production/groundwater aquifer system over time. An empirical analysis is conducted for a representative region in California. Transfers via involuntary surface water cutbacks tilt the extraction schedule and lower water table levels and net benefits over time. The effects are large for the water table but more modest for the other variables. Break-even prices are calculated for voluntary quantity contract transfers at the district level. These prices differ considerably from what might be calculated under a static analysis which ignores water table dynamics. Canal-lining implies that districts may gain in the short-run but lose over time if all the reduction in conveyance losses is transferred outside the district. Water markets imply an evolving quantity of exported flows over time and a reduction in basin net benefits under common property usage. Most aquifers underlying major agricultural regions are currently unregulated. Out-of-basin surface water transfers increase stress on the aquifer and management benefits can increase substantially in percentage terms but overall continue to remain small. Conversely, we find that economically efficient management can mitigate some of the adverse consequences of transfers, but not in many circumstances or by much. Management significantly reduced the water table impacts of cutbacks but not annual net benefit impacts. Neither the break-even prices nor the canal-lining impacts were altered by much. The most significant difference is that regional water users gain from water markets under efficient management.

  15. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  16. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides. PMID:26825944

  17. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides.

  18. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  19. Agriculture & the Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Linda Maston

    This teacher's guide offers background information that teachers can use to incorporate topics related to agriculture and the environment into the curriculum. Classroom activities to bring these topics alive for students in grades 6-9 are suggested. Chapters include: (1) Pesticides and Integrated Pest Management; (2) Food Safety; (3) Water…

  20. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  1. Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2013-01-01

    Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

  2. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  3. Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530

  4. Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds.

  5. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  6. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  7. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  10. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability.

  11. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  12. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants.

  13. Products containing microorganisms as a tool in integrated pest management and the rules of their market placement in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Products containing microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) can be used in plant production as an intervention as well as a prevention method for pest control. Their utilisation is strictly in line with the principles of integrated pest management, provided that they are effective and safe. The rules of registration of microorganisms for crop production in the European Union differ, depending on whether they are placed on the market as plant protection products or not. For over 20 years, uniform rules for registration of plant protection products have been in force. Currently, 36 microorganisms marked up to the strain are approved for use in pest control in the Community. The decision concerning market placement of plant protection products containing approved microorganisms is issued for each member state separately. The approaches to market placement of other products with microorganisms differ within the EU, ranging from a complete lack of requirements to long and costly registration procedures.

  14. Adaptive management of invasive pests in natural protected areas: the case of Matsucoccus feytaudi in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, A; Marziali, L; Squarcini, M; Marianelli, L; Benassai, D; Logli, F; Roversi, P F

    2016-02-01

    Invasive species are a significant threat to affected ecosystems, having serious environmental, economic and social impacts. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), causes serious damage to Pinus pinaster forests in SE France, Corsica and Italy where it has been introduced. This study illustrates the adaptive management plan implemented in the Migliarino, San Rossore, Massaciuccoli Regional Natural Park in Tuscany, Italy, where M. feytaudi arrived in 2004, leading to the decay of local P. pinaster stands. The management programme, aimed at slowing the establishment and growth of M. feytaudi, was carried out in the main sector of the park, Tenuta di San Rossore, to retard the destruction of the P. pinaster coastal strip protecting the more internal woodland from sea salt and to allow replacement of P. pinaster trees with a more stable broad-leaved wood. The combined use of mass trapping and silvicultural interventions, applied in a targeted manner according to distribution maps of pest captures and damage, helped to delay forest destruction compared with a nearby unmanaged area of the park Tenuta di Tombolo. Although M. feytaudi continued to spread during the management period, the populations remained at low levels for 6 years, showing a marked increase in 2012. During this period, the P. pinaster stands were reduced from 320 to 249 ha. The final result of this ongoing gradual conversion process will be transformation of the P. pinaster forest into Holm oak woods and Mediterranean shrub land, while P. pinaster will survive as clusters or blocks of trees.

  15. Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques.

  16. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  17. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  18. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  19. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  20. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  4. 25 CFR 161.200 - Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... goals and objectives in the agricultural resource management plan developed by the Navajo Nation, or by BIA in close consultation with the Navajo Nation, under the Agricultural Act. (b) The 10-year agricultural resource management and monitoring plan must be developed through public meetings and...

  5. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This... Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $1.495 million for this...

  6. Managing ground-water contamination from agricultural nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Ground-water contamination from agricultural nitrates poses potential adverse health effects to a large segment of the rural population of the United States. Contamination is especially prevalent in livestock intensive areas, which produce large quantities of animal waste with substantial nitrogen content. In this study, potential management strategies for reducing nitrate contamination of ground water from agricultural sources were examined using an economic-physical model of representative dairy farm in Rockingham County, Virginia. A mixed-integer programming model with stochastic constraints on nitrate loading to ground water and silage production was used. Results of the model indicate that substantial reductions in current nitrate loadings are possible with relatively minor impacts on farmers' net returns through the use of currently practiced approaches of cost sharing for manure storage facility construction and nutrient management planning. Study results indicate that a wide range of policy options exist for reducing nitrate loading to ground water; these reductions, while varying in cost, do no appear to come at the expense of eliminating the economic viability of the county dairy sector.

  7. Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.

    PubMed

    Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management.

  8. Management controls on nitrous oxide emissions from row crop agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a significant source of the potent greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O), accounting for ~70% of total anthropic N2O emissions in the US primarily as a result of N fertilizer application. Emissions of N2O are the largest contributor to the global warming potential of row-crop agriculture. Management, including choice of crop type and rotation strongly impacts N2O emissions, but continuous emissions data from row-crops over multiple rotations are lacking. Empirical quantification of these long-term emissions and the development of crop- and rotation-specific N2O emission factors are vital for improving estimates of agricultural GHG emissions, important for informing management practices to reduce agriculture's GHG footprint, and developing mitigation protocols for environmental markets. Over 20 years we measured soil N2O emissions and calculated crop and management specific emission factors in four continuous rotations of corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (NT), low chemical input (LI), and biologically (Org) based management. Two of these systems (LI and Org) included winter cover crops, red clover (Trifolium pratense) or ray (Secale cereale). While average soil N2O fluxes in all systems where similar (2.9±0.2 to 3.8±0.5 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1), there was a significant interaction of total emissions with crop and phase. Surprisingly, the lowest total emissions from the corn period of the rotation were from CT, and the highest from LI, with 608±4 and 983±8 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively. Total emissions during the wheat period of the rotation showed the opposite trend, with total emissions of 942±7 and 524±38 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, for CT ant LI, respectively. Total emissions from the soybean period of the rotation were highest under NT and lowest under CT management (526±5 and 296±2 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively). Emission efficiency, N2O emitted

  9. Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species.

  10. Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species. PMID:24735126

  11. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  12. Precision agriculture suitability to improve the terroir management in vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Terrón López, Jose; Blanco gallego, Jorge; Jesús Moral García, Francisco; Mancha Ramírez, Luis Alberto; Uriarte Hernández, David; Rafael Marques da Silva, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Precision agriculture is a useful tool to assess plant growth and development in vineyards. Traditional technics of crop management may be not enough to keep a certain level of crop yield or quality in grapes. Vegetation indices and soil based measurements, such as apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), can estimate the variability of the terroir within a specific water treatment toward the control of grapevine canopy properties. The current study focused on establishing the variability, spatial and temporal, in the vegetative development of a traditional management vineyard through to technics related to the precision agriculture. The study was carry out in a vineyard in the southwest of Spain during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons with two irrigations treatments, with four plots of each one, by one hand vines irrigated at 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and by other hand a dry farmed wines. Variations of soil properties across the assay were measured in each year at flowering stage by means of ECa, up to 80 cm. of soil depth, using mobile electrical contact sensors. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was determined in a concept of proximal sensing. In fact, the measures were made by multispectral sensors mounted in a terrestrial vehicle, in vertical positioning, at different stages during the ripening in both growing seasons. All measured data were statistically transformed to a behavior modeling pattern using principal component analisys (PCA) and compared by ordinary least square (OLS). NDVI showed a well-established pattern of vegetative development in both growing season for all the treatments at any irrigation treatment, let us appreciate the differences among the vegetative development of each plot within a specific irrigation treatment derived from the high soil variation that the ECa measures reflected. In this way, the local terroir of each plot and irrigation treatment influenced the vegetative growth showing that soil variations had a

  13. Development of a precision areawide pest management decision system for cotton - Preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...

  14. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  15. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits...

  16. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  17. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  18. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  19. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  20. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  1. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled....

  2. Apple orchard pest control strategies affect bird communities in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Ricci, Benoît; Agerberg, Julia; Lavigne, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Birds are regarded as appropriate biological indicators of how changes in agricultural practices affect the environment. They are also involved in the biocontrol of pests. In the present study, we provide an assessment of the impact of pest control strategies on bird communities in apple orchards in southeastern France. We compared the structure (abundance, species richness, and diversity) of breeding bird communities in 15 orchards under conventional or organic pest control over a three-year period (2003-2005). Pest control strategies and their evolution over time were characterized by analyzing farmers' treatment schedules. The landscape surrounding the orchards was characterized using a Geographic Information System. We observed 30 bird species overall. Bird abundance, species richness, and diversity were all affected by pest control strategies, and were highest in organic orchards and lowest in conventional orchards during the three study years. The pest control strategy affected insectivores more than granivores. We further observed a tendency for bird communities in integrated pest management orchards to change over time and become increasingly different from communities in organic orchards, which also corresponded to changes in treatment schedules. These findings indicate that within-orchard bird communities may respond quickly to changes in pesticide use and may, in turn, influence biocontrol of pests by birds.

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  4. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  5. The Ecological Areawide Management (TEAM) of leafy spurge program of the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gerald L; Prosser, Chad W; Wendel, Lloyd E; Delfosse, Ernest S; Faust, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    The Ecological Areawide Management (TEAM) of Leafy Spurge program was developed to focus research and control efforts on a single weed, leafy spurge, and demonstrate the effectiveness of a coordinated, biologically based, integrated pest management program (IPM). This was accomplished through partnerships and teamwork that clearly demonstrated the advantages of the biologically based IPM approach. However, the success of regional weed control programs horizontally across several states and provinces also requires a vertical integration of several sectors of society. Awareness and education are the essential elements of vertical integration. Therefore, a substantial effort was made to produce a wide variety of information products specifically designed to educate different segments of society. During its tenure, land managers and agency decision makers have seen the potential of using the TEAM approach to accelerate the regional control of leafy spurge. The example set by the TEAM organization and participants is viewed as a model for future weed-control efforts.

  6. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  7. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  8. Implementing agricultural phosphorus science and management to combat eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N; Withers, Paul J A; Bergström, Lars; Johnson, Laura T; Doody, Donnacha G

    2015-03-01

    Experience with implementing agricultural phosphorus (P) strategies highlights successes and uncertainty over outcomes. We examine case studies from the USA, UK, and Sweden under a gradient of voluntary, litigated, and regulatory settings. In the USA, voluntary strategies are complicated by competing objectives between soil conservation and dissolved P mitigation. In litigated watersheds, mandated manure export has not wrought dire consequences on poultry farms, but has adversely affected beef producers who fertilize pastures with manure. In the UK, regulatory and voluntary approaches are improving farmer awareness, but require a comprehensive consideration of P management options to achieve downstream reductions. In Sweden, widespread subsidies sometime hinder serious assessment of program effectiveness. In all cases, absence of local data can undermine recommendations from models and outside experts. Effective action requires iterative application of existing knowledge of P fate and transport, coupled with unabashed description and demonstration of tradeoffs to local stakeholders.

  9. Dispersal of the Invasive Pasture Pest Heteronychus arator into Areas of Low Population Density: Effects of Sex and Season, and Implications for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Sarah; Gerard, Philippa J.; Hurst, Mark R. H.; Townsend, Richard J.; Wilson, Derrick J.; van Koten, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    African black beetle, Heteronychus arator (Scarabaeidae), is an exotic pest of pastures in northern New Zealand. Both adults and larvae feed on pasture grasses. Adults disperse by walking (short range) or flying (long range). Dispersal flights are triggered by warm night temperatures in spring and autumn. Short range adult dispersal in search of mates, food or oviposition sites is poorly understood. This study investigated walking activity of H. arator adults over three seasons in New Zealand pastures. Adult walking activity was monitored using pitfall traps along fence lines and in pasture plots on a dairy farm in Waikato, New Zealand, in spring 2013, spring 2014, and autumn 2015. Beetle populations were reduced by application of a biopesticide bait to compare walking activity between treated and control plots for up to 26 days post-treatment. Marked beetles were released into the pasture plots to measure the distance traveled by recaptured individuals. Trap catches along the fence lines were correlated with air temperatures in 2013. Trap catches were male biased in spring 2014 compared with autumn 2015. Trap numbers in the control plots were nearly double that of treated plots in both seasons. More beetles were caught in the pitfall traps at the edges of the treated plots than in the center. Trap catches were consistent throughout the control plot in spring 2014, but in autumn 2015 more beetles were caught in the center of the control plot than at the edges. Few marked beetles were recaptured with dispersal rates estimated as <0.5 m per day. Warmer temperatures encouraged short range dispersal in H. arator. Males were more active than females during the spring mating season. Edge effects were strong and should be considered in the design of field experiments. PMID:27617018

  10. Dispersal of the Invasive Pasture Pest Heteronychus arator into Areas of Low Population Density: Effects of Sex and Season, and Implications for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Sarah; Gerard, Philippa J.; Hurst, Mark R. H.; Townsend, Richard J.; Wilson, Derrick J.; van Koten, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    African black beetle, Heteronychus arator (Scarabaeidae), is an exotic pest of pastures in northern New Zealand. Both adults and larvae feed on pasture grasses. Adults disperse by walking (short range) or flying (long range). Dispersal flights are triggered by warm night temperatures in spring and autumn. Short range adult dispersal in search of mates, food or oviposition sites is poorly understood. This study investigated walking activity of H. arator adults over three seasons in New Zealand pastures. Adult walking activity was monitored using pitfall traps along fence lines and in pasture plots on a dairy farm in Waikato, New Zealand, in spring 2013, spring 2014, and autumn 2015. Beetle populations were reduced by application of a biopesticide bait to compare walking activity between treated and control plots for up to 26 days post-treatment. Marked beetles were released into the pasture plots to measure the distance traveled by recaptured individuals. Trap catches along the fence lines were correlated with air temperatures in 2013. Trap catches were male biased in spring 2014 compared with autumn 2015. Trap numbers in the control plots were nearly double that of treated plots in both seasons. More beetles were caught in the pitfall traps at the edges of the treated plots than in the center. Trap catches were consistent throughout the control plot in spring 2014, but in autumn 2015 more beetles were caught in the center of the control plot than at the edges. Few marked beetles were recaptured with dispersal rates estimated as <0.5 m per day. Warmer temperatures encouraged short range dispersal in H. arator. Males were more active than females during the spring mating season. Edge effects were strong and should be considered in the design of field experiments.

  11. Dispersal of the Invasive Pasture Pest Heteronychus arator into Areas of Low Population Density: Effects of Sex and Season, and Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Sarah; Gerard, Philippa J; Hurst, Mark R H; Townsend, Richard J; Wilson, Derrick J; van Koten, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    African black beetle, Heteronychus arator (Scarabaeidae), is an exotic pest of pastures in northern New Zealand. Both adults and larvae feed on pasture grasses. Adults disperse by walking (short range) or flying (long range). Dispersal flights are triggered by warm night temperatures in spring and autumn. Short range adult dispersal in search of mates, food or oviposition sites is poorly understood. This study investigated walking activity of H. arator adults over three seasons in New Zealand pastures. Adult walking activity was monitored using pitfall traps along fence lines and in pasture plots on a dairy farm in Waikato, New Zealand, in spring 2013, spring 2014, and autumn 2015. Beetle populations were reduced by application of a biopesticide bait to compare walking activity between treated and control plots for up to 26 days post-treatment. Marked beetles were released into the pasture plots to measure the distance traveled by recaptured individuals. Trap catches along the fence lines were correlated with air temperatures in 2013. Trap catches were male biased in spring 2014 compared with autumn 2015. Trap numbers in the control plots were nearly double that of treated plots in both seasons. More beetles were caught in the pitfall traps at the edges of the treated plots than in the center. Trap catches were consistent throughout the control plot in spring 2014, but in autumn 2015 more beetles were caught in the center of the control plot than at the edges. Few marked beetles were recaptured with dispersal rates estimated as <0.5 m per day. Warmer temperatures encouraged short range dispersal in H. arator. Males were more active than females during the spring mating season. Edge effects were strong and should be considered in the design of field experiments. PMID:27617018

  12. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  13. 25 CFR 166.300 - How is Indian agricultural land managed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is Indian agricultural land managed? 166.300 Section 166.300 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.300 How is Indian agricultural land managed? Tribes,...

  14. 25 CFR 166.311 - Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resources; (2) Identify specific tribal agricultural resource goals and objectives; (3) Establish management... holistic management objectives; and (5) Identify actions to be taken to reach established objectives. (c... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian agricultural resource management...

  15. 25 CFR 161.200 - Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... goals and objectives in the agricultural resource management plan developed by the Navajo Nation, or by... resources; (2) Identify specific tribal agricultural resource goals and objectives; (3) Establish management... resource management objectives; and (5) Identify actions to be taken to reach established objectives....

  16. The residence time of intensively managed agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, Laura; Cherkauer, Keith; Chiu, Chun-mei; Rahman, Sanoar

    2015-04-01

    Much of the agricultural landscape across the Midwestern United States is intensively managed through numerous surface and subsurface drainage improvements, and the growing extraction of groundwater resources. The relatively recent glaciation of the North Central region means that the landscape is less dissected and hydrologically connected than older till areas. Low topographic gradients and underlying dense till which restricts vertical water movement, as well as kettle depressions, have led to poorly drained soils and extensive wetlands within the landscape. Large areas of this land could only be farmed once the excess water was removed through artificial surface and subsurface drainage. Conventional wisdom in the region maintains that subsurface tile drainage reduces the occurrence of peak flow events by increasing soil water storage capacity. At the watershed scale, this view does not take into account the coincident increase in surface drainage and reduction in residence time in surface depressions. This paper explores to what degree water management and irrigation has changed surface and subsurface water storage and residence time over the last century and how this has impacted flow duration throughout the Wabash River system in Indiana, USA. The effects of subsurface tile drains, wetlands and aquifer storage are explicitly represented within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. We maintain a focus on the entire Wabash River, a river system of historic importance that is also representative of many similar areas in the till plain region of the agricultural Midwest, which contribute to water quality and flood dynamics of the Mississippi river system. By lowering the water table, surface and subsurface drainage improvements have increased the subsurface storage capacity at the beginning of rain events, but this is overwhelmed by the decrease in surface storage capacity for intermediate to large events, decreasing the current

  17. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  18. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  19. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-04-03

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  20. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plant pests. 12.31 Section 12.31 Customs Duties U... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a... Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs of...

  1. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plant pests. 12.31 Section 12.31 Customs Duties U... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a... Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs of...

  2. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Pardossi, Alberto; Incrocci, Luca; Incrocci, Giorgio; Malorgio, Fernando; Battista, Piero; Bacci, Laura; Rapi, Bernardo; Marzialetti, Paolo; Hemming, Jochen; Balendonck, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy. PMID:22574047

  3. Metabarcoding improves detection of eukaryotes from early biofouling communities: implications for pest monitoring and pathway management.

    PubMed

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Schimanski, Kate; Pochon, Xavier; Hopkins, Grant A; Goldstien, Sharyn; Floerl, Oliver; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-07-01

    In this experimental study the patterns in early marine biofouling communities and possible implications for surveillance and environmental management were explored using metabarcoding, viz. 18S ribosomal RNA gene barcoding in combination with high-throughput sequencing. The community structure of eukaryotic assemblages and the patterns of initial succession were assessed from settlement plates deployed in a busy port for one, five and 15 days. The metabarcoding results were verified with traditional morphological identification of taxa from selected experimental plates. Metabarcoding analysis identified > 400 taxa at a comparatively low taxonomic level and morphological analysis resulted in the detection of 25 taxa at varying levels of resolution. Despite the differences in resolution, data from both methods were consistent at high taxonomic levels and similar patterns in community shifts were observed. A high percentage of sequences belonging to genera known to contain non-indigenous species (NIS) were detected after exposure for only one day.

  4. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  5. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  6. Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlut, N.G.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (???150,000 ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally) common grassland treatments. We applied these data to a female-based, stochastic, pre-breeding population model to examine whether current grassland management practices can sustain viable populations of breeding songbirds. Additionally, we evaluated six conservation strategies to determine which would most effectively increase population trends. Given baseline conditions, over 10 years, simulations showed a slightly declining or stable Savannah Sparrow population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.99; 95% CI = 1.00-0.989) and severely declining Bobolink population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.753-0.747). Savannah Sparrow populations were sensitive to increases in all demographic parameters, particularly adult survival. However for Bobolinks, increasing adult apparent survival, juvenile apparent survival, or preference by changing habitat selection cues for late-hayed fields (highest quality) only slightly decreased the rate of decline. For both species, increasing the amount of high-quality habitat (late- and middle-hayed) marginally slowed population declines; increasing the amount of low-quality habitat (early-hayed and grazed) marginally increased population declines. Both species were most sensitive to low productivity and survival on early-hayed fields, despite the fact that this habitat comprised only 18% of the landscape. Management plans for all agricultural regions should increase quality on both low- and high-quality fields by balancing habitat needs, nesting phenology, and species' response to

  7. Optimization of agricultural field workability predictions for improved risk management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risks introduced by weather variability are key considerations in agricultural production. The sensitivity of agriculture to weather variability is of special concern in the face of climate change. In particular, the availability of workable days is an important consideration in agricultural practic...

  8. Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.

    2011-01-01

    Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…

  9. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.

    PubMed

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  10. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-22

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites.

  11. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  12. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  13. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  14. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  15. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  16. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  17. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  18. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  19. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  20. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  1. Landuse and agricultural management practice web-service (LAMPS) for agroecosystem modeling and conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is developing a Land Management and Operation Database (LMOD) which contains potential model input, howe...

  2. Analysis of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Control of Meloidogyne spp. in a Tobacco Pest Management System.

    PubMed

    Fortnum, B A; Johnson, A W; Lewis, S A

    2001-12-01

    1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and nonfumigant nematicides were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne spp. and soil and foliar insects in a tobacco pest management system. In a field with a high Meloidogyne spp. population density (root gall index 4.0 to 4.5 on a 0 to 10 scale in untreated controls), tobacco yields and crop values increased (482 kg/ha and $1,784/ha for 1, 3-D; 326 kg/ha and $1,206/ha for fenamiphos; 252 kg/ha and $933/ha for ethoprop) with nematicide application over an untreated control. In fields with a low population density of Meloidogyne arenaria or M. incognita (root gall index 2.3 to 2.5 in untreated controls), yields ranged from 1,714 to 2,027 kg/ha and were not altered by fumigant or nonfumigant nematicide application. Carbofuran, a soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticide, reduced the number of foliar insecticide applications required to keep insect populations below treatment threshold (3.8 vs. 4.5, respectively, for treated vs. untreated). Carbofuran reduced the cost ($23/ha) of foliar insecticide treatments when compared to an untreated control. Although nonfumigant nematicides provided some soil and foliar insect control, the cost of using a fumigant plus a lower insecticidal rate of a soil insecticide/nematicide was comparable to the least expensive non-fumigant nematicide when the cost of foliar insecticide applications was included in the cost estimates. Savings in foliar insecticide cost by use of soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticides were small ($23/ha) in comparison to potential value reductions by root-knot nematodes when the nonfumigant nematicides fenamiphos or ethoprop ($578/ha and $851/ha, respectively) were used instead of 1,3-D.

  3. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species’ abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  4. Trading biodiversity for pest problems.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fausti, Scott W

    2015-07-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species' abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  5. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them. PMID:27559064

  6. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them.

  7. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  8. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    PubMed

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects.

  9. Acid precipitation impacts on agricultural soil management practices

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Coveney, E.A.; Lewin, K.F.; Rosenthal, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Acid precipitation can have positive (reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirements) and negative (increased need to neutralize soil acidity) impacts on agricultural soil management practices. This paper compares the total annual deposition of nitrogen in acid precipitation with farmer applied fertilizer use and with nitrogen uptake for major crops. It also estimates the amount of lime needed to neutralize soil acidity originating from wet H/sup +/ deposition. First-order estimates indicate that the quantity of nitrogen annually deposited in the eastern US by wet acid deposition on croplands is 6% of the amount applied as fertilizer. Nitrogen deposited as wet deposition may be relatively important to unmanaged nonleguminous crops (e.g., hay) which are grown over extensive land areas. Soil acidity, which can be increased by natural (e.g., nitrogen fixation) and anthropogenic mechanisms (e.g., fertilizer application, acidic deposition) is often neutralized by the application of lime. Estimates indicate that in the eastern US, approx.2% of applied lime is used to neutralize acidity caused by wet acid deposition.

  10. Make your trappings count: The mathematics of pest insect monitoring. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasius, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginnings of agriculture the production of crops is characterized by an ongoing battle between farmers and pests [1]. Already during biblical times swarms of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were known as major pest that can devour a field of corn within an hour. Even today, harmful organisms have the potential to threaten food production worldwide. It is estimated that about 37% of all potential crops are destroyed by pests. Harmful insects alone destroy 13%, causing financial losses in the agricultural industry of millions of dollars each year [2-4]. These numbers emphasize the importance of pest insect monitoring as a crucial step of integrated pest management [1]. The main approach to gain information about infestation levels is based on trapping, which leads to the question of how to extrapolate the sparse population counts at singularly disposed traps to a spatial representation of the pest species distribution. In their review Petrovskii et al. provide a mathematical framework to tackle this problem [5]. Their analysis reveals that this seemingly inconspicuous problem gives rise to surprisingly deep mathematical challenges that touch several modern contemporary concepts of statistical physics and complex systems theory. The review does not aim for a collection of numerical recipes to support crop growers in the analysis of their trapping data. Instead the review identifies the relevant biological and physical processes that are involved in pest insect monitoring and it presents the mathematical techniques that are required to capture these processes.

  11. Agricultural applications of insect ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica F; Coates, Brad S; Childers, Christopher P; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Evans, Jay D; Hackett, Kevin; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural entomology is poised to benefit from the application of ecological genomics, particularly the fields of biofuels generation and pest control. Metagenomic methods can characterize microbial communities of termites, wood-boring beetles and livestock pests, and transcriptomic approaches reveal molecular bases behind wood-digesting capabilities of these insects, leading to potential mechanisms for biofuel generation. Genome sequences are being exploited to develop new pest control methods, identify candidate antigens to vaccinate livestock, and discover RNAi target sequences and potential non-target effects in other insects. Gene content analyses of pest genome sequences and their endosymbionts suggest metabolic interdependencies between organisms, exposing potential gene targets for insect control. Finally, genome-wide association studies and genotyping by high-throughput sequencing promise to improve management of pesticide resistance. PMID:27436554

  12. Agricultural applications of insect ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica F; Coates, Brad S; Childers, Christopher P; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Evans, Jay D; Hackett, Kevin; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural entomology is poised to benefit from the application of ecological genomics, particularly the fields of biofuels generation and pest control. Metagenomic methods can characterize microbial communities of termites, wood-boring beetles and livestock pests, and transcriptomic approaches reveal molecular bases behind wood-digesting capabilities of these insects, leading to potential mechanisms for biofuel generation. Genome sequences are being exploited to develop new pest control methods, identify candidate antigens to vaccinate livestock, and discover RNAi target sequences and potential non-target effects in other insects. Gene content analyses of pest genome sequences and their endosymbionts suggest metabolic interdependencies between organisms, exposing potential gene targets for insect control. Finally, genome-wide association studies and genotyping by high-throughput sequencing promise to improve management of pesticide resistance.

  13. Managing agricultural drainage ditches for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for the removal of surface and ground water to allow for crop production in poorly drained agricultural landscapes. Ditches also mediate the flow of pollutants from agroecosystems to downstream water bodies. This paper provides an overview of the science, ...

  14. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  15. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomato in North Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential for IPM of N. viridula. The experimental trap crops and refuge crops were, striped sunflower, WGF sorghum and brown ...

  16. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly infesting Chinese crabapple (Malus spectabilis): implications for apple pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus s...

  17. Multifunctional strategies for management of stink bugs based on the ecology and biology of these pests and their natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economically important pests in orchard, row, vegetable, and grain crops worldwide. Stink bugs move between closely associated hosts throughout the growing season in response to the deteriorating suitability of their current hosts, and an edge ef...

  18. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  19. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Robert K; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-04-09

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 10² to 10⁸) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 10⁷ spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production.

  20. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  1. Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

  2. [Effects of management level on community characteristics of arthropod and on population numbers of target insect pest and its natural enemies in graperies].

    PubMed

    Li, Changgen; Zou, Yunding; Bi, Shoudong; Wu, Houchang; Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Fen; Zhou, Xiazhi; Lin, Xuefei

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, an investigation on the grape tree and ground vegetation was conducted in two graperies with intensive and extensive management, aimed to study the effects of different management level on the community characteristics of arthropod, and the population numbers of target pest Halticinae chalybca (Illiger) and its natural enemies Erigonidium gram inicolum and Tetragnathidae. The results showed that between the two graperies, the individual number, concentration value, evenness, and Hill diversity index of arthropod community had no significant difference, but its species number and abundance was significantly different (P < 0.05). The species number of arthropod on the grape trees in intensive management grapery was not significantly different from that in extensive management grapery, while on the ground vegetation, it was significantly different (P < 0.05). There was a little difference in the population numbers of H. chalybca and its natural enemies on the trees and ground vegetations of the two graperies.

  3. Tritrophic interactions among Bt maize, an insect pest and entomopathogens: effects on development and survival of western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems often provide a model for testing ecological hypotheses, while ecological theory can enable more effective pest management. One of the best examples of this is the interaction between host-plant resistance and natural enemies. With the advent of crops that are genetically modifi...

  4. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  5. Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-08-01

    An action threshold (AT) is one of the most important decision-making elements in integrated pest management. Unlike economic thresholds, ATs are not typically derived from an economic injury level model, but they are more commonly used. ATs may be identified from research-based, pest-crop relationships, but they also may be based on experience. ATs may be adjusted depending on, e.g., weather and plant variety, but modifying ATs to accommodate differences in insecticide efficacy has received little attention. To examine this point, several combinations of ATs and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion fields from 2006 to 2008 by using registered insecticides for T. tabaci on onions. We hypothesized that the most efficacious insecticides would provide acceptable control of thrips populations regardless of AT (one, three, and five thrips per leaf), whereas less effective products would only control populations using the lowest AT (one thrips per leaf). Results indicated that T. tabaci infestations were managed effectively when spinetoram was applied after a three larvae per leaf threshold, but not when using lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl or formetanate hydrochloride. However, T. tabaci infestations were managed well when methomyl and formetanate hydrochloride were applied after a one larva per leaf threshold. T. tabaci infestations were never controlled using lambda-cyhalothrin, regardless of the AT used. None of the products reduced T. tabaci populations to an acceptable level when applied at a five larvae per leaf threshold. Implications of adjusting ATs based on efficacy of different insecticides are discussed. PMID:20857743

  6. Precision agriculture in the 21st Century: Geospatial and information technologies in crop management

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Agricultural managers have for decades taken advantage of new technologies, including information technologies, that enabled better management decision making and improved economic efficiency of operations. The extent and rate of change now occurring in the development of information technologies have opened the way for significant change in crop production management and agricultural decision making. This vision is reflected in the concept of precision agriculture. Precision agriculture is a phrase that captures the imagination of many concerned with the production of food, feed, and fiber. The concepts embodied in precision agriculture offer the promise of increasing productivity while decreasing production costs and minimizing environmental impacts. Precision agriculture conjures up images of farmers overcoming the elements with computerized machinery that is precisely controlled via satellites and local sensors and using planning software that accurately predicts crop development. This image has been called the future of agriculture. Such high-tech images are engaging. Precision agriculture, however, is in early and rapidly changing phases of innovation. Techniques and practices not anticipated by the committee will likely become common in the future, and some techniques and practices thought to hold high promise today may turn out to be less desirable than anticipated. This report defines precision agriculture as a management strategy that uses information technologies to bring data from multiple sources to bear on decisions associated with crop production. Precision agriculture has three components: capture of data at an appropriate scale and frequency, interpretation and analysis of that data, and implementation of a management response at an appropriate scale and time. The most significant impact of precision agriculture is likely to be on how management decisions address spatial and temporal variability in crop production systems.

  7. Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization on microbial community structure in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity have not been well described. Soil microbial communities under three agricultural management systems (conventionally tilled cropland, hayed pasture, and grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems [inorganic fertilizer (I...

  8. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  9. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Umina, Paul A.; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  10. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  11. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  12. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  13. Effect of Leadership Experience on Agricultural Education Student Teacher Self-Efficacy in Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Foster, Daniel D.; Birkenholz, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning agriculture teachers often cite classroom management as the most important problem they face in their careers. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of leadership experience on self-perceived teacher efficacy among agricultural education student teachers. The three dimensions of teacher efficacy addressed in this study…

  14. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resources Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Tom

    The guide is designed to aid the instructor in implementing the student guide entitled "Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book For Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry". Intended for use in the secondary level vocational agriculture curriculum, general concepts, student record-keeping skills, and…

  15. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Tom

    The record book was designed to meet the occupational experience recordkeeping requirements of vocational agriculture students enrolled in forestry, environmental management, or agriculture resource conservation programs in Ohio. It provides guidelines and forms for recording on-the-job, in-the-school lab, and occupational experience project data.…

  16. Agriculture--Livestock Management. Kit No. 61. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on livestock management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  17. 78 FR 52131 - Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic... Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the following 16 eligible...) for organic certification cost- share funds. A total of $1,352,850 is available to the 16...

  18. Design and Management Criteria for Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Created Agricultural Wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Design and management criteria for created agricultural wetlands in the midwestern United States typically focus on maximizing the ability to process agricultural runoff. Ecological benefits for fish, amphibian, and reptiles are often secondary considerations. One example of this water quality focu...

  19. 77 FR 5714 - Office of Procurement and Property Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74722), entitled ``Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law... Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of Procurement and Property Management... new clause to the Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law...

  20. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…