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Sample records for agricultural pests worldwide

  1. Transcriptomic dissection of sexual differences in Bemisia tabaci, an invasive agricultural pest worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Guo, Litao; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Sex difference involving chromosomes and gene expression has been extensively documented. In this study, the gender difference in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci was investigated using Illumina-based transcriptomic analysis. Gender-based RNAseq data produced 27 Gb reads, and subsequent de novo assembly generated 93,948 transcripts with a N50 of 1,853 bp. A total of 1,351 differentially expressed genes were identified between male and female B. tabaci, and majority of them were female-biased. Pathway and GO enrichment experiments exhibited a gender-specific expression, including enriched translation in females, and enhanced structural constituent of cuticle in male whiteflies. In addition, a putative transformer2 gene (tra2) was cloned, and the structural feature and expression profile of tra2 were investigated. Sexually dimorphic transcriptome is an uncharted territory for the agricultural insect pests. Molecular understanding of sex determination in B. tabaci, an emerging invasive insect pest worldwide, will provide potential molecular target(s) for genetic pest control alternatives. PMID:24526031

  2. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  3. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  4. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  5. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  6. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  7. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  8. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  9. Agricultural impacts: Big data insights into pest spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2013-11-01

    Pests and diseases reduce agricultural yields and are an important wildcard in the evaluation of future climate impacts. A unique global record of pests and diseases provides evidence for poleward expansions of their distributions.

  10. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  11. Worldwide population genetic structure of the oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta), a globally invasive pest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pest species have large impacts on agricultural crop yields, and understanding their population dynamics is important for ensuring food security. The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a cosmopolitan pest of stone and pome fruit species including peach and apple, and historical records indicate that it has invaded North and South America, Europe, Australia and Africa from its putative native range in Asia over the past century. Results We used 13 microsatellite loci, including nine newly developed markers, to characterize global population structure of G. molesta. Approximately 15 individuals from each of 26 globally distributed populations were genotyped. A weak but significant global pattern of isolation-by-distance was found, and G. molesta populations were geographically structured on a continental scale. Evidence does not support that G. molesta was introduced to North America from Japan as previously proposed. However, G. molesta was probably introduced from North America to The Azores, South Africa, and Brazil, and from East Asia to Australia. Shared ancestry was inferred between populations from Western Europe and from Brazil, although it remains unresolved whether an introduction occurred from Europe to Brazil, or vice versa. Both genetic diversity and levels of inbreeding were surprisingly high across the range of G. molesta and were not higher or lower overall in introduced areas compared to native areas. There is little evidence for multiple introductions to each continent (except in the case of South America), or for admixture between populations from different origins. Conclusions Cross-continental introductions of G. molesta appear to be infrequent, which is surprising given its rapid worldwide expansion over the past century. We suggest that area-wide spread via transport of fruits and other plant materials is a major mechanism of ongoing invasion, and management efforts should therefore target local and regional farming

  12. Research of spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural pest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changwei; Li, Deren; Hu, Yueming; Wu, Xiaofang; Qi, Yu

    2009-10-01

    The increase of agricultural pest disasters in recent years has become one of major problems in agriculture harvest; how to predict and control the disasters of agricultural pest has thus attracted great research interest. Although a series of works have been done and some achievements have been attained, the knowledge in this area remains limited. The migration of agricultural pest is not only related to the time variation, but also the space; consequently, the population of agricultural pest has complex spatio-temporal characteristics. The space factor and the temporal factor must be considered at the same time in the research of dynamics changes of the pest population. Using plant hoppers as an object of study, this study employed the biological analogy deviation model to study the distribution of pest population in different periods of time in Guangdong Province. It is demonstrated that the population distribution of plant hoppers is not only related to the space location, but also has a certain direction. The result reported here offers help to the monitor, prevention and control of plant hoppers in Guangdong Provinces.

  13. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  14. A high incidence of parthenogenesis in agricultural pests

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ary A; Tracy Reynolds, K; Nash, Michael A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    Parthenogenetic species are assumed to represent evolutionary dead ends, yet parthenogenesis is common in some groups of invertebrates particularly in those found in relatively constant environments. This suggests that parthenogenetic reproduction might be common in pest invertebrates from uniform agricultural environments. Based on the evaluations of two databases from North America and Italy, we found that parthenogenetic species comprised 45 per cent (North America) or 48 per cent (Italy) of pest species derived from genera where parthenogenesis occurred, compared with an overall incidence of 10 per cent or 16 per cent in these genera. In establishing these patterns, we included only genera containing at least some member species that reproduced by parthenogenesis. The high incidence of parthenogenesis in pest species is spread across different families and several insect orders. Parthenogenetic reproduction may be favoured in agricultural environments when particular clones have a high fitness across multiple generations. Increasing the complexity and variability of agricultural environments represents one way of potentially controlling parthenogenetic pest species. PMID:18647717

  15. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A; Booij, C.J.H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function. PMID:16790403

  16. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  17. Agricultural pest monitoring using fluorescence lidar techniques. Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, L.; Guan, Z. G.; Zhou, H. J.; Lv, J.; Zhu, Z. R.; Cheng, J. A.; Chen, F. J.; Löfstedt, C.; Svanberg, S.; Somesfalean, G.

    2012-03-01

    The fluorescence of different types of planthopper ( Hemiptera) and moth ( Lepidoptera), which constitute important Chinese agricultural pests, was investigated both in situ in a laboratory setting and remotely using a fluorescence light detection and ranging (lidar) system operating at a range of about 50 m. The natural autofluorescence of different species, as well as the fluorescence from insects that had been dusted with fluorescent dye powder for identification were studied. Autofluorescence spectra of both moths and planthoppers show a maximum intensity peak around 450 nm. Bleaching upon long-time laser illumination was modest and did not affect the shape of the spectrum. A single dyed rice planthopper, a few mm in size, could be detected at 50 m distance by using the fluorescence lidar system. By employing various marking dyes, different types of agricultural pest could be determined. We suggest that lidar may be used in studies of migration and movement of pest insects, including studies of their behavior in the vicinity of pheromone traps and in pheromone-treated fields.

  18. Agricultural pests under future climate conditions: downscaling of regional climate scenarios with a stochastic weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stöckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Rotach, M. W.; Calanca, P.; Samietz, J.

    2010-09-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously unaffected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests have been developed, which model the infestation depending on actual weather conditions. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages therefore requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. In particular, pest forecast models are often not based on screen temperature and precipitation alone (i.e., the most generally projected climate variables), but might require input variables such as soil temperature, in-canopy net radiation or leaf wetness. Here, we use a stochastic weather and a re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather data from regional climate change scenarios for 2050 in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios were derived from multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly temperature, precipitation and radiation data were produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather time series were then used for modeling important phases in the lifecycle of codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. First results indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of phases relevant for pest disease control for projected as compared to current climate (e.g. the flight of the codling moth starts about ten days earlier in future climate), continuing an already observed trend towards more favorable conditions for this insect during the last 20 years.

  19. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  20. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  1. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  2. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  3. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report integrates and extrapolates worldwide the results of the agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Philippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand-alone mode. The study focused on the needs of low- and middle-income countries. The major conclusions derived from the studies were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 - 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 - 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market-related factors influencing the potential for US PV sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long-term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have their governments support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  4. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with trasgenic Bt-cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Empirical studies on the ecological causes of agricultural pest outbreaks have focused primarily on two biotic factors—release from natural enemies and changes in host plant quality. Release from competition, on the other hand, has been theorized as a potential cause but never tested. With the exp...

  5. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  6. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  7. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  8. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Brodie, Eoin L; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  9. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. We find the draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  10. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complexmore » polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. We find the draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.« less

  11. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  12. Priorities for worldwide remote sensing of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The world's crops are ranked according to total harvested area, and comparisons are made among major world regions of differences in crops produced. The eight leading world crops are wheat, rice, corn, barley, millet, soybeans, sorghum, and cotton. Regionally, millet and sorghum are most important in Africa, wheat is the most extensively grown crop in north-central America, Europe, USSR, and Oceania; corn is the dominant crop in South America; and rice is the most extensively grown crop in Asia. Agriculture in the USA is considered in more detail to show the national economic impact of variations in value per hectare among crops. On the world scene, the cereals are the most important crops, but locally, such crops as tobacco can play a dominant role.

  13. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with transgenic Bt cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the expansion of transgenic Bt cotton cultivation in the southeast US, stink bugs, particularly Nezara viridula and Euschistus servus [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae], have become serious cotton pests, resulting in continued high insecticide use. Whereas Bt cotton provides effective control of the ca...

  14. Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash

    2012-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research. It opens up a wide array of opportunities in various fields like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agriculture. The potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. These include insect pests management through the formulations of nanomaterials-based pesticides and insecticides, enhancement of agricultural productivity using bio-conjugated nanoparticles (encapsulation) for slow release of nutrients and water, nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect pest-resistant varieties and use of nanomaterials for preparation of different kind of biosensors, which would be useful in remote sensing devices required for precision farming. Traditional strategies like integrated pest management used in agriculture are insufficient, and application of chemical pesticides like DDT have adverse effects on animals and human beings apart from the decline in soil fertility. Therefore, nanotechnology would provide green and efficient alternatives for the management of insect pests in agriculture without harming the nature. This review is focused on traditional strategies used for the management of insect pests, limitations of use of chemical pesticides and potential of nanomaterials in insect pest management as modern approaches of nanotechnology. PMID:22388570

  15. Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Christian M.

    This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

  16. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

  17. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  18. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  19. Uncertainties in Predicting Species Distributions under Climate Change: A Case Study Using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a Widespread Agricultural Pest

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Christine N.; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  20. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  1. Aphis glycines & Halyomorpha halys: Asian agricultural pests recently established in the North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite regulatory inspections and quarantine, the invasion of insects in new geographic regions continues to cause problems. Several Asian insects are recent examples of invasive agricultural pests in North America. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, widespread throughout China, Korea, and Japan, was...

  2. AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

  3. Modeling temperature-dependent survival with small datasets: insights from tropical mountain agricultural pests.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Dangles, Olivier; Régnière, Jacques; Chuine, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    Many regions are increasingly threatened by agricultural pests but suffer from a lack of data that hampers the development of adequate population dynamics models that could contribute to pest management strategies. Here, we present a new model relating pest survival to temperature and compare its performance with two published models. We were particularly interested in their ability to simulate the deleterious effect of extreme temperatures even when adjusted to datasets that did not include extreme temperature conditions. We adjusted the models to survival data of three species of potato tuber moth (PTM), some major pests in the Tropical Andes. To evaluate model performance, we considered both goodness-of-fit and robustness. The latter consisted in evaluating their ability to predict the actual altitudinal limits of the species in the Ecuadorian Andes. We found that even though our model did not always provide the best fit to data, it predicted extreme temperature mortality and altitudinal limits accurately and better than the other two models. Our study shows that the ability to accurately represent the physiological limits of species is important to provide robust predictions of invasive pests' potential distribution, particularly in places where temperatures approach lethal extremes. The value of our model lies in its ability to simulate accurate thermal tolerance curves even with small datasets, which is useful in places where adequate pest management is urgent but data are scarce. PMID:23448173

  4. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying. PMID:12846320

  5. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    PubMed

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  6. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  7. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  8. Genetic variation and virulence of nucleopolyhedroviruses isolated worldwide from the heliothine pests Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea, and Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PCR-based method was used to classify 90 samples of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV; Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus) obtained worldwide from larvae of Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Helicoverpa armigera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of three highly conserved genes...

  9. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management. PMID:22420748

  10. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  11. Experimental Manipulation of Melanism Demonstrates the Plasticity of Preferred Temperature in an Agricultural Pest (Phaulacridium vittatum)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca M. B.; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key trait of successful pest species, and may increase the ability to cope with higher, more variable temperatures under climate change. We investigate the plasticity of preferred temperature in a widespread agricultural pest, the wingless grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum). Preferred temperature is a measure of thermoregulatory behaviour through habitat selection. It is influenced by melanism, which affects body temperature by determining the amount of radiation absorbed by the body. First we demonstrate that body temperature and preferred temperature in P. vittatum is influenced by melanism, by comparing the preferred temperature of the colour morphs in laboratory thermal gradients and field body temperatures in natural populations. We then test whether preferred temperature changes in response to changes in body temperature, by determining preferred temperature before and after manipulation of melanism by painting. When melanism was manipulated experimentally in live grasshoppers, preferred temperature changed to reflect the thermal qualities of the new colour. The preferred temperature of light grasshoppers increased after they were painted black, and decreased after being painted white. Similarly, dark individuals that were painted white behaved like a light individual, maintaining a lower body temperature. Preferred temperature in P.vittatum is a plastic thermoregulatory response to ambient temperature, mediated by the influence of melanism on body temperature. PMID:24223223

  12. Crops that feed the world 2. Soybean-worldwide production, use, and constraints caused by pathogens and pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean crop is one of the most important crops worldwide.Soybean seeds are important for both protein meal and vegetable oil. The crop is grown on an estimated 6% of the world’s arable land, and since the 1970s, has the highest percentage increase of hectares in production compared to any other...

  13. Weakening density dependence from climate change and agricultural intensification triggers pest outbreaks: a 37-year observation of cotton bollworms.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang; Hui, Cang; Ge, Saiying; Men, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Zi-Hua; Shi, Pei-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2014-09-01

    Understanding drivers of population fluctuation, especially for agricultural pests, is central to the provision of agro-ecosystem services. Here, we examine the role of endogenous density dependence and exogenous factors of climate and human activity in regulating the 37-year population dynamics of an important agricultural insect pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in North China from 1975 to 2011. Quantitative time-series analysis provided strong evidence explaining long-term population dynamics of the cotton bollworm and its driving factors. Rising temperature and declining rainfall exacerbated the effect of agricultural intensification on continuously weakening the negative density dependence in regulating the population dynamics of cotton bollworms. Consequently, ongoing climate change and agricultural intensification unleashed the tightly regulated pest population and triggered the regional outbreak of H. armigera in 1992. Although the negative density dependence can effectively regulate the population change rate to fluctuate around zero at stable equilibrium levels before and after outbreak in the 1992, the population equilibrium jumped to a higher density level with apparently larger amplitudes after the outbreak. The results highlight the possibility for exogenous factors to induce pest outbreaks and alter the population regulating mechanism of negative density dependence and, thus, the stable equilibrium of the pest population, often to a higher level, posing considerable risks to the provision of agro-ecosystem services and regional food security. Efficient and timely measures of pest management in the era of Anthropocene should target the strengthening and revival of weakening density dependence caused by climate change and human activities. PMID:25535553

  14. Impact of bioenergy crops on pests, natural enemies and pollinators in agricultural and non-crop landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainability of the nation's bioenergy feedstock production relies on selection and placement of energy crops that efficiently generate biomass or oilseed without compromising existing agricultural or natural systems. Pest and beneficial arthropods (e.g., pollinators, predators) will occur in thes...

  15. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  16. Full Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Sugar Beet Wireworm Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), a Common Agricultural Pest

    PubMed Central

    New, Daniel D.; Robison, Barrie D.; Rashed, Arash; Hohenlohe, Paul; Forney, Larry; Rashidi, Mahnaz; Wilson, Cathy M.; Settles, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the full mitochondrial genome sequence of Limonius californicus, a species of click beetle that is an agricultural pest in its larval form. The circular genome is 16.5 kb and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. PMID:26798113

  17. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  18. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified. PMID:17652071

  19. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

  20. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Padula, Matthew P.; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a “beneficial substance”. This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  1. Cell-penetrating recombinant peptides for potential use in agricultural pest control applications.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2012-01-01

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance. PMID:24281256

  2. Cell-Penetrating Recombinant Peptides for Potential Use in Agricultural Pest Control Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Stephen R.; Dowd, Patrick F.; Johnson, Eric T.

    2012-01-01

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance. PMID:24281256

  3. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  4. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  5. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue. PMID:23061649

  6. Annotated ESTs from various tissues of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens: A genomic resource for studying agricultural pests

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Hiroaki; Kawai, Sawako; Koizumi, Yoko; Matsui, Kageaki; Zhang, Qiang; Furukawa, Shigetoyo; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei

    2008-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is a serious insect pests of rice plants. Major means of BPH control are application of agricultural chemicals and cultivation of BPH resistant rice varieties. Nevertheless, BPH strains that are resistant to agricultural chemicals have developed, and BPH strains have appeared that are virulent against the resistant rice varieties. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and related applications are useful to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance and virulence and to reveal physiological aspects of this non-model insect, with its poorly understood genetic background. Results More than 37,000 high-quality ESTs, excluding sequences of mitochondrial genome, microbial genomes, and rDNA, have been produced from 18 libraries of various BPH tissues and stages. About 10,200 clusters have been made from whole EST sequences, with average EST size of 627 bp. Among the top ten most abundantly expressed genes, three are unique and show no homology in BLAST searches. The actin gene was highly expressed in BPH, especially in the thorax. Tissue-specifically expressed genes were extracted based on the expression frequency among the libraries. An EST database is available at our web site. Conclusion The EST library will provide useful information for transcriptional analyses, proteomic analyses, and gene functional analyses of BPH. Moreover, specific genes for hemimetabolous insects will be identified. The microarray fabricated based on the EST information will be useful for finding genes related to agricultural and biological problems related to this pest. PMID:18315884

  7. The Development and Use of Microbial Biocontrol Agents for Agricultural Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The idea of using microbial pathogens of agronomic pests as a method of biological control dates back to the 19th century. Two approaches to biological control have been employed: the “classical” and the “inundative” approach. The classical approach to biocontrol is generally practiced on public o...

  8. Prospective Elementary Teacher Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.; Heinze, Kirk L.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers elicited their understanding of pest-related benchmarks. Those with out-of-school experience were better able to articulate their understanding. Many were unable to make connections between scientific, societal and technological concepts. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  9. Compatibility of Two Systematic Neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam with various Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of a number of insect pests in cotton, vegetables, and citrus. We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods including four parasitoid species, Aphytis melinus Gonatocerus ashmeadi, ...

  10. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    PubMed

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. PMID:27085997

  11. Cryptic diversity and gene flow among three African agricultural pests: Ceratitis rosa, Ceratitis fasciventris and Ceratitis anonae (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Virgilio, M; Delatte, H; Quilici, S; Backeljau, T; De Meyer, M

    2013-05-01

    The 'Ceratitis FAR complex' is a species complex of African fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) including the major agricultural pest Ceratitis rosa and the morphologically similar Ceratitis fasciventris and Ceratitis anonae. To resolve their intra- and interspecific genetic relationships and to estimate gene flow within this complex, we surveyed allelic variation at 16 microsatellite loci in 27 African populations of the three morphospecies. Interpopulation genetic distances and individual Bayesian assignments distinguished five genotypic clusters: two involving C. rosa (R1, R2; that may occur in sympatry), two involving C. fasciventris (F1, F2; with parapatric distributions) and one involving C. anonae (A). Intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic differentiation were not hierarchically structured and genetic differentiation between conspecific clusters (F1-F2 and R1-R2) was higher or comparable with differentiation between heterospecific clusters (e.g. F1-A or R2-A). In some cases, gene flow estimates among morphospecies or among heterospecific genotypic clusters were significantly different from zero, showing the lack of reproductive isolation. Genetic differentiation between genotypic clusters was partly supported by morphological differences observed a posteriori in male secondary sexual characters. These results suggest important revisions to current models of ecological niche requirements and invasion risk of the major agricultural pest C. rosa and provide a basis for a taxonomic re-interpretation of the FAR complex. PMID:23506441

  12. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  13. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...

  14. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  15. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals. PMID:25413219

  16. A Qualitative Study of Urban and Suburban Elementary Student Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical interviews with nine fifth graders revealed that experiences play a pivotal role in their understanding of pests. They lack well-developed schema and language to discuss pest management. A foundation of core biological concepts was necessary for understanding pests and pest management. (Conatains 34 references.) (SK)

  17. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  18. The Impact of Crop, Pest, Biotechnology, and Agricultural Management Practices on Mycotoxin Contamination of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating and menacing disease of wheat worldwide. Although several different Fusarium species can cause FHB, F. graminearum is the principle pathogen in Canada and the United States. Economic losses due to FHB are due to reduced yield and grain quality and contam...

  19. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  20. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  1. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  2. Genetic variation and geographic differentiation among populations of the nonmigratory agricultural pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θ(II), and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  3. Genetic Variation and Geographic Differentiation Among Populations of the Nonmigratory Agricultural Pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θII, and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  4. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  5. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred m...

  6. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    PubMed

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P < 0.001) and reduced the occurrence of mating by 93%, compared with three equivalent untreated control plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. PMID:26470337

  7. From Best Practice to Best Fit: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Services Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birner, Regina; Davis, Kristin; Pender, John; Nkonya, Ephraim; Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Ekboir, Javier; Mbabu, Adiel; Spielman, David J.; Horna, Daniela; Benin, Samuel; Cohen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The article provides a conceptual framework and discusses research methods for analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services. The framework can also assist policy-makers in identifying reform options. It addresses the following question: Which forms of providing and financing agricultural advisory services work best in which situation? The…

  8. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  9. Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee a slow incremental raising of temperatures base their predictions mainly on the available empirical evidence and the notion that long term weather is basically a cyclical phenomena that continually adjusts and readjusts through time. The other scenario interprets the available empirical data as a gradual buildup that pushes the climatic picture towards a threshold or a trigger point that, once arrived at, is irreversible and dramatic. This paper explores the possible climatic scenarios as they relate to the ecological principles that affect pest abundance and the distribution and impact on domestic and international agriculture.

  10. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  11. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  12. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  13. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions

    PubMed Central

    Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Agricultural Pests: The Case of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms. PMID:24014222

  20. Extension Has Key Role in "Pest" Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Ovid

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the Department of Agriculture's new program which provides a combination of biological and cultural pest control techniques in combination with chemicals, as well as long-range pest control research. (Author/JB)

  1. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides. PMID:26825944

  2. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice

  3. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  4. VIRTUAL COLLECTION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS, THEIR WILD-GROWING RELATIVES AND PEST ORGANISMS WITHIN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first revision of the Agricultural Atlas of the former USSR territories is now nearing completion. It will consist of maps and associated metadata, biological descriptions, including photographs, and GIS exploratory software. The Atlas presents maps reflecting the distribution of major and minor...

  5. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  6. Evaluation of soil, unsaturated, and saturated zone parameter uncertainty using GSFlow and PEST in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, S.; Davis, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    A coupled surface-ground water hydrological model of the Burley-DeMerritt Organic Dairy Research Farm in southeastern New Hampshire is under continued development in support of a long-term mission to understand nutrient dynamics and water use in sustainable New England dairy operations. To build on previous simulations of ground water recharge and nitrogen transport, an estimate of net recharge under an array of climate scenarios is required to facilitate modeling of nutrient dynamics for the projected life span of the dairy farm. The model must therefore incorporate spatially distributed surface and soil zone processes that influence the shallow ground water system. GSFlow couples the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System and MODFLOW codes and is used to simulate surface, soil, and subsurface hydrological processes using a suite of empirical and process-based algorithms and parameters. Topography of the 83 hectare model domain was derived from a 1-meter horizontal resolution LiDAR DEM with centimeter-scale accuracy. Zonation at the soil surface was derived from detailed soils mapping, aerial land cover assessment, and drainage boundaries derived from the LiDAR DEM. Meteorological forcing data are taken from nearby (5 km) NCDC and AIRMAP meteorological towers. The farm's catchment consists of regionally common land covers including pasture, forest, and forested wetland. An array of surface model structures and spatial discretizations are evaluated ranging from fine scale, incorporating areas of consistent land cover or soil types, to the catchment scale. Parameter identification and uncertainty for both PRMS and MODFLOW components is conducted using PEST software, where distributed measurements of hydraulic head, soil moisture, and streamflow are weighted by measurement uncertainty and the relative measurement abundance or redundancy to define a model to measurement misfit objective function. Model validation will be conducted against data collected in the

  7. Worldwide construction

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.

    1994-10-17

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

  8. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  9. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  10. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  11. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  12. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  13. 7 CFR 330.202 - Consideration of applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plant pests. 330.202 Section 330.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  14. Effects of Traditional and New Agricultural Practices on Pathogen and Biological Control Agents Populations and on Soil Suppressiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By 2050, there will be 9 billion people on earth to feed using the same amount or less land and water as is currently available for agricultural production. Currently about one third of all agricultural commodities grown worldwide are lost to diseases, insects and other pests. Soilborne diseases ac...

  15. Make your trappings count: The mathematics of pest insect monitoring. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasius, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginnings of agriculture the production of crops is characterized by an ongoing battle between farmers and pests [1]. Already during biblical times swarms of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were known as major pest that can devour a field of corn within an hour. Even today, harmful organisms have the potential to threaten food production worldwide. It is estimated that about 37% of all potential crops are destroyed by pests. Harmful insects alone destroy 13%, causing financial losses in the agricultural industry of millions of dollars each year [2-4]. These numbers emphasize the importance of pest insect monitoring as a crucial step of integrated pest management [1]. The main approach to gain information about infestation levels is based on trapping, which leads to the question of how to extrapolate the sparse population counts at singularly disposed traps to a spatial representation of the pest species distribution. In their review Petrovskii et al. provide a mathematical framework to tackle this problem [5]. Their analysis reveals that this seemingly inconspicuous problem gives rise to surprisingly deep mathematical challenges that touch several modern contemporary concepts of statistical physics and complex systems theory. The review does not aim for a collection of numerical recipes to support crop growers in the analysis of their trapping data. Instead the review identifies the relevant biological and physical processes that are involved in pest insect monitoring and it presents the mathematical techniques that are required to capture these processes.

  16. Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

    Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

  17. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  18. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  19. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  20. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  1. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  7. The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J; Park, Julian

    2015-06-01

    The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to insecticides, negative effects on nontarget species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered insect-resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of insecticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant damage to the crop. Here, we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if nonsusceptible secondary pest populations exceed economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers' disposal, and the sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible long-term ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology. PMID:25832330

  8. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  9. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  10. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits...

  11. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits...

  12. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  13. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled....

  14. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  15. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  16. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  17. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  18. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled....

  19. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits...

  20. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits...

  1. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits...

  2. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  3. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.211 Labeling of... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of plant pests for movement under...

  4. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled....

  5. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  6. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled....

  7. 7 CFR 330.205 - Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.205 Disposal of... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of plant pests when permits are canceled....

  8. Coupled Information Diffusion–Pest Dynamics Models Predict Delayed Benefits of Farmer Cooperation in Pest Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  9. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  10. Worldwide dissemination of Radopholus similis and its importance in crop production.

    PubMed

    O'Bannon, J H

    1977-01-01

    The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis, attacks agronomic and horticultural crops and many weeds, and is reported to reproduce on more than 250 plant species. Two races of R. similis are recognized. Although one race attacks citrus and the other race does not, they are morphologically similar. At present, the citrus race is found attacking citrus only in Florida, U.S.A., but it is known to infect more than 250 species and varieties of noncitrus plants. Although it has many hosts, R. similis is probably most widely distributed on banana and is found worldwide. Although best known as a pest of Piper nigrum, Musa spp., and Citrus spp., it also attacks many crops that are important in world commerce and in subsistence-type agriculture, a factor which makes it a significant agricultural pest. Worldwide dissemination occurs primarily when parasitized plants are moved into areas where the pest could adapt. Yield losses of 12.5 tons/ha in bananas have been reported from R. similis infection. Infections suppress orange and grapefruit yields as much as 70-80%. Because of the severity of R. similis damage (particularly to banana and citrus), extensive control programs have been developed. Prevention, cultural practices, resistant varieties, and chemical pesticides interact to reduce losses. PMID:19305565

  11. 7 CFR 319.69-2 - Freedom from pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freedom from pests. 319.69-2 Section 319.69-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... § 319.69-2 Freedom from pests. All packing materials allowed entry under restriction shall be free...

  12. 7 CFR 319.69-2 - Freedom from pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freedom from pests. 319.69-2 Section 319.69-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... § 319.69-2 Freedom from pests. All packing materials allowed entry under restriction shall be free...

  13. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  14. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  15. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  16. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  17. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  18. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  19. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  20. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  1. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  2. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  3. Trading biodiversity for pest problems.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fausti, Scott W

    2015-07-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species' abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  4. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species’ abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  5. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  6. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  7. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  8. Tracing the Invasion of the Mediterranean Land Snail Cornu aspersum aspersum Becoming an Agricultural and Garden Pest in Areas Recently Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Guiller, Annie; Martin, Marie-Claire; Hiraux, Céline; Madec, Luc

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first on the genetics of invasive populations of one of the most widely spread land mollusc species known in the world, the “Brown Snail” Cornu aspersum aspersum. Deliberately or accidentally imported, the species has become recently a notorious pest outside its native Mediterranean range. We compared the spatial structure and genetic variability of invasive (America, Oceania, South Africa) versus native populations using five microsatellite loci and mitochondrial (Cyt b and 16S rRNA) genes as a first step towards (i) the detection of potential source populations, and (ii) a better understanding of mechanisms governing evolutionary changes involved in the invasion process. Results based on multivariate analysis (Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components), Bayesian statistical inference (Clustering, Approximate Bayesian Computation) and demographic tests allowed a construction of the introduction pathways of the species over recent centuries. While emigrants originated from only one of the two native lineages, the West one, the most likely scenario involved several introduction events and “source switching” comprising (i) an early stage (around 1660) of simultaneous introductions from Europe (France, Spain) towards Oceania (New Zealand) and California, (ii) from the early 18th century, a second colonization wave from bridgehead populations successfully established in California, (iii) genetic admixture in invasive areas where highly divergent populations came into contact as in New Zealand. Although these man-made pathways are consistent with historical data, introduction time estimates suggest that the two putative waves of invasion would have occurred long before the first field observations recorded, both in America and in Oceania. A prolonged lag period as the use of an incorrect generation time could explain such 100–150 years discrepancy. Lastly, the contrasting patterns of neutral genetic signal left in invasive populations are

  9. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  10. Worldwide Blackberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of worldwide blackberry (Rubus spp.) production was conducted in 2005. Results indicated there were an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from 1995. Wild blackberries still make a significant contribution to worldwide production...

  11. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  12. 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The 1986 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory contains names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of the companies in the worldwide petrochemical community. Listed are more than 14,000 key operating personnel at nearly 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Among the surveys included in this directory is the Worldwide Petrochemical Survey. This survey details petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities.

  13. 7 CFR 301.80-8 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests. 301.80-8 Section 301.80-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Witchweed Quarantine and Regulations § 301.80-8 Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests....

  14. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat...

  15. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201 Section 330.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND...

  16. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201 Section 330.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND...

  17. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201 Section 330.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND...

  18. 7 CFR 330.201 - Applications for permits to move plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.201 Applications for permits to... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for permits to move plant pests. 330.201 Section 330.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND...

  19. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. PMID:26108794

  20. Impact of Entomopathogens on Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation by pest insects to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can alter their susceptibility to other pathogens. As the number of acres planted in crops engineered to produce Bt toxin increases, many key agricultural pests undergo strong selection to evolve resistance to Bt. In conjuncti...

  1. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) as a pest in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has many common names including sweetpotato whitefly, silverleaf whitefly, tobacco whitefly, tomato whitefly, and cassava whitefly. It is an important global pest of numerous field and greenhouse agricultural crops. It damages plants from its fee...

  2. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  3. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  4. 7 CFR 319.69-2 - Freedom from pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom from pests. 319.69-2 Section 319.69-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... injurious insects and plant diseases....

  5. Redirect research to control coffee pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

  6. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  7. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  8. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesecher, Robert

    This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of…

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  10. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  11. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  12. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  13. PsOr1, a potential target for RNA interference-based pest management.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Y; Liu, F; Yang, G; You, M S

    2011-02-01

    Insect pests cause billions of dollars in agricultural losses, and attempts to kill them have resulted in growing threats from insecticide resistance, dietary pesticide pollution and environmental destruction. New approaches to control refractory insect pests are therefore needed. The host-plant preferences of insect pests rely on olfaction and are mediated via a seven transmembrane-domain odorant receptor (Or) family. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of PsOr1, the first candidate member of the Or gene family from Phyllotreta striolata, a devastating beetle pest that causes damage worldwide. PsOr1 is remarkably well conserved with respect to other insect orthologues, including DmOr83b from Drosophila melanogaster. These insect orthologues form an essential non-conventional Or sub-family and may play an important and generalized role in insect olfaction. We designed double-stranded (ds) RNA directly against the PsOr1 gene and exploited RNA interference (RNAi) to control P. striolata. The chemotactic behavioural measurements showed that adult beetles were unable to sense the attractant or repellent odour stimulus after microinjection of dsRNA against PsOr1. Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR analysis showed specific down-regulation of mRNA transcript levels for this gene. Furthermore, host-plant preference experiments confirmed that silencing PsOr1 by RNAi treatment impaired the host-plant preferences of P. striolata for cruciferous vegetables. These results demonstrate that this insect control approach of using RNAi to target PsOr1 and its orthologues might be effective in blocking host-plant-seeking behaviours in diverse insect pests. The results also support the theory that this unique receptor type plays an essential general role in insect olfaction. PMID:20854479

  14. LABORATORY TEST METHODS OF EXPOSURE TO MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS BY THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE TO NON-TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to agricultural and silvacultural environments to control proliferation and spread of insect or plant pests. uring application, it is likely that nontarget plants and animals are exposed to MPCAs. ollowing extensive...

  15. LABORATORY TEST METHOD OF EXPOSURE BY ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTES OF MICORBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS TO NON TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to the environment to control the proliferation and spread of agricultural or silvicultural insect, arthropod. and plant pests. hen used in this manner, the micrporganisms are classified as pesticides and are subjec...

  16. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some lepidopteran insects are important agricultural pests, causing serious crop damage. Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are considered effective pest control alternatives to synthetic chemicals. However, insects can defend against pathogens by innate mechanisms, including phenoloxi...

  17. Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  18. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  19. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  20. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which...

  1. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205.206 Section 205.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of the abdominal-A homeotic gene in the global pest, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuping; Chen, Yazhou; Zeng, Baosheng; Wang, Yajun; James, Anthony A; Gurr, Geoff M; Yang, Guang; Lin, Xijian; Huang, Yongping; You, Minsheng

    2016-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide agricultural pest that has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Genetics-based approaches show promise as alternative pest management approaches but require functional studies to identify suitable gene targets. Here we use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target a gene, abdominal-A, which has an important role in determining the identity and functionality of abdominal segments. We report that P. xylostella abdominal-A (Pxabd-A) has two structurally-similar splice isoforms (A and B) that differ only in the length of exon II, with 15 additional nucleotides in isoform A. Pxabd-A transcripts were detected in all developmental stages, and particularly in pupae and adults. CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis of Pxabd-A exon I produced 91% chimeric mutants following injection of 448 eggs. Phenotypes with abnormal prolegs and malformed segments were visible in hatched larvae and unhatched embryos, and various defects were inherited by the next generation (G1). Genotyping of mutants demonstrated several mutations at the Pxabd-A genomic locus. The results indicate that a series of insertions and deletions were induced in the Pxabd-A locus, not only in G0 survivors but also in G1 individuals, and this provides a foundation for genome editing. Our study demonstrates the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeting genes in an agricultural pest and therefore provides a foundation the development of novel pest management tools. PMID:27318252

  3. Children Worldwide, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…

  4. Worldwide Production of Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of blackberry production conducted in 2005 found that an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries were planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from estimated area in 1995. In Europe, 7692 ha of black berries were commercially cultivated with Serbia accounting for 69% of the...

  5. Worldwide use of mycoinsecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A considerable number of mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides have been developed worldwide over the past 50 years. At least 12 species or subspecies of fungi have been used as active ingredients in these products for inundative or inoculative biological control. Beauveria bassiana (34%), Metarhizi...

  6. Effectiveness of Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Areawide Pest Management in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and D. v. virgifera virgifera LeConte are serious pests of maize (Zea mays L.). The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service implemented a five year (1997-2001) areawide pest management program in five geographic locations, including one in S...

  7. Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC50 = 637 µg ml−1). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control. PMID:21655276

  8. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Contrast the Diet and Explore Pest-Reduction Services of Sympatric Bird Species in Macadamia Orchards in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Moreno-Moyano, Laura T.; Wormington, Kevin R.; Brown, Philip H.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species. These taxa included 15 insect pests, 5 of which were macadamia pests. Among the latter group, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae; green vegetable bug), considered a major pest, was present in 23% of all faecal samples collected. Results also showed that resource partitioning in this system is low, as most bird species shared large proportion of their diets by feeding primarily on lepidopteran, dipteran and arachnids. Dietary composition differed between some species, most likely because of differences in foraging behaviour. Overall, this study reached a level of taxonomic resolution never achieved before in the studied species, thus contributing to a significant improvement in the avian ecological knowledge. Our results showed that bird communities prey upon economically important pests in macadamia orchards. This study set a precedent by exploring avian pest-reduction services using next-generation sequencing, which could contribute to the conservation of avian communities and their natural habitats in agricultural systems. PMID:26930484

  9. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Contrast the Diet and Explore Pest-Reduction Services of Sympatric Bird Species in Macadamia Orchards in Australia.

    PubMed

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Moreno-Moyano, Laura T; Wormington, Kevin R; Brown, Philip H; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species. These taxa included 15 insect pests, 5 of which were macadamia pests. Among the latter group, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae; green vegetable bug), considered a major pest, was present in 23% of all faecal samples collected. Results also showed that resource partitioning in this system is low, as most bird species shared large proportion of their diets by feeding primarily on lepidopteran, dipteran and arachnids. Dietary composition differed between some species, most likely because of differences in foraging behaviour. Overall, this study reached a level of taxonomic resolution never achieved before in the studied species, thus contributing to a significant improvement in the avian ecological knowledge. Our results showed that bird communities prey upon economically important pests in macadamia orchards. This study set a precedent by exploring avian pest-reduction services using next-generation sequencing, which could contribute to the conservation of avian communities and their natural habitats in agricultural systems. PMID:26930484

  10. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  11. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  12. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  13. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  14. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  15. 7 CFR 330.203 - Action on applications for permits to move plant pests; form of and conditions in permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on applications for permits to move plant...

  16. 1988 worldwide petrochemical directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This directory makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. The Oil and Gas Journal's Worldwide Petrochemical Survey appears in its entirety in this volume.

  17. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  18. 1985 Worldwide Petrochemical Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This directory lists names, addresses, phone numbers, and telex listings. The directory includes more than 14,000 key operating personnel at over 1,900 plant locations in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Featured is a special survey prepared with the help of the Oil and Gas Journal that details the petrochemical plant feedstocks, product and capacities. This Worldwide-Petrochemical Survey appears only in its entirety in directory. Also included is an updated petrochemical plant construction survey.

  19. Worldwide petrochemical directory, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This directory gives the information on the worldwide petrochemical industry in existence. It makes available the names, addresses, phone and telex numbers of most of the world's companies which are involved in the petrochemical industry. The directory provides the names of over 14,000 key personnel at over 2,000 plant sizes in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. A company index is provided for easy reference. It details current petrochemical plants' feedstocks, products and capacities. The newly updated petrochemical plant construction survey is also provided.

  20. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  1. Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

  2. 7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319.40-11 Section 319.40-11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-11...

  3. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  4. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF LEPIDOPTERAN PESTS OF APPLE ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple and pear. Traditional control methods have been based predominantly on broad spectrum insecticides. Concerns over the safety, environmental impact, and sustainability of synthetic pesticides have stimulated development and use of softer c...

  5. Range expansion of the invasive brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys: an increasing threat to field, fruit and vegetable crops worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) has emerged as a harmful invasive insect pest in North America and Europe in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Native to eastern Asia, this highly polyphagous pest (>120 different host plants) is spreading rapidly worldwide...

  6. Sugarcane pests and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

  7. Pests in Ornamental Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  8. Soil-Pest Relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a living, dynamic body composed of mineral solids, air, water, and organic matter. Although soil characteristics vary greatly throughout the United States of America, certain basic soil properties are important in mediating soil-pest relationships. Some properties, such as soil texture, ar...

  9. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  10. Sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like other annual crops, sunflowers are fed upon by a variety of insect pests capable of reducing yields. Though there are a few insects which are considered consistent or severe (e.g., sunflower moth, banded sunflower moth, red sunflower seed weevil), many more insects are capable of causing proble...

  11. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  12. Integrated Pest Management for the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) - a Potato Pest of Global Importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber moth, which originated in tropical mountainous regions of South America, is the most economically important pest of potato in developing tropical and subtropical countries. Today, it is distributed worldwide and is established in more than 90 countries including countries in tempera...

  13. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  14. Improving worldwide reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Geary, J

    1993-01-01

    The 14th International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics World Congress will be held in Montreal, Canada, in 1994, under the auspices of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada. The World Congress will 1) promote and facilitate international cooperation in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, 2) develop and improve the exchange of information and ideas, and 3) encourage the adoption of an international perspective on issues of concern. The 1994 program will survey recent research advances and introduce new equipment, instruments, and pharmaceuticals. Issues addressed will include maternal mortality, reproductive technologies, continuing education, malignancy, family planning, and contraception. The Conference's symposia, industry-sponsored events, and cultural activities are being designed to increase speaker-audience interaction and to stimulate debate and the exchange of views. The continuing education goals are 1) to encourage appropriate research with valid and applicable results and 2) to extend the patient-counseling abilities of participating physicians. Canada's socialized health care system, which carefully scrutinizes new expensive technologies, will be highlighted for the international delegates. The scientific program will include 1) general topics 2) reproductive endocrinology, 3) maternal/fetal medicine, and 4) gynecological oncology. Poster sessions followed by open discourses and free communications sessions will facilitate the exchange of views and information. The overall goal of the conference is to improve reproductive health care for mothers and babies worldwide. PMID:12318476

  15. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    PubMed

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented. PMID:23634593

  16. Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Arends, J J

    1990-01-01

    The worldwide spread of modern, high-density confined poultry production systems under the direction of integrators has intensified the importance of a select number of arthropod ectoparasites and habitat pests. This concentrated production of poultry provides artificial ecosystems that are sometimes ideal for the development of large populations of arthropod pests. At the same time the systems are amenable to integrated pest management involving a multipest and multimethod approach to reducing or eliminating arthropod pests. Since rodents are major pests, they should be included in an integrated pest management program to make the program most cost-effective and attractive to the integrators and producers (5). Quantitative data are scarce on economic effects, and the concept of economic thresholds is difficult to apply either to ectoparasites or to habitat pests. The risk of transporting ectoparasites among flocks is difficult to evaluate and necessitates treatment after early detection of the arthropods. Flies and litter beetles present a threat of disease transmission and the potential for lawsuits from neighbors or public health agencies that are factors not subject to easy cost estimates. The monetary losses of a flock devastated by disease or a farm forced to close are so great that the risks are unacceptable. Production losses from lowered feed conversion ratios and insulation damage are likely to be detected by the sophisticated record-keeping of the integrators. Minimal use of pesticides and other chemicals on poultry and in poultry housing is an objective of the integrators and, consequently, an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that reduces the need for pesticides is attractive. The key to further development of effective arthropod management programs for poultry is the implementation of pest and disease monitoring programs for the complete system. Improvements in arthropod sampling methods and more attention to monitoring the biosecurity systems

  17. Predictive Modeling of the Effects of Climate Change on the Infestation Patterns of a Migratory Crop Pest Insect.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is projected to expand the distribution of warm-climate agricultural pests with significant adverse economic consequences. Adapting U.S. agriculture to this emerging problem requires the timely monitoring of pest movements, an understanding of the meteorological factors that define mi...

  18. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Forest Trees, Ornamentals, and Turf. Revised Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of vertebrate pests of urban and suburban ornamentals and turf. Specific pests described are blackbirds, chipmunks, moles, rabbits, and European starlings. Identification, habits, economic importance, and control methods ranging from poisoning…

  19. SYNTHESIS REPORT: LABORATORY TEST METHODS FOR EXPOSURE OF BIRDS TO MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms that are applied to agricultural and silvacultural environments to control proliferation and dissemination of insect or plant pests. uring a field application, it is likely that nontarget plants and animals are exposed to M...

  20. Pheromone-based pest management in china: past, present and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologi...

  1. Prospects for repellent in pest control: current developments and future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall interest for environmentally safe pest control methods and the increased frequency of insecticide resistance in pest populations have stimulated research on insect repellents in the recent decades in medical and agricultural entomology. However, there remains a great deal of work to be ...

  2. AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

  3. Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators.

    PubMed

    Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Walling, Linda L

    2016-04-01

    Hemipteran and dipteran insects have behavioral, cellular and chemical strategies for evading or coping with the host plant defenses making these insects particularly destructive pests worldwide. A critical component of a host plant's defense to herbivory is innate immunity. Here we review the status of our understanding of the receptors that contribute to perception of hemipteran and dipteran pests and highlight the gaps in our knowledge in these early events in immune signaling. We also highlight recent advances in identification of the effectors that activate pattern-triggered immunity and those involved in effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26467026

  4. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.

    PubMed

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. PMID:24618062

  5. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  6. The Future of Agricultural Pollination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes how agricultural production and bees are inter-dependent. Honey bees are the most commonly used agricultural pollinators in the world, but are threatened by an increasing number of hive pests. In addition, not all crops are well pollinated by honey bees (e.g., tomatoes, alfal...

  7. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  8. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribolium castaneum is a representative of earth’s most numerous eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and also an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved an abil...

  9. DISCOVERY AND DEVELOMENT OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO CONTROL CROP PESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Biological control" refers to the reduction of crop pests or their deleterious activities by one or more antagonistic organisms present in the environment. Thousands of potential microbial biocontrol agents have been isolated from agricultural fields and crops during research over the last 80 year...

  10. Collaborating with wheat producers in demonstrating areawide integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fall of 2001, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) initiated a five-year areawide demonstration program for suppression of two significant pests of winter wheat, the Russian wheat aphid and greenbug. A cooperative research team was assembled from five universities—the University...

  11. Thrips pests of China and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips are among the most significant agricultural pests in China and the United States. Thrips can damage crops by their direct feeding and oviposition damage, and by the ability of some species to vector plant viruses. Four highly invasive species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Scirtoth...

  12. History and Use of Heat in Pest Control: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes the history and use of heat in controlling a wide range of agricultural and structural pests. Definitions and concepts used in heat treatments are discussed as well as possible mechanisms of thermal lethality. Factors used in determining treatments are availability, costs, co...

  13. Genomic approaches for veterinary pest control and eradication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arthropod pests of veterinary importance remain a threat to the health of livestock herds in the United States (US) and contribute to global food insecurity because they impact animal agriculture productivity directly through their parasitic habits and indirectly, in specific cases, due to the disea...

  14. The Coleopteran gut and targets for pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the advent of high throughput sequencing and proteomic technologies, new strategies are now available for the design of new control approaches for the most problematic pests. While beetles constitute the most diverse order of insects and are well-represented in the list of agriculturally-import...

  15. 7 CFR 319.37-2a - Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. 319.37-2a Section 319.37-2a Agriculture Regulations... plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. (a) Determination by... the completion of a pest risk analysis, except as provided in § 319.37-2(c). Lists of these taxa...

  16. 7 CFR 319.37-2a - Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. 319.37-2a Section 319.37-2a Agriculture Regulations... plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. (a) Determination by... the completion of a pest risk analysis, except as provided in § 319.37-2(c). Lists of these taxa...

  17. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  18. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  19. CUTICULAR LIPIDS OF THE STORED FOOD PEST, LIPOSCELIS BOSTRYCHOPHILA BADONNEL (PSOCOPTERA: LIPOSCELIDIDAE): HYDROCARBONS, ALDEHYDES, FATTY ACIDS AND FATTY ACID AMIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, has increasingly become a common pest of stored food products worldwide. We report here the cuticular hydrocarbon composition of this pest (the first report of the hydrocarbons of any member of the Order Psocoptera) and the first report of fatty acid amides...

  20. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is linked to sulfur-induced outbreaks of this pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were...

  1. 77 FR 47351 - Notification of Submission to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Agriculture and Health and Human Services; Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA; Related Amendments; and... concerning Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA; Related Amendments; and Availability of Final...

  2. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

  3. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  4. Forest bolsters bird abundance, pest control and coffee yield.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Mendenhall, Chase D; Sandí, Randi Figueroa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Ehrlich, Paul R; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C

    2013-11-01

    Efforts to maximise crop yields are fuelling agricultural intensification, exacerbating the biodiversity crisis. Low-intensity agricultural practices, however, may not sacrifice yields if they support biodiversity-driven ecosystem services. We quantified the value native predators provide to farmers by consuming coffee's most damaging insect pest, the coffee berry borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei). Our experiments in Costa Rica showed birds reduced infestation by ~ 50%, bats played a marginal role, and farmland forest cover increased pest removal. We identified borer-consuming bird species by assaying faeces for borer DNA and found higher borer-predator abundances on more forested plantations. Our coarse estimate is that forest patches doubled pest control over 230 km2 by providing habitat for ~ 55 000 borer-consuming birds. These pest-control services prevented US$75-US$310 ha-year(-1) in damage, a benefit per plantation on par with the average annual income of a Costa Rican citizen. Retaining forest and accounting for pest control demonstrates a win-win for biodiversity and coffee farmers. PMID:23981013

  5. Biorational pesticides for pecan pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include pecan aphid complex (such as the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae) and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to determine the potential ut...

  6. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  7. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  8. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... shows examples of discoveries and their impact. Diseases Discoveries The Benefits for All Americans Huntington's Disease Venezuela— ...

  9. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722

  10. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  11. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  12. Pest management with natural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  13. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  14. 75 FR 32900 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal... application of one or more designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the pest risk....

  15. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles and articles whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited articles and articles whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis accompanying restricted articles. 319.37-12 Section 319.37... Prohibited articles and articles whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis...

  16. World-Wide Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Kjell A. H. W.

    The future paths of research and development towards world-wide, automated information networks in full operation are examined. From international networked planning and projects under way it appears that exploratory as well as normative approaches have been taken. To some extent adequate technolgical facilities have already come into existence…

  17. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  18. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  19. Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2013-01-01

    Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

  20. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

  1. The epidemiology of drowning worldwide.

    PubMed

    Peden, M M; McGee, K

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the magnitude of death and disability from drowning and near-drowning worldwide and to provide epidemiological data on which to base prevention efforts. All data are from the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 1) estimates in which deaths and disabilities are based on the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Extrapolations were made by age, sex, and WHO region. The six WHO regions of the world were further divided into high-income, and low- and middle-income based on the 1998 World Development indicators. According to the GBD 2000 data, an estimated 449,000 people drowned worldwide (7.4 per 100,000 population) and a further 1.3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were lost as a result of premature death or disability from drowning. 97% of drownings occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Although 38% of drownings occurred in the Western Pacific Region, Africa had the highest drowning mortality rate (13.1 per 100,000 population). Males had higher drowning mortality rates than females for all ages and in all regions. Children under the age of 5 years had the highest drowning mortality rate for both sexes in all of the WHO regions except for Africa, where children aged 5 to 14 years had the highest mortality rate. Worldwide, for children under the age of 15 years, drowning accounted for a higher mortality rate than any other cause of injury. Drowning is a significant problem worldwide particularly for children under the age of 15 years. Low- and middle-income countries have the highest rates of drowning and account for more than 90% of such fatalities. Primary prevention efforts should thus be focused on these countries where many children who cannot swim drown in large bodies of water. PMID:14664361

  2. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  3. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Center, Melissa M; Jemal, Ahmedin; Smith, Robert A; Ward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide. PMID:19897840

  4. Agriculture & the Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Linda Maston

    This teacher's guide offers background information that teachers can use to incorporate topics related to agriculture and the environment into the curriculum. Classroom activities to bring these topics alive for students in grades 6-9 are suggested. Chapters include: (1) Pesticides and Integrated Pest Management; (2) Food Safety; (3) Water…

  5. Intercropping as cultural pest control: Prospects and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Agriculturalists have been intercropping (simultaneously growing several crops in the same field) for centuries, and the use of polycultures continues as an important form of agriculture among indigenous peoples in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics One demonstrated advantage of intercropping is a reduction in insect pest populations, explained by higher numbers of natural insect enemies in the intercrop and/or reduced herbivore colonization and tenure time in the intercrop A review of 150 published field studies in which 198 herbivore species were studied shows that 53% of the pest species were less abundant in the intercrop, 18% were more abundant in the intercrop, 9% showed no difference, and 20% showed a variable response Two major problems of the published studies are 1) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating that reduced pest numbers in the intercrop resulted in higher yield, and 2) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating the ecological mechanisms responsible for the intercrop effect There is some theoretical and empirical work suggesting that herbivore movement patterns, rather than natural insect enemies, are often more important in accounting for reduced pest abundance in an intercrop Several examples from the author's work are presented that demonstrate ways of studying the ecological mechanisms underlying pest suppression in intercrops. The successful design of new intercropping systems to reduce pests will require a better theoretical understanding of such ecological mechanisms It is emphasized that intercropping has potential in both developed and developing countries and that many of the impediments to incorporating appropriate strategies of diversification are social rather than technological

  6. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  7. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  8. 7 CFR 319.37-2a - Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. 319.37-2a Section 319.37-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  9. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  10. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  11. Plant-microbe relationship that influences an insect pest of Califronia tree nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California produces a large portion of the worldwide supply of pistachios. The navel orangeworm is considered a major insect pest of California pistachios, and causes significant damage to pistachio kernels in addition to introducing aflatoxigenic fungi. Despite the development of semiochemical-base...

  12. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  13. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  14. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  15. 40 CFR 152.5 - Pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pests. 152.5 Section 152.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.5 Pests. An organism is declared to be a pest under circumstances that make it deleterious...

  16. 40 CFR 152.5 - Pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pests. 152.5 Section 152.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.5 Pests. An organism is declared to be a pest under circumstances that make it deleterious...

  17. 40 CFR 152.5 - Pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pests. 152.5 Section 152.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.5 Pests. An organism is declared to be a pest under circumstances that make it deleterious...

  18. Insect and mite pests of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses the postharvest arthropod pests of durum wheat and their control. The main internally feeding pests are Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, and S. zeamais. The main externally feeding pests are Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, O. m...

  19. Urban Pest Management of Ants in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping pace with the dynamic and evolving landscape of invasive ants in California presents a formidable challenge to the pest management industry. Pest management professionals (PMPs) are on the frontlines when it comes to battling these exotic ant pests, and are often the first ones to intercept ...

  20. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  1. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  2. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  3. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  4. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  5. Worldwide Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria C; Bain, Lisa J; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Weiner, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was launched in 2003 to speed drug development by validating imaging and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease clinical treatment trials. ADNI is a naturalistic (nontreatment) multisite longitudinal study. A true public-private partnership, the first phase of ADNI (ADNI 1) set a new standard for data sharing without embargo. In addition, it has been extended to 2017 by additional funding (North American-ADNI Grand Opportunities and ADNI 2) as well as multiple projects around the world, collectively known as Worldwide ADNI (WW-ADNI). The goal of WW-ADNI is to harmonize projects and results across different geographical sites and to encourage and harmonize data management and availability to investigators around the world. WW-ADNI projects are currently underway in North America, Europe, Japan, Australia, Korea, Taiwan, and Argentina, with a nascent program in China and a possible future program in Brazil. PMID:22748939

  6. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoro, Beth A. Dahlquist, Ruth M.; Castillo, Luisa E.; Morra, Matthew J.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A.

    2008-09-15

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  7. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Dahlquist, Ruth M; Castillo, Luisa E; Morra, Matthew J; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2008-09-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  8. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  9. Impact of Regulatory Decisions on Emerging Pest Control Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control research is an enormously broad field. Pests can be segregated into broad biological categories such as rodents, insects, nematodes, weeds, fungi, bacteria. Pests can be categorized by the product or environment in which the pest occurs such as crop pests, stored product pests, forest p...

  10. Future Risks of Pest Species under Changing Climatic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Biber-Freudenberger, Lisa; Ziemacki, Jasmin; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Most agricultural pests are poikilothermic species expected to respond to climate change. Currently, they are a tremendous burden because of the high losses they inflict on crops and livestock. Smallholder farmers in developing countries of Africa are likely to suffer more under these changes than farmers in the developed world because more severe climatic changes are projected in these areas. African countries further have a lower ability to cope with impacts of climate change through the lack of suitable adapted management strategies and financial constraints. In this study we are predicting current and future habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for Tuta absoluta, Ceratitis cosyra, and Bactrocera invadens, three important insect pests that are common across some parts of Africa and responsible for immense agricultural losses. We use presence records from different sources and bioclimatic variables to predict their habitat suitability using the maximum entropy modelling approach. We find that habitat suitability for B. invadens, C. cosyra and T. absoluta is partially increasing across the continent, especially in those areas already overlapping with or close to most suitable sites under current climate conditions. Assuming a habitat suitability at three different threshold levels we assessed where each species is likely to be present under future climatic conditions and if this is likely to have an impact on productive agricultural areas. Our results can be used by African policy makers, extensionists and farmers for agricultural adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate change. PMID:27054718

  11. Future Risks of Pest Species under Changing Climatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Biber-Freudenberger, Lisa; Ziemacki, Jasmin; Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Borgemeister, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Most agricultural pests are poikilothermic species expected to respond to climate change. Currently, they are a tremendous burden because of the high losses they inflict on crops and livestock. Smallholder farmers in developing countries of Africa are likely to suffer more under these changes than farmers in the developed world because more severe climatic changes are projected in these areas. African countries further have a lower ability to cope with impacts of climate change through the lack of suitable adapted management strategies and financial constraints. In this study we are predicting current and future habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for Tuta absoluta, Ceratitis cosyra, and Bactrocera invadens, three important insect pests that are common across some parts of Africa and responsible for immense agricultural losses. We use presence records from different sources and bioclimatic variables to predict their habitat suitability using the maximum entropy modelling approach. We find that habitat suitability for B. invadens, C. cosyra and T. absoluta is partially increasing across the continent, especially in those areas already overlapping with or close to most suitable sites under current climate conditions. Assuming a habitat suitability at three different threshold levels we assessed where each species is likely to be present under future climatic conditions and if this is likely to have an impact on productive agricultural areas. Our results can be used by African policy makers, extensionists and farmers for agricultural adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate change. PMID:27054718

  12. Improvement of crop protection against greenbug using the worldwide sorghum germplasm collection and genomics-based approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development of new sorghum cultivars and hybrids to ensure sustainable production depends largely on the availability of genetic resources with desirable traits such as pest resistance. Our recent research has focused on improvement of crop protection against greenbug using worldwide ger...

  13. Health-related aspects of integrated pest management.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R F; Calvert, D J

    1976-01-01

    Basic concepts and philosophy of integrated pest management are presented in order to dispel several misconceptions and to provide the necessary background information for discussion of its relationship to the health-related effects of pesticide use. Implications for human health of current pesticide practices in Central America are examined to illustrate major problems associated with the injudicious use of insecticides, i.e., human pesticide poisonings, development of insect resistance, and persistence in the environment. Mitigation of these problems would ideally be achieved through the efforts and cooperation of a multidisciplinary team of scientists and technical people in the medical and agricultural sciences. The dilemma associated with the development of integrated pest control systems in developing countries is discussed. The FAO/UNEP Global Programme was reviewed. PMID:976225

  14. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Grbić, Miodrag; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Clark, Richard M.; Rombauts, Stephane; Rouzé, Pierre; Grbić, Vojislava; Osborne, Edward J.; Dermauw, Wannes; Ngoc, Phuong Cao Thi; Ortego, Félix; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Navajas, Maria; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara; Nagy, Lisa; Pace, Ryan M.; Djuranović, Sergej; Smagghe, Guy; Iga, Masatoshi; Christiaens, Olivier; Veenstra, Jan A.; Ewer, John; Villalobos, Rodrigo Mancilla; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Hudson, Stephen D.; Velez, Marisela; Yi, Soojin V.; Zeng, Jia; Pires-daSilva, Andre; Roch, Fernando; Cazaux, Marc; Navarro, Marie; Zhurov, Vladimir; Acevedo, Gustavo; Bjelica, Anica; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Bonnet, Eric; Martens, Cindy; Baele, Guy; Wissler, Lothar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Aminael; Tirry, Luc; Blais, Catherine; Demeestere, Kristof; Henz, Stefan R.; Gregory, T. Ryan; Mathieu, Johannes; Verdon, Lou; Farinelli, Laurent; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Feyereisen, René; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest with an extensive host plant range and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Here we present the completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome, representing the first complete chelicerate genome. At 90 megabases T. urticae has the smallest sequenced arthropod genome. Compared with other arthropods, the spider mite genome shows unique changes in the hormonal environment and organization of the Hox complex, and also reveals evolutionary innovation of silk production. We find strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Deep transcriptome analysis of mites feeding on different plants shows how this pest responds to a changing host environment. The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant–herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies. PMID:22113690

  15. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  16. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  17. New worldwide hydrological initiative needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, W. James

    This essay argues for a new, decade-long worldwide hydrological initiative to permit change in the paradigm that underlies hydrological design and management. It is stimulated by the fact that over the last 20 years there has been a distinct change in our understanding of the nature and origin of the statistics of hydrological variables as measured in an individual watershed or region. The assumption was that these statistics are entirely haphazard in nature and indeterminate in origin, and do not change with time.Thus the most important hydrological variables (such as precipitation, runoff, and potential evaporation) are sampled over a calibration period (of perhaps only a few decades), and the statistics observed within that calibration period are used as the basis for hydrological design and water resource management. Now, however, there is increasing realization that the nature of the locally observed statistics of hydrological variables may be significantly determined by global-scale phenomena and might be prone to long-term change.

  18. Applicator Training Manual for: Agriculture Plant Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, William W.; And Others

    This manual gives information on insects that damage crops. These fall in two categories: (1) insects with a complete life cycle such as butterflies and moths, boring insects, and beetles; and (2) those with a gradual life cycle. Also included are descriptions of leaf diseases, wilts and root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and…

  19. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  20. Pest control. Full crop protection from an insect pest by expression of long double-stranded RNAs in plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Khan, Sher Afzal; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Heckel, David G; Bock, Ralph

    2015-02-27

    Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in chloroplasts, a cellular compartment that appears to lack an RNAi machinery. When expressed from the chloroplast genome, dsRNAs accumulated to as much as 0.4% of the total cellular RNA. Transplastomic potato plants producing dsRNAs targeted against the β-actin gene of the Colorado potato beetle, a notorious agricultural pest, were protected from herbivory and were lethal to its larvae. Thus, chloroplast expression of long dsRNAs can provide crop protection without chemical pesticides. PMID:25722411

  1. Diverse Array of New Viral Sequences Identified in Worldwide Populations of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Using Viral Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidá; Nigg, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease. Together; HLB and D. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. As there is no cure for HLB, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and D. citri viruses might be useful. In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of D. citri. By sequencing small RNAs and the transcriptome coupled with bioinformatics analysis, we showed that the virus-like sequences of D. citri are diverse. We identified novel viral sequences belonging to the picornavirus superfamily, the Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Bunyaviridae families, and an unclassified positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. Moreover, a Wolbachia prophage-related sequence was identified. This is the first comprehensive survey to assess the viral community from worldwide populations of an agricultural insect pest. Our results provide valuable information on new putative viruses, some of which may have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents. IMPORTANCE Insects have the most species of all animals, and are hosts to, and vectors of, a great variety of known and unknown viruses. Some of these most likely have the potential to be important fundamental and/or practical resources. In this study, we used high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to identify putative viruses associated with Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. D. citri is the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), currently the most serious threat to citrus worldwide. Here, we report several novel viral sequences associated with D. citri. PMID:26676774

  2. Principles and practices of integrated pest management on cotton in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, and humane. These four goals for sustainability can be applied to all aspects of any agricultural system, from production and marketing, to processing and consumption. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be conside...

  3. A novel approach to evaluation of pest insect abundance in the presence of noise.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Nina; Petrovskaya, Natalia

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of pest abundance is an important task of integrated pest management. It has recently been shown that evaluation of pest population size from discrete sampling data can be done by using the ideas of numerical integration. Numerical integration of the pest population density function is a computational technique that readily gives us an estimate of the pest population size, where the accuracy of the estimate depends on the number of traps installed in the agricultural field to collect the data. However, in a standard mathematical problem of numerical integration, it is assumed that the data are precise, so that the random error is zero when the data are collected. This assumption does not hold in ecological applications. An inherent random error is often present in field measurements, and therefore it may strongly affect the accuracy of evaluation. In our paper, we offer a novel approach to evaluate the pest insect population size under the assumption that the data about the pest population include a random error. The evaluation is not based on statistical methods but is done using a spatially discrete method of numerical integration where the data obtained by trapping as in pest insect monitoring are converted to values of the population density. It will be discussed in the paper how the accuracy of evaluation differs from the case where the same evaluation method is employed to handle precise data. We also consider how the accuracy of the pest insect abundance evaluation can be affected by noise when the data available from trapping are sparse. In particular, we show that, contrary to intuitive expectations, noise does not have any considerable impact on the accuracy of evaluation when the number of traps is small as is conventional in ecological applications. PMID:24619808

  4. A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J; Baker, Richard H A; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

    2012-01-01

    Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. PMID:23056174

  5. A Suite of Models to Support the Quantitative Assessment of Spread in Pest Risk Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

    2012-01-01

    Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. PMID:23056174

  6. Recent advances in fumigation for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    United States agricultural industries are facing, with increasing frequency, environmental and pest-related food safety requirements that are fundamentally difficult to balance. Failure to properly disinfest commodities in trade and marketing channels can result in insect- and microbial-derived dam...

  7. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiligmann, R. B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The primary focus of this publication is on forest pest control. An introduction with the explanation of pesticide applications in forestry is presented. The ten sections included describe: (1) Principal…

  8. Initiation of a USDA, ARS Area-Wide Methyl Bromide Alternatives Pest Management Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March, 2006 USDA, ARS decided to establish a 5-year AW Pest Management Project on alternatives to MB. The work will focus on pre-plant alternatives to MB for soil fumigation and occur in the most severely impacted agricultural production systems in South Atlantic and Pacific regions of the U.S.,...

  9. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various methods have been developed to reduce atmospheric emissions from the agricultural use of highly volatile pesticides and mitigate their adverse environmental effects. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using simulation model in this study...

  10. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  11. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  12. New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

  13. Active solarization as a nonchemical alternative to soil fumigation for controlling pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deterioration of soil, water, and air resources by soil fumigants represents a serious threat to agricultural production in semiarid regions due to their high volatility and high emission rates. New pest control methods are needed that do not rely on fumigant chemicals. Soil heating via solarization...

  14. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  15. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  16. Interactive GIS Atlas of Economic Plants and Pests of Russia and Neighboring Countries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important component in promoting national food security is readily accessed information on the distribution of economic plants and their associated pests; along with the distribution of climate factors important to agriculture. In 2003, a joint project between the USDA, ARS and three Russian in...

  17. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  18. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  19. Agricultural applications of insect ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica F; Coates, Brad S; Childers, Christopher P; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Evans, Jay D; Hackett, Kevin; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural entomology is poised to benefit from the application of ecological genomics, particularly the fields of biofuels generation and pest control. Metagenomic methods can characterize microbial communities of termites, wood-boring beetles and livestock pests, and transcriptomic approaches reveal molecular bases behind wood-digesting capabilities of these insects, leading to potential mechanisms for biofuel generation. Genome sequences are being exploited to develop new pest control methods, identify candidate antigens to vaccinate livestock, and discover RNAi target sequences and potential non-target effects in other insects. Gene content analyses of pest genome sequences and their endosymbionts suggest metabolic interdependencies between organisms, exposing potential gene targets for insect control. Finally, genome-wide association studies and genotyping by high-throughput sequencing promise to improve management of pesticide resistance. PMID:27436554

  20. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  1. Agriculture Insurance: Adaptation to Vulnerability of Climate Change in Bali, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.; Hongo, C.; Mirah Adi, A. A. A.; Tamura, E.

    2014-12-01

    Bali province of Indonesia is worldwide known for its tourist destination and it contributes more than 60 per cent to the regional domestic product. Meanwhile, agricultural sector including rice production still plays an important role in the Bali economy because of its 30 per cent contribution. Rice production in Bali is not just susceptible to loss caused by flood, drought and pest and disease attack but also from the climate change. The impact of climate change on food production in Indonesia is expected to decline in 2050, ranging from 38 per cent to more than ten-folds of the current production (Syaukat, 2011). Accordingly, adaptation to climate changes is required to minimize the risk along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. The government of Indonesia (GoI) has launched several pilot projects including agriculture insurance program to minimize the risk in production failure particularly rice farming, unfortunately Bali was excluded from the projects. Implementation of agriculture insurance in Indonesia has the legal basis now after the announcement of the Farmer Protection and Empowerment Act (Law No. 19/2013). Agriculture insurance is seen better in mitigating farmer's risk than that of the other program in rice production. The GoI plans to implement the insurance scheme in the beginning of 2015. This scheme is something "new" to farmers in Bali and Indonesia. Considering the importance of crop insurance to agriculture, this study attempts to explore the potential of such insurance to reveal a clear picture of opportunities and challenges in agriculture insurance implementation in Bali. The study empirically presents awareness and perception of farmers towards the insurance and adaptation to vulnerability of climate change. The study concludes with various suggestions for increasing the awareness of farmers for ensuring better penetration of agriculture insurance in Bali. Key words: agriculture insurance, farmer

  2. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 178 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Pest control experiments show benefits of complexity at landscape and local scales.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Kremen, Claire

    2012-10-01

    Farms benefit from pest control services provided by nature, but management of these services requires an understanding of how habitat complexity within and around the farm impacts the relationship between agricultural pests and their enemies. Using cage experiments, this study measures the effect of habitat complexity across scales on pest suppression of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae in broccoli. Our results reveal that proportional reduction of pest density increases with complexity both at the landscape scale (measured by natural habitat cover in the 1 km around the farm) and at the local scale (plant diversity). While high local complexity can compensate for low complexity at landscape scales and vice versa, a delay in natural enemy arrival to locally complex sites in simple landscapes may compromise the enemies' ability to provide adequate control. Local complexity in simplified landscapes may only provide adequate top-down pest control in cooler microclimates with relatively low aphid colonization rates. Even so, strong natural enemy function can be overwhelmed by high rates of pest reproduction or colonization from nearby source habitat. PMID:23210310

  5. Application of GIS technology in monitoring and warning system for crop diseases and insect pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Wang, Changwei; Xu, Zhiyong; Hu, Yueming

    2008-10-01

    By researching and analyzing the crop diseases and insect pests, we find the distribution and spread of crop diseases and insect pests have tight touch with the time and space information, which provides a premise of applying geography information system (GIS) and spatial interpolation technology especially. By considering the particularity of spatial interpolation on the plant diseases and insect pests in agriculture, the authors bring forward one new method: multifactors spatial interpolation model. It is made up of many factors, such as spatial orientation relationship, topological relationship, distance relationship and national weather conditions so on. Then, on the basis of building the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the monitor and warning system of crop diseases and insect pests is constructed by using GIS technology and ArcIMS software. The basic functions, such as map visualization, information query, data input, data management, spatial interpolation, are implemented. What's more, by using the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the effluence and spread speed of crop diseases and insect pests are showed and the monitoring and early-warning of crop diseases and insect pests is implemented.

  6. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  7. Economic Thresholds in Soybean-Integrated Pest Management: Old Concepts, Current Adoption, and Adequacy.

    PubMed

    Bueno, A F; Paula-Moraes, S V; Gazzoni, D L; Pomari, A F

    2013-10-01

    Increasing global demands for food underline the need for higher crop yields. The relatively low costs of the most commonly used insecticides in combination with increasing soybean market prices led growers and technical advisors to debate the adequacy of recommended economic thresholds (ETs). The adoption of ETs and pest sampling has diminished in Brazil, leading to excessive pesticide use on soybean. The reduced efficacy of natural biological control, faster pest resurgence, and environment contamination are among the side-effects of pesticide abuse. To address these problems and maximize agricultural production, pest control programs must be guided by a proper integrated pest management (IPM) approach, including the ET concept. Therefore, the most appropriate time to initiate insecticide spraying in soybean is indicated by the available ETs which are supported by experiments over the last 40 years in different edapho-climatic conditions and regions with distinct soybean cultivars. Published scientific data indicate that preventive insecticide use is an expensive and harmful use of chemicals that increases the negative impact of pesticides in agroecosystems. However, the established ETs are for a limited number of species (key pests), and they only address the use of chemicals. There is a lack of information regarding secondary pests and other control strategies in addition to insecticides. It is clear then that much progress is still needed to improve ETs for pest management decisions. Nevertheless, using the current ETs provides a basis for reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture without reducing yields and overall production, thereby improving sustainability. PMID:27023207

  8. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  9. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  10. Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert C., Comp.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

  11. Drought and arthropod pests of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit can make otherwise arable regions less, or nonarable, from lack of life-sustaining water and it can also affect the extent to which crops are afflicted by arthropod pests. The effects of drought on host plant availability and nutrititive value influence arthropod pests of crops in a v...

  12. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  13. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  14. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  15. Compendium of Sunflower Disease and Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Sunflower Diseases and Pests is a new addition to the popular APS Press series of plant disease compendia. This will be the most comprehensive guide to sunflower diseases and pests in the world. The introduction contains brief histories of sunflower use and production, botany of th...

  16. Formulating microbial agents for pest control applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial biological control is the use of beneficial microbes to control pests and pathogens. The development of biological control products for use in pest management requires technology to produce, handle, store, and disperse large amounts of microbial propagules. Production can be accomplished...

  17. Household and Structural Pests. MEP 307.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, F. E.

    This pamphlet is a non-technical description of common household arthropod pests in Maryland. Since most of the pests can be found in houses throughout North America, this publication has a wide geographic range of use. General discussions of arthropod structure, growth and development, and metamorphosis are given before the pages on specific…

  18. Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

  19. Multifunctional strategies for management of stink bugs based on the ecology and biology of these pests and their natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economically important pests in orchard, row, vegetable, and grain crops worldwide. Stink bugs move between closely associated hosts throughout the growing season in response to the deteriorating suitability of their current hosts, and an edge ef...

  20. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  1. Pest Management Records Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Schrader, Kurt [D-OR-5

    2014-11-14

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

  3. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  4. Calibration of hydrological model with programme PEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    PEST is tool based on minimization of an objective function related to the root mean square error between the model output and the measurement. We use "singular value decomposition", section of the PEST control file, and Tikhonov regularization method for successfully estimation of model parameters. The PEST sometimes failed if inverse problems were ill-posed, but (SVD) ensures that PEST maintains numerical stability. The choice of the initial guess for the initial parameter values is an important issue in the PEST and need expert knowledge. The flexible nature of the PEST software and its ability to be applied to whole catchments at once give results of calibration performed extremely well across high number of sub catchments. Use of parallel computing version of PEST called BeoPEST was successfully useful to speed up calibration process. BeoPEST employs smart slaves and point-to-point communications to transfer data between the master and slaves computers. The HBV-light model is a simple multi-tank-type model for simulating precipitation-runoff. It is conceptual balance model of catchment hydrology which simulates discharge using rainfall, temperature and estimates of potential evaporation. Version of HBV-light-CLI allows the user to run HBV-light from the command line. Input and results files are in XML form. This allows to easily connecting it with other applications such as pre and post-processing utilities and PEST itself. The procedure was applied on hydrological model of Savinja catchment (1852 km2) and consists of twenty one sub-catchments. Data are temporary processed on hourly basis.

  5. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  6. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  7. Landscape-scale pest suppression is mediated by timing of predator arrival.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Alejandro C; Venables, William N; Schellhorn, Nancy A

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that biological control of agricultural pests is affected by the landscape context, although the mechanisms behind this pattern have received little attention. Ecological theory predicts that one key mechanism mediating successful pest suppression is early predator immigration to agricultural fields. However, the importance of this population process under different landscape contexts remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the relative importance of landscape context and timing of predator immigration on aphid suppression by manipulating exposure to predation in agroecosystems located across a gradient of landscape complexity in a subtropical horticultural region in Australia. Aphid suppression varied with landscape context, from populations escaping control to almost complete pest suppression. In general, we found higher aphid suppression when predators were allowed immediate and continuous access to aphids than when predators were delayed or excluded for a week, but responses varied in each landscape. Contrary to previous reports from temperate agricultural landscapes, aphid suppression was neutral or negatively associated with natural and seminatural vegetation, whereas aphid suppression was positively associated with landscapes with a higher proportion of alfalfa. When landscapes were classified according to their levels of complexity, we showed that early predation resulted in similar levels of pest suppression in simplified landscapes (i.e., with low proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity) as late predation in complex landscapes (i.e., with high proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity). Our data show that timing of predator arrival to agricultural fields is as important as landscape complexity for mediating pest control in agroecosystems. Furthermore, our results suggest that key distributions of suitable habitats that facilitate natural enemy movement can enhance biological control in simplified landscapes. PMID:26465046

  8. Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus thuringiensis strain with a promising toxicity against Lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Boukedi, Hanen; Sellami, Sameh; Ktari, Sonia; Belguith-Ben Hassan, Najeh; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides derived from Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining worldwide importance as environmentally desirable alternatives to chemicals for the control of pests in public health and agriculture. Isolation and characterization of new strains with higher and broader spectrum of activity is an ever growing field. In the present work, a novel Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolate named BLB459 was characterized and electrophoresis assay showed that among a collection of 200 B. thuringiensis strains, the plasmid profile of BLB459 was distinctive. SmaI-PFGE typing confirmed the uniqueness of the DNA pattern of this strain, compared with BUPM95 and HD1 reference strains. PCR and sequencing assays revealed that BLB459 harbored three cry genes (cry30, cry40 and cry54) corresponding to the obtained molecular sizes in the protein pattern. Interestingly, PCR-RFLP assay demonstrated the originality of the BLB459 cry30-type gene compared to the other published cry30 genes. Insecticidal bioassays showed that BLB459 spore-crystal suspension was highly toxic to both Ephestia kuehniella and Spodoptera littoralis with LC50 values of about 64 (53-75) and 80 (69-91) μg of toxin cm(-2), respectively, comparing with that of the commercial strain HD1 used as reference. Important histopathological effects of BLB459 δ-endotoxins on the two tested larvae midguts were detected, traduced by the vacuolization of the apical cells, the damage of microvilli, and the disruption of epithelial cells. These results proved that BLB459 strain could be of a great interest for lepidopteran biocontrol. PMID:27242138

  9. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712

  10. The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place.

  11. Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

    2012-01-01

    The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

  12. Environment and chemicals in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Winteringham, F.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities and the Irish Government jointly organized a symposium in Dublin in October 1984, from which the papers in this book are presented. Environmental concerns related to intensive agriculture provided the impetus for the symposium. More than half of the papers deal with economic or extension aspects of environmental protection. It is stressed that uniform standards and regulations are not reasonable, since soils, climate, and farming systems vary. With respect to pesticide use, emphasis is placed on integrated pest management through improved pest forecasting, more specific targeting of pesticide applications, and farmer education. The development of pesticide resistance is a serious concern that will require research into new techniques for pest control. The primary environmental problem with fertilizers is the leaching of NO/sub 3/ into ground water, with many ears exceeding the acceptable level of 50 mg/L. The Netherlands, in particular, has the highest average rate of N fertilizer use in the world, 240 kg/ha, with about 400 kg/ha of N applied in areas with intensive dairy (Bos sp.) farming. Nevertheless, areas in the Netherlands where the NO/sub 3/ concentration in ground water exceeds 50 mg/L are associated with large amounts of manure produced in intensive pig and poultry farming, rather than with fertilizer applications. There is a need to balance nutrients added with those removed in intensive agricultural systems.

  13. Feasibility study on a portable field pest classification system design based on DSP and 3G wireless communication technology.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruizhen; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests' pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture. PMID:22736996

  14. Applicability of ion mobility spectrometry for detection of quarantine pests in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, K. J.; Sanghera, J.; Myers, S. W.; Ervin, A. M.; Carey, C.; Gleason, G.; Mosser, L.; Levy, L.; Hennessey, M. K.; Bulluck, R.

    2016-05-01

    Visual inspection is the most commonly used method for detecting quarantine pests in agricultural cargo items at ports. For example, solid wood packing material (SWPM) at ports may be a pathway for wood pests and is a frequent item of inspection at ports. The inspection process includes examination of the external surface of the item and often destructive sampling to detect internal pest targets. There are few tools available to inspectors to increase the efficiency of inspection and reduce the labor involved. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has promise as an aid for inspection. Because pests emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as hormone like substances, Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was investigated for possible utility for detecting pests during inspection. SWPM is a major pest pathway in trade, and fumigation of many kinds of wood, including SWPM, with methyl bromide (MeBr) following a published schedule1 is regularly conducted for phytosanitary reasons prior to shipment to the United States. However, the question remains as to how long the methyl bromide remains in the wood samples after fumigation such that it could act as an interferent to the detection of pest related VOC emissions. This work investigates the capability of ion mobility spectrometry to detect the presence of residual methyl bromide in fumigated maple and poplar wood samples at different times post fumigation up to 118 days after fumigation. Data show that MeBr can be detected in the less dense poplar wood up to 118 days after fumigation while MeBr can be detected in the denser maple wood 55 days after fumigation.

  15. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S; Tatchell, G Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P

    2011-07-12

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  16. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  17. Ecoinformatics Can Reveal Yield Gaps Associated with Crop-Pest Interactions: A Proof-of-Concept

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheim, Jay A.; Meisner, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers and private consultants execute a vast, decentralized data collection effort with each cropping cycle, as they gather pest density data to make real-time pest management decisions. Here we present a proof of concept for an ecoinformatics approach to pest management research, which attempts to harness these data to answer questions about pest-crop interactions. The impact of herbivory by Lygus hesperus on cotton is explored as a case study. Consultant-derived data satisfied a ‘positive control’ test for data quality by clearly resolving the expected negative relationship between L. hesperus density and retention of flower buds. The enhanced statistical power afforded by the large ecoinformatics dataset revealed an early-season window of crop sensitivity, during which L. hesperus densities as low as 1-2 per sample were associated with yield loss. In contrast, during the mid-season insecticide use by farmers was often unnecessary, as cotton compensated fully for moderate L. hesperus densities. Because the dataset emerged from the commercial production setting, it also revealed the limited degree to which farmers were willing to delay crop harvest to provide opportunities for compensatory fruiting. Observational approaches to pest management research have strengths and weaknesses that complement those of traditional, experimental approaches; combining these methods can contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity. PMID:24260408

  18. Pheromone-Based Pest Management in China: Past, Present, and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gen Zhong; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2016-07-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologies for the integrated pest management. However, in China, similar research lagged 15 to 20 years and was not initiated until the late 1980s. In this review, we present the early history of pheromone research that has led to the current practical applications in China, particularly in the development of pheromone-based pest management products. We also provide information regarding the current status of pheromone-based product manufacturing, marketing, and regulatory issues related to local semiochemical industries, which may be useful to other international companies interested in pursuing business in China. In addition, we share some research topics that represent new directions of the present pheromone research to explore novel tools for advancing semiochemical-based pest management in China. PMID:27481347

  19. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  20. Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodek, Ivo

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

  1. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    PubMed

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  2. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    PubMed Central

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  3. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  4. Natural occurrence of Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), an invasive pest recently found in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Duarte, Vanessa da Silveira; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Delalibera, Italo

    2012-07-01

    Occurrence of Zoophthora radicans infecting nymphs and adults of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellape, 2006 is reported in Brazil. This is a new record of host for this fungal species and the first fungal pathogen associated with this pest worldwide. Infection of Z. radicans on T. peregrinus populations on commercial Eucalyptus plantation (Eucalyptus spp.) reached up to 100%, and low insect densities were associated with high levels of fungal infection in three out of seven plots. This pathogen seems to be virulent against T. peregrinus and may play an important role in population regulations of this invasive pest through naturally induced epizootics. PMID:22490879

  5. Site specific irrigation management-Precision agriculture for improved water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture involves aspects of sensing, crop protection, field sampling, precision tillage and planting, fertilizer application, pest control, irrigation, on-the-go yield monitoring and other emerging applications. Site specific irrigation management (SSIM) focuses on the delivery of app...

  6. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education. 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Listed are 246 curriculum material items in ten categories: field crops, horticulture, forestry, animal science, soils, diseases and pests, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agricultural occupations, and professional. Most materials are annotated and all are classified according to the AGPEX filing system. Bibliographic and…

  7. Revising and Updating the Plant Science Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Educational Leadership.

    This curriculum guide provides the plant science components of the vocational agriculture curriculum for Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers. The curriculum is divided into exploratory units for students in the 9th and 10th grades and specialized units for students in grades 11 and 12. The five exploratory units are: agricultural pest control;…

  8. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  9. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  10. Dynamics of the endosymbiont Rickettsia in an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Cass, Bodil N; Yallouz, Rachel; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Horowitz, A Rami; Kelly, Suzanne E; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Hunter, Martha S

    2015-07-01

    A new heritable bacterial association can bring a fresh set of molecular capabilities, providing an insect host with an almost instantaneous genome extension. Increasingly acknowledged as agents of rapid evolution, inherited microbes remain underappreciated players in pest management programs. A Rickettsia bacterium was tracked sweeping through populations of an invasive whitefly provisionally described as the "B" or "MEAM1" of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, in the southwestern USA. In this population, Rickettsia provides strong fitness benefits and distorts whitefly sex ratios under laboratory conditions. In contrast, whiteflies in Israel show few apparent fitness benefits from Rickettsia under laboratory conditions, only slightly decreasing development time. A survey of B. tabaci B samples revealed the distribution of Rickettsia across the cotton-growing regions of Israel and the USA. Thirteen sites from Israel and 22 sites from the USA were sampled. Across the USA, Rickettsia frequencies were heterogeneous among regions, but were generally very high, whereas in Israel, the infection rates were lower and declining. The distinct outcomes of Rickettsia infection in these two countries conform to previously reported phenotypic differences. Intermediate frequencies in some areas in both countries may indicate a cost to infection in certain environments or that the frequencies are in flux. This suggests underlying geographic differences in the interactions between bacterial symbionts and this serious agricultural pest. PMID:25626393

  11. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  12. Catalog of the coleoptera of America north of Nexico. (Family: silphidae). Agriculture handbook (Research)

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, S.B.; Miller, S.E.

    1993-09-01

    Many species of beetles are important pests of agricultural crops, stored food products, forests, wood products and structures, and fabrics. Many other species, in contrast, are beneficial in the biological suppression of pest arthropods and weeds, as well as in the decomposition of plant detritus, animal carcasses, and dung. Part of our national responsibility to American agriculture is to provide correct identification of species of American beetles so that appropriate controls can be applied.

  13. 77 FR 10472 - Dow AgroScience LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Dow AgroScience LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment for Determination of Nonregulated Status... INFORMATION: On December 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 80872-80873, Docket No....

  14. Virtual bats: manipulating the activities of bats and insects as a practical application for integrated pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects, including many agricultural pests, respond to the ultrasonic calls of bats by taking evasive action and curtailing flight activity. Earlier attempts to exploit this co-evolved relationship to inhibit insect activity for crop protection (Belton and Kempster 1962) showed promise, but we...

  15. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN POST-HARVEST MAIZE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE REPUBLIC OF TOGO (WEST AFRICA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large-scale experiment on maize storage systems was carried out in Atakpamé (Plateaux region of Togo), between autumn 1996 and spring 1997. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach, based on research findings at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and intended to control...

  16. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk...: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments.... Based on that analysis, we believe that the application of one or more designated phytosanitary...

  17. Tritrophic interactions among Bt maize, an insect pest and entomopathogens: effects on development and survival of western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems often provide a model for testing ecological hypotheses, while ecological theory can enable more effective pest management. One of the best examples of this is the interaction between host-plant resistance and natural enemies. With the advent of crops that are genetically modifi...

  18. Reconstructing a comprehensive transcriptome assembly of a white-pupal translocated strain of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bactrocera cucurbitae is an important agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptom...

  19. Assessing the usefulness of DNA barcoding to identify Oxycarenus hyalinipennis in Florida,a potentially invasive pest of cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foreign pest insects present an ongoing challenge to the safety of U.S. agriculture. One such invasive threat to the U.S. cotton industry is Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa) or the cotton seed bug. Populations are found throughout most of the world except for North America, and the southeastern U.S....

  20. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  1. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  2. Development paths of China's agricultural Pharmaceutical industry under Eco-agriculture background.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinkai; Gong, Liutang; Ji, Xi; Zhang, Jin; Miao, Pei

    2014-07-01

    Using pesticides has double effects. On one hand, it contributes to pests control and regulates the growth of crops; On the other hand, it does harm to the environment. To develop ecological agriculture should not only emphasize the output level of agriculture to pursuit of economic efficiency, but also need to keep the ecological environment protected and focus on the social benefits during the development of the industry. As a large agricultural country in the world, China is vigorously promoting the development of ecological agriculture, which is bound to put forward to developing the pesticide industry and green ecological development requirements to promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural pharmaceutical industry. This paper discusses the mechanism of pesticide pollution on the ecological environment and analyzes China's agricultural problems in the pharmaceutical industry. Then study on the development of Chinese green pesticides and try to find the proper paths of agricultural pharmaceutical to achieve industrial upgrading. PMID:25016265

  3. Agricultural Runoff: New Research Trends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is public concern worldwide about the impact of agriculture on the environment and the migration of agrochemicals from their target to nearby terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and sometimes to the atmosphere and other times to the groundwater. To achieve the highest yields, farmers use many a...

  4. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, Murali; Munir, Muhammad; Parthiban, AravindhBabu R; Banyard, Ashley C; Bao, Jingyue; Wang, Zhiliang; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Ayelet, Gelagay; El Harrak, Mehdi; Mahapatra, Mana; Libeau, Geneviève; Batten, Carrie; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity. PMID:25418782

  7. Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Bebber, Daniel Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by environmental conditions and thus global warming and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global warming signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs. PMID:26047565

  8. Optimizing Crops for Biocontrol of Pests and Disease.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Johan A; Heil, Martin; Åhman, Inger; Björkman, Christer

    2015-11-01

    Volatile compounds and extrafloral nectar are common defenses of wild plants; however, in crops they bear an as-yet underused potential for biological control of pests and diseases. Odor emission and nectar secretion are multigene traits in wild plants, and thus form difficult targets for breeding. Furthermore, domestication has changed the capacity of crops to express these traits. We propose that breeding crops for an enhanced capacity for tritrophic interactions and volatile-mediated direct resistance to herbivores and pathogens can contribute to environmentally-friendly and sustainable agriculture. Natural plant volatiles with antifungal or repellent properties can serve as direct resistance agents. In addition, volatiles mediating tritrophic interactions can be combined with nectar-based food rewards for carnivores to boost indirect plant defense. PMID:26447042

  9. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  10. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  11. Blackberry production systems – A worldwide perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three types of blackberry are grown worldwide: the erect, semi-erect, and trailing. All types can be grown for fresh and processed markets although the trailing types with their small seeds size and aromatic flavors are considered superior for processed markets. The largest production regions are Me...

  12. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  13. 1979 Worldwide Adventure TravelGuide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Guidebook descriptions of the 3000 worldwide adventure trips open to public participation include highlights, itinerary, level of experience necessary, requirements, location, duration, dates, cost, and addresses and telephone numbers of the operating organizations. The guidebook is organized in four major sections and, within each section, into…

  14. Bulletin Board Ideas: Worldwide Scientific Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Maurice K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a bulletin board activity that identifies scientific phenomena occurring worldwide during the school year. A map of the world is marked with colored pins as students find news information of places and kind of event (e.g.; volcanoes, floods, crop failures, human epidemics). (CS)

  15. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  16. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  18. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  19. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  20. Convergent Bacterial Microbiotas in the Fungal Agricultural Systems of Insects

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. PMID:25406380

  1. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  2. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  3. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Umina, Paul A.; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  4. Inherent agricultural constraints in Allegheny Plateau soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide need for increased production of food requires a combination of converting marginal land to agriculture and increased productivity and sustainability of crops on existing agricultural land. Grasses make up an important part of the food directly consumed by both humans and animals. If...

  5. Glucosinolate-Containing Seed Meal as a Soil Amendment to Control Plant Pests: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Plants may produce compounds that directly or indirectly affect their biological environment. These compounds fall within a broad category of compounds called allelochemicals, and are exclusive of food that influences growth, health, or behavior of other organisms (Whittaker and Feeney 1971). One reason for interest in allelochemicals is their potential for use in alternative pest management systems. Using plant-produced allelochemicals in agricultural and horticultural practices could minimize synthetic pesticide use, reduce the associated potential for environmental contamination, and contribute to a more sustainable agricultural system.

  6. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  7. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  8. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruizhen; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests’ pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture. PMID:22736996

  9. Forest Pest Occurrence Predictionca-Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fangyi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaoyan

    Since the spatial pattern of forest pest occurrence is determined by biological characteristics and habitat conditions, this paper introduced construction of a cellular automaton model combined with Markov model to predicate the forest pest occurrence. Rules of the model includes the cell states rules, neighborhood rules and transition rules which are defined according to the factors from stand conditions, stand structures, climate and the influence of the factors on the state conversion. Coding for the model is also part of the implementations of the model. The participants were designed including attributes and operations of participants expressed with a UML diagram. Finally, the scale issues on forest pest occurrence prediction, of which the core are the prediction of element size and time interval, are partly discussed in this paper.

  10. Pathogens, pests, and economics: drivers of honey bee colony declines and losses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristine M; Loh, Elizabeth H; Rostal, Melinda K; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Mendiola, Luciana; Daszak, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is responsible for ecosystem services (pollination) worth US$215 billion annually worldwide and the number of managed colonies has increased 45% since 1961. However, in Europe and the U.S., two distinct phenomena; long-term declines in colony numbers and increasing annual colony losses, have led to significant interest in their causes and environmental implications. The most important drivers of a long-term decline in colony numbers appear to be socioeconomic and political pressure on honey production. In contrast, annual colony losses seem to be driven mainly by the spread of introduced pathogens and pests, and management problems due to a long-term intensification of production and the transition from large numbers of small apiaries to fewer, larger operations. We conclude that, while other causal hypotheses have received substantial interest, the role of pests, pathogens, and management issues requires increased attention. PMID:24496582

  11. Data reprocessing on worldwide distributed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Diesburg, Mike; Wicke, Daniel; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The D0 experiment faces many challenges enabling access to large datasets for physicists on 4 continents. The strategy followed is to make use of worldwide distributed computing clusters. Since the begin of Tevatron Run-II (March 2001) all Monte-Carlo simulations are produced outside of Fermilab on remote systems. For analyses a system of regional analysis centres (RACs) was established which supply the associated institutes with the data. This structure which is similar to the Tier structure foreseen for LHC was used in autumn 2003 to reprocess all D0-data with the up-to-date and much improved reconstruction software. With these achievements D0 is the first high energy physics experiment to have implemented and operated all essential computing tasks on non-dedicated, worldwide distributed systems. The experiences gained in D0 can be applied to evaluate the LHC computing model.

  12. World-wide precision airports for SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Lugsch, Bill; Launer, Marc; Baca, Diana

    2004-08-01

    Future cockpit and aviation applications require high quality airport databases. Accuracy, resolution, integrity, completeness, traceability, and timeliness [1] are key requirements. For most aviation applications, attributed vector databases are needed. The geometry is based on points, lines, and closed polygons. To document the needs for aviation industry RTCA and EUROCAE developed in a joint committee, the DO-272/ED-99 document. It states industry needs for data features, attributes, coding, and capture rules for Airport Mapping Databases (AMDB). This paper describes the technical approach Jeppesen has taken to generate a world-wide set of three-hundred AMDB airports. All AMDB airports are DO-200A/ED-76 [1] and DO-272/ED-99 [2] compliant. Jeppesen airports have a 5m (CE90) accuracy and an 10-3 integrity. World-wide all AMDB data is delivered in WGS84 coordinates. Jeppesen continually updates the databases.

  13. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  14. Clostridium difficile Infection: A Worldwide Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Kristin E.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile, an anaerobic toxigenic bacterium, causes a severe infectious colitis that leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both enhanced bacterial toxins and diminished host immune response contribute to symptomatic disease. C. difficile has been a well-established pathogen in North America and Europe for decades, but is just emerging in Asia. This article reviews the epidemiology, microbiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of C. difficile. Prompt recognition of C. difficile is necessary to implement appropriate infection control practices. PMID:24516694

  15. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  16. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  17. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  18. Gathering, Gardening, and Agricultural Production in Alaska: Why IPM Cannot Be Overlooked Even at Latitude 64° North.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climate constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. Early colonizers into the state did not encounter the pest problems of modern farmers. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased 2...

  19. Controlling Household Pests. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Reviewed are good housekeeping practices for eliminating and preventing the return of common household pests. Each category of pest is described individually including a description of their habits, the damage they do, and approved methods of control. (SL)

  20. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  1. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  2. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  3. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" (0.80) < "applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times" (0.83) < "applying common insecticides 14 times" (1.08). The treatment "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  4. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographic regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not...

  5. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  7. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  8. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  9. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  10. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  11. Feeding Attractants for Pest Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult tephritids require sugar to ensure survival and females require protein to ensure fecundity. This strong protein requirement has been exploited to develop trapping systems for pest tephritids. Traps baited with liquid protein solutions or synthetic lures based on chemical cues from protein a...

  12. Public health significance of Urban Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharaoh ants are cosmopolitan pests which inhabit residential and commercial buildings. While they do not sting, they have the potential to mechanically transmit diseases and thus are of special concern in healthcare facilities. Their propensity to breach sterile packaging, feed on wounds, and ext...

  13. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  14. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  15. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  16. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  17. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  18. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  19. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  20. Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

  1. Right Of Way Pest Control. Manual 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)

  2. Integrated Pest Management. A Curriculum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of materials prepared for a conference aimed at developing courses of study in Integrated Pest Management appropriate for use at several levels: secondary schools, MDTA programs, community colleges and technical institutions, baccalaureate programs, and master's and doctoral level programs. The first section (Background Papers)…

  3. Natural Compounds for Pest and Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

  4. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  5. Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

  6. Regulatory Pest Control. Pesticide Bulletin 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, George C.

    This manual gives descriptions of and control methods for the imported fire ant, sweet potato pests, the white fringed beetle, the Japanese beetle, and phony peach disease. Toxicity, formulation, and application information is given for 2,4-D, methyl bromide, Chlordane, Mirex, and Mocap. Finally, environmental considerations and precautions are…

  7. Compendium of Hop Diseases and Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This compendium of diseases, pests and other disorders of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is designed to be a practical reference for anyone interested in growing hops, whether for commercial production, ornamental or home use. Growers, crop advisors, private consultants, home brewers, students, extension...

  8. Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

  9. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  10. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  11. Bioactive compounds for pest and weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

  12. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Precision Areawide Pest Management: Implications for Homeland Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areawide pest management represents coordinated adoption of integrated pest management to conduct preventive suppression of a pest species throughout its geographic distribution. Scientists in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies an...

  13. Biology of invasive termites: a worldwide review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Forschler, Brian T; Grace, J Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The number of recognized invasive termite species has increased from 17 in 1969 to 28 today. Fourteen species have been added to the list in the past 44 years; 10 have larger distributions and 4 have no reported change in distribution, and 3 species are no longer considered invasive. Although most research has focused on invasive termites in urban areas, molecular identification methods have answered questions about certain species and found that at least six species have invaded natural forest habitats. All invasive species share three characteristics that together increase the probability of creating viable propagules: they eat wood, nest in food, and easily generate secondary reproductives. These characteristics are most common in two families, the Kalotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae (which make up 21 species on the invasive termite list), particularly in three genera, Cryptotermes, Heterotermes, and Coptotermes (which together make up 16 species). Although it is the largest termite family, the Termitidae (comprising 70% of all termite species) have only two invasive species, because relatively few species have these characteristics. Islands have double the number of invasive species that continents do, with islands in the South Pacific the most invaded geographical region. Most invasive species originate from Southeast Asia. The standard control methods normally used against native pest termites are also employed against invasive termites; only two eradication attempts, in South Africa and New Zealand, appear to have been successful, both against Coptotermes species. PMID:23020620

  14. Mesoamerican origin and pre- and post-columbian expansions of the ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus say, a cosmopolitan insect pest of the common bean.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species' range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

  15. Mesoamerican Origin and Pre- and Post-Columbian Expansions of the Ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest of the Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species’ range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

  16. Options for pest and disease control in organic pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although organic pecans typically command a higher wholesale and retail price, their production presents a unique set of challenges. Among these are issues of pest and disease management - it is not simply a modification of the conventional, pest and disease management paradigm. Despite these pest ...

  17. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two ...

  18. 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington presents all the various chemicals and their uses against pest problems common to Washington vineyards. While the recommendations are based on eastern Washington conditions, the information may often be applied to similar pest problems found t...

  19. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  20. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  1. Widow spider envenomation (latrodectism): a worldwide problem.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, G A

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review widow spider envenomation on a worldwide basis, with an emphasis on regional variability in management, particularly between the United States and Australia. Data sources were the Medline database (1966-1997) for English language references using as key words widow spider, latrodectism, and red back spider, and Mesh headings. Textbooks of toxinology were also used. Studies involving clinical reports and series were selected. The data indicated that envenomation by widow spiders (latrodectism) is common worldwide. Local pain and sweating predominate, in about 25% of cases becoming generalized or developing in remote sites. The mortality in published series varies from 5% to 10%, although these may be overestimates. Australia may have the highest rate of latrodectism in the world. The literature reveals regional disparities in the treatment and outcome of latrodectism. In Australia, intramuscular antivenin has been used liberally for more than 40 years with a very low rate (0.5% to 0.8%) of allergic reactions and no deaths recorded since its introduction. Antivenin is routinely successful in relieving the effects of latrodectism. In the United States, the antivenin is given intravenously, is usually reserved for very severe cases, and the rate of allergic reaction is high (from 9% up to 80% in those skin testing positive). Deaths have been recorded after antivenin. The literature suggests that antivenin to one species of Latrodectus is likely to be effective against other species. The conclusion drawn was that latrodectism is a common envenomation worldwide. There is a strong case for a comparative trial of Australian vs US antivenin in treating latrodectism due to the black widow spider in the United States. PMID:11990169

  2. Molecular survey for the invasive leafminer pest Liriomyza Huidobrensis in California (Diptera: Agromyzidae) uncovers only the native pest L. langei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liriomyza huidobrensis is a highly destructive invasive leafminer pest currently causing extensive damage to vegetable and horticultural crops around the world. Liriomyza langei is a leafminer pest native to California that cannot currently be morphologically distinguished from L. huidobrensis. This...

  3. Worldwide oilfield service, supply and manufacturers directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Three valuable sections of the Worldwide Oilfield Service, Supply and Manufacturers Diretory give SUPPLY COMPANIES - all companies engaged in wholesale and/or retail sale of products used in all phases of the petroleum industry; SERVICE COMPANIES - included in this section are all companies providing services to any phase of the oil industry such as companies that prepare drilling sites, catering services, equipment haulers, tool rental, mud services, etc.; MANUFACTURING COMPANIES - all companies engaged in the engineering, design and construction of equipment used in the oil industry. Items manufactured might be drilling rigs, pumps, valves, etc.

  4. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    PubMed Central

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  5. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    PubMed

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  6. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  7. Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  8. Analytical modeling of worldwide medical radiation use

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Davis, M.; Kelsey, C.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Williams, A.

    1987-02-01

    An analytical model was developed to estimate the availability and frequency of medical radiation use on a worldwide basis. This model includes medical and dental x-ray, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The development of an analytical model is necessary as the first step in estimating the radiation dose to the world's population from this source. Since there is no data about the frequency of medical radiation use in more than half the countries in the world and only fragmentary data in an additional one-fourth of the world's countries, such a model can be used to predict the uses of medical radiation in these countries. The model indicates that there are approximately 400,000 medical x-ray machines worldwide and that approximately 1.2 billion diagnostic medical x-ray examinations are performed annually. Dental x-ray examinations are estimated at 315 million annually and approximately 22 million in-vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations. Approximately 4 million radiation therapy procedures or courses of treatment are undertaken annually.

  9. Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, David J.; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged. PMID:19240812

  10. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  11. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  12. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  13. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  14. Worldwide variability in deceased organ donation registries.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Amanda M; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Roels, Leo; Stewart, Bryan; Prakash, Versha; Beitel, Janice; Young, Kimberly; Shemie, Sam; Nickerson, Peter; Garg, Amit X

    2012-08-01

    The variability in deceased organ donation registries worldwide has received little attention. We considered all operating registries, where individual wishes about organ donation were recorded in a computerized database. We included registries which recorded an individual's decision to be a donor (donor registry), and registries which only recorded an individual's objection (non-donor registry). We collected information on 15 characteristics including history, design, use and number of registrants for 27 registries (68%). Most registries are nationally operated and government-owned. Registrations in five nations expire and require renewal. Some registries provide the option to make specific organ selections in the donation decision. Just over half of donor registries provide legally binding authorization to donation. In all national donor registries, except one, the proportion of adults (15+) registered is modest (<40%). These proportions can be even lower when only affirmative decisions are considered. One nation provides priority status on the transplant waiting list as an incentive to affirmative registration, while another nation makes registering a donation decision mandatory to obtain a driver's license. Registered objections in non-donor registries are rare (<0.5%). The variation in organ donor registries worldwide necessitates public discourse and quality improvement initiatives, to identify and support leading practices in registry use. PMID:22507140

  15. Worldwide report: Environmental quality, Number 407

    SciTech Connect

    1983-08-02

    Attention is focused on the following: Government Plan, Conservation Improvements, Soil Salinity, Soil Conservation, Pesticide Study, Erosion, Flood, Reforestation, Endangered Lists, Herbicide Impact, Antipollution, Protect Environment, International Affairs, Pollution Expert, Acid Rain Indicates, Water Purification Systems, Quality Outlined, Agriculture, Fisheries, Inter African affairs, Underground Water, Fight Drought, Water Use, Rainforest, Government Estimates, Salt water, Law Attacked, Air Pollution, Power Cuts, Death, Drains, Environmental Protection, Earthquake, Food Industries.

  16. INVASIVE SPECIES RESEARCH IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive pests cause huge losses to both agricultural production systems and to the natural environment through displacing native species and decreasing biodiversity. It is now estimated that many thousand exotic insects, weeds and pathogens have been established in the United States and that these...

  17. Hyperspectral imagery for mapping crop yield for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield is perhaps the most important piece of information for crop management in precision agriculture. It integrates the effects of various spatial variables such as soil properties, topographic attributes, tillage, plant population, fertilization, irrigation, and pest infestations. A yield map...

  18. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  19. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  20. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088