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Sample records for agricultural policy environmental

  1. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  2. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Engstroem, Rebecka Nilsson, Mans Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-05-15

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  3. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  4. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  5. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  6. The role of network bridging organisations in compensation payments for agri-environmental services under the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Polard, Audrey; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Compensation payments to farmers for the provision of agri-environmental services are a well-established policy scheme under the EU Common Agricultural Policy. However, in spite of the success in most EU countries in the uptake of the programme by farmers, the impact of the scheme on the long term commitment of farmers to change their practices remains poorly documented. To explore this issue, this paper presents the results of structured field interviews and a quantitative survey in the Walloon Region of Belgium. The main finding of this study is that farmers who have periodic contacts with network bridging organisations that foster cooperation and social learning in the agri-environmental landscapes show a higher commitment to change. This effect is observed both for farmers with high and low concern for biodiversity depletion. Support for network bridging organisations is foreseen under the EU Leader programme and the EU regulation 1306/2013, which could open-up interesting opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of the current payment scheme for agri-environmental services.

  7. Global Review of Agricultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report describes how governments throughout the world manage their economies and interact with their people, with special emphasis on how the agricultural sector is affected by changing government goals, policies, and programs. Policies and programs are described using information as of July 1987. The large country policy statements include…

  8. Simulating Sustainable P Management Practices in Tile-Drained Landscapes of Central Ohio Using the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, W. I., III; King, K.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite extensive application of conservation practices to minimize sediment P delivery to streams, hypoxic conditions and harmful algal blooms persist in receiving water bodies. Tile-drainage networks are a focal point for reducing soluble P in the food-producing Midwestern United States in that they promote higher connectivity between upland soils and stream channels which decreases soil contact time, and biogeochemical alterations. A critical next step to reduce the environmental impact and maintain sustainable agriculture is to implement best management practices (BMPs) under a holistic framework that considers adverse effects to water resources and crop production, while maintaining economic feasibility. The objective of this study was to apply a robust numerical model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), in a tile-drained landscape in Central Ohio in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of BMPs on soluble and particulate P delivery to stream channels. The model was applied and evaluated at two adjacent edge-of-field sites with similar soil, topographic and management characteristics (except for tillage and tile installation on the south field in 2012, preceded by more than 20 years of no-till operations). Three years of daily discharge, total suspended solids, soluble P, soluble N (NO3 and NH4), total P, total N, and crop yields were utilized to verify the model performance. Prevalent BMPs simulated within the modeling framework included drainage water management, tillage and crop rotations, the 4Rs framework (right fertilizer source, rate, time, and placement), and bioreactors. Results of the study quantify the ability of the numerical model to simulate hydrology and P transport for surface runoff and subsurface tile drainage and highlight modifications that improve model performance. Further, results highlight BMPs that effectively reduce P loads to streams while maintaining crop yields, which can later be used to inform BMPs

  9. Environmental Auditing Policy Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's policy on the use of environmental auditing by regulated entities to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations, as well as to help identify and correct unregulated environmental hazards.

  10. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product 'Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  11. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  12. Introduction: Greening the countryside? Changing frameworks of EU agricultural policy.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Philip; Feindt, Peter H; Vihinen, Hilkka

    2010-01-01

    In response to wide-ranging criticism of agricultural policy, especially within Western industrialized countries, new frameworks of justification are emerging and new hybrid policy fields have been established to tackle some of the ‘externalities’ of agricultural support. However, institutional frameworks are proving slower to change, partly because this would require coordinated action across different levels of governance. Nevertheless, previously marginalized environmental concerns have successfully gained entrance to agricultural policy networks, while the intersection of trade liberalization and rural diversification have undermined the dominance of the productivist mindset in government. This gives rise to a plurality of policy actors and actions which defy the conventional categories of analysis of agricultural policy, calling for changing frameworks on the polity of agriculture too.

  13. Metamodels and nonpoint pollution policy in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzaher, Aziz; Lakshminarayan, P. G.; Cabe, Richard; Carriquiry, Alicia; Gassman, Philip W.; Shogren, Jason F.

    1993-06-01

    Complex mathematical simulation models are generally used for quantitative measurement of the fate of agricultural chemicals in soil. But it is less efficient to use them directly for regional water quality assessments because of the large number of simulations required to cover the entire region and because the entire set of simulation runs must be repeated for each new policy. To make regional water quality impact assessment on a timely basis, a simplified technique called metamodeling is suggested. A metamodel summarizes the input-output relationships in a complex simulation model designed to mimic actual processes such as groundwater leaching. Metamodels are constructed and validated to predict groundwater and surface water concentrations of major corn and sorghum herbicides in the Corn Belt and Lake States regions of the United States. The usefulness of metamodeling in the evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pollution policies is illustrated using an integrated environmental economic modeling system. For the baseline scenario, we estimate that 1.2% of the regional soils will lead to groundwater detection of atrazine exceeding 0.12 Mg/L, which compares well with the findings of an Environmental Protection Agency monitoring survey. The results suggest no-till practices could significantly reduce surface water concentration and a water quality policy, such as an atrazine ban, could increase soil erosion despite the conservation compliance provisions.

  14. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  15. Agricultural policies and biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaim, S.; Hertzmark, D.

    The potentials for biomass energy derived from agricultural products are examined. The production of energy feedstocks from grains is discussed for the example of ethanol production from grain, with consideration given to the beverage process and the wet milling process for obtaining fuel ethanol from grains and sugars, the nonfeedstock costs and energy requirements for ethanol production, the potential net energy gain from ethanol fermentation, the effect of ethanol fuel production on supplies of protein, oils and feed and of ethanol coproducts, net ethanol costs, and alternatives to corn as an ethanol feedstock. Biomass fuel production from crop residues is then considered; the constraints of soil fertility on crop residue removal for energy production are reviewed, residue yields with conventional practices and with reduced tillage are determined, technologies for the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol and methanol are described, and potential markets for the products of these processes are identified. Implications for agricultural policy of ethanol production from grain and fuel and chemical production from crop residues are also discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Environmental Policy Acts. 1940.328 Section 1940... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.328 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Numerous States have enacted environmental policy acts or regulations similar to...

  17. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  18. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  19. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production

    PubMed Central

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and—more importantly—create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win–lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3–3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future. PMID:20643935

  20. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  1. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  2. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview chapter examines the roles that environmental monitoring and assessment can play in the development of environmental policy. It takes a case study approach, focusing on the key roles played by monitoring data in policy formulation in acid deposition, stratospheric...

  3. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  4. Antimicrobials in animal agriculture: parables and policy.

    PubMed

    Scott, H M; Midgley, G; Loneragan, G H

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the scientific, economic, regulatory and other policy factors that impact on antimicrobial decision-making in different jurisdictions around the world, there exist ethical, social and cultural bases for the contemporary use of these products in animal agriculture. Thus, the use of the word 'parable' to describe the contemporary moral stories that help to guide ethical antimicrobial use practices and broader policy decisions in animal agriculture is appropriate. Several of these stories reflect difficult decisions that arise from conflicting moral imperatives (i.e. both towards animal welfare and towards human health). Understanding the factors that combine to define the past and present paradigms of antimicrobial usage is crucial to mapping a path forward. There exist barriers, as well as opportunities, for advancing scenarios for reducing antimicrobial usage under a variety of voluntary, regulatory and legal policy frameworks. Any new approaches will ideally be structured to extend the use of present-day antimicrobials into the future, to provide novel alternatives for regulating any newly introduced antimicrobial products so as to maximize their useful life span and to ensure the optimal use of these products in animal agriculture to protect not only the health of animals and the interests of animal health/agriculture stakeholders, but also the human health and the interests of the public at large. A full range of policy approaches, which span the realm from strictly enforced regulations and laws to voluntary guidelines and compliance, should be explored with respect to their risks and benefits in a variety of worldwide settings and in full consideration of a range of stakeholder values.

  5. Environmental Education, Sustainable Agriculture, and CGIAR: History and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelles, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a global network of 15 specialized centers employing around 2,000 international scientists and 6,000 national staff in over 100 countries. CGIAR educational approaches to environmental issues have varied amid conflicting perspectives. Inadequate policies, learning resources,…

  6. Critical Thinking for Natural Resource, Agricultural, and Environmental Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…

  7. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  8. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  9. Coupling a high resolution soil erosion model with an agro-ecosystem model of SOC dynamics. An approach to assess the potential environmental effect of the new Common Agricultural Policy on soil degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Schütt, Brigitta; Lugato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    At the European Union level, the main mechanisms to promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture was introduced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform in 2003, through the Cross-compliance. According to this new regulation, the farmer support payments were regulated with respect to environmental, animal welfare and food safety standards. This brought to the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC), firstly established by Council Regulation No. 1782/2003 and subsequently Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. The prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil organic matter were two of GAEC requirements, which each Member State was obliged to address through national standards such as: i) minimal soil cover maintenance (GAEC 4); ii) minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil loss (GAEC 5) and iii) maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices including ban on burning arable stubbles (GAEC 6). Although Member States are required to verify whether the farmers are compliant with the regulations (Cross-compliance), the environmental effect of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC) applications on erosion and carbon budgets are still little known and studied. To investigate the potential impacts of the GAEC, we coupled a high resolution erosion model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with the CENTURY biogeochemical model (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421; 2016). The Italian arable land was selected as a study area, since it is well-known to be highly sensitive to soil erosion. Multi scenario modelling approach was undertaken, i.e., i) a baseline scenario without scenario excluding GAEC (pre 2003 period); ii) a present scenario including the current GAEC standards (post 2003 period), and iii) a technical potential scenario assuming that the GAEC standards were applied to the entire Italian arable land. The results show a 10.8% decrease, from

  10. Environmental costing for agriculture: Will it be standard fare in the farm bill of 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper starts by discussing and estimating the environmental costs of agricultural production. The author uses a separate benefit transfer intended to expose methodological issues to construct each cost category of agricultures's external effects. This is followed by a simple description of the framework for production decisions that account for environmental costs. Included are attribution of environmental externalities and measurement of environmental costs. Finally the author discusses research implications of environmental costing, including TQM and environmental policy analyses, environmental services and their unit values, strategies for measuring environmental values, and prognosis for agricultural adders. 42 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelgren, Bo

    Agricultural water use accounts for about 70 percent of abstracted waters reaching 92 percent of the collective uses of all water resources when rain water is included. Agriculture is the traditional first sector and linked to a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues at local and global level that reach beyond the production of cheap food and industrial fibres. With the dominance in agricultural water uses and linkages with land use and soil conservation the sector is critical to the protection of global and local environmental values especially in sensitive dryland systems. Ethical principles related to development and nature conservation have traditionally been focused on sustainability imperatives building on precaution and preventive action or on indisputable natural systems values, but are by necessity turning more and more towards solidarity-based risk management approaches. Policy and management have in general failed to consider social dimensions with solidarity, consistency and realism for societal acceptance and practical application. As a consequence agriculture and water related land degradation is resulting in accelerated losses in land productivity and biodiversity in dryland and in humid eco- systems. Increasingly faced with the deer social consequences in the form of large man-made hydrological disasters and with pragmatic requirements driven by drastic increases in the related social cost the preferences are moving to short-term risk management approaches with civil protection objectives. Water scarcity assessment combined with crisis diagnoses and overriding statements on demographic growth, poverty and natural resources scarcity and deteriorating food security in developing countries have become common in the last decades. Such studies are increasingly questioned for purpose, ethical integrity and methodology and lack of consideration of interdependencies between society, economy and environment and of society's capacity to adapt to

  12. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  13. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  14. Remembering the farmer in the agriculture policy and obesity debate.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policies are often criticized for promoting the overconsumption of unhealthy foods, thereby contributing to rising obesity rates. This article explores the accuracy of claims that existing agricultural policies contribute to obesity and describes the conflict between traditional nutrition and agricultural policy goals. The article concludes by asserting that the challenges facing farmers must be considered in the redesign of agriculture policy to support obesity prevention goals of governments. If the needs of farmers are overlooked, efforts to improve the nutritional profile of the average American diet will be undermined.

  15. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  16. 24 CFR 50.3 - Environmental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental policy. 50.3 Section... Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General: Federal Laws and Authorities § 50.3 Environmental policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department to reject proposals which have significant...

  17. 24 CFR 50.3 - Environmental policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental policy. 50.3 Section... Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General: Federal Laws and Authorities § 50.3 Environmental policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department to reject proposals which have significant...

  18. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    PubMed

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution.

  19. Public Policy and the Politics of Agriculture: Organization Inaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Philip

    1979-01-01

    The article details four factors preventing social researchers from identifying political alternatives to technological change and thereby influencing public policy in American agriculture, discussing the general failure of rural sociologists to engage in policy research and calling for more policy studies. (SB)

  20. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    PubMed

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh.

  1. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted.

  2. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  3. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

  4. The limitations of environmental management systems in Australian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Roberts, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of government-supported programs to encourage improved management of land and water systems associated with agricultural land in Australia has been mixed. The broad approach of Australian governments is reviewed briefly. Evidence is presented from case assessments of a program to promote adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve environmental outcomes from agricultural practices. EMSs are systems implemented to manage the environmental impacts and ameliorate environmental risk associated with business activity. Data are presented on reported EMS activity and experience of four selected groups of farmers in Victoria, south-eastern Australia, representing broad-acre cropping, beef and dairy farming. The pro-environmental behaviours of farmers were mediated through voluntary adoption of government and industry sponsored EMSs, often with financial incentives and other support. Findings from the study were that adoption of EMS practices with sufficient public benefits is unlikely to occur at sufficient scale for significant environmental impact. Farmers more readily adopted practices which were financially beneficial than those which had a positive environmental impact. Although the focus on voluntary market-based instrument (MBI) type programs is popular in western countries, enforcing regulation is an important, but usually politically unpopular, component of land use policy. The comparative advantage of EMSs differed for the industries studied, but overall there were insufficient market drivers for widespread EMS adoption in Australia. Environmental outcomes could be more effectively achieved by directly funding land management practices which have highest public net benefits. Having a clear and unambiguous management objective for a particular land management policy is more likely to achieve outcomes than having multiple objectives as occurs in a number of international programs currently.

  5. Distributional conflicts in environmental-resource policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schnaiberg, A.; Watts, N.; Zimmerman, K.

    1986-01-01

    Why is an allocation-oriented policy like environmental and resources policy relatively unsuccessful. How could this problem be overcome-by means of what institutional reform or policy initiatives. These two questions are addressed in this book. CONTENTS: Preface Introduction: From Consensus to Dissensus; Efficiency and Distribution in Corrective Mechanisms for Environmental Externality; Equity and Efficiency in Environmental Policy Analysis; The Welfare State, the New Regulation and the Rule of Law; How and Why Environmental Consciousness Has Trickled Down; Capitol and Labor Reallocation in the Face of Environmental Policy; Contradictions and Changes in Labor Response to Distributional Implications of Environmental-Resource Policies; State Roles in the Articulation and Mediation of Distributional Conflicts; Solidarity Between Generations; Future Projectories of Resource Distributional Conflicts.

  6. Developing a model policy on youth employment in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary E; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a model policy that agricultural employers could adopt specific to youth employment, including age-appropriate assignments, training needs for adolescent workers, ideal supervision, and mentoring by adult workers. Methods included discussions at a national conference of agricultural employers, a survey of employers' perspectives on young workers, forming a task force to draft a model policy, and finalizing the policy document. The process resulted in a template that can be used by agricultural employers for immediate adoption, or to be customized and adapted for their unique company. Given new trends in agriculture to use certification systems, safety audits, and voluntary safety standards in addition to the regulatory process, there is value in having a voluntary "best practice" model policy that can be adopted in settings where safeguarding young farm workers is a priority.

  7. Environmental Salmonella in agricultural fair poultry exhibits in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Pabilonia, K L; Cadmus, K J; Lingus, T M; Bolte, D S; Russell, M M; Van Metre, D C; Erdman, M M

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica is a common zoonotic pathogen in humans. Transmission typically occurs through consumption of contaminated food products or contact with infected animals, including poultry or their environment. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of Salmonella contamination in the environment in poultry exhibits at agricultural fairs. Samples were collected from cages, feed, floors and tables in the exhibit and cultured for Salmonella. At least one environmental sample was positive for Salmonella in 10 of 11 fairs (91%), and Salmonella was isolated from 28 of 55 environmental samples (50.9%). Eleven different serotypes were detected. Results of this study demonstrate that environmental surfaces at agricultural fairs can be contaminated with Salmonella and could potentially serve as a route of transmission to bird owners and the general public. Poultry owners and the general public should be educated about the risks of Salmonella infection from the poultry exhibit environment. Agricultural fairs should consider instituting policies and practices to improve hygiene and mitigate the risk of zoonotic salmonellosis.

  8. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields.

  9. Environmental Protection Tools in Agricultural Management Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bozek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Land consolidation is a fundamental instrument for agricultural management. It facilitates comprehensive changes in the agricultural, social, and ecological domains. Consolidation and post-consolidation development-related investments are an opportunity to improve living conditions in rural areas, and simultaneously ensure its positive impact on the environment. One of the primary goals of consolidation, directly specified in the Act on land consolidation, is to improve farming conditions. In Poland, consolidation is possible due to EU funds: RDP 2007-2013 and RDP 2014-2020. In order for individual villages to be granted EU funds for consolidation and post-consolidation development under the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, their consolidation has to implement actions with positive impact on the environment and the landscape. The goal of this paper is to analyse documentation in the form of assumptions for a land consolidation project enclosed to an RDP 2014-2020 grant application and project information sheets as the basis for environmental impact assessment in the context of detailed presentation of environmental protection solutions that ensure a positive impact of the project on the environment and landscape. The detailed study involved 9 villages in the Malopolskie Voivodeship, which applied for EU grants for land consolidation in the current financial perspective. The paper specifies the existing state of the analysed villages as regards the natural environment, lists agricultural management instruments that have a positive impact on the environment, and demonstrates that planning of actions aimed at environmental protection is a necessary element of assumptions for land consolidation projects.

  10. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  11. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  12. Environmental systems and local actors: decentralizing environmental policy in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oosterveer, Peter; Van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  13. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; da Costa, Vera Luiza; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-12-01

    The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses.

  14. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses. PMID:26668440

  15. A narrative policy approach to environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Ricky N; Rudd, Murray A

    2014-11-01

    Due to the urgency and seriousness of the loss of biological diversity, scientists from across a range of disciplines are urged to increase the salience and use of their research by policy-makers. Increased policy nuance is needed to address the science-policy gap and overcome divergent views of separate research and policy worlds, a view still relatively common among conservation scientists. Research impact considerations should recognize that policy uptake is dependent on contextual variables operating in the policy sphere. We provide a novel adaptation of existing policy approaches to evidence impact that accounts for non-evidentiary "societal" influences on decision-making. We highlight recent analytical tools from political science that account for the use of evidence by policy-makers. Using the United Kingdom's recent embrace of the ecosystem approach to environmental management, we advocate analyzing evidence research impact through a narrative lens that accounts for the credibility, legitimacy, and relevance of science for policy.

  16. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy Statement. SUMMARY: This is a statement affirming the FAA's environmental and energy policy for U.S. civil aviation. This policy statement outlines...

  17. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  18. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  19. Environmental Policy and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Carlson, Joy E.

    1995-01-01

    Considers how the unique vulnerabilities of children challenge environmental policymaking, particularly as it concerns environmental contamination through manufactured chemicals. Contributions of educational and advocacy efforts are addressed as well as the interests of industry and the problems of environmental equity. A new approach to…

  20. Summary of the National Environmental Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that significantly affects the environment.

  1. Charting and Theorising the Territorialisation of Agricultural Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouve, Aurelie; Berriet-Solliec, Marielle; Depres, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Against a background of contestation of European agricultural policy, the territorial dimension is one of the prominent factors in proposals for shaping new rules of public action. This situation has been brought about by shifts in the nature of the challenges facing farming and in society's expectations of it, but also by a change in the forms…

  2. Environmental assessment of spatial plan policies through land use scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a method based on scenario analysis to compare the environmental effects of different spatial plan policies in a range of possible futures. The study aimed at contributing to overcome two limitations encountered in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for spatial planning: poor exploration of how the future might unfold, and poor consideration of alternative plan policies. Scenarios were developed through what-if functions and spatial modeling in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and consisted in maps that represent future land uses under different assumptions on key driving forces. The use of land use scenarios provided a representation of how the different policies will look like on the ground. This allowed gaining a better understanding of the policies' implications on the environment, which could be measured through a set of indicators. The research undertook a case-study approach by developing and assessing land use scenarios for the future growth of Caia, a strategically-located and fast-developing town in rural Mozambique. The effects of alternative spatial plan policies were assessed against a set of environmental performance indicators, including deforestation, loss of agricultural land, encroachment of flood-prone areas and wetlands and access to water sources. In this way, critical environmental effects related to the implementation of each policy were identified and discussed, suggesting possible strategies to address them. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method contributes to two critical issues in SEA: exploration of the future and consideration of alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future scenarios are used to test the environmental performance of different spatial plan policies in uncertainty conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatially-explicit land use scenarios provide a representation of how different policies will look like on the ground.

  3. Environmental scenarios for the future nitrogen policy in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Overloop, S M; Van Gijseghem, D E; Helming, J F

    2001-11-10

    The agricultural sector accounts for two thirds of nitrogen losses in Flanders, Belgium. Since 1991 both the government and the farmers have been taking measures to reduce the nitrogen surplus. Initially, the manure policy was aimed at distributing the manure surplus equally across Flanders. At the same time, the growth of livestock was stopped by a strict licensing policy, which required "command and control" measures. In recent years, the policy has switched to the use of individual target commitments by farmers. The Flemish manure policy will be tightened even more as a result of international pressures. An ex ante evaluation of possible policy options was carried out using three different scenarios spread out until 2010 (Business As Usual, Additional Measures, and Sustainable Development). To do this, a sector-economic, regionalized, environmental, comparative static, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of the Flemish agriculture was developed. The nitrogen emission into the agricultural soil was calculated by means of a regional soil balance. European targets can only be reached with manure processing, reduced fertilizer usage, and a strong reduction of intensive livestock breeding activities. The atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds will strongly decrease in 2010 if additional measures are taken. This will also result in a strong reduction of nitrous oxide emissions.

  4. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  5. Paradoxical EU agricultural policies on genetically engineered crops.

    PubMed

    Masip, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Banakar, Raviraj; Cebrian, David; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Albajes, Ramon; Christou, Paul

    2013-06-01

    European Union (EU) agricultural policy has been developed in the pursuit of laudable goals such as a competitive economy and regulatory harmony across the union. However, what has emerged is a fragmented, contradictory, and unworkable legislative framework that threatens economic disaster. In this review, we present case studies highlighting differences in the regulations applied to foods grown in EU countries and identical imported products, which show that the EU is undermining its own competitiveness in the agricultural sector, damaging both the EU and its humanitarian activities in the developing world. We recommend the adoption of rational, science-based principles for the harmonization of agricultural policies to prevent economic decline and lower standards of living across the continent.

  6. New directions in Mexican environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumme, Stephen P.; Sanchez, Roberto A.

    1992-07-01

    Since taking office 1 December 1988, Mexico's incumbent president, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, has introduced important innovations in environmental policy that distinguish his administration from those of his predecessors. Greater administrative continuity, improved regulatory capacity achieved through statutory change, focused priorities centering on pollution abatement in Mexico City, and an aggressive search for external financing for pollution control are hallmarks of Salinas' approach. The success of these environmental reforms depends heavily on economic recovery, however, and environmental policy still suffers from underfunding, bureaucratic fragmentation, and heavy reliance on voluntarist enforcement mechanisms. Recently, U.S. congressional debate on a proposed free trade agreement with Mexico has been a factor in spurring the Salinas government to take new antipollution and conservation measures. Mexico's growing environmental movement is also an important force behind the government's new responsiveness in environmental matters. The Salinas administration recognizes the issue's political salience and has sought to defuse environmental criticism using a large arsenal of resources at its disposal. Salinas' environmental policy strategy may thus be characterized as both proactive and reactive in nature. While the reforms are evidence that Mexico is beginning to take environmental matters more seriously, economic recovery and sustained environmental activism remain vital to further progress.

  7. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  8. Population, consumption trends call for new environmental policies.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article highlights the need for new environmental policies. 38 industrialized countries gave commitments to protect the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But, a report on "Population Change, Resources, and the Environment" indicated that high levels of resource consumption in developed countries are a problem also, as are the complex environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Global population is expected to include at least another 2 billion people by the mid-21st century. This growth will occur mostly in countries that lack the resources to invest in sound environmental policies and that may not adopt economic growth with little environmental impact. Additional population requires additional food, water, and shelter. The links between the environment and population include social structures, political systems, and lifestyles. Population is increasing the fastest in countries with the least efficient food production and distribution systems. Access to safe drinking water is constrained by poverty, poor infrastructure, and pollution of waterways and groundwater. A major share of economic growth will occur in cities. Population shifts to cities will create demand for health care and education, and encroach on surrounding farmland. Global marine fish stocks are being depleted. Logging and agriculture threaten forest resources. The report stresses that government policies that minimize the environmental impact of humans should promote recycling, eliminate subsidies that distort environmental costs of scarce resources, and implement better forest and fishery management. Politicians must think globally and act locally.

  9. How effective is greening policy in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture? Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Solazzo, Roberto; Donati, Michele; Tomasi, Licia; Arfini, Filippo

    2016-12-15

    Agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for more than 10% of total CO2 emissions in the EU-28 area. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) plays an important role in promoting environmentally and climate friendly practices and needs to respond to the new environmental challenges by better integrating its objectives with other EU policies. In this respect, the recent CAP reform 2014-2020 made a further step, making a large part of direct payments conditional on new agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment, i.e. "greening". In this study we estimate the potential environmental benefits from greening in terms of GHG emissions in four regions of Northern Italy, one of the major European agricultural areas in terms of emissions. The emissions were quantified and broken down into the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) per production process. This information was subsequently used in a Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) farm-based model on more than 3,000 farms, to estimate the effects of greening on regional land use and its contribution in reducing the total emissions. The new agri-environmental constraints produce a modest abatement of total emissions of greenhouse gases (-1.5%) in the analyzed area. The model estimates a reduction in CO2 emissions of about 2%. Emissions from nitrous oxide show a decrease of 2.1% and the reduction in the methane is about 0.4% compared to the observed scenario. The process of "lightening" that affected the greening during the CAP negotiation has inevitably resulted in missing an opportunity to introduce a significant positive change of behaviour into agriculture, in line with the expectations and needs of society for EU agriculture as a provider of public goods.

  10. Volatility and Uncertainty in Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniloff, Peter Taylor

    Environmental policy is increasingly implemented via market mechanisms. While this is in many ways a great success for the economics profession, a number of questions remain. In this dissertation, I empirically explore the question of what will happen as environmental outcomes are coupled to potentially volatile market phenomena, whether policies can insulate environmental outcomes and market shocks, and policymakers should act to mitigate such volatility. I use a variety of empirical methods including reduced form and structural econometrics as well as theoretical models to consider a variety of policy, market, and institutional contexts. The effectiveness of market interventions depends on the context and on the policy mechanism. In particular, energy markets are characterized by low demand elasticities and kinked supply curves which are very flat below a capacity constraint (elastic) and very steep above it (inelastic). This means that a quantity-based policy that acts on demand, such as releasing additional pollution emission allowances from a reserved fund would be an effective way to constrain price shocks in a cap-and-trade system. However, a quantity-based policy that lowers the need for inframarginal supply, such as using ethanol as an oil product substitute to mitigate oil shocks, would be ineffective. Similarly, the benefits of such interventions depends on the macroeconomic impacts of price shocks from the sector. Relatedly, I show that a liability rule designed to reduce risk from low-probability, high-consequence oil spills have very low compliance costs.

  11. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation...

  12. Criteria for Successful Environmental Science Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarewitz, D.

    2002-05-01

    I. Disputes over values usually lie at the heart of environmental policy dilemmas. Under conditions of contested values, science is most likely to contribute to effective environmental policy making if: 1) the needs and capabilities of decision makers are well-understood, and research agendas respond directly to these needs and capabilities; 2) research agendas aim at expanding, rather than reducing, the range of options available to decision makers; and 3) research agendas support policy actions that are incremental, small-scale, and low-risk. II. High-profile environmental controversies (e.g., climate change, acid rain, radioactive waste disposal, endangered species, airborne particulate matter) are typically mischaracterized as disputes over facts that demand research agendas aimed at: 1) increased fundamental scientific understanding driven by basic research; 2) scientific identification of optimal decision pathways; and 3) scientific validation of grand, large-scale solutions. III. It is therefore unsurprising that the contribution of science to environmental policy making has often been disappointing.

  13. Uncertainty, Environmental Policy and Social Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove-White, Robin

    2005-01-01

    This note puts the research project which led to this Special Issue in the context of developments in and around environmental policy over the past two decades, from the perspective of someone closely involved. It links political and institutional problems over sustainable development to the changing role and authority of science in contemporary…

  14. Health Educators as Environmental Policy Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…

  15. Environmental policies in an international mixed duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets. We suppose that the firm in the home country is a welfare-maximizing public firm, while the firm in the foreign country is its own profit-maximizing private firm. We find that the environmental tax can be a strategic instrument for the home government to distribute production from the foreign private firm to the home public firm. An additional effect of the home environmental tax is the reduction of the foreign private firm's output for local consumption, thereby expanding the foreign market for the home public firm.

  16. Teaching Materials for Environmental Related Courses in Agriculture Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohning, Kermit B.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    The lesson plans were designed to provide the practicing applied biological and agricultural occupations teacher with a series of units setting down a basic foundation in Environmental Education. Nine lesson plans cover (1) ecosystems and agriculture, (2) biotic communities and food chains, (3) energy and nutrient flow, (4) land use and supply,…

  17. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  18. Utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for environmental benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for environmental benefits. Gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years. It is a soluble source of calcium and sulfur for crops and has been shown to improve soil physical and chemical pr...

  19. Hands-On Activities and Challenge Tests in Agricultural and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poudel, D. D.; Vincent, L. M.; Anzalone, C.; Huner, J.; Wollard, D.; Clement, T.; DeRamus, A.; Blakewood, G.

    2005-01-01

    Many agricultural and environmental problems are interrelated and overlapping. Several agencies, including nonprofit organizations, have developed programs to educate schoolchildren about agricultural and environmental issues; however, programs that integrate both agricultural and environmental learning, especially among middle and high school…

  20. Tracking environmental dynamics and agricultural intensification in southern Mali

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, Gary; McGahuey, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Office de la Haute Vallée du Fleuve Niger (OHVN) zone in southern Mali is a small but important agricultural production region. Against a background of environmental degradation including decades of declining rainfall, soil erosion, and human pressure on forest resources, numerous farming communities stand out through the use of improved soil and water management practices that have improved agricultural and environmental conditions. Field surveys conducted in 1998–2001 indicated that environmental and agricultural conditions have improved in the past decade. In an effort to better quantify environmental trends, we conducted a study using medium- and high-resolution remotely sensed images from 1965 to 2001 in order to analyze land use and land cover trends in 21 village territories. The trends show clear indications of agricultural intensification and diversification among villages that have received assistance from the OHVN agricultural development agency. Some communities have improved environmental conditions by protecting their forest resources through community management actions. Four decades of remotely sensed images played a practical role in tracking and quantifying environmental and agricultural conditions over time.

  1. Six distributional effects of environmental policy.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Don

    2011-06-01

    While prior literature has identified various effects of environmental policy, this note uses the example of a proposed carbon permit system to illustrate and discuss six different types of distributional effects: (1) higher prices of carbon-intensive products, (2) changes in relative returns to factors like labor, capital, and resources, (3) allocation of scarcity rents from a restricted number of permits, (4) distribution of the benefits from improvements in environmental quality, (5) temporary effects during the transition, and (6) capitalization of all those effects into prices of land, corporate stock, or house values. The note also discusses whether all six effects could be regressive, that is, whether carbon policy could place disproportionate burden on the poor.

  2. Evaluating environmental justice under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. To avoid inequities in future federal activities, President Clinton issued Executive Order (EO) 12898, which requires federal agencies to consider environmental justice in carrying out their missions. Guidance issued by the Executive Office of the President requires every federal agency to consider environmental justice in conducting impact evaluations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Thus, an environmental justice analysis is a highly focused form of social impact assessment that must be conducted within the framework of NEPA. The specific purpose of such an analysis is to determine whether a proposed federal activity would impact low-income and minority populations to a greater extent than it would impact a community`s general population. This article explains the development and implementation of EO 12898 and explores what federal agencies are doing to incorporate environmental justice into their NEPA procedures. It also includes recommendations for other authorities to consider when incorporating environmental justice into their environmental impact assessments.

  3. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  4. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  5. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  6. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  7. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things,...

  8. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  9. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  10. Future Directions in Rural Development Policy. Findings and Recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Norman; Rowley, Thomas D.

    The National Commission on Agriculture and Rural Development Policy, established by Congress to provide broad, long-range policy perspectives, examined rural development policy issues and made many field visits to observe rural conditions and rural development projects. The Commission recognized the diversity of rural communities and identified…

  11. Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 1. Framework for regional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

    1993-09-01

    Agricultural production systems provide some unique challenges for assessing the regional impacts of water quality protection policies. A modeling framework is proposed for assessing the environmental and economic consequences of groundwater quality protection policies at the regional level. The model consists of three components: (1) a crop simulation/chemical transport model, (2) a regional economic optimization model, and (3) an aquifer groundwater flow model. The three submodels are linked and run recursively to simulate producer response to alternative water quality policies over a multiple-year time horizon. Model solutions provide projections of production practices employed on various resource situations across the region. Economic evaluation of alternative policies may be based upon regional agricultural income, crop production levels, input use, and changes in aquifer water levels over time. Measures of agricultural nonpoint source pollution provided by the model include nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide loadings in deep percolation and runoff water, as well as sediment losses.

  12. Targeting environmental priorities in agriculture: Reforming program strategies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report responds to a bipartisan request from the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee. The analysis identifies priority environmental tergets across the country for quality, wildlife, and soil quality. A triparite set of programs designed to lower cost and achieve more enduring solutions illustrates possible approaches to the targets. One program strategy, the development of a new generation of technologies that retain frame profits while achieving environmental gains, has received litle emphasis but appears to hold considerable promise.

  13. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohonk Trust, New Paltz, NY.

    This publication is the first of a series of manuals that present environmental guidelines for planning and implementing ecologically sustainable projects. Attention is particularly directed to the agricultural situation and needs of developing nations. Subject areas discussed include: (1) users and uses (identifying the major purposes of the…

  14. Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists core standards and occupational knowledge amd skills that have been identified/validated by industry as necessary to all Georgia students in secondary-level environmental and agricultural sciences programs. First, foundation skills are grouped as follows: basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic/mathematics, listening,…

  15. Introduction to biochar as an agricultural and environmental amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This introductory chapter justifies and outlines biochar for current and potential agricultural and environmental applications. Biochar is fine-grained, recalcitrant charcoal made from heating vegetative biomass, bones, manure solids, and other plant-derived organic residues in an oxygen-free or oxy...

  16. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  17. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    economic losses associated with the decrease in crop production. This suggests that payment for the environmental benefits of organic agriculture should be incorporated into public policies. Most of the environmental impacts of organic farming were related to N fluxes within agroecosystems, which is a call for the better management of N fertilizer in regions or countries with low levels of N-use efficiency. Issues such as higher external inputs and lack of integration cropping with animal husbandry should be addressed during the quantification of change of conventional to organic agriculture, and the quantification of this change is challenging.

  18. 76 FR 53057 - National Environmental Policy Act Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ..., Environmental Law, (919) 501-9439. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Amendment of 39 CFR 775.6(b)(15) is necessary to... 775 National Environmental Policy Act Procedures AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Postal Service's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance procedures...

  19. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.67 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Coordination. OJP will coordinate with grantees to...

  20. Contribution of agricultural and non-agricultural use of pesticides to the environmental impact on aquatic life in regional surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Jongbloed, R H; Hulskotte, J H J; Kempenaar, C

    2004-01-01

    By means of a modelling tool an analysis was made of the local variation in the use of pesticides in the province of Utrecht in The Netherlands, and the potential environmental impact of pesticide emissions on the aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major sources of pesticide use and environmental impact, taking the regional variation of pesticide use into account. The analysis was targeted at different levels: detailed (individual active substances, individual agricultural crops, civil land-use types, hydrological catchment basins) and globally covering agricultural use, non-agricultural use (some civil sectors) and recreational shipping. The results can be used for the (re)design of environmental monitoring programmes of pesticides in surface waters and for the development of region based policies towards sustainable pesticide use. The analysis tool that was developed is considered to be applicable for other regions as well.

  1. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Agriculture Practices on Natural Resources: Scientific Contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to Enhance the Management of Agricultural Landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) enhances and protects the quality of life in the United States by advancing scientific knowledge to facilitate effective management of hydrologic, biologic, and geologic resources. Results of selected USGS research and monitoring projects in agricultural landscapes are presented in this Fact Sheet. Significant environmental and social issues associated with agricultural production include changes in the hydrologic cycle; introduction of toxic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens; reduction and alteration of wildlife habitats; and invasive species. Understanding environmental consequences of agricultural production is critical to minimize unintended environmental consequences. The preservation and enhancement of our natural resources can be achieved by measuring the success of improved management practices and by adjusting conservation policies as needed to ensure long-term protection.

  2. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  3. Policies for agricultural nitrogen management—trends, challenges and prospects for improved efficiency in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hansen, Birgitte; Hasler, Berit; Hertel, Ole; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Kronvang, Brian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Schjørring, Jan K.; Sillebak Kristensen, Ib; Graversgaard, Morten; Termansen, Mette; Vejre, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    With more than 60% of the land farmed, with vulnerable freshwater and marine environments, and with one of the most intensive, export-oriented livestock sectors in the world, the nitrogen (N) pollution pressure from Danish agriculture is severe. Consequently, a series of policy action plans have been implemented since the mid 1980s with significant effects on the surplus, efficiency and environmental loadings of N. This paper reviews the policies and actions taken and their ability to mitigate effects of reactive N (Nr) while maintaining agricultural production. In summary, the average N-surplus has been reduced from approximately 170 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to below 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during the past 30 yrs, while the overall N-efficiency for the agricultural sector (crop + livestock farming) has increased from around 20-30% to 40-45%, the N-leaching from the field root zone has been halved, and N losses to the aquatic and atmospheric environment have been significantly reduced. This has been achieved through a combination of approaches and measures (ranging from command and control legislation, over market-based regulation and governmental expenditure to information and voluntary action), with specific measures addressing the whole N cascade, in order to improve the quality of ground- and surface waters, and to reduce the deposition to terrestrial natural ecosystems. However, there is still a major challenge in complying with the EU Water Framework and Habitats Directives, calling for new approaches, measures and technologies to mitigate agricultural N losses and control N flows.

  4. Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2003-01-01

    The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices. PMID:12894321

  5. National Environmental Policy Act in EPA Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS), Special Topics and points of contacts for EPA Region 9 Pacific Southwest serving Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Pacific islands, and 148 tribal nations.

  6. Tackling the Dilemma of the Science-Policy Interface in Environmental Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimorelli, Alan J.; Stahl, Cynthia H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientifically derived environmental indicators are central to environmental decision analysis. This article examines the interface between science (environmental indicators) and policy, and the dilemma of their integration. In the past, science has been shown to dominate many policy debates, usually with unfavorable results. The issue, therefore,…

  7. Pragmatics of Policy: The Compliance of Dutch Environmental Policy Instruments to European Union Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today’s environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  8. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    PubMed

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  9. Carrying capacity in agriculture: environmental significance and some related patents.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alexandre M

    2009-06-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important and possibly the oldest economic activity developed by humans. This activity was developed extensively and is becoming more and more dependent on development of technologies. The goal of this manuscript was examining some patents related to technologies developed for improving crop yields. Such patents are mainly related to more efficient formulations of agrochemicals and management techniques of plants, cattle and natural resources. A brief comment is carried out about bioprospection and related problems, relating, for example the case of Cupuaçu. The article is concluded mentioning that the development of policies and management strategies that increase agricultural yield and simultaneously preserve or conserve natural resources should also be prioritized, because certainly this is the only way we have to get the real sustainability and to improve life quality abroad the world.

  10. How have agricultural policies influenced caloric consumption in the United States?

    PubMed

    Rickard, Bradley J; Okrent, Abigail M; Alston, Julian M

    2013-03-01

    Many commentators have speculated that agricultural policies have contributed to increased obesity rates in the United States, yet such claims are often made without any analysis of the complex links between real-world farm commodity support programs, prices and consumption of foods, and caloric intake. This article carefully studies the effects of US agricultural policies on prices and quantities of 10 agricultural commodities and nine food categories in the United States over time. Using a detailed multimarket model, we simulate the counterfactual removal of measures of support applied to US agricultural commodities in 1992, 1997, and 2002 and quantify the effects on US food consumption and caloric intake. To parameterize the simulations, we calculate three alternative measures of consumer support (the implicit consumer subsidy from policies that support producers) for the 10 agricultural commodities using information about government expenditures on agricultural commodities from various sources. Our results indicate that-holding all other policies constant-removing US subsidies on grains and oilseeds in the three periods would have caused caloric consumption to decrease minimally whereas removal of all US agricultural policies (including barriers against imports of sugar and dairy products) would have caused total caloric intake to increase. Our results also indicate that the influence of agricultural policies on caloric intake has diminished over time.

  11. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  12. 75 FR 52941 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests from...

  13. 76 FR 24481 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests from...

  14. South America's neoliberal agricultural frontiers: places of environmental sacrifice or conservation opportunity?

    PubMed

    Brannstrom, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Neoliberal agricultural frontiers, defined as export-oriented farming areas motivated more by global demand and land privatization than by government subsidies, present at least two major challenges for environmental researchers: estimating land change and understanding governance types and outcomes. Environmental governance, the "filter" between human and biophysical systems, is considered in terms of two models in light of empirical evidence from a neoliberal frontier in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) ecoregion. Land-change analysis indicates that agricultural land uses increased from 12% of the study region in 1986 to 44% in 2000 and 55% in 2005, with a corresponding loss of native Cerrado. A prominent farming organization formed in 1990 has participated in or led several environmental policy initiatives. Evidence of both governance models is found, and dilemmas facing environmental activists and managers, as well as the farming sector, are presented. For organizations representing large commercial farmers, compliance with environmental regulations may be seen as both a cost to be borne by the farming sector and as a means to establish environmental credentials. Suggestions are made for future longitudinal work on compliance, information, agenda-setting, and discursive strategies of nonstate actors in neoliberal frontiers.

  15. Environmental and policy change to support healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rebecca H; Sykes, Kathy; Lowman, Sarah G; Duncan, Richard; Satariano, William A; Belza, Basia

    2011-10-01

    Given the growing evidence of the influence of the environment on older adult health, the need to design and implement effective environmental policy around healthy and vital aging is urgent. This article describes issues amenable to improvement through policy change, evidence supporting specific policy approaches and outcomes, and promising strategies for implementing those approaches. Key areas of focus are neighborhood design and safety, housing, transportation, and mobility. Strategies to build capacity for policy change are also addressed. Our goals are to foster greater attention to environmental change in support of healthy aging and to illuminate directions for policy change.

  16. Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM): Model structure and policy applications. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.M.; Alig, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; McCarl, B.A.; Winnett, S.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Forest and Agricultural Sector Opimization Model (FASOM) is a dynamic, nonlinear programming model of the forest and agricultural sectors in the United States. The FASOM model initially was developed to evaluate welfare and market impacts of alternative policies for sequestering carbon in trees but also has been applied to a wider range of forest and agricultural sector policy scenarios. The authors describe the model structure and give selected examples of policy applications. A summary of the data sources, input data file format, and the methods used to develop the input data files also are provided.

  17. Science and agriculture policy at Land-Grant Institutions.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, M L; Zimbelman, R G; Pray, C E

    1995-06-01

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funding of science and education at Land-Grant College institutions is in transition. The traditional "science pipeline" model linking basic science funding with the application of technology is in question as some policymakers dispute the premise that non-directed science results in benefits to society. Historically, research at USDA and Land-Grant institutions is much more directed than that funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), or Department of Energy (DOE). Nevertheless, there are calls for change at the USDA as well. An approach that both the Congress and the Executive branch are taking seeks to direct research dollars according to predetermined goals. This is being emphasized in part due to budget pressures and may force the system to struggle maintaining funding in constant dollars. Deficit cutters are first considering cutting "earmarked grants" for research and facilities at USDA and Land Grant Institutions. Savings in these categories may help to support modest increases in formula funding and competitive grants. Earmarked grants for research and facilities at the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) for Fiscal Year 1993 were approximately 26% of total appropriations and distributed to well over 100 specific line items. This level has increased from approximately 15% of CSRS appropriations in 1985. At the same time formula funding has remained static and competitive grants, although increasing, are below authorized levels. As state and federal budgets face pressure and as concerns from consumer and environmental groups are encountered, balancing the percentage of research dollars devoted to research intended to increase production efficiency and the percentage devoted to meeting concerns about food safety, pesticides, water quality, sustainability, animal welfare, and so on will be a challenge. Linking research priorities with producer and consumer needs

  18. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  19. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.

    PubMed

    Groffman, P M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  20. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  1. Multifunctional Agriculture in Policy and Practice? A Comparative Analysis of Norway and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkhaug, Hilde; Richards, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Ideals of productivist agriculture in the Western world have faded as the unintended consequences of intensive agriculture and pastoralism have contributed to rural decline and environmental problems. In Norway and Australia, there has been an increasing acceptance of the equal importance of social and environmental sustainability as well as…

  2. Policy as intervention: environmental and policy approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, T L; Pratt, M; Howze, E

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease, from individual health education approaches to broader community education efforts and, finally, to comprehensive and integrated programs addressing environmental, policy, and individual behavior change. Policies are divided into two areas: legislation/regulation and organizational policy. Environmental strategies are measures that alter or control the physical or social environment. Dimensions along which these strategies might be implemented are provided. Policy and environmental approaches can be justified on economic, strategic, and theoretical grounds. Experiences from other fields and other countries provide a framework for conceptualizing cardiovascular disease prevention approaches. PMID:7661226

  3. Public Policy, Science, and Environmental Risk. Brookings Dialogues on Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panem, Sandra, Ed.

    This workshop explored the complex issues involved in scientific measurement of environmental risk. Specific purposes were to articulate policy issues that concern the use of scientific data in environmental risk assessment and to contribute to the dialogue from which better policy might emerge. Viewpoints of workshop participants from the…

  4. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  5. Environmental care in agricultural catchments: Toward the communicative catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter

    1991-11-01

    Substantial land degradation of agricultural catchments in Australia has resulted from the importation of European farming methods and the large-scale clearing of land. Rural communities are now being encouraged by government to take responsibility for environmental care. The importance of community involvement is supported by the view that environmental problems are a function of interactions between people and their environment. It is suggested that the commonly held view that community groups cannot care for their resources is due to inappropriate social institutions rather that any inherent disability in people. The communicative catchment is developed as a vision for environmental care into the future. This concept emerges from a critique of resource management through the catchment metaphors of the reduced, mechanical, and the complex, evolving catchment, which reflect the development of systemic and people-centered approaches to environmental care. The communicative catchment is one where both community and resource managers participate collaboratively in environmental care. A methodology based on action research and systemic thinking (systemic action research) is proposed as a way of moving towards the communicative catchment of the future. Action research is a way of taking action in organizations and communities that is participative and informed by theory, while systemic thinking takes into account the interconnections and relationships between social and natural worlds. The proposed vision, methodology, and practical operating principles stem from involvement in an action research project looking at extension strategies for the implementation of total catchment management in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales.

  6. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process`` includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions.

  7. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... compliance with Executive Order 12114, “Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions.”...

  8. Modelling tools to support the harmonization of Water Framework Directive and Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tediosi, A.; Bulgheroni, C.; Sali, G.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2009-04-01

    After a few years from the delivery of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) the need to link agriculture and WFD has emerged as one of the highest priorities; therefore, it is important to discuss on how the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) can contribute to the achievements of the WFD objectives. The recent CAP reform - known as Mid Term Review (MTR) or Fischler Reform - has increased the opportunities, offering to farmers increased support to address some environmental issues. The central novelty coming from the MTR is the introduction of a farm single payment which aims to the Decoupling of EU Agricultural Support from production. Other MTR important topics deal with the Modulation of the payments, the Cross-Compliance and the strengthening of the Rural Development policy. All these new elements will affect the farmers' behaviour, steering their productive choices for the future, which, in turn, will have consequences on the water demand for irrigation. Indeed, from the water quantity viewpoint, agriculture is a large consumer and improving water use efficiency is one of the main issues at stake, following the increasing impacts of water scarcity and droughts across Europe in a context of climate change. According to a recent survey of the European Commission the saving potential in the agricultural sector is 43% of present abstraction and 95% of it is concentrated in southern europe. Many models have been developed to forecast the farmers' behaviour as a consequence of agricultural policies, both at sector and regional level; all of them are founded on Mathematical Programming techniques and many of them use the Positive approach, which better fits the territorial dimension. A large body of literature also exists focusing on the assessment of irrigation water requirements. The examples of conjunctive modelling of the two aspects are however much more limited. The work presented has got some innovative aspects: not only does it couple an economical model

  9. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  10. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  11. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control

    SciTech Connect

    Gianessi, L.P.; Peskin, H.M.

    1981-08-01

    A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution-control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions. 30 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Cropland expansion outpaces agricultural and biofuel policies in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, Tyler J.; Salmon, J. Meghan; Gibbs, Holly K.

    2015-04-01

    Cultivation of corn and soybeans in the United States reached record high levels following the biofuels boom of the late 2000s. Debate exists about whether the expansion of these crops caused conversion of grasslands and other carbon-rich ecosystems to cropland or instead replaced other crops on existing agricultural land. We tracked crop-specific expansion pathways across the conterminous US and identified the types, amount, and locations of all land converted to and from cropland, 2008-2012. We found that crop expansion resulted in substantial transformation of the landscape, including conversion of long-term unimproved grasslands and land that had not been previously used for agriculture (cropland or pasture) dating back to at least the early 1970s. Corn was the most common crop planted directly on new land, as well as the largest indirect contributor to change through its displacement of other crops. Cropland expansion occurred most rapidly on land that is less suitable for cultivation, raising concerns about adverse environmental and economic costs of conversion. Our results reveal opportunities to increase the efficacy of current federal policy conservation measures by modifying coverage of the 2014 US Farm Bill Sodsaver provision and improving enforcement of the US Renewable Fuels Standard.

  13. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  14. Infrastructure Task Force National Environmental Policy Act Requirements - February 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes in a matrix format the federal regulations requirements and guidance for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act for the Infrastructure Task Force federal partner agencies.

  15. Agricultural policy and childhood obesity: a food systems and public health commentary.

    PubMed

    Wallinga, David

    2010-01-01

    For thirty-five years, U.S. agriculture has operated under a "cheap food" policy that spurred production of a few commodity crops, not fruit or vegetables, and thus of the calories from them. A key driver of childhood obesity is the consumption of excess calories, many from inexpensive, nutrient-poor snacks, sweets, and sweetened beverages made with fats and sugars derived from these policy-supported crops. Limiting or eliminating farm subsidies to commodity farmers is wrongly perceived as a quick fix to a complex agricultural system, evolved over decades, that promotes obesity. Yet this paper does set forth a series of policy recommendations that could help, including managing commodity crop oversupply and supporting farmers who produce more fruit and vegetables to build a healthier, more balanced agricultural policy.

  16. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  17. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  18. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health.

  19. The role of multi-target policy instruments in agri-environmental policy mixes.

    PubMed

    Schader, Christian; Lampkin, Nicholas; Muller, Adrian; Stolze, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The Tinbergen Rule has been used to criticise multi-target policy instruments for being inefficient. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of multi-target policy instruments using the case of agri-environmental policy. Employing an analytical linear optimisation model, this paper demonstrates that there is no general contradiction between multi-target policy instruments and the Tinbergen Rule, if multi-target policy instruments are embedded in a policy-mix with a sufficient number of targeted instruments. We show that the relation between cost-effectiveness of the instruments, related to all policy targets, is the key determinant for an economically sound choice of policy instruments. If economies of scope with respect to achieving policy targets are realised, a higher cost-effectiveness of multi-target policy instruments can be achieved. Using the example of organic farming support policy, we discuss several reasons why economies of scope could be realised by multi-target agri-environmental policy instruments.

  20. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  1. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  2. 77 FR 1931 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad...

  3. 77 FR 2719 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad...

  4. 78 FR 9689 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad...

  5. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The

  6. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  7. Translational research in agricultural biology - enhancing crop resistivity against environmental stress alongside nutritional quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural security, including producing nutritious food, is needed to make agriculture sustainable. All kinds of genetically engineered (transgenic) lines have been developed, including transgenic lines that have promise of withstanding environmental extremes (abiotic and biotic) and others that...

  8. 78 FR 55762 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission AGENCY: National Aeronautics... (EIS) for the Mars 2020 mission and to conduct scoping for the EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Mars 2020 mission. NASA is seeking input...

  9. Ontario's Policy Framework for Environmental Education: Indoctrination and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardy, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators should find little to like in the Ontario government's new policy framework for environmental education. Released in February 2009, the document, titled "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow," relies heavily on the 2007 Report of the Working Group on Environmental Education in Ontario, "Shaping Our Schools, Shaping Our…

  10. Heat Waves, Droughts, and Preferences for Environmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Ann L.; Conover, Emily; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a new household survey on environmental attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, we find that current weather conditions affect preferences for environmental regulation. Individuals who have recently experienced extreme weather (heat waves or droughts) are more likely to support laws to protect the environment. We find…

  11. Environmental Education: River Policy and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Glenn; And Others

    Accurate as of October 1975, the guidebook establishes detailed procedures and policies to be used by all persons engaged in white water rafting trips involving students from Jefferson County (Colorado) Public Schools, and provides a general guide and set of instructions for anyone planning and carrying out such a trip. The guidelines are drawn…

  12. Resource conservation program in terms of Vostokgazprom environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Nadyumov, S. V.; Adam, A. M.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article examines a number of key areas of environmental policy of Vostokgazprom. The Associated Petroleum Gas program is an important step within the resource conservation and environmental protection framework. In addition, the company undertakes the extensive work on emergency response programs, and carries out continuous protection of the subsurface and control over environmental safety in all production sites. Vostokgazprom continuously modernizes the basic industrial facilities and invests money in new projects. The study analyzes the steps being taken by the company within the energy saving policy that leads to significant costs cut.

  13. EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations (1984 Indian Policy)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    1984 policy by William D. Ruckelshaus outlining EPA's dealing with Tribal Governments and in responding to the problems of environmental management on America Indian reservations in order to protect human health and the environment.

  14. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandrett, Eurig

    2007-10-01

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  15. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere.

  16. ISO 14 001 at the farm level: analysis of five methods for evaluating the environmental impact of agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Galan, M B; Peschard, D; Boizard, H

    2007-02-01

    Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.

  17. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing.

  18. Economic and environmental impacts of water quality protection policies: 2. Application to the Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, D. J.; Mapp, H. P.; Sabbagh, G. J.; Geleta, S.; Watkins, K. B.; Elliott, R. L.; Stone, J. F.

    1993-09-01

    A three-stage modeling framework is applied to evaluate the potential economic and environmental impacts of agricultural groundwater protection policies in the Central High Plains Region. Three alternative policies (limitations on total nitrogen applications, limitations on unit-area nitrogen applications, and restrictions on the use of selected herbicides) are compared to a baseline scenario that reflects the absence of any form of groundwater quality protection measures. In general, nitrogen restrictions are more effective in reducing nitrate loadings in percolation water if implemented on a unit-area basis rather than as a total (farm level) restriction. In contrast, the total restriction is more effective in controlling runoff losses of nitrogen. Both nitrogen restrictions have significant impacts on crop production levels and regional agricultural income, while the economic consequences of the pesticide restriction are much less pronounced. The proposed regional modeling framework provides critical information necessary to assess the economic and environmental tradeoffs of policy alternatives aimed at controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution.

  19. Environmental behavior of benalaxyl and furalaxyl enantiomers in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yong X; Guo, Bao Y; Xu, Peng; Li, Jian Z; Wang, Hui L

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective environmental behavior of the chiral fungicides benalaxy and furalaxyl in agricultural soils in China was studied. Although sorption onto soils was non-enantioselective, the leaching of benalaxy and furalaxyl was enantioselective in soil columns. The concentrations of the S-enantiomers of both fungicides in the leachates were higher than the R-enantiomers. This can be attributed to enantioselective degradation of the two fungicides in the soil column. Enantioselective degradation of the two fungicides was verified by soil dissipation experiments, and the R-enantiomers degraded faster than the S-enantiomers in partial soils. The half-life was 27.7-57.8 days for S-benalaxyl, 20.4-53.3 days for R-benalaxyl, 19.3-49.5 days for S-furalaxyl and 11.4-34.7 days for R-furalaxyl. The degradation process of the two fungicide enantiomers followed the first-order kinetics (R(2) > 0.96). Compared to furalaxyl, benalaxyl degraded more slowly and degradation was less enantioselective. These results are attributed to the influence of soil physicochemical properties, soil microorganisms, and environmental factors.

  20. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  1. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  2. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  3. Review of Namibian legislation and policies pertinent to environmental flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethune, Shirley; Amakali, Maria; Roberts, Kevin

    The rationale for evaluating Namibian environmental flows is essentially that of ensuring ‘the maintenance of ecosystems, essential ecological processes and biological diversity’ and the sustainable utilisation of natural resources as promoted in clause 95 of the Namibian Constitution. Recent policy and legislative reforms have created a unique opportunity for Namibia to incorporate environmental sensitivity clauses such as those to ensure adequate environmental flows for river systems. The Second National Development Plan and the National Water Policy White Paper form the basis for the new Water Resources Management Act, promulgated in December 2004. The National Water Policy includes a basic principle headed “Ecosystem values and sustainability” that stresses that the management of water resources needs to harmonise human and environmental requirements, recognising the role of water in supporting the ecosystem. One of the strategies given to ensure environmental and economic sustainability reads: “Ensure that in-stream flows are adequate both in terms of quality and quantity to sustain the ecosystem”. Although the water policy clearly states that: “The legislation will provide for determining an environmental water reserve for freshwater sources before they can be used to supply other demands than domestic and subsistence livestock watering”, there is now no direct mention of environmental flows in the new Water Act. This paper explores to what extent the need for the determination of environmental water needs has been incorporated into Namibian policies, legislation and development plans. It makes recommendations, pertinent to the Namibian situation, of what needs to be done to ensure that environmental water requirements are taken into account in future planning, operation and management of Namibia’s precious water resources.

  4. Evaluating efficacy of an environmental policy to prevent biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah A; Deneau, Matthew G; Jean, Laurent; Wiley, Chris J; Leung, Brian; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2011-04-01

    Enactment of any environmental policy should be followed by an evaluation of its efficacy to ensure optimal utilization of limited resources, yet measuring the success of these policies can be a challenging task owing to a dearth of data and confounding factors. We examine the efficacy of ballast water policies enacted to prevent biological invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We utilize four criteria to assess the efficacy of this environmental regulation: (1) Is the prescribed management action demonstrably effective? (2) Is the management action effective under operational conditions? (3) Can compliance be achieved on a broad scale? (4) Are desired changes observed in the environment? The four lines of evidence resulting from this analysis indicate that the Great Lakes ballast water management program provides robust, but not complete, protection against ship-mediated biological invasions. Our analysis also indicates that corresponding inspection and enforcement efforts should be undertaken to ensure that environmental policies translate into increased environmental protection. Similar programs could be implemented immediately around the world to protect the biodiversity of the many freshwater ecosystems which receive ballast water discharges by international vessels. This general framework can be extended to evaluate efficacy of other environmental policies.

  5. The impact of food and agricultural policies on groundwater use in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aw-Hassan, Aden; Rida, Fadel; Telleria, Roberto; Bruggeman, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    During the last three decades, the expansion of irrigation using both surface water and groundwater resources has had an important positive impact on Syria’s agricultural production. It is an example of success in achieving food policy objectives, but it has also introduced the challenge of groundwater sustainability. This paper examines the trends in groundwater abstraction for irrigation and the effect of government policies, including input subsidies - such as the diesel fuel subsidy and the crop procurement price support. The fuel subsidy is an important driving force in groundwater depletion and over-abstraction. This analysis examines the interaction between policy signals and the use and allocation of water by farmers. The rapid decline in groundwater resources shows the limitations of this agricultural development strategy and questions its sustainability unless policies change and the rate of abstraction is changed so as not exceed the recharge rate.

  6. Effectiveness of environmental policies at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; S.N. D'yakov; V.Ya. Krasnukhin; S.V. Kozyreva

    2009-05-15

    OAO Koks has introduced a comprehensive program for more stable plant operation and reduced environmental impact in the period 2004 2010. Methods of group relining of the coking-furnace chambers and hot repair of coke furnaces with complete relining of the heating walls have been adopted. Water-protection measures include the construction of an additional water-circulation cycle for the chemical shops, completion of the first stage of wastewater treatment, and reconstruction of the biochemical processing system for phenolic and oily water. A mobile environmental station has been acquired for air-quality monitoring.

  7. EPA Order 5700.7A1: EPA's Policy for Environmental Results under EPA Assistance Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This order establishes Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy for addressing environmental results under EPA assistance agreements, including results that advance EPA’s environmental and human health mission.

  8. Calorie Offsets: Environmental Policy for the Food Environment.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2015-08-01

    Although obesity continues to challenge the public's health, effective policy solutions are wanting. Borrowing from environmental protection efforts, we explored the potential for a "calorie offset" regulatory mechanism, which is similar to the carbon emission offsets used to curb greenhouse gas emissions, to mitigate the harmful health externalities of unhealthy food production. This approach might have a number of advantages over traditional policy tools, and warrants attention from health policymakers and industry alike.

  9. Calorie Offsets: Environmental Policy for the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity continues to challenge the public’s health, effective policy solutions are wanting. Borrowing from environmental protection efforts, we explored the potential for a “calorie offset” regulatory mechanism, which is similar to the carbon emission offsets used to curb greenhouse gas emissions, to mitigate the harmful health externalities of unhealthy food production. This approach might have a number of advantages over traditional policy tools, and warrants attention from health policymakers and industry alike. PMID:26066923

  10. Land use policy and agricultural water management of the previous half of century in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines land use policy and agricultural water management in Africa from 1962 to 2011. For this purpose, data were gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank Group. Using the FAO database, ten indices were selected: permanent crops to cultivated area (%), rural population to total population (%), total economically active population in agriculture to total economically active population (%), human development index, national rainfall index (mm/year), value added to gross domestic product by agriculture (%), irrigation water requirement (mm/year), percentage of total cultivated area drained (%), difference between national rainfall index and irrigation water requirement (mm/year), area equipped for irrigation to cultivated area or land use policy index (%). These indices were analyzed for all 53 countries in the study area and the land use policy index was estimated by two different formulas. The results show that value of relative error is <20 %. In addition, an average index was calculated using various methods to assess countries' conditions for agricultural water management. Ability of irrigation and drainage systems was studied using other eight indices with more limited information. These indices are surface irrigation (%), sprinkler irrigation (%), localized irrigation (%), spate irrigation (%), agricultural water withdrawal (10 km3/year), conservation agriculture area as percentage of cultivated area (%), percentage of area equipped for irrigation salinized (%), and area waterlogged by irrigation (%). Finally, tendency of farmers to use irrigation systems for cultivated crops has been presented. The results show that Africa needs governments' policy to encourage farmers to use irrigation systems and raise cropping intensity for irrigated area.

  11. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  12. Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

  13. Psychosocial assistance after environmental accidents: a policy perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S M

    1997-01-01

    There is a substantial body of literature on psychosocial impacts of chemical and nuclear accidents. Less attention, however, has been focused on the program and policy issues that are connected with efforts to provide psychosocial assistance to the victims of such accidents. Because psychosocial assistance efforts are certain to be an essential part of the response to future environmental emergencies, it is vital that relevant program and policy issues by more fully considered. This article discusses the highly complex nature of contamination situations and highlights some of the key policy issues that are associated with the provision of psychosocial services after environmental accidents. One issue concerns the potential for assistance efforts to become objects of conflict. In the context of the intense controversy typically associated with chemical or nuclear accidents, and with debates over the causation of illness usually at the center of environmental accidents, psychosocial assistance services may themselves become contested terrain. Other significant program and policy issues include determining how to interface with citizen self-help and other voluntary groups, addressing the problem of stigma, and deciding how to facilitate stakeholder participation in the shaping of service provision. This article offers a series of policy proposals that may help smooth the way for psychosocial assistance programs in future environmental emergencies. PMID:9467082

  14. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy.

    PubMed

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-07-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented.

  15. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented. PMID:23144678

  16. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... U.S.C. App.2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a...

  17. 31 CFR 542.528 - Policy on activities related to the agricultural sector of Syria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy on activities related to the agricultural sector of Syria. 542.528 Section 542.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  18. Beyond Agriculture: New Policies for Rural America. [Proceedings] (Kansas City, Missouri, April 27-28, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO. Center for the Study of Rural America.

    In April 2000, over 250 rural leaders from around the nation gathered in Kansas City, Missouri, to discuss rural America's future, its challenges, and policies to meet those challenges. Conference participants agreed that the current pattern of uneven rural growth is likely to persist and that agriculture will remain a key sector in the rural…

  19. Transition in Food and Agricultural Policy: Key Stakeholder--Domestic Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Jean

    Assurance of an adequate and safe supply of food at a reasonable price is consumers' primary stake in the outcome of 1995 farm bill deliberations and related food and agricultural policies. Farm programs have provided an economically stable environment wherein farmers produce an abundance of food. The declining portion of household budgets…

  20. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase.

  1. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  2. New Zealand environmental standards and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vant, William N.; McGlinchy, Brian J.

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes the primary energy resources of New Zealand and their relative importance. It describes the principal legislation that provides environmental protection and public participation with which State and private agencies are bound to comply. The paper then discusses air pollution in further detail and cites three examples where there is cause for concern. By international standards, air pollution is not a serious problem in New Zealand and so the economic consequences have received little attention Two simple examples are cited. A map showing the main centers and the location of facilities referred to in the text is included

  3. Agricultural anaerobic digestion power plants in Ireland and Germany: policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Auer, Agathe; Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Abram, Florence; Barry, Gerald; Fenton, Owen; Markey, Bryan K; Nolan, Stephen; Richards, Karl; Bolton, Declan; De Waal, Theo; Gordon, Stephen V; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Whyte, Paul; Zintl, Annetta

    2017-02-01

    The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon-neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large-scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock. Current policy in Germany has transitioned to support funding for smaller digesters, while also limiting the use of energy crops. AD within Ireland, as a new technology, is affected by ambiguous governmental policies concerning waste and energy. A clear governmental strategy supporting on-site AD processing of agricultural waste will significantly reduce Ireland's carbon footprint, improve the safety and bioavailability of agricultural waste, and provide an indigenous renewable energy source. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Environmental fate of double-stranded RNA in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Dubelman, Samuel; Fischer, Joshua; Zapata, Fatima; Huizinga, Kristin; Jiang, Changjian; Uffman, Joshua; Levine, Steven; Carson, David

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory soil degradation study was conducted to determine the biodegradation potential of a DvSnf7 dsRNA transcript derived from a Monsanto genetically modified (GM) maize product that confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.). This study provides new information to improve the environmental assessment of dsRNAs that become pesticidal through an RNAi process. Three agricultural soils differing in their physicochemical characteristics were obtained from the U.S., Illinois (IL; silt loam), Missouri (MO; loamy sand) and North Dakota (ND; clay loam), and exposed to the target dsRNA by incorporating insect-protected maize biomass and purified (in vitro-transcribed) DvSnf7 RNA into soil. The GM and control (non-GM maize) materials were added to each soil and incubated at ca. 22 °C for 48 hours (h). Samples were collected at 12 time intervals during the incubation period, extracted, and analyzed using QuantiGene molecular analysis and insect bioassay methods. The DT50 (half-life) values for DvSnf7 RNA in IL, MO, and ND soils were 19, 28, and 15 h based on QuantiGene, and 18, 29, and 14 h based on insect bioassay, respectively. Furthermore, the DT90 (time to 90% degradation) values for DvSnf7 RNA in all three soils were <35 h. These results indicate that DvSnf7 RNA was degraded and biological activity was undetectable within approximately 2 days after application to soil, regardless of texture, pH, clay content and other soil differences. Furthermore, soil-incorporated DvSnf7 RNA was non-detectable in soil after 48 h, as measured by QuantiGene, at levels ranging more than two orders of magnitude (0.3, 1.5, 7.5 and 37.5 µg RNA/g soil). Results from this study indicate that the DvSnf7 dsRNA is unlikely to persist or accumulate in the environment. Furthermore, the rapid degradation of DvSnf7 dsRNA provides a basis to define relevant exposure scenarios for future RNA-based agricultural products.

  5. Implementing the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance and assistance to NASA officials in carrying out their responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act and the applicable NASA procedures (14 CFR 1216.3, Attachment A to NMI 8800.7). The handbook, as was contemplated by the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, stresses the need for environmental analysis from the time of early planning through environmental assessment and environmental impact statement preparation to implementation of the subject action, and provides for necessary follow up. It stresses the need for NASA officials to draw upon all the appropriate disciplines from the natural and social sciences plus the environmental design arts in planning and decision making on actions which may have an impact on the human environment. The handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations.

  6. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  7. Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.

    PubMed

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  8. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  9. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  10. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  11. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  12. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  13. Alternative Futures for Environmental Policy Planning: 1975-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Duane S.; And Others

    This report explores a range of alternative futures covering the next 25 years (1975-2000). These concentrate on the United States, but place this nation's future experience in a world context. It is believed that by exploring the uncertainty of the near future and placing boundaries on it, environmental policy planners will be provided with an…

  14. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337. Comments also may be submitted... Program Manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility; telephone 757-824-2319; or... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY:...

  15. Indonesian "Adat" Customs as the Backbone of Effective Environmental Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Stephen F.

    "Adat" is a term in Indonesia that defines culture, customs, and traditions to foreigners, but to the people of Indonesia it means basically the rules of the village life. Villages are predominant and overseen by chiefs. Adat's rules are the roots of Islamic religion. Many of Indonesia's environmental policies stem from the teachings of…

  16. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrow, Douglas D.; Fazio, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow" (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2009). Answers to the following two curricular questions: "What should be taught?" and "How it should be taught?" frame the critique. Scrutiny of the latter…

  17. Movement Organizations, Synergistic Tactics and Environmental Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik W.; Agnone, Jon; McCarthy, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on political mediation and movement infrastructure models to highlight contingent and synergistic ways in which social movements may impinge upon the U.S. national policy-making process. Analyses employ a variety of datasets to examine the role of environmental movement organizational capacity, protest and institutional activity…

  18. 43 CFR 1601.0-6 - Environmental impact statement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental impact statement policy. 1601.0-6 Section 1601.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING,...

  19. 43 CFR 1601.0-6 - Environmental impact statement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental impact statement policy. 1601.0-6 Section 1601.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING,...

  20. 43 CFR 1601.0-6 - Environmental impact statement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental impact statement policy. 1601.0-6 Section 1601.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING,...

  1. 43 CFR 1601.0-6 - Environmental impact statement policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental impact statement policy. 1601.0-6 Section 1601.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING,...

  2. 75 FR 13139 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: The National Indian Gaming... comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR... March 4, 2010 (75 FR 3756). ] DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual is...

  3. 75 FR 3756 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: National... period for comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63765, 74 FR 63787). DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual...

  4. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the

  5. Co-Construction of Agency and Environmental Management. The Case of Agri-Environmental Policy Implementation at Finnish Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljonen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    One of the main challenges of European environmental policies is to recruit local-level actors to fulfill set targets. This article explores how targets of European agri-environmental policy have been achieved in Finland. It also analyses how implementation practices produce conditions for agri-environmental management and how policy success-or…

  6. Mitigating Environmental Risks of Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2016-04-01

    Low rainfall and overexploitation of conventional water resources present a critical problem in many regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, there is a dire need for judicious management of existing water supplies, including incorporating the use of non-conventional water resources. Treated wastewater has shown high potential for reuse in agricultural production, which can thereby contribute to the conservation of surface water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the aim of the study was to optimize treated wastewater reuse in conjunction with other available water resources by taking into consideration their quantity and quality, in addition to the agronomic, environmental, and economic components. It was a joint project between three countries (Oman, Jordan and Tunisia) and funded by USAID. In Oman, the study was done in open field at Sultan Qaboos University. Three types of crops (sweet corn, okra and maize) were grown and irrigated by four types of water (A: 50% groundwater and 50% treated wastewater, B: 100% groundwater, C: 75% treated wastewater and 25% groundwater, and D: 100% treated wastewater). Soil physicochemical properties did not show significant differences with treated wastewater irrigation as compared to groundwater. Heavy metals concentrations for both waters (treated wastewater & groundwater) were very close to each other. However, some significant differences were found between some treatments which could be an indicator for long term changes in soil chemical properties. On other hand, some chemical properties significantly increased (p<0.05) when treated wastewater was applied such as soil electrical conductivity, total carbon and some major elements (N, K, Mg). Soil biological analysis indicated that treated wastewater had no effect in contaminating soil horizons. Whereas, crop physical analysis showed significant increases in plant productivity when plants were irrigated with treated wastewater. The good supply of different

  7. Environmental Assessment on the Proposed Near Term Intertie Access Policy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-02-01

    The proposed Policy will govern access by all entities to BPA's portion of the Intertie. Assured Delivery will be provided for BPA firm sales and for other firm contracts of Pacific Northwest (PNW) utilities, if approved under the standards established by the Policy. Hourly access will be allocated among BPA and scheduling utilities, with priority access being reserved for the surplus power of PNW utilities. Capacity not needed for PNW surplus may be made available for extraregional utilities. The proposal will grant access to existing resources only, as did the Interim Policy. In addition to this limitation, the proposal carries the same provisions as the Interim Policy protecting against adverse effects on fish and wildlife due to operation of resources. Environmental analysis indicates that the proposal will have no significant environmental impacts, based on the following conclusions: (1) The proposal does not promote new resource development and thus does not result in associated environmental effects; (2) The total amount of generation in the PNW and Pacific Southwest (PSW) will not change as a result of the proposal; (3) Any changes in PNW hydrosystem operations will be insignificant; (4) There will be no significant environmental impacts from PNW thermal resource operations because: (a) the amount of additional thermal generation due to the policy, if any, will be small relative to total thermal generation; (b) resources will not be operated beyond levels which may occur in the absence of the proposal; (c) PNW thermal resources are regulated by licenses or permits which limit operations to acceptable ranges; and (d) PNW thermal will continue to be displaced by low cost NW and Canadian hydro; and (5) The proposal does not promote transmission development and thus does not result in associated environmental effects.

  8. Empirically derived guidance for social scientists to influence environmental policy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katrina; Crissman, Charles; De Young, Cassandra; Gooch, Margaret; James, Craig; Jessen, Sabine; Johnson, Dave; Marshall, Paul; Wachenfeld, Dave; Wrigley, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth’s ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them. PMID:28278238

  9. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary committee which is in the... environmental policy, technology and management issues. Inquiries may be directed to Mark Joyce, U.S. EPA,...

  10. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  11. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  12. Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability

  13. Environmental Services from Agricultural Stormwater Detention Systems in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Knowles, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural Stormwater Detention Areas (ADAs) commonly exist for the purpose of downstream flood protection in high water table regions of Florida. In addition to flood protection, they are also considered an important Best Management Practice due to their presumed effectiveness in reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades (KLE) ecosystem. The KLE ecosystem has been adversely impacted due to excessive P loads. Despite their presumed water quality effectiveness, limited data exist on actual N and P treatment efficiencies. A study was conducted at two ADAs (ADA 1 and ADA 2) located in two row crop farms to quantify the total N and P treatment efficiencies. Water, N, and P inflow and outflows at both ADAs were monitored for a year. Results from ADA 1 suggested that P treatment efficiency was below zero indicating that the ADA was a source of P rather than a sink. On the other hand, N treatment efficiency was found to be 20%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 1 were 1.6 and 1.4 mg/l respectively, indicating a 9% reduction. Mean inflow and outflow P concentrations were 0.04 and 0.06 mg/l respectively, showing an increase of 67%. Although ADA 1 was effective in retaining N it was not for P. In contrast to ADA 1, the P treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was positive (20%). Nitrogen treatment efficiency of ADA 2 was 22%. Mean inflow and outflow N concentrations for ADA 2 were 4.0 and 2.0 mg/l respectively, indicating 50% reduction. A reduction of 32% was observed for P concentrations with mean inflow and outflow P concentrations of 0.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively. No P retention at ADA 1 was mainly due to low P adsorption capacity of the soil. Analysis of surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20 cm) soil P retention characteristics suggested that ADA 1 had no remaining P storage capacity which resulted in it being a source of P. At ADA 2, a large fraction of the area still had P storage capacity which resulted in

  14. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    SciTech Connect

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  15. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  16. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture and forestry are envisioned as potentially key sectors for climate change mitigation policy, yet the depth of analysis of mitigation options and their economic consequences remains remarkably shallow in comparison to that for industrial mitigation. Farming and land use change - much of it induced by agriculture -account for one-third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Any serious attempt to curtail these emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on agricultural expansion into areas currently under more carbon-intensive land cover. However, agriculture and forestry are extremely heterogeneous, both in the technology and intensity of production, as well as in the GHG emissions intensity of these activities. And these differences, in turn, give rise to significant changes in the distribution of agricultural production, trade and consumption in the wake of mitigation policies. This paper assesses such distributional impacts via a global economic analysis undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP model. The paper builds on a global general equilibrium GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009). This is a unified modeling framework that links the agricultural, forestry, food processing and other sectors through land, and other factor markets and international trade, and incorporates different land-types, land uses and related CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions and sequestration. The economic data underlying this work is the global GTAP data base aggregated up to 19 regions and 29 sectors. The model incorporates mitigation cost curves for different regions and sectors based on information from the US-EPA. The forestry component of the model is calibrated to the results of the state of the art partial equilibrium global forestry model of Sohngen and Mendelson (2007). Forest carbon sequestration at both the extensive and intensive margins are modeled separately to better isolate land competition between

  17. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    PubMed

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  18. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  19. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  20. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... a diverse range of potential environmental issues covered under Federal environmental laws and... Office of the Secretary Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office...

  1. 77 FR 8859 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Sciences Report on ``Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.'' A copy of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental...

  2. Responsiveness of Food Security Reporting to Environmental Variability and Agricultural Production Deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickley, E. B.; Brown, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper uses 1342 food security update reports from the US Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) in an analysis that focuses on the environmental, market, and livelihood influences on the food security in 17 countries in Africa from 2000-2009. A textual analysis was conducted using the reports as a primary data source to evaluate the responsiveness of food security analysis to environmental variability and food production deficits. The research shows that FEWS NET analysts demonstrate a consistent approach across all 17 countries as to the discussion and use of rainfall information, agricultural production, food prices and food access parameters. There are significant differences in the use of remote sensing and other technical information between East, West and Southern African country analysts, with satellite remote sensing of vegetation being used 28% of the time, rainfall imagery 84% and gridded crop models only 10% of the time. Significantly more discussion of biophysical information was seen during the rainy season than during the dry season, and different satellite products were used during periods of drought than periods of adequate moisture. As the demand for early warning information grows to more countries in different ecosystems, there is likely to be an increased need for the effective utilization of remote sensing, market, and livelihood data, and it is also probable that this information will be critical for improved policy-making regarding climate extremes in the future.

  3. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  4. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  5. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  6. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  7. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  8. 76 FR 73632 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology and management issues. Members serve as... professional knowledge of environmental policy, management, and technology issues, particularly issues dealing... interpersonal, oral and written communication, and consensus-building skills. --Ability to...

  9. Environmental Policies and Problems in Japan, China, and Hong Kong: Travel Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therivel, Riki; Wrisberg, Mette

    1988-01-01

    Compared are some of the environmental planning policies and developmental policies of three regions of the Far East. Discusses the relationship between social structures and environmental problems such as pollution, erosion, waste disposal, and the uses of technology. (CW)

  10. Selected historic agricultural data important to environmental quality in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grey, Katia M.; Capel, Paul D.; Baker, Nancy T.; Thelin, Gail P.

    2012-01-01

    This report and the accompanying tables summarize some of the important changes in American agriculture in the form of a timeline and a compilation of selected annual time-series data that can be broadly related to environmental quality. Although these changes have been beneficial for increasing agricultural production, some of them have resulted in environmental concerns. The agriculture timeline is divided into four categories (1) crop and animal changes, (2) mechanical changes, (3) biological and chemical changes, and (4) regulatory and societal changes. The timeline attempts to compile events that have had a lasting impact on agriculture in the United States. The events and data presented in this report may help to improve the connections between agricultural activist and environmental concerns.

  11. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    PubMed Central

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J; Sih, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history in conservation biology, and the necessary next step for the field is to consider ways in which conservation policy makers and managers can proactively manipulate evolutionary processes to achieve their goals. In this review, we aim to illustrate the potential conservation benefits of an increased understanding of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary changes. Such evolution-based management has potential to be a highly efficient and consistent way to create greater ecological resilience to widespread, rapid, and multifaceted environmental change. PMID:25567975

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  16. The place of algae in agriculture: policies for algal biomass production.

    PubMed

    Trentacoste, Emily M; Martinez, Alice M; Zenk, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Algae have been used for food and nutraceuticals for thousands of years, and the large-scale cultivation of algae, or algaculture, has existed for over half a century. More recently algae have been identified and developed as renewable fuel sources, and the cultivation of algal biomass for various products is transitioning to commercial-scale systems. It is crucial during this period that institutional frameworks (i.e., policies) support and promote development and commercialization and anticipate and stimulate the evolution of the algal biomass industry as a source of renewable fuels, high value protein and carbohydrates and low-cost drugs. Large-scale cultivation of algae merges the fundamental aspects of traditional agricultural farming and aquaculture. Despite this overlap, algaculture has not yet been afforded a position within agriculture or the benefits associated with it. Various federal and state agricultural support and assistance programs are currently appropriated for crops, but their extension to algal biomass is uncertain. These programs are essential for nascent industries to encourage investment, build infrastructure, disseminate technical experience and information, and create markets. This review describes the potential agricultural policies and programs that could support algal biomass cultivation, and the barriers to the expansion of these programs to algae.

  17. Reforming agricultural nonpoint pollution policy in an increasingly budget-constrained environment.

    PubMed

    Shortle, James S; Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D; Blandford, David

    2012-02-07

    Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution has long been recognized as an important contributor to U.S. water quality problems and the subject of an array of local, state, and federal initiatives to reduce the problem. A "pay-the-polluter" approach to getting farmers to adopt best management practices has not succeeded in improving water quality in many impaired watersheds. With the prospects of reduced funding for the types of financial and technical assistance programs that have been the mainstay of agricultural water quality policy, alternative approaches need to be considered. Some changes to the way current conservation programs are implemented could increase their efficiency, but there are limits to how effective a purely voluntary approach can be. An alternative paradigm is the "polluter pays" approach, which has been successfully employed to reduce point source pollution. A wholesale implementation of the polluter-pays approach to agriculture is likely infeasible, but elements of the polluter-pays approach could be incorporated into agricultural water quality policy.

  18. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  19. Environmental Hazard and General Labeling for Pyrethroid and Synergized Pyrethrins Non-Agricultural Outdoor Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA approved certain optional modifications to the “Environmental Hazard Statements” and general “Directions for Use” for pyrethroid and pyrethrins non-agricultural outdoor products. Find out about these changes.

  20. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  1. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  2. Grassland-cropping rotations: An avenue for agricultural diversification to reconcile high production with environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity...

  3. Insatiable demands: Income, energy and environmental policy in Madagascar

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The island nation of Madagascar is suffering the collision of three distinct trends: economic stagnation, a rapidly expanding population and a severely threatened natural resource base. Demands for growth, new energy reserves and environmental conservation, especially of forest resources, are creating a policy dilemma for both government officials and donors. This study seeks to bring new evidence to bear on this policy dilemma. Primary data on urban household income, family size and consumption of various energy types are used to test two main hypothesis (1) that charcoal, which constitutes the fuel of choice for a vast majority of the sample, is a normal rather than an inferior good, and (2) that demand for wood-fuels constitutes a genuine threat to the viability of the forest resource. The data indicate that income elasticities of demand for charcoal are positive over a broad range of per capita income levels, revealing that charcoal is, indeed a normal good for a large portion of the population represented by the sample. A model of forest degradation is built which establishes a clear link between wood-fuel demand and forest degradation. Together, these findings make clear that under current income patterns, and for the forseeable future, charcoal is a normal good and its consumption by urban residents constitutes a serious threat to the natural forest resource. The study concludes with a policy analysis which identifies existing market failures due to government policies and recommends changes based on tested policy prescriptions in other parts of the developing world.

  4. [Agricultural policies and farming systems: A case study of landscape changes in Shizuitou Village in the recent four decades].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yan-bin; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural policy in China's rural heartland is driving profound changes to traditional farming systems. A case study covering four decades mapped and recorded farming patterns and processes in Shizuitou Village, a rural village in northwest Shanxi. An integrated geospatial methodology from geography and anthropology was employed in the case study to record the changing dynamics of farming systems in Shizuitou Village to discover the long-term impacts of China's agricultural policies on village farming systems. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural policies on village farming systems were mapped, inventoried and evaluated using Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS). The results revealed traditional polycultures are being gradually replaced by industrialized monocultures. The driving forces behind these farming changes come from a series of government agricultural policies aiming at modernization of farming systems in China. The goal of these policies was to spur rapid development of industrial agriculture under the guise of modernization but is leading to the decay of traditional farming systems in the village that maintained local food security with healthy land for hundreds of years. The paper concluded with a recommendation that in future, agricultural policy makers should strike a more reasonable balance between short-term agricultural profits and long-term farming sustainability based on the principles of ecological sustainable development under the context of global changes.

  5. The Environmental Science/Policy Interface: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries with a Team-Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosberg, David; Sisk, Thomas D.

    2000-01-01

    States that there is a lack of training for students studying environmental policy and environmental sciences in scientific training and political and policy training. Describes a team-taught course entitled "Science, Politics, and Environmental Policy" that focuses on how scientific knowledge is applied as political forces shape environmental…

  6. Agriculture/Natural Resources Environmental Technician Task List. Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains a worker task list and supplementary information for occupations in the agriculture and natural resources cluster of occupations. The task list were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by analysis by a panel of experts. Tasks are listed in 10 categories: (1) performing investigative…

  7. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano

    PubMed Central

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D.; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in “deforestation havens.” We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation “hot spot” in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching. PMID:27035995

  8. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano.

    PubMed

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F

    2016-04-12

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in "deforestation havens." We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation "hot spot" in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching.

  9. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  10. Rapid Policy Network Mapping: A New Method for Understanding Governance Structures for Implementation of Marine Environmental Policy

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, John Michael; Potts, Tavis; O'Higgins, Tim Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationships and dependencies in the development and implementation of environmental policy is essential to the effective management of the marine environment. A new method of policy network analysis called ‘Rapid Policy Network Mapping’ was developed that delivers an insight for both technical and non-technical users into the lifecycle, relationships and dependencies of policy development. The method was applied to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive in the UK. These case studies highlight the environmental policy challenges to protect the UK's marine coastal environment and they identify differences in the styles of policy implementation between the devolved authorities of the UK. Rapid Policy Network Mapping provides an opportunity to create a collaborative policy data environment with a relatively small investment. As a tool for civil society it should assist in their ability to understand and influence policy making and implementation. PMID:22022545

  11. Rapid policy network mapping: a new method for understanding governance structures for implementation of marine environmental policy.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, John Michael; Potts, Tavis; O'Higgins, Tim Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationships and dependencies in the development and implementation of environmental policy is essential to the effective management of the marine environment. A new method of policy network analysis called 'Rapid Policy Network Mapping' was developed that delivers an insight for both technical and non-technical users into the lifecycle, relationships and dependencies of policy development. The method was applied to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive in the UK. These case studies highlight the environmental policy challenges to protect the UK's marine coastal environment and they identify differences in the styles of policy implementation between the devolved authorities of the UK. Rapid Policy Network Mapping provides an opportunity to create a collaborative policy data environment with a relatively small investment. As a tool for civil society it should assist in their ability to understand and influence policy making and implementation.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  15. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  16. 78 FR 39283 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15753] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9829-9] Forum on Environmental Measurements... Protection Agency's Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) is implementing a policy requiring... beginning any work involving the generation or use of environmental data under the agreement. The Policy...

  17. 75 FR 25240 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental...

  18. Environmental & Agricultural Systems Career Cluster ITAC for Career-Focused Education. Integrated Technical & Academic Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Designed for Ohio educators responsible for planning programs to prepare high school students for careers in environmental and agricultural systems, this document presents an overview of Ohio's Integrated Technical and Academic Competencies (ITAC) system of career-focused education and specific information about the environmental and agricultural…

  19. Protecting and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge: Environmental Adult Education and Organic Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Given today's pressing environmental issues, environmental adult educators can help us learn to live more sustainably. One of the models for more sustainable ways of life is organic agriculture, based in a knowledge system that works with nature, not against it. In order to understand this knowledge, we need to frame it in a way that captures all…

  20. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of solar energy as a source of process heat in the industrial and agricultural sectors. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts and technologies of solar process heating are reviewed.…

  1. US agricultural policy, land use change, and biofuels: are we driving our way to the next dust bowl?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher K.

    2015-05-01

    Lark et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044003), analyze recent shifts in US agricultural land use (2008-2012) using newly-available, high-resolution geospatial information, the Cropland Data Layer. Cropland expansion documented by Lark et al suggests the need to reform national agricultural policies in the wake of an emerging, new era of US agriculture characterized by rapid land cover/land use change.

  2. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  3. Harmonization and optimal environmental policy in a federal system with asymmetric information

    SciTech Connect

    Ulph, A.

    2000-03-01

    Should environmental policy be set at the federal level to counter incentives for environmental dumping when states act non-cooperatively? Assuming that environmental damage costs are known only by state governments, the author asks whether this asymmetry of information could rationalize a federal government harmonizing environmental policies across states. The author shows that asymmetric information narrows the difference in environmental policies across states, relative to full information, but does not justify harmonization. The welfare loss from harmonization rises sharply with the variance in damage costs across states, and can erode the benefit of setting policy at the federal level to counter environmental dumping.

  4. 75 FR 8045 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... fundamental tool used to harmonize our economic, environmental, and social aspirations and is a cornerstone of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and...

  5. Environmental flow deficit at global scale - implication on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Ludwig, Fulco; Biemans, Hester; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater species belong to the most degraded ecosystem on earth. At the beginning of the 21st century, scientists have developed the concept of environmental flow requirements (Brisbane declaration 2003) with the aim of protecting freshwater species in the long term. However, the ecological state of rivers is different across the world depending on their fragmentation, on the presence of dams and reservoirs and on the degree of pollution. To implement new regulations on river flow, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of alteration of rivers which we called "environmental flow deficit". The European water framework directive is still working on evaluating the ecological states of river across Europe. In this study, we calculated monthly environmental flow deficit with the global vegetation dynamic and hydrological model LPJml. Environmental flow requirements were first calculated with the Variable Monthly Flow method (Pastor et al., 2014). Then, we checked in each river basin where and when the actual flow (flow minus abstraction for irrigation) does not satisfy environmental flow requirements. We finally show examples of different river basins such as the Nile and the Amazon to show how climate and irrigation can impact river flow and harm freshwater ecosystems.

  6. Agricultural Policies Exacerbate Honeybee Pollination Service Supply-Demand Mismatches Across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Breeze, Tom D.; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Petanidou, Theodora; Seraphides, Nicos; Kozák, Lajos; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Kleijn, David; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Moretti, Marco; Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Pärtel, Meelis; Zobel, Martin; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in insect pollinators across Europe have raised concerns about the supply of pollination services to agriculture. Simultaneously, EU agricultural and biofuel policies have encouraged substantial growth in the cultivated area of insect pollinated crops across the continent. Using data from 41 European countries, this study demonstrates that the recommended number of honeybees required to provide crop pollination across Europe has risen 4.9 times as fast as honeybee stocks between 2005 and 2010. Consequently, honeybee stocks were insufficient to supply >90% of demands in 22 countries studied. These findings raise concerns about the capacity of many countries to cope with major losses of wild pollinators and highlight numerous critical gaps in current understanding of pollination service supplies and demands, pointing to a pressing need for further research into this issue. PMID:24421873

  7. Agricultural policies exacerbate honeybee pollination service supply-demand mismatches across Europe.

    PubMed

    Breeze, Tom D; Vaissière, Bernard E; Bommarco, Riccardo; Petanidou, Theodora; Seraphides, Nicos; Kozák, Lajos; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Kleijn, David; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Moretti, Marco; Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C; Pärtel, Meelis; Zobel, Martin; Potts, Simon G

    2014-01-01

    Declines in insect pollinators across Europe have raised concerns about the supply of pollination services to agriculture. Simultaneously, EU agricultural and biofuel policies have encouraged substantial growth in the cultivated area of insect pollinated crops across the continent. Using data from 41 European countries, this study demonstrates that the recommended number of honeybees required to provide crop pollination across Europe has risen 4.9 times as fast as honeybee stocks between 2005 and 2010. Consequently, honeybee stocks were insufficient to supply >90% of demands in 22 countries studied. These findings raise concerns about the capacity of many countries to cope with major losses of wild pollinators and highlight numerous critical gaps in current understanding of pollination service supplies and demands, pointing to a pressing need for further research into this issue.

  8. Agricultural environmental management; case studies from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Frost, A; Stewart, S; Kerr, D; MacDonald, J; D'Arcy, B

    2004-01-01

    Six farms were examined, each from a different sector of Scottish agriculture. Surveys were carried out to identify both diffuse pollution risks and options for habitat conservation and enhancement. Financial data were also gathered to determine the current sources of farm income, both from sale of produce and from grants. Whole farm plans were produced aimed at bringing about reductions in diffuse pollution to water, soil and air and also habitat improvements. The assembled information was used to devise a possible agri-environment grant scheme to aid the implementation of the whole farm plans.

  9. Sliding toward the Free Market: Shifting Political Conditions and U.S. Agricultural Policy, 1945-1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winders, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1975, the twin pillars of U.S. agricultural policy--price supports and production controls--were weakened significantly. Price supports levels were reduced and made flexible in 1954, and the concept of parity was removed in 1973. Production controls were softened in 1964 and 1973. How can we explain these policy shifts? While…

  10. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...,'' that describes how the Agency plans to use revised methods in conducting risk assessments for pesticide... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised...

  11. The Continuing Environmental Threat of Nuclear Weapons: Integrated Policy Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Bardeen, Charles

    2007-05-01

    Humans have come to the realization that pollution of the atmosphere with gases and particles in the past 50 years is the dominant cause of atmospheric change. While land-use change can produce large regional effects, ozone depletion, global warming, and nuclear smoke all are human-driven problems that have actual or potential global adverse impacts on our fragile environment, each with severe consequences for humanity. These effects were, or would be, inadvertent and unplanned consequences of normal daily activities, the defense policies of many nations, and nuclear proliferation. Thus, we must seek ways of continuing our normal lives while protecting ourselves from environmental catastrophe.

  12. Valuing Indigenous Knowledge in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: A Model for Agricultural and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Chris; Parissi, Cesidio; Raman, Anantanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of agricultural and environmental education for indigenous farmers in Papua New Guinea (PNG) fail to provide high level engagement. Indigenous knowledge (IK) forms the basis of natural resource management, agriculture and health of farmers in PNG, yet its value to agricultural and environmental education in PNG is rarely…

  13. U.S. Biofuel Policies and Domestic Shifts in Agricultural Land Use and Water Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Policies promoting domestic biofuels production could lead to significant changes in cropping patterns. Types of direct and indirect land use change include: switching among crops (displacement), expanding cropped area (extensification), and altering water/soil management practices (e.g. irrigation, tillage) (intensification). Most studies of biofuels water use impacts calculate the water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/total evapotranspired water per unit energy of biofuels. But estimates based on this approach are sensitive to assumptions (e.g. co-product allocation, system boundaries), and do not convey policy-relevant information, as highlighted by the issue of land use change. We address these shortcomings by adopting a scenario-based approach that combines economic modeling with crop-water modeling of major crops and biofuel feedstocks. This allows us to holistically compare differences in water balances across policy scenarios in an integrated economic/agricultural system. We compare high spatial resolution water balance estimates under three hypothetical policy scenarios: 1) a counterfactual no-policy scenario, 2) modified Renewable Fuels Standard mandates (M-RFS2), & 3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard plus a modified RFS2 scenario (LCFS+RFS2). Differences between scenarios in crop water balances (i.e. transpiration, evaporation, runoff, groundwater infiltration, & irrigation) are regional and are a function of changes in land use patterns (i.e. displacement, intensification, & extensification), plus variation in crop water-use characteristics. Cropped land area increases 6.2% and 1.6% under M-RFS2 and LCFS+RFS2 scenarios, respectively, by 2030. Both policy scenarios lead to reductions in net irrigation volumes nationally compared to the no-policy scenario, though more irrigation occurs in regions of the Midwest and West. The LCFS+RFS2 reduces net irrigation water use by 3.5 times more than M-RFS2. However, both policies drive

  14. African agricultural subsidy impacts food security, poverty, drought tolerance, and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Palm, C.; DeFries, R. S.; Nziguheba, G.; Droppelmann, K.; Nkonya, E.; Michelson, H.; Clark, C.; Kathewera, F.; Walsh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi has spearheaded an unprecedented policy change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2005 when it started a widespread agricultural inputs subsidy program (AISP) targeting small farmer maize production with mineral fertilizer and improved seeds. Since then, the mean N fertilizer load has increased significantly, from ~ 0 to a modest 35 kg N/ha or 7 times greater than SSA's average 5 kg N/ha average. During the tenure of AISP, Malawi has transitioned from a food aid recipient to an exporter. Maize yields each year of AISP are double the long-term average (0.8 tons/ha/yr, 1960-2005). In 2007, subsidy inputs combined with good rains led to of an unprecedented increase in national average yields of 2.7 tons/ha. National-scale assessments covering, agriculture, poverty, and environment such as this one are required to understand the trade-offs between development, climate and the environment. Environmentally, N2O emissions from fertilizer are a concern. First order estimates put emissions from AISP fertilizers at 2,600 Mg N2O/year (0.81 Tg CO2-e). While globally insignificant, these emissions may be equivalent to 16% of Malawi's annual fossil fuel and deforestation emissions. However, our partial nutrient budgets indicate that crop removal is still higher than N applied and therefore little loss of N to the environment is expected. Mineral fertilizers are a rapid first step to increase soil N after 40 years of serious depletion. Once restored, the soils will support robust agroforestry and other forms of organic inputs produced on-farm. Fertilizer use increases carbon sequestration on agricultural soils and reduces pressure to clear forests, which may partially compensate for the N2O emissions. We find evidence that AISP significantly increases food security and mitigates the impacts of drought on maize production. This is the first work linking the distribution of fertilizer subsidies to local crop yields using government records, remotely-sensed time series of

  15. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  16. 77 FR 9964 - Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook AGENCY... announcing the availability of its updated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Handbook. This handbook... for existing laws, regulations, policies, and other guidance. It is a guidance document, and as...

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  18. Economic and environmental impacts of water quality restrictions on agriculture: An application to cotton farming

    SciTech Connect

    Cruthfield, S.; Ribaudo, M.; Hansen, L.; Quiroga, R.

    1992-12-01

    Survey data on agrichemical use on cotton were used to assess consequences of policies to reduce or prevent degradation of water resources from chemicals and sediment. Reducing erosion or restricting chemical use on environmentally risky cropland would raise prices, but could generate environmental benefits by improving water quality.

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural landscapes: quantification tools, policy development, and opportunities for improved management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonitto, C.; Gurwick, N. P.

    2012-12-01

    Policy initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have promoted the development of agricultural management protocols to increase SOC storage and reduce GHG emissions. We review approaches for quantifying N2O flux from agricultural landscapes. We summarize the temporal and spatial extent of observations across representative soil classes, climate zones, cropping systems, and management scenarios. We review applications of simulation and empirical modeling approaches and compare validation outcomes across modeling tools. Subsequently, we review current model application in agricultural management protocols. In particular, we compare approaches adapted for compliance with the California Global Warming Solutions Act, the Alberta Climate Change and Emissions Management Act, and by the American Carbon Registry. In the absence of regional data to drive model development, policies that require GHG quantification often use simple empirical models based on highly aggregated data of N2O flux as a function of applied N - Tier 1 models according to IPCC categorization. As participants in development of protocols that could be used in carbon offset markets, we observed that stakeholders outside of the biogeochemistry community favored outcomes from simulation modeling (Tier 3) rather than empirical modeling (Tier 2). In contrast, scientific advisors were more accepting of outcomes based on statistical approaches that rely on local observations, and their views sometimes swayed policy practitioners over the course of policy development. Both Tier 2 and Tier 3 approaches have been implemented in current policy development, and it is important that the strengths and limitations of both approaches, in the face of available data, be well-understood by those drafting and adopting policies and protocols. The reliability of all models is contingent on sufficient observations for model development and validation. Simulation models applied without site-calibration generally

  20. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  1. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  3. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  4. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…

  5. Precision agriculture: introduction to the spatial and temporal variability of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Bouma, J

    1997-01-01

    Precision agriculture aims at adjusting and fine-tuning land and crop management to the needs of plants within heterogeneous fields. Production aspects have to be balanced against environmental threshold values and modern information technology has made it possible to devise operational field systems. A reactive approach is described, using yield maps and sensors. A proactive approach uses simulation modelling of plant growth and solute fluxes to predict optimal timing of management practices. Precision agriculture, combining both approaches, is seen as making a major contribution towards the development of sustainable agricultural production systems.

  6. Environmental compliance policies (environmental quality). CECW-OA regulation No. 200-2-3

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-30

    This regulation establishes the policy for the management of environmental compliance-related operations and maintenance (O&M) activities at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) civil works and military projects and facilities. The environmental compliance mission is to assure that all USACE, facilities and associated lands (including outgrants) meet environmental standards contained in relevant Federal, state and local laws and regulations. Environmental compliance categories include, but are not limited to: (1) Air emissions management; (2) Cultural resources management; (3) Hazardous materials management; (4) Hazardous waste management; (5) Natural resources management; (6) Pesticides management; (7) Pesticides management; (8) Petroleum, oil, and lubricant management; (9) Solid waste management; (10) Storage tank management; (11) Toxic substances management; (12) Wastewater management; and (13) Water quality management.

  7. Childhood Obesity Policy Research and Practice Evidence for Policy and Environmental Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Orleans, C. Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Investigators developed a review system to evaluate the growing literature on policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity. Over 2000 documents published between January 2000 and May 2009 in the scientific and grey literature were identified (2008–2009) and systematically analyzed (2009–2012). These focused on policy or environmental strategies to reduce obesity/overweight, increase physical activity, and/or improve nutrition/diet among youth (aged 3–18 years). Guided by the RE-AIM framework, investigators abstracted studies of 24 intervention strategies and assessed evidence for their effectiveness (i.e., study design, intervention duration, and outcomes) and population impact (i.e., effectiveness and reach – participation or exposure, and representativeness) in 142 evaluation study groupings and 254 associational study groupings (n=396 groupings of 600 peer-reviewed studies). The 24 strategies yielded 25 classifications (school wellness policies yielded nutrition and physical activity classifications): 1st-tier effective (n=5); 2nd-tier effective (n=6); “promising” (n=5); or “emerging” (n=9). Evidence for intervention effectiveness was reported in 56% of the evaluation, and 77% of the associational, study groupings. Among the evaluation study groupings, only 49% reported sufficient data for population impact ratings, and only 22% qualified for a rating of high population impact. Effectiveness and impact ratings were summarized in graphic evidence maps, displaying effects/associations with behavioral and obesity/overweight outcomes. This paper describes the results and products of the review, with recommendations for policy research and practice. PMID:24355679

  8. Childhood obesity policy research and practice: evidence for policy and environmental strategies.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Laura K; Brownson, Ross C; Orleans, C Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Investigators developed a review system to evaluate the growing literature on policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity. More than 2000 documents published between January 2000 and May 2009 in the scientific and grey literature were identified (2008-2009) and systematically analyzed (2009-2012). These focused on policy or environmental strategies to reduce obesity/overweight, increase physical activity, and/or improve nutrition/diet among youth (aged 3-18 years). Guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework, investigators abstracted studies of 24 intervention strategies and assessed evidence for their effectiveness (i.e., study design, intervention duration, and outcomes) and population impact (i.e., effectiveness and reach--participation or exposure, and representativeness) in 142 evaluation study groupings and 254 associational study groupings (n=396 groupings of 600 peer-reviewed studies). The 24 strategies yielded 25 classifications (school wellness policies yielded nutrition and physical activity classifications): 1st-tier effective (n=5); 2nd-tier effective (n=6); "promising" (n=5); or "emerging" (n=9). Evidence for intervention effectiveness was reported in 56% of the evaluation, and 77% of the associational, study groupings. Among the evaluation study groupings, only 49% reported sufficient data for population impact ratings, and only 22% qualified for a rating of high population impact. Effectiveness and impact ratings were summarized in graphic evidence maps, displaying effects/associations with behavioral and obesity/overweight outcomes. This paper describes the results and products of the review, with recommendations for policy research and practice.

  9. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  10. 36 CFR 800.8 - Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preservation issues. Agency officials should ensure that preparation of an environmental assessment (EA) and... National Environmental Policy Act. 800.8 Section 800.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL... Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act. (a) General principles—(1) Early coordination....

  11. 36 CFR 800.8 - Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preservation issues. Agency officials should ensure that preparation of an environmental assessment (EA) and... National Environmental Policy Act. 800.8 Section 800.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL... Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act. (a) General principles—(1) Early coordination....

  12. 36 CFR 800.8 - Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preservation issues. Agency officials should ensure that preparation of an environmental assessment (EA) and... National Environmental Policy Act. 800.8 Section 800.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL... Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act. (a) General principles—(1) Early coordination....

  13. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  14. Environmental Policy as Learning: A New View of an Old Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorino, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines U.S. environmental policy since 1970 as a learning process and as an effort to develop three kinds of capacities for policy learning: technical learning, conceptual learning, and social learning. (Contains 70 references.) (Author/JOW)

  15. Adjustments of the Pesticide Risk Index Used in Environmental Policy in Flanders

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, Davina; Peeters, Bob; Lenders, Sonia; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Indicators are used to quantify the pressure of pesticides on the environment. Pesticide risk indicators typically require weighting environmental exposure by a no effect concentration. An indicator based on spread equivalents (ΣSeq) is used in environmental policy in Flanders (Belgium). The pesticide risk for aquatic life is estimated by weighting active ingredient usage by the ratio of their maximum allowable concentration and their soil halflife. Accurate estimates of total pesticide usage in the region are essential in such calculations. Up to 2012, the environmental impact of pesticides was estimated on sales figures provided by the Federal Government. Since 2013, pesticide use is calculated based on results from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The estimation of pesticide use was supplemented with data for non-agricultural use based on sales figures of amateur use provided by industry and data obtained from public services. The Seq-indicator was modified to better reflect reality. This method was applied for the period 2009-2012 and showed differences between estimated use and sales figures of pesticides. The estimated use of pesticides based on accountancy data is more accurate compared to sales figures. This approach resulted in a better view on pesticide use and its respective environmental impact in Flanders. PMID:26046655

  16. Adjustments of the Pesticide Risk Index Used in Environmental Policy in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Fevery, Davina; Peeters, Bob; Lenders, Sonia; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Indicators are used to quantify the pressure of pesticides on the environment. Pesticide risk indicators typically require weighting environmental exposure by a no effect concentration. An indicator based on spread equivalents (ΣSeq) is used in environmental policy in Flanders (Belgium). The pesticide risk for aquatic life is estimated by weighting active ingredient usage by the ratio of their maximum allowable concentration and their soil halflife. Accurate estimates of total pesticide usage in the region are essential in such calculations. Up to 2012, the environmental impact of pesticides was estimated on sales figures provided by the Federal Government. Since 2013, pesticide use is calculated based on results from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The estimation of pesticide use was supplemented with data for non-agricultural use based on sales figures of amateur use provided by industry and data obtained from public services. The Seq-indicator was modified to better reflect reality. This method was applied for the period 2009-2012 and showed differences between estimated use and sales figures of pesticides. The estimated use of pesticides based on accountancy data is more accurate compared to sales figures. This approach resulted in a better view on pesticide use and its respective environmental impact in Flanders.

  17. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  20. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-09-30

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  1. The EU environmental policy context for monitoring for and with raptors in Europe.

    PubMed

    Duke, Guy

    2008-09-01

    This paper outlines the importance of the policy context for monitoring with and for raptors, and, conversely, of the importance of such monitoring for policy. It then outlines two key areas of European Union (EU) environmental policy most relevant to monitoring for and with raptors, namely biodiversity policy and pollution policy. For each of the policy areas, the pertinent objectives and actions of the current EU policy are identified, and their relevance for raptor monitoring is discussed. The potential contribution of raptor monitoring to the further development of these policy areas is also addressed.

  2. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  3. Rationality and science in public policy: the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    In this dissertation, the National Environmental Policy Act is analyzed and its rationale is explained. The concept of ecological rationality is explored in the context of theories of rationality presented by various scholars, notably Weber, Simon, and Diesing. A limited assessment of the extent to which something identifiable as ecological rationality has been institutionalized in the federal bureaucracy is presented, based on a lengthy mail questionnaire survey of field personnel in four land and water management agencies chosen for purposes of comparative analysis (response rate was 92%). Although the data suggest a complex and changing reality, the conclusion is reached that, on balance, they tend to support the proposition that NEPA has affected the character of bureaucratic planning and decision making in the direction of institutionalized ecological rationality, with interdisciplinary approaches to environmental impact analysis now built into normal agency procedures.

  4. 7 CFR 1940.310 - Categorical exclusions from National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Categorical exclusions from National Environmental... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED)...

  5. Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Glanz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Food and eating environments likely contribute to the increasing epidemic of obesity and chronic diseases, over and above individual factors such as knowledge, skills, and motivation. Environmental and policy interventions may be among the most effective strategies for creating population-wide improvements in eating. This review describes an ecological framework for conceptualizing the many food environments and conditions that influence food choices, with an emphasis on current knowledge regarding the home, child care, school, work site, retail store, and restaurant settings. Important issues of disparities in food access for low-income and minority groups and macrolevel issues are also reviewed. The status of measurement and evaluation of nutrition environments and the need for action to improve health are highlighted.

  6. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  7. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  8. Conducting an HIA of the effect of accession to the European Union on national agriculture and food policy in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Kuhar, Ales; Robertson, Aileen; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2004-02-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) to consider the potential effects of European Union accession on agriculture and food policies in Slovenia has been undertaken as a joint project between the Slovenian Ministry of Health and the WHO European Region. The HIA project in Slovenia was conducted as a pilot project to develop the methods of HIA in this policy sector. The implications of the European Union Agricultural Policy to health are discussed. HIA methods have been used to assess some of the potential effects in Slovenia of accession to the European Union. This paper outlines some of the early findings and lessons to be learnt from the Slovenian HIA experience in order that other countries may adopt the approach to improve health considerations in agriculture and other intersectoral policymaking.

  9. National assessment of capacity in public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-08

    In 2011, the University of Michigan's Center of Excellence in Public Health Workforce Studies and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) assessed the workforce and program capacity in U.S. public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories. During April-August 2011, APHL sent a web-based questionnaire to 105 public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratory directors comprising all 50 state public health laboratories, 41 local public health laboratories, eight environmental laboratories, and six agricultural laboratories. This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which inquired about laboratory capacity, including total number of laboratorians by occupational classification and self-assessed ability to carry out functions in 19 different laboratory program areas. The majority of laboratorians (74%) possessed a bachelor's degree, associate's degree, or a high school education or equivalency; 59% of all laboratorians were classified as laboratory scientists. The greatest percentage of laboratories reported no, minimal, or partial program capacity in toxicology (45%), agricultural microbiology (54%), agricultural chemistry (50%), and education and training for their employees (51%). Nearly 50% of laboratories anticipated that more than 15% of their workforce would retire, resign, or be released within 5 years, lower than the anticipated retirement eligibility rate of 27% projected for state public health workers. However, APHL and partners in local, state, and federal public health should collaborate to address gaps in laboratory capacity and rebuild the workforce pipeline to ensure an adequate future supply of public health laboratorians.

  10. Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wortman, Sam E; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Many of the urban agricultural projects in the United States have emerged from social movements and nonprofit organizations focused on urban renewal, education, job training, community development, and sustainability initiatives. Although these social initiatives have traction, critical knowledge gaps exist regarding the science of food production in urban ecosystems. Developing a science-based approach to urban agriculture is essential to the economic and environmental sustainability of the movement. This paper reviews abiotic environmental factors influencing urban cropping systems, including soil contamination and remediation; atmospheric pollutants and altered climatic conditions; and water management, sources, and safety. This review paper seeks to characterize the limited state of the science on urban agricultural systems and identify future research questions most relevant to urban farmers, land-use planners, and environmental consultants.

  11. Response of benthic algae to environmental gradients in an agriculturally dominated landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Black, R.W.; Gruber, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Benthic algal communities were assessed in an agriculturally dominated landscape in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, to determine which environmental variables best explained species distributions, and whether algae species optima models were useful in predicting specific water-quality parameters. Land uses in the study area included forest, range, urban, and agriculture. Most of the streams in this region can be characterized as open-channel systems influenced by intensive dryland (nonirrigated) and irrigated agriculture. Algal communities in forested streams were dominated by blue-green algae, with communities in urban and range streams dominated by diatoms. The predominance of either blue-greens or diatoms in agricultural streams varied greatly depending on the specific site. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated a strong gradient effect of several key environmental variables on benthic algal community composition. Conductivity and % agriculture were the dominant explanatory variables when all sites (n = 24) were included in the CCA; water velocity replaced conductivity when the CCA included only agricultural and urban sites. Other significant explanatory variables included dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), orthophosphate (OP), discharge, and precipitation. Regression and calibration models accurately predicted conductivity based on benthic algal communities, with OP having slightly lower predictability. The model for DIN was poor, and therefore may be less useful in this system. Thirty-four algal taxa were identified as potential indicators of conductivity and nutrient conditions, with most indicators being diatoms except for the blue-greens Anabaenasp. and Lyngbya sp.

  12. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  13. Grassland-Cropping Rotations: An Avenue for Agricultural Diversification to Reconcile High Production with Environmental Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Gilles; Gastal, François; Franzluebbers, Alan; Chabbi, Abad

    2015-11-01

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity at all levels of organization, i.e., field, farm, landscape, and region. Therefore, we postulate that negative environmental impacts of modern agriculture are due more to production simplification than to inherent characteristics of agricultural productivity. Thus by enhancing diversity within agricultural systems, it should be possible to reconcile high quantity and quality of food production with environmental quality. Intensification of livestock and cropping systems separately within different specialized regions inevitably leads to unacceptable environmental impacts because of the overly uniform land use system in intensive cereal areas and excessive N-P loads in intensive animal areas. The capacity of grassland ecosystems to couple C and N cycles through microbial-soil-plant interactions as a way for mitigating the environmental impacts of intensive arable cropping system was analyzed in different management options: grazing, cutting, and ley duration, in order to minimize trade-offs between production and the environment. We suggest that integrated crop-livestock systems are an appropriate strategy to enhance diversity. Sod-based rotations can temporally and spatially capture the benefits of leys for minimizing environmental impacts, while still maintaining periods and areas of intensive cropping. Long-term experimental results illustrate the potential of such systems to sequester C in soil and to reduce and control N emissions to the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

  14. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  15. Environmental Effects of Agricultural Practices - Summary of Workshop Held on June 14-16, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    A meeting between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners was held June 14-16, 2005, in Denver, CO, to discuss science issues and needs related to agricultural practices. The goals of the meeting were to learn about the (1) effects of agricultural practices on the environment and (2) tools for identifying and quantifying those effects. Achieving these goals required defining the environmental concerns, developing scientific actions to address assessment of environmental effects, and creating collaborations to identify future research requirements and technical gaps. Five areas of concern were discussed-emerging compounds; water availability; genetically modified organisms; effects of conservation practices on ecosystems; and data, methods, and tools for assessing effects of agricultural practices.

  16. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a

  17. Environmental and Natural Resources Occupations in Agricultural Education. A Teacher's Guide. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    The guide was developed for teachers of a one-year high school course in environmental and natural resources occupations and was part of larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina. A curriculum paradigm is presented with units and subunits diagramed and time periods suggested for each. Basic supportive…

  18. The Role of Agricultural Consultants in New Zealand in Environmental Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Neels; Coutts, Jeff; Roth, Hein

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role that agricultural consultants in New Zealand were undertaking in the Research, Development and Extension (RD&E) system--and in particular in relation to environmental extension. New Zealand does not have a public extension service and hence there is a strong reliance on consultants and regional…

  19. Determination of arsenic and selenium in environmental and agricultural samples by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, J.W.; Oostdyk, T.S.; Keliher, P.N.

    1988-11-01

    Agricultural and environmental samples are digested with acid, and arsenic and selenium are determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Interelement interferences are eliminated by high acid concentrations or cation-exchange resins. Agreement with standard reference material is excellent. The technique is also applied to actual samples.

  20. A Culturally Relevant Agricultural and Environmental Course for K-12 Teachers in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylva, Traci; Chinn, Pauline; Kinoshita, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A Hawaiian cultural-based agricultural and environmental science professional development course was transformed based on the precepts of situated learning in communities of practice, and offered to K-12 teachers. In this article we describe the format and content of the transformed course based on lessons learned from previous years offered to…

  1. Management technologies can reduce the environmental risk of pesticides in agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide use in agriculture, the potential risk posed by pesticides when they are transported beyond the intended target, and their effects on human and environmental health have been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data, quantifying pesticide transport with runoff fr...

  2. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD).

  3. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  4. 76 FR 4133 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission AGENCY... consideration of possible changes in the potential environmental impacts of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... spacecraft technical and testing challenges. Launch opportunities for Mars missions occur approximately...

  5. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the NASA Sounding Rockets Program (SRP) at Poker... government agencies, and educational institutions have conducted suborbital rocket launches from the...

  6. 7 CFR 799.13 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information. 799.13 Section 799.13... AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.13 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  7. 7 CFR 799.13 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental information. 799.13 Section 799.13... AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.13 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  8. Design of agricultural insurance policy for tea tree freezing damage in Zhejiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Weiping; Sun, Shanlei

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes a method to design freezing damage policy-based agricultural insurance contracts for tea trees (an economic crop) in the Zhejiang Province of China, using a weather index. Data of economic losses caused by freezing damage, and the beginning dates of tea plucking (BDTP) from the Agricultural Bureau of each county in Zhejiang Province and tea planters, and meteorological observations were collected to establish the prediction model for BDTP, and to determine the relationship between economic loss rates caused by freezing damage at or before BDTP, and the minimum temperatures for "Wuniuzao," "Longjing-43," and "Jiukeng" teas. Based on the information diffusion theoretical model, occurrence probabilities of BDTP from 1 February to 20 April and lower temperatures at different levels are calculated. Then, the insurance premium rates of the three tea tree species can be estimated. Lastly, the tea tree freezing damage insurance contracts are designed, combining the advantages of regional yield-based index insurance and weather-based index insurance.

  9. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, Scott B.

    2000-01-01

    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  10. Environmental Justice Guidance Under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), by the Council on Environmental Quality, 1997

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CEQ, in consultation with EPA and other affected agencies, has developed this guidance to further assist Federal agencies with their NEPA procedures so that environmental justice concerns are effectively identified and addressed.

  11. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Sciences Report on ``Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S Environmental Protection Agency.'' A copy of... No: 2012-16454] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9696-4] National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of...

  12. 76 FR 68183 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... the National Academy of Sciences Report on ``Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental... Doc No: 2011-28523] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9486-3] National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Scientific commentary: Strategic analysis of environmental policy risks--heat maps, risk futures and the character of environmental harm.

    PubMed

    Prpich, G; Dagonneau, J; Rocks, S A; Lickorish, F; Pollard, S J T

    2013-10-01

    We summarise our recent efforts on the policy-level risk appraisal of environmental risks. These have necessitated working closely with policy teams and a requirement to maintain crisp and accessible messages for policy audiences. Our comparative analysis uses heat maps, supplemented with risk narratives, and employs the multidimensional character of risks to inform debates on the management of current residual risk and future threats. The policy research and ensuing analysis raises core issues about how comparative risk analyses are used by policy audiences, their validation and future developments that are discussed in the commentary below.

  14. 42 CFR 137.287 - What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.287 What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)? The NEPA is a procedural law...

  15. Plain Language in Environmental Policy Documents: An Assessment of Reader Comprehension and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natasha; McDavid, Justin; Derthick, Katie; Dowell, Randy; Spyridakis, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several government agencies are seeking quality improvement in environmental policy documents by asking for the implementation of Plain Language (PL) guidelines. Our mixed-methods research examines whether the application of certain PL guidelines affects the comprehension and perceptions of readers of environmental policy documents. Results show…

  16. 15 CFR 930.37 - Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. 930.37 Section 930.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. A Federal agency may use its NEPA documents as...

  17. 78 FR 25079 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... environmental data under the agreement. The Policy was originally approved on December 12, 2012 by the Science... is the demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills. Certification--As similarly defined in... of environmental data. Background/Authority The U.S. EPA Science Policy Council (now U.S. EPA...

  18. Environmental effects of growing short-rotation woody crops on former agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Thornton, F.C.; Joslin, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    Field-scale studies in the Southeast have been addressing the environmental effects of converting agricultural lands to biomass crop production since 1994. Erosion, surface water quality and quantity and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops are being compared. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes and crop productivity are also being monitored at the three sites. Maximum sediment losses occurred in the spring and fall. Losses were greater from sweetgum planted without a cover crop than with a cover crop. Nutrient losses of N and P in runoff and subsurface water occurred primarily after spring fertilizer application.

  19. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    PubMed

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  20. Agricultural Structural Change: Impact on the Rural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheim

    1990-01-01

    Examines indicators and impacts of agricultural change on environment. Links environmental quality to farm structure and size, and rural cultural values. Examines correlation between part-time farming and land structure and quality. Examines policies' effect on agricultural change. Recommends incorporation of environmental policies into…

  1. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  2. 25 CFR 166.100 - What special tribal policies will we apply to permitting on Indian agricultural lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on Indian agricultural lands? 166.100 Section 166.100 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Tribal Policies and Laws Pertaining to Permits § 166.100... approve a permit on “highly fractionated undivided heirship lands” as defined by tribal law. (c) The...

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009–2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011–2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives – efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia’s socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to

  5. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  6. Multi-basket approaches to climate and environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa

    2014-05-01

    Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) receive increasing attention because emission abatements of most of these substances not only reduce air pollution but also slow down the global warming. Cutting the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a long-lived gas in contrast, is of primary importance to mitigate the global climate change as well as to stop ocean acidification. To keep abreast of such multiple challenges in a flexible and cost-effective manner, emission caps can be specified in terms of a reference gas (e.g., CO2) and emissions of different components can be converted according to emission metrics. However, under a current one-basket approach (used continuously in the Kyoto Protocol), which allows trading for all the components, any emission metrics may not be scientifically acceptable due to their diverse atmospheric lifetimes among many other reasons. Here we question whether an emerging multi-basket approach, which groups substances based on their atmospheric lifetimes and permits trading for components within each basket, is more robust in guiding us to achieve multiple policy targets and more useful to maintain the balance between SLCP and CO2 abatements with relatively small additional costs. In a wider context a multi-basket approach may simplify the dialogue among stakeholders and underpin a parallel pursuit of multiple climate and environmental challenges that our society faces.

  7. U.S. nanotechnology policy and the decay of environmental law, 1980--2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Jeffrey D.

    2009-11-01

    Environmental law's authority to protect humans and the environment from pollution and resource exploitation began to deteriorate in the early 1980s. The dissertation is a modest attempt to answer the question, "What caused the gradual erosion in environmental law's normative authority?" It argues that the emergence of a neoliberal, market-centered ideology redefined the relationship between economic and environmental policies, causing environmental law's transformation into an instrument of economic discourse. This ethical transformation weakened environmental law's authority to protect humans and the environment from risks posed by unbridled economic growth policies. It also sparked the rise of an ideology to counter neoliberalism's power over environmental policy: sustainable development or "sustainability." Sustainable development reaffirms environmental law's normative authority and relies upon deliberative democratic principles similar to those that drove the enactment of environmental legislation during the 1960s and 1970s. The dissertation analyzes environmental law's transformation through two complementary case studies. First, it shows how the expansion of regulatory agencies' legislative power has combined with cost-benefit analysis mandates to undermine the goals of environmental law and limit democratic debate about environmental policy. Second, it analyzes the genesis and development of nanotechnology policy in the United States to show how neoliberalism's economic logic subtly erodes environmental law's normative authority. These case studies illuminate pragmatic differences in substance and process between neoliberalism and sustainable development. They also show that the relative balance of institutional authority over risk-related information determines the effectiveness and durability of legislative mandates intended to protect the environment.

  8. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  9. Federalism and the determinants of environmental policy in the American states

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s the American states experienced a resurgence in the field of environmental policy. Innovation increased as state legislatures reacted to growing environmental problems. This study addresses the determinants of state policy in three areas: air pollution control, water pollution control, and hazardous waste policy. The findings are analyzed in the context of federalism, as the ongoing debate over the proper role of the federal and state governments is discussed in terms of environmental policy. The study utilizes bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine four sets of variables: pollution severity conditions, political conditions, economic conditions, and social conditions. A pollution severity hypothesis, which states that increased levels of pollution within a state will lead to more stringent policy, is tested. Pollution severity can interact with other types of variables, and its influence on state policy is likely to be mitigated by other forces. The findings of the analysis suggest the need to study specific types of environmental policy, in order to develop a full understanding of state pollution control efforts on the whole. Differences are found between the determinants of spending and regulatory policy. Factors impacting state policy include pollution severity, ideology, political culture, and age. Importantly, economic factors were found to have almost no impact on state environmental policy. The findings of the study suggest that the use of federal funds as a tool to correct state differences may be misguided since economic conditions rarely affect policy creation. Further research, however, should continue to address this issue, since conditions in the states are constantly shifting. Other important areas of future research should include additional state policy types, party elites, and political variables in general, since the debate over federalism and environmental policy will likely become more salient in the 1990s.

  10. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-09-15

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  11. Environmental factors that influence the location of crop agriculture in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Most crops are grown on land with shallow slope where the temperature, precipitation, and soils are favorable. In areas that are too steep, wet, or dry, landscapes have been modified to allow cultivation. Some of the limitations of the environmental factors that determine the location of agriculture can be overcome through modifications, but others cannot. On a larger-than-field scale, agricultural modifications commonly influence water availability through irrigation and (or) drainage and soil fertility and (or) organic-matter content through amendments such as manure, commercial fertilizer and lime. In general, it is not feasible to modify the other environmental factors, soil texture, soil depth, soil mineralogy, temperature, and terrain at large scales.

  12. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  13. Driving forces for the formation of environmental policy in the Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Kratovits, A; Punning, J M

    2001-11-01

    The article elaborates on the role of international environmental regimes and multilateral environmental agreements in the process of development of environmental policy in the 3 Baltic countries; Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Comparison of emission trends and changes in the state of the environment with reference to international environmental regimes allow one to conclude that there is no clear link between the official accession to environmental conventions and changes in environmental fields. The Baltic countries first joined international environmental regimes dealing with global or regional environmental security, while acceptance of the agreements and accession to regimes seen as more important from the point of view of solving their own environmental problems, took place later. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Baltic countries have seen the international legal instruments in their environmental policies as preventive, rather than curative instruments. Active participation in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) has, on the other hand, substantially contributed to the readiness of the Baltic countries to take the next step in their environmental policy--taking over the environmental policies (Acquis Communautaire) of the European Union.

  14. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environ- mental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government.

  15. Policy, systems, and environmental approaches for obesity prevention: a framework to inform local and state action.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Rodney; Aytur, Semra; Davis, Tobey A; Eyler, Amy A; Evenson, Kelly R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Cradock, Angie L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Litt, Jill; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-01-01

    The public health literature has not fully explored the complexities of the policy process as they relate to public health practice and obesity prevention. We conducted a review of the literature across the policy science and public health fields, distilled key theories of policy making, and developed a framework to inform policy, systems, and environmental change efforts on obesity prevention. Beginning with a conceptual description, we focus on understanding three domains of the policy process: the problem domain, the policy domain, and the political domain. We identify key activities in the policy process including the following: (a) assessing the social and political environment; (b) engaging, educating and collaborating with key individuals and groups; (c) identifying and framing the problem; (d) utilizing available evidence; (e) identifying policy solutions; and (f) building public support and political will. The article provides policy change resources and case studies to guide and support local and state efforts around obesity prevention.

  16. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.

  17. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental laws and regulations. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are...

  1. 7 CFR 1710.117 - Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental considerations. 1710.117 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.117 Environmental considerations. Borrowers are required... environmental laws and regulations....

  2. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change--a model framework.

    PubMed

    Lázár, Attila N; Clarke, Derek; Adams, Helen; Akanda, Abdur Razzaque; Szabo, Sylvia; Nicholls, Robert J; Matthews, Zoe; Begum, Dilruba; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Abedin, Md Anwarul; Payo, Andres; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Hutton, Craig; Mondal, M Shahjahan; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md

    2015-06-01

    Coastal Bangladesh experiences significant poverty and hazards today and is highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change over the coming decades. Coastal stakeholders are demanding information to assist in the decision making processes, including simulation models to explore how different interventions, under different plausible future socio-economic and environmental scenarios, could alleviate environmental risks and promote development. Many existing simulation models neglect the complex interdependencies between the socio-economic and environmental system of coastal Bangladesh. Here an integrated approach has been proposed to develop a simulation model to support agriculture and poverty-based analysis and decision-making in coastal Bangladesh. In particular, we show how a simulation model of farmer's livelihoods at the household level can be achieved. An extended version of the FAO's CROPWAT agriculture model has been integrated with a downscaled regional demography model to simulate net agriculture profit. This is used together with a household income-expenses balance and a loans logical tree to simulate the evolution of food security indicators and poverty levels. Modelling identifies salinity and temperature stress as limiting factors to crop productivity and fertilisation due to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as a reinforcing factor. The crop simulation results compare well with expected outcomes but also reveal some unexpected behaviours. For example, under current model assumptions, temperature is more important than salinity for crop production. The agriculture-based livelihood and poverty simulations highlight the critical significance of debt through informal and formal loans set at such levels as to persistently undermine the well-being of agriculture-dependent households. Simulations also indicate that progressive approaches to agriculture (i.e. diversification) might not provide the clear economic benefit from the perspective of

  3. Analyzing environmental policy change: United States Landsat policy, 1964--1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gerald B.

    In recent years there has been an increase in the attention paid by policy scholars to the subject of policy change. Early attempts at studying this phenomena produced typologies of policy change and interesting case studies of specific instances of significant policy change. Recently, some policy scholars have worked to develop theoretical models of policy change that include explicit explanations of how and why public policies change over time. In general, scholars have identified two major sources of change: policy-oriented conflict and policy-oriented learning. One of the most advanced theoretical models of policy change is Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith's (1993, 1997) Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). This comprehensive theoretical model is at the forefront of policy change research because, among other things, it explicitly integrates both conflict and teaming as interdependent sources of policy change. This dissertation uses the case of changes in U.S. land remote sensing (Landsat) policy between 1964 and 1998 to demonstrate a combined qualitative/quantitative application of the ACF, test several of the ACF's key theoretical propositions, and generate a set of criteria for solidifying the policy subsystem concept. The first part of this study uses a detailed case-study of Landsat politics to demonstrate the emergence of this policy arena as a semi-autonomous policy subsystem from the larger U.S. science and technology policy domain during the 1970's and 80's. This case study also serves to illuminate the importance of policy-oriented conflict, policy-oriented learning, and exogenous events in influencing the significant policy changes that have occurred in U.S. Landsat policy over the last 35 years. The second part of this study uses historical data on the preferences of key Landsat policy elites (generated from the systematic content analysis of 163 testimonies, reports, and official statements), in combination with survey data collected on current Landsat

  4. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  5. Agricultural policy effects on land cover and land use over 30 years in Tartous, Syria, as seen in Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Waad Youssef; Batzli, Sam; Menzel, W. Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study pursues a connection between agricultural policy and the changes in land use and land cover detected with remote sensing satellite data. One part of the study analyzes the Syrian agricultural policy, wherein, certain regional targets have been selected for annual citrus or greenhouse development along with tools of enforcement, support, and monitoring. The second part of the study investigates the utility of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) to map land use land cover changes (LULC-Cs) in a time series of images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) from 1987, 1998, 2006, and 2010 and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) from 1999 to 2002. Several multispectral band analyses have been performed to determine the most suitable band combinations for isolating greenhouses and citrus farms. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood classifier has been used to produce precise land use land cover map. This research demonstrates that spatial relationship between LULC-Cs and agricultural policies can be determined through a science-based GIS/RS application to a time series of satellite images taken at the same time of the implemented policy.

  6. Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-03-03

    Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30-60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550-600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service.

  7. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Ching; Yamada, Tetsuji; Chiu, I-Ming; Liu, Yi-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases). Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average. PMID:19440434

  8. Evaluation of the waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and environmental health policy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ching; Yamada, Tetsuji; Chiu, I-Ming; Liu, Yi-Kuen

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases). Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  9. 25 CFR 224.70 - Will the Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act? 224.70 Section 224.70 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act? Yes, the Secretary will conduct a review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of the potential impacts on...

  10. Reconstructing a century of agricultural land use and drivers of change from social and environmental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, Heather; Smith, Hugh; Riley, Mark; Sellami, Haykel; Chiverrell, Richard; Boyle, John

    2016-04-01

    Changes to agricultural land use practices and climate represent serious challenges to the future management of rural landscapes. In Britain, the modern rural landscape may seem comparatively stable relative to the long history of human impact. However, there have been important changes linked to the intensification of agricultural practices during the last ca. 100 years and more recently improvements in land management designed to reduce impacts on land and water resources. Few studies attempt high-resolution spatial reconstruction of historic land use change, which is essential for understanding such human-environment interactions in the recent past. Specifically, the absence of detailed spatio-temporal records of agricultural land use/land cover change at the catchment-scale presents a challenge in assessing recent developments in land use policies and management. Here, we generate a high-resolution time-series of historic land use at the catchment-scale for hydrological modelling applications. Our reconstructions focus on three catchments in England ((1) Brotherswater (NE Lake District); (2) Crose Mere (Shropshire); (3) Loweswater (NW Lake District)) spanning a range of agricultural environments subject to different levels of land use change; from intensively-farmed lowlands to upland catchments subject to lower-intensity grazing. Temporal reconstructions of changes in land management practices and vegetation cover are based on historic aerial photography (1940s-2000s) and satellite-derived land cover maps (1990, 2000, and 2007), in combination with annual records of parish-level agricultural census data (1890s-1970s) and farmer interviews, in order to produce an integrated series of digital land cover and land practice maps. The datasets are coupled with composite temperature and precipitation series produced from a number of local stations. Combined, these spatio-temporal datasets allow a comprehensive assessment of land use and management change against the

  11. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  12. Environmental Scientists' Perceptions of the Science-Policy Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Leslie R.; Simon, Marc

    2001-01-01

    Describes the criticisms coming from scientists on the assessment report on acid rain released by the National Acid Preparation Assessment Program (NAPAP) with the purpose of providing relevant information to policy makers about acid rain. Investigates n=129 scientists' point of view on the linkage of science to policy. (YDS)

  13. Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-02-05

    Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives.

  14. Environmental assessment of energy generation from agricultural and farm waste through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Nayal, Figen Sisman; Mammadov, Aydin; Ciliz, Nilgun

    2016-12-15

    While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint. This study explores the environmental benefits and burdens of one such option, that is, biogas production from a mixture of agricultural and animal waste through anaerobic digestion (AD), and its subsequent use for electricity and heat generation. A life-cycle assessment methodology was used, to measure the potential environmental impact of this option, in terms of global warming and total weighed impact, and to contrast it with the impact of producing the same amount of energy via an integrated gasification combined cycle process and a hard coal power plant. This study concentrates on an AD and cogeneration pilot plant, built in the Kocaeli province of Turkey and attempts to evaluate its potential environmental impacts. The study uses laboratory-scale studies, as well as literature and LCI databases to derive the operational parameters, yield and emissions of the plant. The potential impacts were calculated with EDIP 2003 methodology, using GaBi 5 LCA software. The results indicate that N2O emissions, resulting from the application of liquid and solid portions of digestate (a by-product of AD), as an organic fertilizer, are by far the largest contributors to global warming among all the life cycle stages. They constitute 68% of the total, whereas ammonia losses from the same process are the leading cause of terrestrial eutrophication. The photochemical ozone formation potential is significantly higher for the cogeneration phase, compared to other life cycle

  15. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... addressed to Joshua Bundick, Manager, Poker Flat Research Range EIS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of availability...

  16. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  17. Technology, managerial, and policy initiatives for improving environmental performance in small-scale gold mining industry.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin; Van der Vorst, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews a series of strategies for improving environmental performance in the small-scale gold mining industry. Although conditions vary regionally, few regulations and policies exist specifically for small-scale gold mining activity. Furthermore, because environmental awareness is low in most developing countries, sites typically feature rudimentary technologies and poor management practices. A combination of policy-, managerial- and technology-related initiatives is needed to facilitate environmental improvement in the industry. Following a broad overview of these initiatives, a recommended strategy is put forth for governments keen on improving the environmental conditions of resident small-scale gold mines.

  18. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.A.; Hansen, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  19. Water storage equity and safety assurance policy to mitigate potential 'dual-extreme cumulative threats' in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2017-02-01

    Farm dams that are not managed properly at the individual level can create water storage equity and safety threats to downstream communities and the environment that aggregate at the catchment level: a potential 'dual-extreme cumulative' problem. The paper provides indicative evidence and develops understanding of this novel phenomenon and associated policy needs within the Australian setting comprising dual hydrologic extremes of floods and droughts, further exacerbated by climate change. This is achieved through comparative case studies involving surveys of both dam owner perceptions and dam management practices in four States representing a complete range of integrated policy approaches from weak to strong. Survey results find most farmers do not believe dam maintenance is important, will undertake spillway blocking and do not plan for emergencies. These results are supported by physical on-site findings of farmers neglecting dams and blocking or under-designing spillways, in turn storing more water than they are entitled and creating unsafe dams at both the individual and cumulative levels. From detailed cross-case comparative assessment against policy context, it emerges that on-farm perceptions and practices form a range of 'acceptability' of dam management that directly reflects policy strength and integration in each setting. The paper advances the international small dams policy, agricultural water management and hydrology literatures, evidencing the need for effective integrated policy to mitigate dual extreme cumulative threats. Importantly, guidance is provided to jurisdictions internationally with high inter-annual rainfall variation on how best to design integrated policy that can achieve both water storage equity and safety in agricultural catchments.

  20. A survey of unmanned ground vehicles with applications to agricultural and environmental sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadies, Stephanie; Lefcourt, Alan; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have been utilized in the last few decades in an effort to increase the efficiency of agriculture, in particular, by reducing labor needs. Unmanned vehicles have been used for a variety of purposes including: soil sampling, irrigation management, precision spraying, mechanical weeding, and crop harvesting. In this paper, unmanned ground vehicles, implemented by researchers or commercial operations, are characterized through a comparison to other vehicles used in agriculture, namely airplanes and UAVs. An overview of different trade-offs of configurations, control schemes, and data collection technologies is provided. Emphasis is given to the use of unmanned ground vehicles in food crops, and includes a discussion of environmental impacts and economics. Factors considered regarding the future trends and potential issues of unmanned ground vehicles include development, management and performance. Also included is a strategy to demonstrate to farmers the safety and profitability of implementing the technology.

  1. Unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi reforms in China: interplay of agricultural reform and population control policy.

    PubMed

    Yen, W; Carter, L F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the discussion of unintended consequences of Ze Ren Zhi policy reforms in China is to show how isolating problems and developing solutions in isolation can lead to serious consequences. The Ze Ren Zhi reforms in 1978 were intended to increase agricultural productivity by changing from the collective system to an individual responsibility system, but the unintended and undesirable consequences were a growth in family size and discouragement of some environmentally sound land use practices. The prior system gave an equal share of collective income for an equal number of days worked. Under the new reform, "Baochan Daohu," each household had responsibility for a contracted quantity of grain production. Within 2-4 years, economic conditions improved considerably. A discussion is provided of the transition from rights and duties of the collectives to the new responsibility system and the experimentation with different systems. Specific attention is directed to land reforms, mutual aid teams, cooperatives, communes, variations of Ze Ren Zhi, contracting output to individual laborers, contracting jobs to households, and contracting output quotas to households. During the reforms, beginning in the 1950s and lasting until 1978, other changes were taking place. Death rates were declining and birth rates were increasing, such that in 1971 a campaign was established to promote the Late, Sparse, and Few policy for marrying and giving birth later, increasing birth intervals, and having fewer children. This voluntary program eventually took on a more universally mandatory nature. The 1950 Marriage Law stipulated 20 years as the legal age for marriage (18 years for females), and family planning (FP) workers during the 1970s were encouraging even later marriage, and by 1980 a system of rewards and penalties was established to reinforce small family size. After 1978 and a period of birth declines, the crude birth rate increased to 3.06 in 1983. The new responsibility

  2. LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY CAPACITY: A FRAMEWORK FOR RESEARCH. (R825226)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. The Unfinished Agenda: The Citizen's Policy Guide to Environmental Issues. A Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Gerald O., Ed.

    This book is the result of the Environmental Task Force, a group of 63 environmentalists who were asked to identify and describe the most critical environmental problems. It contains chapters on population, food and agriculture, the energy economy, natural resources, water and air pollution, hazards of toxic substances, land use and ecology,…

  4. Behavior Learning Based on a Policy Gradient Method: Separation of Environmental Dynamics and State-Values in Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Seiji; Igarashi, Harukazu

    Policy gradient methods are useful approaches to reinforcement learning. Applying the method to behavior learning, we can deal with each decision problem in different time-steps as a problem of minimizing an objective function. In this paper, we give the objective function consists of two types of parameters, which represent state-values and environmental dynamics. In order to separate the learning of the state-value from that of the environmental dynamics, we also give respective learning rules for each type of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the same set of state-values can be reused under different environmental dynamics.

  5. Global Environmental Problems: Implications for U.S. Policy. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit is designed to help high schools students to explore the relationship between U.S. foreign policy and the global environment. At the core of the unit is a framework of four distinct options that allows students to consider a range of alternatives for U.S. policy toward global environmental problems. Using this framework, students are…

  6. Spatial targeting of agri-environmental policy using bilevel evolutionary optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the optimal designation of agri-environmental policy as a bilevel optimization problem and propose an integrated solution method using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The problem is characterized by a single leader, the agency, that establishes a policy with the goal of optimiz...

  7. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data... Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers will not accept checks (nor money...

  8. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  9. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Environmental equity and the role of public policy: experiences in the Rijnmond region.

    PubMed

    Kruize, Hanneke; Driessen, Peter P J; Glasbergen, Pieter; van Egmond, Klaas N D

    2007-10-01

    This study of environmental equity uses secondary quantitative data to analyze socioeconomic disparities in environmental conditions in the Rijnmond region of the Netherlands. The disparities of selected environmental indicators--exposure to traffic noise (road, rail, and air), NO(2), external safety risks, and the availability of public green space--are analyzed both separately and in combination. Not only exposures to environmental burdens ("bads") were investigated, but also access to environmental benefits ("goods"). Additionally, we held interviews and reviewed documents to grasp the mechanisms underlying the environmental equity situation, with an emphasis on the role of public policy. Environmental equity is not a priority in public policy for the greater Rotterdam region known as the Rijnmond region, yet environmental standards have been established to provide a minimum environmental quality to all local residents. In general, environmental quality has improved in this region, and the accumulation of negative environmental outcomes ("bads") has been limited. However, environmental standards for road traffic noise and NO(2) are being exceeded, probably because of the pressure on space and the traffic intensity. We found an association of environmental "bads" with income for rail traffic noise and availability of public green space. In the absence of regulation, positive environmental outcomes ("goods") are mainly left up to market forces. Consequently, higher-income groups generally have more access to environmental "goods" than lower-income groups.

  11. Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices

    PubMed Central

    Tilman, David

    1999-01-01

    The recent intensification of agriculture, and the prospects of future intensification, will have major detrimental impacts on the nonagricultural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the world. The doubling of agricultural food production during the past 35 years was associated with a 6.87-fold increase in nitrogen fertilization, a 3.48-fold increase in phosphorus fertilization, a 1.68-fold increase in the amount of irrigated cropland, and a 1.1-fold increase in land in cultivation. Based on a simple linear extension of past trends, the anticipated next doubling of global food production would be associated with approximately 3-fold increases in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates, a doubling of the irrigated land area, and an 18% increase in cropland. These projected changes would have dramatic impacts on the diversity, composition, and functioning of the remaining natural ecosystems of the world, and on their ability to provide society with a variety of essential ecosystem services. The largest impacts would be on freshwater and marine ecosystems, which would be greatly eutrophied by high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus release from agricultural fields. Aquatic nutrient eutrophication can lead to loss of biodiversity, outbreaks of nuisance species, shifts in the structure of food chains, and impairment of fisheries. Because of aerial redistribution of various forms of nitrogen, agricultural intensification also would eutrophy many natural terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases. These detrimental environmental impacts of agriculture can be minimized only if there is much more efficient use and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in agroecosystems. PMID:10339530

  12. Expansion of agricultural oasis in the Heihe River Basin of China: Patterns, reasons and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. An agricultural oasis is a typical landscape in arid regions providing precious fertile soil, living space and ecological services. The agricultural oasis change has been one of the key issues in sustainable development in recent decades. In this paper, we examined the changes in the agricultural oasis in HRB and analyzed the socio-economic and climatic driving forces behind them. It was found that the agricultural oasis in HRB expanded by 25.11% and 14.82% during the periods of 1986-2000 and 2000-2011, respectively. Most of the newly added agricultural oases in HRB were converted from grassland (40.94%) and unused land (40.22%). The expansion in the agricultural oasis mainly occurred in the middle reaches of HRB, particularly in the counties of Shandan, Minle, Jinta and Jiuquan city. Changes in the rural labor force, annual temperature and precipitation have significant positive effects on agricultural oasis changes, while the ratio of irrigated agricultural oases has significant negative effects on agricultural oasis changes. The agricultural oasis expansion in HRB is the combined effect of human activity and climate change.

  13. Environmental characteristics, agricultural land use, and vulnerability to degradation in Malopolska Province (Poland).

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Schneider, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Environmental degradation encompasses multiple processes that are rarely combined in analyses. This study refers to three types of environmental degradation resulting from agricultural activity: soil erosion, nutrient loss, and groundwater pollution. The research was conducted in seven distinct study areas in the Malopolska Province, Poland, each characterized by different environmental properties. Calculations were made on the basis of common models, i.e., USLE (soil erosion), InVEST (nutrient loss), and DRASTIC (groundwater pollution). Two scenarios were calculated to identify the areas contributing to potential and actual degradation. For the potential degradation scenario all study areas were treated as arable land. To identify the areas actually contributing to all three types of degradation, the de facto land use pattern was used for a second scenario. The results show that the areas most endangered by agricultural activity are located in the mountainous region, whereas most of the degraded zones were located in valley bottoms and areas with intensive agriculture. The different hazards rarely overlap spatially in the given study areas - meaning that different areas require different management approaches. The distribution of arable land was negatively correlated with soil erosion hazard, whereas no linkage was found between nutrient loss or groundwater pollution hazards and the proportion of arable land. This indicates that the soil erosion hazard is the most influential factor in the distribution of arable land, whereas nutrient loss and groundwater pollution is widely ignored during land use decision-making. Slope largely and most frequently influences all hazard types, whereas land use also played an important role in the case of soil and nutrient losses. In this study we presented a consistent methodology to capture complex degradation processes and provide robust indicators which can be included in existing impact assessment approaches like Life Cycle

  14. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Aaron; Young, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration.

  15. Biochem-Env: a platform of biochemistry for research in environmental and agricultural sciences.

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Nathalie; Grondin, Virginie; Mougin, Christian

    2017-04-07

    Biochemical indicators are potent tools to assess ecosystem functioning under anthropic and global pressures. Nevertheless, additional work is needed to improve the methods used for the measurement of these indicators, and for a more relevant interpretation of the obtained results. To face these challenges, the platform Biochem-Env aims at providing innovative and standardized measurement protocols, as well as database and information system favoring result interpretation and opening. Its skills and tools are also offered for expertise, consulting, training, and standardization. In addition, the platform is a service of a French Research Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems, for research in environmental and agricultural sciences.

  16. Recent progress in agricultural, food and environmental applications of thermal lens spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Mladen

    1999-03-01

    A review of some recent applications of thermal lens spectrometry (TLS), which demonstrated the versatility and advantages of TLS detection in analysis of agricultural, food and environmental samples is presented. Application of TLS for detection of pesticides in combination with capillary electrophoresis or flow injection analysis (FIA) based on a biosensor and detection of carotenoids following their high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation is discussed. A novel differential TLS spectrometer and its application for IR detection of pesticides and organic acids is also described.

  17. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  18. Improving (NEPA) the National Environmental Policy Act through ISO 14001

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C H

    1999-02-25

    Federal application of ISO 14001 and / or the EPA Code of Environmental Management Principles (CEMP) could substantially improve the mitigation and monitoring aspects of the NEPA process. In addition, application of those management systems could also enhance fulfillment of Section 101 goals of NEPA. An ISO 14001 Environmental Management System would provide for a plan to continually address and improve environmental aspects and impacts. The strong feedback and improvement loops in both CEMP and ISO 14001 would help strengthen this weakness of NEPA by providing a mechanism to foster excellent environmental action, not just more dusty paperwork.

  19. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... to harmonize our economic, environmental, and social aspirations and is a cornerstone of our Nation's... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA Mitigation and...

  20. Frontiers of sustainability: Environmentally sound agriculture, forestry, transportation, and power production

    SciTech Connect

    Dower, R.; Ditz, D.

    1998-11-01

    The book presents the first practical vision of the sustainable future of the United States and the steps needed to get there. Authors examine the environmental performance and trends in four key economic sectors; agriculture, electricity generation, transportation, and pulp and paper manufacturing. They map out and explore the implications of potentially dangerous trends and developments, and detail methods for reducing or managing emergency threats. Each chapter sets forth a technologically feasible vision of the future in which the unwanted trends one sees unfolding now are reversed. Frontiers of sustainability presents an adaptable formula for moving the United States toward a future that ensures generations to come a healthy stock of environmental and natural resource assets.

  1. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  2. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  3. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included.

  4. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments.

  5. Creating an Environmental Justice Framework for Policy Change in Childhood Asthma: A Grassroots to Treetops Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Katherine; Arons, Abigail; Standish, Marion; Brindis, Claire D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The Community Action to Fight Asthma Initiative, a network of coalitions and technical assistance providers in California, employed an environmental justice approach to reduce risk factors for asthma in school-aged children. Policy advocacy focused on housing, schools, and outdoor air quality. Technical assistance partners from environmental science, policy advocacy, asthma prevention, and media assisted in advocacy. An evaluation team assessed progress and outcomes. Methods. A theory of change and corresponding logic model were used to document coalition development and successes. Site visits, surveys, policymaker interviews, and participation in meetings documented the processes and outcomes. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to assess strategies, successes, and challenges. Results. Coalitions, working with community residents and technical assistance experts, successfully advocated for policies to reduce children's exposures to environmental triggers, particularly in low-income communities and communities of color. Policies were implemented at various levels. Conclusions. Environmental justice approaches to policy advocacy could be an effective strategy to address inequities across communities. Strong technical assistance, close community involvement, and multilevel strategies were all essential to effective policies to reduce environmental inequities. PMID:21836108

  6. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.

  7. Does the selection of ISO 14001 registrars matter? Registrar reputation and environmental policy statements in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between characteristics of environmental policy statements and the reputations of ISO 14001 registrars who had performed certification audits of firms operating in mainland China. Three characteristics of environmental policy statements were examined: (1) The conformance of the policy to strict interpretations of the international standard; (2) The policy statement's adherence to the good practice guidelines specified in ISO 14004; and, (3) Self-reported evaluations of the policy statement's effectiveness as implemented. Data from 106 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou reveal that registrar quality has a relatively weak, positive relationship with conformance to both ISO 14001 standards and to ISO 14004 guidelines, but no relationship was observed with the self-reported data. Additional findings are that the use of foreign registrars is significantly associated with the adoption of ISO 14004 guidelines and that conformance with ISO 14001 standards is somewhat higher for international joint ventures and foreign-owned firms than for state-owned enterprises.

  8. Environmental and policy interventions to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Brownson, R C; Koffman, D M; Novotny, T E; Hughes, R G; Eriksen, M P

    1995-11-01

    Despite its declining prevalence during the past few decades, tobacco use remains one of the most significant public health issues of the 1990s. Environmental and policy interventions are among the most cost-effective approaches to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular diseases. In this article, the authors review and offer to state and local health departments and other public health partners a summary of recommended policy and environmental interventions that have either reduced or show potential to reduce tobacco use. Priority recommendations include clean indoor air policies, restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion, policies limiting youth access to tobacco, comprehensive school health programs, and excise taxes and other economic incentives. Many of these recommendations should be integrated with other health promotion interventions to also improve nutrition and physical activity. The authors also highlight several successful interventions and strategies used to establish policies at the state and local levels.

  9. Environmental Policy--a Priority for Schools in the '90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, Cathryn

    1989-01-01

    A transformation of public attitudes on the environment has resulted in more stringent standards on almost all school programs for hazardous waste management, air quality, groundwater, and emergency planning and response. A comprehensive environmental risk reduction and management policy should highlight the potential for environmental risks in…

  10. 75 FR 38810 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management... draft EPA FY 2011- 2015 Strategic Plan. The Council will also be discussing the workplans it is... , (202) 564-0464, U.S. EPA, Office of Cooperative Environmental Management (1601M), 1200...

  11. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  12. 7 CFR 1794.53 - Environmental report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report. 1794.53 Section 1794.53... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794.53 Environmental report. (a) After scoping procedures have been completed, RUS...

  13. 7 CFR 1794.53 - Environmental report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report. 1794.53 Section 1794.53... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments With Scoping § 1794.53 Environmental report. (a) After scoping procedures have been completed, RUS...

  14. Rapid screening of flonicamid residues in environmental and agricultural samples by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Gangbing; Sun, Jianfan; Zou, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Jiagao

    2016-05-01

    A fast and sensitive polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the analysis of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. Two haptens of flonicamid differing in spacer arm length were synthesized and conjugated to proteins to be used as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To obtain most sensitive combination of antibody/coating antigen, two antibodies were separately screened by homologous and heterologous assays. After optimization, the flonicamid ELISA showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) was 3.86mgL(-1), and the limit of detection (IC20 value) was 0.032mgL(-1). There was no cross-reactivity to similar tested compounds. The recoveries obtained after the addition of standard flonicamid to the samples, including water, soil, carrot, apple and tomato, ranged from 79.3% to 116.4%. Moreover, the results of the ELISA for the spiked samples were largely consistent with the gas chromatography (R(2)=0.9891). The data showed that the proposed ELISA is an alternative tool for rapid, sensitive and accurate monitoring of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples.

  15. GLIMPSE: a rapid decision framework for energy and environmental policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the coming decades, new energy production technologies and the policies that oversee them will affect human health, the vitality of our ecosystems, and the stability of the global climate. The GLIMPSE decision model framework provides insights about the implications of techn...

  16. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  17. Effects of multi-scale environmental characteristics on agricultural stream biota in eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Scudder, B.C.; Lenz, B.N.; Sullivan, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey examined 25 agricultural streams in eastern Wisconsin to determine relations between fish, invertebrate, and algal metrics and multiple spatial scales of land cover, geologic setting, hydrologic, aquatic habitat, and water chemistry data. Spearman correlation and redundancy analyses were used to examine relations among biotic metrics and environmental characteristics. Riparian vegetation, geologic, and hydrologic conditions affected the response of biotic metrics to watershed agricultural land cover but the relations were aquatic assemblage dependent. It was difficult to separate the interrelated effects of geologic setting, watershed and buffer land cover, and base flow. Watershed and buffer land cover, geologic setting, reach riparian vegetation width, and stream size affected the fish IBI, invertebrate diversity, diatom IBI, and number of algal taxa; however, the invertebrate FBI, percentage of EPT, and the diatom pollution index were more influenced by nutrient concentrations and flow variability. Fish IBI scores seemed most sensitive to land cover in the entire stream network buffer, more so than watershed-scale land cover and segment or reach riparian vegetation width. All but one stream with more than approximately 10 percent buffer agriculture had fish IBI scores of fair or poor. In general, the invertebrate and algal metrics used in this study were not as sensitive to land cover effects as fish metrics. Some of the reach-scale characteristics, such as width/depth ratios, velocity, and bank stability, could be related to watershed influences of both land cover and geologic setting. The Wisconsin habitat index was related to watershed geologic setting, watershed and buffer land cover, riparian vegetation width, and base flow, and appeared to be a good indicator of stream quality. Results from this study emphasize the value of using more than one or two biotic metrics to assess water quality and the importance of environmental

  18. Optimal Management of Nitrate Pollution of Groundwater in Agricultural Watersheds Considering Environmental and Economic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, M. N.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Groundwater pollution due to nitrogen species from various land use activities and practices is a common concern in most agricultural watersheds. Minimization of nonpoint source nitrogen pollution can be achieved by appropriate changes to land use practices to the extent of not affecting local economies that depend heavily on agricultural activities. Most prior research work focused on predicting nitrogen loading and/or fate and transport of nitrate in groundwater due to various agricultural activities. In this work, however, we propose to present a broad integrated methodology for the optimal management of nitrate contamination of ground water combining environmental assessment and economic cost evaluation through multi-criteria decision analysis. The proposed methodology incorporates an integrated physical modeling framework accounting for on-ground nitrogen loading and losses, soil nitrogen dynamics, and fate and transport of nitrate in ground water to compute the sustainable on-ground nitrogen loading such that the maximum contaminant level is not violated. A number of protection alternatives to stipulate the predicted sustainable on-ground nitrogen loading are evaluated using the decision analysis that employs the importance order of criteria approach for ranking and selection of the protection alternatives. The methodology was successfully demonstrated for the Sumas-Blaine aquifer in Washington State. The results showed the importance of using this integrated approach that predicts the sustainable on-ground nitrogen loadings and provides an insight to the economic consequences generated in satisfying the environmental constraints. The results also show that the proposed decision analysis framework, within certain limitation, is effective when selecting alternatives with competing demands.

  19. Environmental policy implementation in rural China: a case study of Yuhang, Zhejiang.

    PubMed

    Swanson, K E; Kuhn, R G; Xu, W

    2001-04-01

    The rapid growth of rural enterprises has transformed the Chinese countryside. Although rural industrialisation has resulted in increased financial well-being, it has also contributed to decreased environmental quality. While China has strong environmental protection laws, this paper will demonstrate that they are not being effectively implemented in a rural region in Zhejiang Province. This is due to a number of social, political, and economic barriers that prevent agencies from effectively enforcing environmental policies and regulatory mechanisms. This paper investigates the implementation of China's environmental policies through a case study in Yuhang County, Zhejiang Province. It demonstrates that the implementation of environmental impact assessment, discharge fees, and limited time treatment is limited by inadequate technology, low finances, limited human resources, poor public environmental awareness, faulty data, inferior agency reports, organizational conflict, relations based on guanxi, and low discharge fee prices.

  20. The State College Role in Advancing Environmental Sustainability: Policies, Programs and Practices. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The American higher education enterprise has the capacity and fortitude to confront many of the country's most pressing energy and environmental challenges. Many institutions and state college systems are using campus resources to carry out grassroots environmental initiatives. These activities have yielded important environmental, educational,…

  1. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  2. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation.

  3. EPA Insight Policy Paper: Executive Order #12898 on Environmental Justice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A memorandum from President Clinton to the heads of all agencies on 'Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, a related statement from EPA Administrator Carol Browner

  4. 32 CFR 643.27 - Policy-Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... real estate, water and other natural resources when such use is not in harmony with the goals and... Rodenticide Act, as amended by the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 136), (AR...

  5. 32 CFR 643.27 - Policy-Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... real estate, water and other natural resources when such use is not in harmony with the goals and... Rodenticide Act, as amended by the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 136), (AR...

  6. 32 CFR 643.27 - Policy-Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... real estate, water and other natural resources when such use is not in harmony with the goals and... Rodenticide Act, as amended by the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 136), (AR...

  7. 32 CFR 643.27 - Policy-Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... real estate, water and other natural resources when such use is not in harmony with the goals and... Rodenticide Act, as amended by the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 136), (AR...

  8. 32 CFR 643.27 - Policy-Environmental considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... real estate, water and other natural resources when such use is not in harmony with the goals and... Rodenticide Act, as amended by the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 136), (AR...

  9. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future.

  10. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future. PMID:26351851

  11. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    PubMed

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  12. Environmental policy and equity: The case of Superfund

    SciTech Connect

    Hird, J.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This article analyzes the equity implications of the EPA's Superfund program by examining the geographic distribution of sites, who pays for cleanup, and cleanup pace. Although the [open quotes]polluter pays[close quotes] principle is used to justify Superfund policy, it is a goal that is not and indeed usually cannot be attained for past contamination. Further, the geographic distribution of Superfund sites suggests that the likely beneficiaries of program expenditures live in counties that are on average both wealthier and more highly educated than the rest, and also have lower rates of poverty. The pace of the EPA's cleanups, however, depends mostly on the sites potential hazard, and is not apparently motivated by the localities socioeconomic characteristics or political representation. The program is found in several respects to be both inefficient and inequitable, yet Superfund enjoys considerable support for reasons beyond these traditional public policy goals, including its political and symbolic appeal. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models.

  14. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  15. Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance. PMID:25191758

  16. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  17. Integrated dynamic policy management methodology and system for strategic environmental assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2011-01-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) focuses primarily on assessing how policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) influence the sustainability of the involved regions. However, the processes of assessing policies and developing management strategies for pollution load and resource use are usually separate in the current SEA system. This study developed a policy management methodology to overcome the defects generated during the above processes. This work first devised a dynamic management framework using the methods of systems thinking, system dynamics, and Managing for Results (MFRs). Furthermore, a driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator system was developed. The golf course installation policy was applied as a case study. Taiwan, counties of Taiwan, and the golf courses within those individual counties were identified as a system, subsystems, and objects, respectively. This study identified an object-linked double-layer framework with multi-stage-option to simultaneously to quantify golf courses in each subsystem and determine ratios of abatement and allocation for pollution load and resource use of each golf course. The DPSIR indicator values for each item of each golf course in each subsystem are calculated based on the options taken in the two decision layers. The summation of indicator values for all items of all golf courses in all subsystems according to various options is defined as the sustainability value of the policy. An optimization model and a system (IDPMS) were developed to obtain the greatest sustainability value of the policy, while golf course quantity, human activity intensity, total quantities of pollution load and resource use are simultaneously obtained. The solution method based on enumeration of multiple bounds for objectives and constraints (EMBOC) was developed for the problem with 1.95 x 10{sup 128} combinations of possible options to solve the optimal solution in ten minutes using a personal computer with 3.0 GHz

  18. Economic analysis of selected water policy options for the Pacific northwest. Agriculture economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, G.D.; Gollehon, N.R.; Kramer, M.S.; Aillery, M.P.; Moore, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) could use significantly less water with minimal impact on agricultural economic returns. Less water use by agriculture makes more water available for municipal, industrial, and recreational uses; for improved water quality and wildlife habitat; and for Native American water rights claims. Net water savings up to 18.5 percent of current levels of field-crop use can be realized by such actions as reducing Bureau of Reclamation (BoR) surface-water diversion, improving water-use efficiency, and raising the cost of water. Effects on agricultural economic returns for PNW field crops range from a decline of $22 million (1.7 percent) to an increase of $171 million (13.1 percent). Combining different approaches spreads the conservation burden among farmers, water suppliers, and production regions.

  19. Rethinking Food: How United States Agriculture Production Affects Security Policy and Global Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    2010 U.S. global export shares for some key products: corn (53 percent), soybean (44 percent), cotton (42 percent), and wheat (28 percent) (United... soybean (44 percent), cotton (42 percent), and wheat (28 percent) (Department of Agriculture 2014c). In this regard, two authors, Le Cuyer and Paarlberg...certain cash crops that were important to many countries’ agriculture sectors such as West African cotton and Latin American soybeans . Changes in

  20. Measures of the EU Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and their impacts on the visual acceptability of Finnish agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ihalainen, Marjut; Hietala-Koivu, Reija; Kolehmainen, Osmo; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Nousiainen, Ismo; Helenius, Juha

    2002-11-01

    As a member of the European Union, Finland has committed itself to creating an environmental policy for agriculture. The aims of this study were to evaluate visual impacts of the General Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and Supplementary Protection Scheme (SPS) and general attitudes towards some activities in those policies and furthermore to examine the suitability of the method of Alho et al. (2001) for the scenic beauty assessment. The study areas consisted of three original, untreated, and 15 modified rural landscapes representing a variety of different activities. The scenic beauty of the landscapes was evaluated through pairwise comparisons of the responses of 68 people. Furthermore, attitudes towards environmental values, water protection, buffer strips and subsidies to agriculture were obtained. The respondents found the maintained buffer strips more pleasing than unmaintained strips and considered that the quality of watercourses was increased by buffer strips along them. A suitable width for the buffer strip along main ditches, brooks and waterways was regarded, on average, to be wider than the current recommendations. Although the opinions of farmers were basically in line with the existing recommendations, farmers' opininons on the second and third most important effects of buffer strips, an increase in weeds and a decrease in cultivated land, clearly differed from those of the other respondents. Afforestation, lack of building maintenance and abandoned fields were considered to be the most important factors impacting rural landscapes. This study indicates that the Finnish Agri-Environmental Protection Schemes have had positive impacts on the visual quality of landscapes. Attitudes towards other impacts are contradictory. This study also showed the improvement of the Alho et al. (2001) method in these kinds of studies relative to other methods of pairwise comparisons.

  1. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about.

  2. The impact of policy and institutional environment on costs and benefits of sustainable agricultural land uses: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation (jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and

  3. The Impact of Policy and Institutional Environment on Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Land Uses: The Case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Golam; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2007-08-01

    As in other mountain regions of Asia, agricultural lands in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh are undergoing degradation due primarily to environmentally incompatible land-use systems such as shifting cultivation ( jhum) and annual cash crops. The suitable land-use systems such as agroforestry and timber tree plantation provide benefit to the society at large, but they might not provide attractive economic benefits to farmers, eventually constraining a wide-scale adoption of such land-use systems. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate agricultural land-use systems from both societal and private perspectives in the pursuit of promoting particularly environmentally sustainable systems. This article evaluated five major land-use systems being practiced in CHT, namely jhum, annual cash crops, horticulture, agroforestry, and timber plantation. The results of the financial analysis revealed the annual cash crops as the most attractive land use and jhum as the least attractive of the five land-use systems considered under the study. Horticulture, timber plantation, and agroforestry, considered to be suitable land-use systems particularly for mountainous areas, held the middle ground between these two systems. Annual cash crops provided the highest financial return at the cost of a very high rate of soil erosion. When the societal cost of soil erosion is considered, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, followed by jhum and horticulture. Although financially less attractive compared to annual cash crops and horticulture, agroforestry and timber plantation are the socially most beneficial land-use systems. Findings of the alternative policy analyses indicate that there is a good prospect for making environmentally sustainable land-use systems, such as agroforestry and timber plantation, attractive for the farmers by eliminating existing legal and institutional barriers, combined with the provision of necessary support services and

  4. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management.

  5. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... development of a consolidated plan; (ii) Land use and urban environmental design; (iii) Economic...

  6. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... development of a consolidated plan; (ii) Land use and urban environmental design; (iii) Economic...

  7. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... known or suspected environmental contamination. (5) (6) Policy—planning—management—capacity...

  8. Connecting environmental health data to people and policy: integrating information and mobilizing communities for environmental public health tracking.

    PubMed

    Ali, Robbie; Wheitner, David; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation of available data is a critical preliminary step in the assessment of local environmental health. As part of a multi-organizational initiative to improve environmental health in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania region, the University of Pittsburgh Center for Healthy Environments and Communities (CHEC) interviewed 70 experts in the academic, government, non-profit, and private sectors and reviewed print and electronic resources to characterize environmental and public health data available in the region. The objectives of this undertaking were: to provide a conceptual framework for categorizing data locally on environmental hazards, exposures and health endpoints, to describe and evaluate the types of environmental public health data available nationally and locally, to identify existing endeavors to gather and categorize such data, and to present case studies on the real-life relevance of the availability or lack of availability of environmental health data. The purpose and relevance of this project, the evolution of the methodology, successes and challenges met, and anticipated next steps are presented. This process description and resulting comprehensive report is available to communities, at both the state and local health department level as well as lay community members, engaged in similar endeavors, to characterize their local and regional environmental health landscape. The framework outlined serves as background for a related statewide environmental health project sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Health through the Pennsylvania Consortium on Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy (PCIEP) and potentially as a foundation for community-based data evaluation for the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program.

  9. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  10. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  11. 7 CFR 1774.7 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 1774.7 Section 1774.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...) General Provisions § 1774.7 Environmental requirements. The policies and regulations contained in 7...

  12. Identifying the Barriers and Opportunities for Enhanced Coherence between Agriculture and Public Health Policies: Improving the Fat Supply in India.

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The national Government of India has published draft regulation proposing a 5% upper limit of trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with unsaturated fat but it is not known whether this will be feasible in India. We systematically identified policy options to address the three major underlying agricultural sector issues that influence reformulation with healthier oils: the low productivity of domestically produced oilseeds leading to a reliance on palm oil imports, supply chain wastage, and the low availability of oils high in unsaturated fats. Strengthening domestic supply chains in India will be necessary to maximize health gains associated with product reformulation.

  13. Environmental Education throughout FE. 1: Policy and Strategy. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shirley Ali; Parkin, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    In 1992 the Further Education Unit (FEU) published a guide to environmental action in Further Education colleges, "Colleges Going Green," that drew attention to the moral principle of sustainability that includes a duty of care for other people and forms of life and acknowledges the need to limit and to share the use of the earth's…

  14. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    PubMed

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  15. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on biotic responses to nutrient enrichment in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Tranmer, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on biotic responses to nutrients was examined in three diverse agricultural regions of the United States. Seventy wadeable sites were selected along an agricultural land use gradient while minimizing natural variation within each region. Nutrients, habitat, algae, macroinvertebrates, and macrophyte cover were sampled during a single summer low-flow period in 2006 or 2007. Continuous stream stage and water temperature were collected at each site for 30 days prior to sampling. Wide ranges of concentrations were found for total nitrogen (TN) (0.07-9.61 mg/l) and total phosphorus (TP) (R2) for nutrients and biotic measures across all sites ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 and generally were not higher within each region. The biotic measures (RCHL, SCHL, and AQM) were combined in an index to evaluate eutrophic status across sites that could have different biotic responses to nutrient enrichment. Stepwise multiple regression identified TN, percent canopy, median riffle depth, and daily percent change in stage as significant factors for the eutrophic index (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001). A TN threshold of 0.48 mg/l was identified where eutrophic index scores became less responsive to increasing TN concentrations, for all sites. Multiple plant growth indicators should be used when evaluating eutrophication, especially when streams contain an abundance of macrophytes.

  17. Applications of remote sensing to precision agriculture with dual economic and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, George; Laguette, Soizik; Seelan, Santhosh K.; Lawrence, Rick; Nielsen, Gerald A.; Clay, David; Dalsted, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S. Northern Great Plains, growing seasons are short but extremely productive. Farms and ranches are large, so many of precision agriculture's early adopters reside in the region. Crop yield maps at season's end reveal sizable variations across fields. Farm management relying upon uniform chemical applications is ineffective and wasteful. We provided information about crop and range status in near- real-time, so that in-season decisions could be made to optimize final yields and minimize environmental degradation. We created learning communities, in which information is shared among scientists, farmers, ranchers, and data providers. The new information for agricultural producers was satellite and aerial imagery. Value-added information was derived from ETM+, AVHRR, IKONOS, and MIDOS sensors. The emphasis was on reducing the time between acquisition of data by a satellite and delivery of value-added products to farmers and ranchers. To distribute large spatial data sets in short times to rural users we relied upon satellite transmission (Direct PC). Results include: (1) management zone delineation, (2) variable-rate fertilizer applications, (3) weed detection, (4) irrigation efficiency determination, (5) detection of insect infestation, (6) specification of crop damage due to inadvertent chemical application, and (7) determination of livestock carrying capabilities on rangelands.

  18. Agricultural Decision-Making In Indonesia With ENSO Variability: Integrating Climate Science, Risk Assessment, And Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, D. S.; Naylor, R. L.; Vimont, D. J.; Falcon, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    We present our current research to show how climate science can be used to inform agricultural decision- making at the policy level. Our project, funded by the Human and Social Dimensions Program at NSF, focuses on Indonesia, where agricultural production is strongly influenced by the annual cycle of precipitation and by year-to-year variations in the annual cycle caused by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics, and where the combined forces of ENSO and global warming are likely to have dramatic effects on agricultural production and food security for tens of millions of people. The two main goals of the research are: 1) to project the impacts of global warming on Indonesian agriculture by estimating changes in mean climate and climate variability (i.e., ENSO); and 2) to analyze how these projections (including relevant bands of uncertainty) can be used to inform agricultural decision-making processes. To accomplish the first goal, we developed a set of regional climate scenarios for Indonesia in the mid-21st century. These scenarios are developed using (i) the large-scale climate changes projected from the collection of climate models used in the IPCC process, (ii) select experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model, and (iii) a newly developed downscaling model that links the large-scale circulation to the regional scale climate. These scenarios are then used to assess the influence of global warming on the annual climate cycle and on ENSO-induced changes in precipitation and agricultural production in Indonesia. (The link between projected crop production and climate is established from our previous work). The second goal is accomplished by developing a risk assessment framework that links the probabilities of climate change to its potential consequences on agriculture, taking into account various adaptation measures, such as the development of drought tolerant crop varieties and irrigation investment. The model template we have designed and

  19. SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY, CONTRACT DESIGN, AND THE EFFICIENCY OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION POLICIES FOR AGRICULTURE. (R828745)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  1. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-09

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  2. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  4. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Alston, Lee J.; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Government policies are needed when people’s behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society’s most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms. PMID:25143635

  5. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  6. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  7. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  8. Catchment-scale evaluation of environmental regulations in the agricultural sector in Ireland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Mellander, P.; Wall, D. J.; Buckley, C.; Mechan, S.; Shortle, G.

    2010-12-01

    The European Union (EU) Nitrates Directive regulations in Ireland limits the use of agricultural fertilisers to agronomic optima and aims to minimise surplus phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses to the aquatic environment. The legislated measures include limits on nutrient application according to soil P status, crop type and livestock intensity and restricts chemical and organic fertiliser spreading and ploughing to periods of the year with typically lower exposure of nutrients to runoff and leaching. These agricultural policies are being evaluated in an Agricultural Catchments Programme in six representative catchments dominated by moderate to high intensity grassland and arable enterprises across Ireland (Fealy et al., 2010). An experimental programme has been established to provide a baseline of farm nutrient management and water body quality during the early years of the measures and to provide estimates of trajectories towards (or otherwise) water quality targets. A ‘nutrient transfer continuum’ from source, through pathways, to delivery and impact in a water body receptor describes the different phases of diffuse pollution and is being used as a framework for evaluation. Compliance with Irish standards at different levels of the continuum is being evaluated and demonstrative studies are being conducted to provide evidence of linkages between source and delivery to validate conceptual models of P and N transfers in time and space in each catchment. Source compliance is being evaluated through census soil testing and a survey of nutrient management practice and farmyard infrastructure. Mobilisation and pathways of nutrient transfers do not have chemical standards except where a groundwater body acts as both a receptor and a pathway. To demonstrate these linkages, however, representative groundwater pathways are being monitored through piezometer, chemical end-member and tracer studies, and surface water pathways are being evaluated through subcatchment

  9. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  10. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... performance of environmental reviews and the consideration of alternatives will be initiated as early...

  11. Compounding Effects of Agricultural Land Use and Water Use in Free-Flowing Rivers: Confounding Issues for Environmental Flows.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Scott A; Bobbi, Chris J

    2017-03-03

    Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water use on rivers in the upper Ringarooma River catchment in Tasmania (south-east Australia), which contains intensively irrigated agriculture, to support implementation of a water management plan. Temporal and spatial and trends in river condition were assessed using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Relationships between macroinvertebrate community structure and environmental variables were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses, focusing on the impacts of agricultural land use and water use. Structural changes in macroinvertebrate communities in rivers in the catchment indicated temporal and spatial declines in the ecological condition of some stretches of river associated with agricultural land and water use. Moreover, water extraction appeared to exacerbate impairment associated with agricultural land use (e.g., reduced macroinvertebrate density, more flow-avoiding taxa). The findings of our catchment-specific bioassessments will underpin decision-making during the implementation of the Ringarooma water management plan, and highlight the need to consider compounding impacts of land and water use in environmental flows and water planning in agricultural landscapes.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements'' published by

  13. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  14. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  15. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  16. Stakeholder perceptions of scientists: Lake Tahoe environmental policy from 1984 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Weible, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    What factors explain stakeholders' perceptions of scientists in environmental politics? Questionnaire data are used to examine stakeholders' views of scientific experts in the context of Lake Tahoe environmental policy from 1984 to 2001. Stakeholders' perceptions of scientists have remained the same over time - despite a shift from adversarial to collaborative policymaking and after decades of mounting scientific evidence showing water quality declines. On average, stakeholders perceive scientists with limited influence on Lake Tahoe environmental policy and view them with mixed levels of skepticism. Stakeholders' evaluation of scientists is best explained by their beliefs about development versus the environment. Stakeholders in favor of more land development express distrust of scientists and negatively evaluate university researchers and consultants. Stakeholders in favor of environmental protection are more likely to trust scientists and positively evaluate university researchers and consultants.

  17. Stakeholder Perceptions of Scientists: Lake Tahoe Environmental Policy from 1984 to 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weible, Christopher M.

    2007-12-01

    What factors explain stakeholders’ perceptions of scientists in environmental politics? Questionnaire data are used to examine stakeholders’ views of scientific experts in the context of Lake Tahoe environmental policy from 1984 to 2001. Stakeholders’ perceptions of scientists have remained the same over time - despite a shift from adversarial to collaborative policymaking and after decades of mounting scientific evidence showing water quality declines. On average, stakeholders perceive scientists with limited influence on Lake Tahoe environmental policy and view them with mixed levels of skepticism. Stakeholders’ evaluation of scientists is best explained by their beliefs about development versus the environment. Stakeholders in favor of more land development express distrust of scientists and negatively evaluate university researchers and consultants. Stakeholders in favor of environmental protection are more likely to trust scientists and positively evaluate university researchers and consultants.

  18. Science and Policy Issues: A Report of Citizen Concerns and Recommendations for American Agricultural Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Two areas which will have far reaching consequences for the future of United States agriculture are discussed: (1) biotechnology; and (2) critical economic research in world trade and commodity supply management. Topics in the first area include: controversies related to biotechnology; the relative importance of health, safety, and environmental…

  19. Rural Youths' Participation in Agriculture: Prospects, Challenges and the Implications for Policy in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auta, Sarah Jehu; Abdullahi, Yusuf M.; Nasiru, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing rural youth participation in agriculture, their access to production resources and services and the effects of youths' access to inputs and services on farm productivity and youths' welfare. The study was conducted in three states (each randomly selected from the three agro-ecological zones of northern Nigeria). Two…

  20. "Left High and Dry": Federal Land Policies and Pima Agriculture, 1860-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejong, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The Akimel O'odham, or "River People" (Pima), have lived in the middle Gila River Valley for centuries, irrigating and cultivating the same land as their Huhugam ancestors did for millennia. Continuing their irrigated agricultural economy bequeathed to them by their Huhugam ancestors, the Pima leveraged a favorable geopolitical setting into a…

  1. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  2. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  3. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  4. Hydrological and environmental controls of the stream nitrate concentration and flux in a small agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Xu, J. F.; Yin, W.; Ai, L.; Fang, N. F.; Tan, W. F.; Yan, F. L.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate exports from diffuse sources constitute a major cause of eutrophication and episodic acidification in inland aquatic systems, and remedial action requires the identification of the influencing factors associated with these nitrate exports. This paper examines the combined effects of watershed complexity on nitrate concentration and flux in terms of the hydrological and environmental factors in heterogeneous nested subwatersheds in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area (DRA), China. We established 15 sampling sites in the main stream and tributaries and conducted biweekly sampling in 2008-2012 to monitor the nitrate exports. The hydrological and environmental indices within the watershed were divided into subwatersheds and considered as potential influencing factors. In consideration of the high co-linearity of these influencing factors, we used partial least squares regression (PLSR) to determine the associations between the stream nitrate concentration or flux and 26 selected watershed characteristics. The number of components was unequal for the nitrate concentration and flux models. The optimal models explained 66.4%, 60.0% and 59.9% of the variability in nitrate concentration and 74.7%, 67.1% and 58.0% of the variability in nitrate flux annually, in the dry season, and in the wet season, respectively. According to the variable importance in the projection (VIP) values, the dominant first-order factors for the nitrate concentration were as follows: the areal percentages of agricultural, forest and residential areas; followed by the slope; the largest patch index (LPI); the flow path gradient (FPG); the slope gradient variance (SGV); and the splitting index (SPLIT). In addition to these factors, the runoff coefficient (RC), flashiness index (FI), and patch density (PD) affected the changes in the nitrate flux. This study illustrates the influence of hydrological and environmental factors on seasonal water quality and can serve as guidelines for better watershed

  5. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  6. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere.

  7. Policy in Conflict: The Struggle Between Environmental Policy and Homeland Security Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Gray—Tax in Light Gray Figure 3. Prices of Fuel Plus Tax on Fuel by Country In addition to the basic fuel cost and fuel taxing system imposed by the...and political reasons exists as to why the Europeans have been able to establish a tax system high enough to achieve an incentive level among...taxes may not be available to policy makers in the United States owing to the nation’s traditions, culture, history, and system of government, which

  8. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  9. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Transition Pathways towards a Robust Ecologization of Agriculture and the Need for System Redesign. Cases from Organic Farming and IPM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamine, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The growing criticism of intensive agricultural practices that lead to a deterioration of natural resources and a decrease of biodiversity has progressively led to more environmental constraints being put on agricultural activities through an "ecologization" of agricultural policies. The aims of these policies have been to protect environmentally…

  11. 7 CFR 3565.255 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3565.255 Section 3565.255... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.255 Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.32 - Environmental report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report. 1794.32 Section 1794.32... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Categorical Exclusions § 1794.32 Environmental report. (a) For proposed actions listed in § 1794.21(b) and (c), the applicant is normally...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.5 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3550.5 Section 3550.5... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.5 Environmental requirements. (a) Policy. RHS will consider environmental quality as equal with economic, social, and other...

  14. 7 CFR 3550.5 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3550.5 Section 3550.5... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.5 Environmental requirements. (a) Policy. RHS will consider environmental quality as equal with economic, social, and other...

  15. 7 CFR 1794.32 - Environmental report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report. 1794.32 Section 1794.32... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Categorical Exclusions § 1794.32 Environmental report. (a) For proposed actions listed in § 1794.21(b) and (c), the applicant is normally...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.255 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3565.255 Section 3565.255... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.255 Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the...

  17. Policy Analysis for Sustainable Development: The Toolbox for the Environmental Social Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runhaar, Hens; Dieperink, Carel; Driessen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to propose the basic competencies of environmental social scientists regarding policy analysis for sustainable development. The ultimate goal is to contribute to an improvement of educational programmes in higher education by suggesting a toolbox that should be integrated in the curriculum. Design/methodology/approach:…

  18. A Financial and Environmental Analysis of Strategic Policy Changes at Small Private Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    Recently many religious colleges have become more secular and single-sex colleges have become coeducational. By contrasting environmental and financial data of a matched sample of colleges that made these changes with a sample of colleges that have not, it was possible to assess the impact of those policy decisions. (Author/LBH)

  19. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change in the Mississippi Delta: Considerations for Evaluation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article…

  20. 42 CFR 137.287 - What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...)? 137.287 Section 137.287 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa... and documenting the environmental impact of their actions. NEPA establishes a comprehensive policy...