Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural pollution abatement

  1. Interaction of pollution abatement with world dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The world dynamics model of Jay W. Forrester was modified to account for pollution abatement. In the modified model, it is assumed that as pollution increases, efforts are made to control pollution. There is a competition between food supply, material standard of living, and pollution abatement for capital, and time is required for diversion of capital toward pollution abatement. Inclusion of pollution abatement in the model drastically alters the response of the world system for the case in which depletion of natural resources is not considered. Instead of undergoing a pollution catastrophe, all system levels move more or less smoothly toward an equilibrium. A FORTRAN program listing of the modified world dynamics model is included.

  2. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  3. POLLUTION ABATEMENT COSTS AND EXPENDITURES SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) Survey is a Census Bureau product funded via a cooperative agreement with EPA. PACE data was collected by Census from 1974-1996 (except 1987) and 1999. The survey consists of approximately 20,000 manufacturing facilities in ...

  4. A METHOD FOR COMPARING MULTICOMPONENT, MULTIMEDIA POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a comparison of the cost-effectiveness of four multicomponent, multimedia pollution abatement options: coal cleaning, limestone, limestone plus adipic acid, and coal cleaning plus limestone plus adipic acid. The comparison makes cost-effectiveness evaluations ...

  5. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. PMID:25463565

  6. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  7. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  8. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  9. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs involve growing vegetation on rooftops and are one tool that can help mitigate the negative effects of pollution. This review encompasses published research to date on how green roofs can help mitigate pollution, how green roof materials influence the magnitude of these benefits, and suggests future research directions. The discussion concentrates on how green roofs influence air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, longevity of roofing membranes that result in fewer roofing materials in landfills, water quality of stormwater runoff, and noise pollution. Suggestions for future directions for research include plant selection, development of improved growing substrates, urban rooftop agriculture, water quality of runoff, supplemental irrigation, the use of grey water, air pollution, carbon sequestration, effects on human health, combining green roofs with complementary related technologies, and economics and policy issues. PMID:21074914

  10. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  11. A Critique of the Public Education Approach to Industrial Pollution Abatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    1973-01-01

    Public education cannot be considered an efficient alternative to industrial pollution abatement. The public education alternative stresses that an informed non-industrial public will, out of civic responsibility, bring about sufficient social pressure on the industrial sector to end pollution. However, evidence suggests that the mere presence of…

  12. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT ALTERNATIVES: PICILLO PROPERTY, COVENTRY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the second phase of a two-phase investigation undertaken by the MITRE Corp. to determine the nature and severity of ground and surface water contamination at the Picillo property in Coventry, Rhode Island and to make recommendations for permanent abatement o...

  13. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  14. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO POLLUTION ABATEMENT: A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Responses to Pollution Abatement: A Framework for Measurement and Assessment for Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the 16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. ...

  15. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  16. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  17. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  18. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  19. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector. PMID:26398449

  20. Olive oil mill wastewaters pollution abatement by physical treatments and biodegradation with Phanerochaetae chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Mebirouk, M; Sbai, L; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, J

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, suspended and immobilised cultures. When P chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after removal of polyphenols by adsorption on wood sawdust, which allows for removal of 39% of polyphenols. The use of High lignin peroxides (Lip) producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. In fact, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and polyphenols contents are significantly reduced. In addition, a significant effluent decolorization is obvious. PMID:17285940

  1. The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalälven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources. PMID:16095805

  2. Microbial Sulfate Reduction and Its Potential Utility as an Acid Mine Water Pollution Abatement Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Jon H.; Dugan, Patrick R.; Randles, Chester I.

    1969-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of sulfate, iron, and hydrogen (acid) ions in drainage from coal mines and other areas containing waste pyritic materials is a serious water pollution problem. Sulfate can be removed from solution by microbial reduction to sulfide and subsequent precipitation as FeS. A mixed culture of microorganisms degraded wood dust cellulose, and the degradation products served as carbon and energy sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Metabolism of carbon compounds resulted in a net pH increase in the system. Oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) and temperature and carbon supplements were studied in an effort to accelerate the sulfate reduction process, with the ultimate objective of utilizing the process as a pollution abatement procedure. PMID:5775914

  3. Pollution Abatement and Prevention Analysis (PAPA) study. Final report, September 1993-July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    This study developed and demonstrated an analytical methodology that can optimize multiple objectives, subject to programmatic and budget constraints, in the development and evaluation of pollution abatement and prevention investment strategies supporting US Army activities and facilities. It possesses the capability to modify inputs to determine changes an impacts of the different investment strategies produced. Outputs include investments strategies which address what should be bought, when, and where, the costs of the investment, and the benefits derived in terms of pollution reduced (in volume), (OS) and energy savings. Products, can be produced at the Army level, MACOM, state, region, or installation. The methodology is inherently flexible and transferable such that it can readily incorporate changes in policy, data elements, and analytical approach to develop and evaluate investment strategies in other Arm y environmental programs. The PAPA Investment Model (PIM) is a multiobjective, mixed integer linear program, written in C + +, using EXCEL spreadsheet format input.

  4. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K. S.

    2011-11-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution, a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam, which is a non-polluted, shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island. The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution, and one site in the outside-harbor area, which was relatively clean. In addition, sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control. Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites, placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam. Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-, 3-, and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics. The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods, while it took three and eight weeks, respectively, for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control. These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  5. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  6. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  7. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  8. RECOVERY OF FISH COMMUNITIES IN A WARMWATER STREAM FOLLOWING POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The long-term recovery process for fish communities in a warm water stream in East Tennessee was studied using quantitative measurements over 20 years. The stream receives effluents from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, but since 1985 these effluents have been greatly reduced, eliminated, or diluted as part of a substantial long-term pollution abatement program. The resulting changes in water quantity and quality led to a recovery of the fish communities, evidenced by significant changes in species richness, abundance (density and biomass), and community composition (e.g., number of fish species sensitive to stress). The fish community changes occurred over a spatial gradient (downstream from the headwater release zone nearest the DOE facility) and temporally, at multiple sampling locations in the stream. Changes in measured parameters were associated with specific remedial actions and the intervening steps within the recovery process are discussed with regard to changes in treatment processes.

  9. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  10. Abatement of indoor air pollution achieved with coal-biomass household briquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kimiko; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Wang, Qingyue; Yi, Jing; Cheng, Shuqun; Zhou, Yanrong; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    We investigated the abatement of indoor pollution achieved when two types of coal-biomass briquettes (L-BBs and H-BBs) were used in place of honeycombed coal briquettes (H-coal) in household stoves in rural Chongqing, China. Indoor concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), carbon monoxide (CO), and gaseous fluoride were measured. Additionally, we evaluated the factors that affected indoor concentrations of these gases, including the amount of fuel used as well as its sulfur content, the sulfur-emission ratio determined from the amount of sulfur retained in the combustion ash, and the combustion temperature in the stoves. The average 8-h and 24-h SO 2 concentrations for L-BBs were nearly equal to or less than the World Health Organization's 40 ppb guideline, whereas those for H-coal and H-BBs exceeded the guideline. The average 8-h SO 2 concentrations for L-BBs were from 63 to 89% lower than those for H-coal, even though the 8-h average weight of fuel and its sulfur content for L-BBs were equal to those of H-coal. A chemical analysis of combustion ash indicated that the sulfur-emission ratio was from 26 to 48% for L-BBs, as compared with 86% for H-coal, and this difference resulted in reduction of indoor SO 2 concentrations for L-BBs as compared with H-coal. Most of the 8-h average concentrations of CO and gaseous fluoride for all fuels were lower than the WHO guidelines. We concluded that BBs are a useful domestic fuel for the abatement of indoor air pollution.

  11. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    PubMed

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method. PMID:16181728

  12. Determinants of willingness-to-pay for water pollution abatement: a point and interval data payment card application.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Riera, Pere; Giergiczny, Marek

    2012-10-15

    This paper shows a contingent valuation exercise of pollution abatement in remote lakes. In addition to estimating the usual interval data model, it applies a point and interval statistical approach allowing for uncensored data, left-censored data, right-censored data and left- and right-censored data to explore the determinants of willingness-to-pay in a payment card survey. Results suggest that the estimations between models may diverge under certain conditions. PMID:22658990

  13. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution programs in two Lake Erie tributaries.

    PubMed

    Forster, D Lynn; Rausch, Jonathan N

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades, numerous government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of this paper summarizes these state and federal government agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved) are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from 1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30 per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large (small) funding. PMID:11837427

  14. Effects of agricultural, industrial, and municipal pollutants on wetlands and wildlife and wildlife health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands accumulate pollutants from adjacent areas through intentional discharge of sewage or industrial wastes, runoff of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, and discharge from municipal storm drains.  Coastal wetlands receive more pollutants indirectly as the endpoint for upland drainage systems and directly through petroleum spills and insect abatement.  Wetlands that serve as evaporation basins during seasonally high water, especially in more arid climates, concentrate natural compounds and as well as pollutants.  The ability of wetlands to be effective filtration systems for wastewater nutrients through microbial transformations, uptake by plants, and deposition of particulate matter, and the shortage of water in arid climates has resulted in revision of wetland regulations.  Wetlands can now be developed for wastewater treatment and natural wetlands can be restored or converted to wastewater treatment systems.  The effect of these accumulation pollutants on wetland ecology and wildlife health needs to be recognized.

  15. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction I: A Geographical Allocation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebel, Matthew W.; Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Nowak, Peter J.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution remains a persistent environmental problem, despite the large amount of money that has been spent on its abatement. At local scales, agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been shown to be effective at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to surface waters. However, these effects have rarely been found to act in concert to produce measurable, broad-scale improvements in water quality. We investigated potential causes for this failure through an effort to develop recommendations for the use of riparian buffers in addressing nonpoint source pollution in Wisconsin. We used frequency distributions of phosphorus pollution at two spatial scales (watershed and field), along with typical stream phosphorus (P) concentration variability, to simulate benefit/cost curves for four approaches to geographically allocating conservation effort. The approaches differ in two ways: (1) whether effort is aggregated within certain watersheds or distributed without regard to watershed boundaries (dispersed), and (2) whether effort is targeted toward the most highly P-polluting fields or is distributed randomly with regard to field-scale P pollution levels. In realistic implementation scenarios, the aggregated and targeted approach most efficiently improves water quality. For example, with effort on only 10% of a model landscape, 26% of the total P load is retained and 25% of watersheds significantly improve. Our results indicate that agricultural conservation can be more efficient if it accounts for the uneven spatial distribution of potential pollution sources and the cumulative aspects of environmental benefits.

  16. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  17. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1981 HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 6-8, 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents presentations at the Symposium on Iron and Steel Pollution Abatement Technology for 1981, Chicago, IL, October 6-8. The Symposium provided a forum for the exchange of information on technology problems related to air, water, and solid waste pollution abatemen...

  18. Synergies and liabilities: a full-cost approach to the abatement of greenhouse gas fluxes in row-crop agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip Robertson, G.; Grace, P. R.

    2003-04-01

    According to the IPCC TAR, agriculture is responsible for 21-25% of the global anthropic CO2 flux, 55-60% of the anthropic CH4 flux, and 65-80% of the anthropic flux of N2O. A number of CO2 stabilization strategies target agricultural production practices, and the potential for simultaneously abating fluxes of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is substantial. But so is the potential for creating greenhouse gas (GHG) liabilities, the unintentional increase in one or more GHGs by activities that mitigate another. Whole-system accounting provides a means for including all GHG-contributing processes in the same cropping system analysis in order to illuminate major liabilities and synergies. We contrast a field crop system in the upper U.S. midwest with a similar system in tropical India, and provide evidence that N2O flux - the major contributor to radiative forcing in both row-crop systems - can be abated with little loss of crop productivity.

  19. Metamodels and nonpoint pollution policy in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzaher, Aziz; Lakshminarayan, P. G.; Cabe, Richard; Carriquiry, Alicia; Gassman, Philip W.; Shogren, Jason F.

    1993-06-01

    Complex mathematical simulation models are generally used for quantitative measurement of the fate of agricultural chemicals in soil. But it is less efficient to use them directly for regional water quality assessments because of the large number of simulations required to cover the entire region and because the entire set of simulation runs must be repeated for each new policy. To make regional water quality impact assessment on a timely basis, a simplified technique called metamodeling is suggested. A metamodel summarizes the input-output relationships in a complex simulation model designed to mimic actual processes such as groundwater leaching. Metamodels are constructed and validated to predict groundwater and surface water concentrations of major corn and sorghum herbicides in the Corn Belt and Lake States regions of the United States. The usefulness of metamodeling in the evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pollution policies is illustrated using an integrated environmental economic modeling system. For the baseline scenario, we estimate that 1.2% of the regional soils will lead to groundwater detection of atrazine exceeding 0.12 Mg/L, which compares well with the findings of an Environmental Protection Agency monitoring survey. The results suggest no-till practices could significantly reduce surface water concentration and a water quality policy, such as an atrazine ban, could increase soil erosion despite the conservation compliance provisions.

  20. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  1. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1982. HELD AT PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA, ON NOVEMBER 16-18, 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the Symposium on Iron and Steel Pollution Abatement Technology for 1982, the fourth in this series, held in Pittsburgh on November 16-18, 1982. It provided a forum for the exchange of information on technological problems related to multi...

  2. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1980 HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA ON NOVEMBER 18-20, 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents presentations at the second EPA-sponsored symposium on iron and steel pollution abatement technology, in Philadelphia, PA, November 18-20, 1980. (The first was in Chicago, IL, in October 1979.) The symposium provided participants an opportunity to exchange in...

  3. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1983. HELD IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 18-20, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceeding document presentations at the Symposium on Iron and Steel Pollution Abatement Technology for 1983, the fifth in this series, held in Chicago on October 18-20, 1983. It provided a forum for the exchange of information on technological problems related to multimedia ...

  4. Incentives for Pollution Abatement: Regulation, Regulatory Threats, and Non-Governmental Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathryn; Antweiler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, voluntary efforts by firms to reduce their environmental impacts have received increasing attention from both policymakers and scholars. This article discusses polluters' incentives to reduce their releases. In particular, using data from Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory, it examines the impacts of conventional…

  5. Costs of air-pollution-abatement systems for sewage-sludge incinerators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Annamraju, G.; Shah, Y.M.; Arora, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air-pollution-control systems to municipal sewage-sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment - wet scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators - applied to three different plant sizes (plants incinerating 36, 72, and 300 tons of dry sludge per day in one, two, and eight multiple-hearth furnaces, respectively). Technical-feasibility studies indicated that all three types of controls could achieve a total particulate-removal efficiency of 99%.

  6. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  7. Stream pollution as a negative collective externality and its abatement as a public good: a theoretical analysis and a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bolless, J.

    1982-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the nature of public goods and the organization for their supply, in the particular context of stream pollution. The theoretical analysis of stream pollution as a negative externality and its abatement is further developed in a case study of one river basin, the Fox River, in Kane County in northern Illinois. Stream pollution was found to be a unique externality in that it is cumulative, mobile, and unidirectional, i.e., it always flows in one direction and, thus, downstream communities suffer from the pollution of any of the communities located upstream. The asymmetry of the externality prevents bargaining, while the cumulative effect rules out a noncoordinated action by a single community. Thus, government intervention is needed to supply the good in order to abate the externality. However, since water has more than a single usage, the question of the degree to which the water should be cleaned may create an inadequate abatement for communities with higher water quality needs than the standard, on the one hand, as well as new negative externalities of overinvestment for other communities which require a lesser degree of purity than the one imposed.

  8. ICE FOG ABATEMENT AND POLLUTION REDUCTION AT A SUBARCTIC COAL-FIRED HEATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment adv...

  9. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  10. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John G; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W

    2011-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  11. Long-Term Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Monitoring to Assess Pollution Abatement Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John G.; Brandt, Craig C.; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    2011-06-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in East Tennessee was monitored for 18 years to evaluate the effectiveness of a water pollution control program implemented at a major United States (U.S.) Department of Energy facility. Several actions were implemented to reduce and control releases of pollutants into the headwaters of the stream. Four of the most significant actions were implemented during different time periods, which allowed assessment of each action. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected annually in April from three locations in EFPC (EFK24, EFK23, and EFK14) and two nearby reference streams from 1986 through 2003. Significant improvements occurred in the macroinvertebrate community at the headwater sites (EFK24 and EFK23) after implementation of each action, while changes detected 9 km further downstream (EFK14) could not be clearly attributed to any of the actions. Because the stream was impacted at its origin, invertebrate recolonization was primarily limited to aerial immigration, thus, recovery has been slow. As recovery progressed, abundances of small pollution-tolerant taxa (e.g., Orthocladiinae chironomids) decreased and longer lived taxa colonized (e.g., hydropsychid caddisflies, riffle beetles, Baetis). While assessments lasting three to four years may be long enough to detect a response to new pollution controls at highly impacted locations, more time may be needed to understand the full effects. Studies on the effectiveness of pollution controls can be improved if impacted and reference sites are selected to maximize spatial and temporal trending, and if a multidisciplinary approach is used to broadly assess environmental responses (e.g., water quality trends, invertebrate and fish community assessments, toxicity testing, etc.).

  12. METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed encompasses 190 square miles of predominantly agricultural cropland (65%) in Central Ohio (USA) where agronomic fertilizers and herbicides are used in row crop production. Runoff from the watershed drain to Hoover Reservoir which is Central Oh...

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: USDA BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed during the spring of 1991 which identified areas for waste reduction at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC), Beltsville, Maryland. he areas selected for this joint E...

  15. Single and Coupled Electrochemical Processes and Reactors for the Abatement of Organic Water Pollutants: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sirés, Ignasi; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2015-12-23

    Traditional physicochemical and biological techniques, as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are often inadequate, ineffective, or expensive for industrial water reclamation. Within this context, the electrochemical technologies have found a niche where they can become dominant in the near future, especially for the abatement of biorefractory substances. In this critical review, some of the most promising electrochemical tools for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants are discussed in detail with the following goals: (1) to present the fundamental aspects of the selected processes; (2) to discuss the effect of both the main operating parameters and the reactor design on their performance; (3) to critically evaluate their advantages and disadvantages; and (4) to forecast the prospect of their utilization on an applicable scale by identifying the key points to be further investigated. The review is focused on the direct electrochemical oxidation, the indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by electrogenerated active chlorine, and the coupling between anodic and cathodic processes. The last part of the review is devoted to the critical assessment of the reactors that can be used to put these technologies into practice. PMID:26654466

  16. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation. PMID:26620865

  17. Evaluation of air pollution abatement systems for multiple-hearth sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Annamraju, G.; Gerstle, R.W.; Shah, Y.M.; Arora, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for the application of six different air-pollution-control system options to municipal sewage-sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air-pollution equipment - wet scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators - applied to three different plant sizes (plants incinerating 36, 72, and 300 tons of dry sludge per day in one, two, and eight multiple-hearth furnaces, respectively). The six options were: (1) venturi/tray scrubber with a 40-inch pressure drop, (2) fabric filter system operating at 500 deg and equipped with an upstream temperature control, (3) fabric filter system operating at 500 deg and equipped with a heat exchanger and a scrubber for SO/sub 2/ reduction, (4) electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with upstream limited temperature and humidity control, (5) same as Option 4 but with an additional downstream wet scrubber for SO/sub 2/ reduction, and (6) ESP with upstream temperature control and an SO/sub 2/ scrubber. Technical feasibility studies indicated that all three types of controls could achieve a total particulate removal efficiency of 99 percent. The venturi/tray scrubber option entailed the lowest capital cost, but annual operating costs were highest because of the high pressure drops and increased energy use.

  18. Ice fog abatement and pollution reduction at a subarctic coal-fired heating plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, L.E.; Seifert, R.; Zarling, J.; Johnson, R.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment advanced the work began by Porteous and Wallis (1965) to a stage of field evaluation for a less than full scale system. Flue gas was diverted from the existing power plant stack through the experimental system for test purposes. A cold water spray was directed into the muzzle of the experimental stack counter-current to the direction of flue gas flow to cool the gas, condense combustion-produced water vapor and scrub the gas stream of potential pollutants before they were released to the atmosphere. Because of several factors, the system at this stage of development proved ineffective for its main function of ice fog reduction. Some of the problems could be prevented by changes in the design of the system and some remain inconclusive and not well understood. Results show that the scrubbing function was more successful. Environmental considerations such as process water treatment and disposal presented no major obstacles, however, the potential to recover waste from the system does not appear favorable.

  19. Feasibility of point-nonpoint source trading for managing agricultural pollutant loadings to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, Stephen R.; Letson, David; Malik, Arun S.

    1994-10-01

    A recent focus of water quality policy discussions has been the trading of pollution abatement between point and nonpoint sources. Point-nonpoint trading would allow point sources to sponsor nonpoint source controls rather than install further controls of their own. If nonpoint source loadings are significant and the marginal costs of their control are lower than for additional point source controls, water quality goals could be met at lower cost with trading. We isolate difficulties particular to incentive policies such as point-nonpoint trading and then screen coastal watersheds for those satisfying conditions that play a major role in determining whether trading can improve water quality. We follow the recent Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments in emphasizing agriculture, the single largest cause of nonpoint source pollution. Our screening analysis provides an initial, empirical assessment of the feasibility of trading for managing agricultural land use to protect coastal water quality. We also illustrate the additional analysis required to quantify the potential for successful trading in those watersheds which meet our screening criteria.

  20. Effect of substrate depth and rain-event history on the pollutant abatement of green roofs.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Martin; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Saad, Mohamed; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of two different thickness of green roof substrate with respect to nutrient and heavy metal retention and release. To understand and evaluate the long term behaviour of green roofs, substrate columns with the same structure and composition as the green roofs, were exposed in laboratory to artificial rain. The roofs act as a sink for C, N, P, zinc and copper for small rain events if the previous period was principally dry. Otherwise the roofs may behave as a source of pollutants, principally for carbon and phosphorus. Both field and column studies showed an important retention for Zn and Cu. The column showed, however, lower SS, DOC and metal concentrations in the percolate than could be observed in the field even if corrected for run-off. This is most probably due to the difference in exposition history and weathering processes. PMID:23773321

  1. Capacity for recovery of rocky subtidal assemblages following pollution abatement in a scenario of global change.

    PubMed

    Díez, I; Santolaria, A; Muguerza, N; Gorostiaga, J M

    2014-09-15

    The successful protection and management of marine ecosystems depend on understanding the capability of biota for recovering after stressor mitigation actions are taken. Here we present long-term changes (1984-2012) in degraded subtidal assemblages following the implementation of the sewerage scheme for the metropolitan area of Bilbao (1 million inhabitants). Qualitative and quantitative species composition of disturbed vegetation shifted over time, making it more similar to that of the reference assemblages considered. Species density in the disturbed habitats increased, which is also a positive sign of recovery. However, eleven years after the clean-up was completed, canopy-forming macrophytes showed no signs of recovery. We argue that the ecological resilience of the ecosystem may have been eroded after a long-standing pollution perturbation and that underlying climate change could be influencing the recovery trajectory of the degraded assemblages. The implications of these conclusions for the implementation of European marine environmental legislation are discussed. PMID:25084678

  2. Climate change mitigation in the agricultural sector- an analysis of marginal abatement costs of climate mitigation in global paddy rice agriculture based on DNDC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, J.; Beach, R.; Salas, W.; Ingraham, P.; Ragnauth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Authors: Jia Li1, Robert H. Beach2, Changsheng Li3, William Salas4, Pete Ingraham5, Shaun Ragnauth1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Climate Change Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, United States. 2. RTI International, Durham, NC, United States. 3. ESRC, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States. 4. Applied Geosolutions, LLC, Newmarket, NH, United States. Global agriculture sector faces the dual challenge of climate change mitigation and providing food security for a growing population. In a new study, the U.S. EPA has developed an analysis of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases for the global agriculture sector. We estimate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice cultivation and rice yields under baseline management conditions as well as for alternative mitigation options. These biophysical effects are combined with data on input use and costs to estimate marginal abatement cost curves and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation options for global rice cropping systems. DNDC, a process-based crop model, is used to simulate crop yields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, as well as soil carbon sequestration of the various rice cropping systems (irrigated and rainfed, and single, double, triple and mixed rotations) under local climatic and soil conditions at a 0.5 degree resolution at the global scale. We evaluate the impacts of various management alternatives (e.g., flooding methods, fertilizer applications, and crop residue management) on crop yields and GHG emissions and report the spatial and temporal distributions of the outcomes. The analysis provides important insights on the potential for closing the production efficiency gaps and the trade-offs and synergies between GHG mitigation and food security in different parts of the world.

  3. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers. PMID:16124498

  4. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  5. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156

  6. Forest tree growth as a bioindicator of pollution abatement systems at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant. Final report 1 Jul 76-30 Jun 78

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.M.; Kress, L.W.

    1982-01-14

    The study objectives of this research were: (1) to determine if the pollution levels alone were responsible for the observed growth suppressions in trees growing at Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP); (2) to screen several full-sib families of loblolly pine and half-sib families of American sycamore for tolerance or sensitivity to O3, SO2, and NO2; (3) to identify and quantify the effects to loblolly pine and sycamore of long-term low-level exposures to O3, SO2, and NO2 in combination; (4) to demonstrate the success or failure of the abatement programs now being initiated at the RAAP, with loblolly pine and/or American sycamore as bioindicators; and (5) to contribute to the field of air pollution effects on plants an understanding of the growth impact of pollutant interactions.

  7. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  8. Constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2009-04-01

    Across Europe, many rivers and lakes are polluted. Sediment can disturb aquatic ecosystems, and is associated with the transport of pesticides, pathogens, toxic metals and nutrients, including phosphorus (P). P is growth-limiting in freshwaters, and rivers and lakes may become eutrophic where concentrations are high, leading to algal blooms and loss of biodiversity. For example, in the UK, the Biodiversity Action Plan estimates that over 70% of lakes are eutrophic. Concern about water quality has resulted in EU policy drivers to protect rivers and lakes. Under the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), surface waters must achieve ‘good ecological and chemical condition' by 2015. Studies in the UK indicate that P concentrations need to be an order of magnitude lower in fresh waters to comply with the requirements of the WFD, and methods of controlling sediment and P inputs into surface waters are urgently required. Pollution sources such as sewage treatment works can be regulated, but non point (diffuse) sources are difficult to control. As agricultural activities have been estimated to account for 30% of P inputs to surface waters, controlling the transfer of diffuse pollutants in runoff from agricultural land is a priority for catchment managers. The use of in-field mitigation options such as reduced tillage has been found to be effective in the UK, but pollutants can still be lost from hillslopes unchecked via subsurface runoff pathways, some of which (e.g. field drains) may contribute very high loads of sediment and P to streams. Mitigation approaches, such as wetlands, which operate at the edge-of-field, where hillslope pathways have already discharged their pollutant loads into the receiving stream, are therefore essential. Over the next two years we will establish ten wetland sites in the UK and use these to: 1) reduce levels of sediment and nutrients leaving agricultural fields; 2) determine the effectiveness of different wetland designs for

  9. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  10. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  11. Sensitivity of hypogean and epigean freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, T; Di Marzio, W D; Sáenz, M E; Baratti, M; Dedonno, A A; Iannucci, A; Cannicci, S; Messana, G; Galassi, D M P

    2014-03-01

    Widespread pollution from agriculture is one of the major causes of the poor freshwater quality currently observed across Europe. Several studies have addressed the direct impact of agricultural pollutants on freshwater biota by means of laboratory bioassays; however, as far as copepod crustaceans are concerned, the ecotoxicological research is scarce for freshwater species and almost nonexistent for the hypogean ones. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the available literature data on the sensitivity of freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants. We also assessed the acute and chronic sensitivity of a hypogean and an epigean species, both belonging to the Crustacea Copepoda Cyclopoida Cyclopidae, to two N-fertilizers (urea and ammonium nitrate) and two herbicides (ARIANE(TM) II from Dow AgroSciences LLC, and Imazamox), widely used for cereal agriculture in Europe. According to the literature review, freshwater copepods are sensitive to a range of pesticides and N-fertilizers. Ecotoxicological studies on hypogean species of copepods account only one study. There are no standardized protocols available for acute and chronic toxicity tests for freshwater copepods, making comparisons about sensitivity difficult. From our experiments, ionized ammonia proved to be more toxic than the herbicide Imazamox, in both short and chronic bioassays. Urea was the less toxic chemical for both species. The hypogean species was more sensitive than the epigean one to all chemicals. For both species and for all tested chemicals, acute lethality and chronic lethality were induced at concentrations higher than the law limits of good water body quality in Europe, except for ionized ammonia, which provoked the chronic lethality of the hypogean species at a lower concentration. The hazardous concentration (HC) of un-ionized ammonia for 5 % of freshwater copepods, obtained by a species sensitivity distribution, was 92 μg l(-1), significantly lower than the HC computed

  12. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  13. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-08-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce the concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides released in streams and aquifers to the allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on global trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  14. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  15. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  16. Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has primarily focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation. These studies show that India has already been negatively affected by recent climate trends. However, anthropogenic climate changes are a result of both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). Two potent SLCPs, tropospheric ozone and black carbon, have direct effects on crop yields beyond their indirect effects through climate; emissions of black carbon and ozone precursors have risen dramatically in India over the past three decades. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, we present results of the combined effects of climate change and the direct effects of SLCPs on wheat and rice yields in India from 1980 to 2010. Our statistical model suggests that, averaged over India, yields in 2010 were up to 36% lower for wheat than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends, with some densely populated states experiencing 50% relative yield losses. [Our point estimates for rice (−20%) are similarly large, but not statistically significant.] Upper-bound estimates suggest that an overwhelming fraction (90%) of these losses is due to the direct effects of SLCPs. Gains from addressing regional air pollution could thus counter expected future yield losses resulting from direct climate change effects of LLGHGs. PMID:25368149

  17. Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Burney, Jennifer; Ramanathan, V

    2014-11-18

    Recent research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has primarily focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation. These studies show that India has already been negatively affected by recent climate trends. However, anthropogenic climate changes are a result of both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). Two potent SLCPs, tropospheric ozone and black carbon, have direct effects on crop yields beyond their indirect effects through climate; emissions of black carbon and ozone precursors have risen dramatically in India over the past three decades. Here, to our knowledge for the first time, we present results of the combined effects of climate change and the direct effects of SLCPs on wheat and rice yields in India from 1980 to 2010. Our statistical model suggests that, averaged over India, yields in 2010 were up to 36% lower for wheat than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends, with some densely populated states experiencing 50% relative yield losses. [Our point estimates for rice (-20%) are similarly large, but not statistically significant.] Upper-bound estimates suggest that an overwhelming fraction (90%) of these losses is due to the direct effects of SLCPs. Gains from addressing regional air pollution could thus counter expected future yield losses resulting from direct climate change effects of LLGHGs. PMID:25368149

  18. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential by pesticides in two adjacent agricultural watersheds in the Mid-Altantic Coastal Plain. Indices for estimating streams vulnerability to pollutants' load from the surficial aquifer...

  19. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  20. Measuring the benefits from air pollution abatement on human health and welfare: a case study of Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Erfani-Ezati, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test benefit measures of air pollution to human health and welfare. Two market approaches, labor market (wage rate) and housing market (property value), were employed to estimate benefits from improvements in air quality. Indices of air pollution used in this study were sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and total suspended particulate matter (TSP). Using the labor market approach as a measure of benefits from improved air quality, a Mortality Effect Model (MEM) was developed. Then, the model was utilized to quantify the estimates of the pollution mortality relationship for the city of Jacksonville. The resulting pollution related mortality function was then monetized by applying estimates of individual's willingness to pay for mortality reductions. The MEM was estimated using multiple regression analysis. TSP showed no statistically significant association with mortality rates. The significance of the estimated coefficient for the pollution variable SO/sub 2/ supported the contention that some form of air pollution bears a positive and significant relationship to mortality rates. By utilizing a willingness to pay estimate for mortality reductions, it was concluded that individuals in Jacksonville would be willing to pay a minimum of $10 million annually, in order to maintain SO/sub 2/ concentrations at a level of 1% below the average for 1972.

  1. Statistical analysis of effects of measures against agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Sæbø, H V

    1991-01-01

    The Norwegian Government has initiated a plan to reduce agricultural pollution. One of the projects in this plan is aimed at investigating the effects of different measures in order to evaluate their effects and costs.A set of experiments has been designed to estimate the effects of measures to reduce or control the use of fertilizers and erosion. The project started in 1985. It comprises continuous measurements in two water courses in each of four counties: one test drainage area where the relevant measures were implemented at the end of 1986, and one reference area where no specific measures are carried out. A series of chemical parameters are measured together with runoff and other hydrological and meteorogical data.The paper provides a preliminary analysis of the data collected in one of the counties during the period June 1985 to April 1988. It contains examples of analysis of covariance to show possible effects of the measures carried out in the test area.Natural variations in precipitation and pollution are large, making it difficult to see the effects of the measures without using statistical techniques to take the multivariability of the problem into account. Some effects can be shown with analysis of covariance. However, the relatively short measurement period makes it neccessary to be careful when interpreting the results. PMID:24233499

  2. Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Roger; Ionescu, Anda; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaëlle; Perrussel, Olivier; Languille, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative impact of the recent abatement of air pollution on the weathering of stone and glass of the UNESCO List in Paris R.-A. Lefèvre1, A. Ionescu1, J. Desplat2, R. Kounkou-Arnaud2, O. Perrussel3, B. Languille4 At the beginning of the 21st century air pollution in Paris continued to considerably decrease. An evident visual consequence was the replacement of thick gypseous black crusts by thin grey coverings on the façades. A quantitative approach of this phenomenon was taken by measurement in the field, followed by calculation using Dose-Response Functions (DRF) and mapping the geographic distribution on a grid of 100m x100m of: 1) The total surface of façades of buildings and monuments in the part of Paris inscribed on the UNESCO List between the Ile Saint-Louis and the Concorde Square; 2) The surface of limestone and window glass present on each façade; 3) The distribution of SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentration every year from 1997 to 2014; 4) The response of materials to climatic and pollution doses; 5) The effective damage to limestone and window glass. Results of measurements in the field: 1) The 772 buildings and monuments inventoried have 20 674 m in length and 414 811 m2 in façade surface: they are representative of the centre of Paris; 2) Limestone occupies 348 268 m2 and window glass 207 394 m2; 3) The mean annual concentration in SO2 dropped from 20 to less than 3 μg m-3; NO2 from 60 to 40 μg m-3 and PM10 from 30 to 20 μg m-3. Results by application of DRF: 4) Limestone recession was divided by 5 in 18 years, from 10 to 2 μm y-1, but with only a spatial variation of 2%; 5) Limestone reflectance increased from 70.5 to 72.5 %; 6) The annual mass of deposited and neo-formed particles on window glass decreased from 100 to 20 μg cm-2; 7) The annual haze of window glass decreased from 8 to 3.5%. Effective damage to stone and glass: 8) The mean annual mass of limestone eroded on the façades decreased according to time but with an irregular

  3. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  4. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public. PMID:16594318

  5. Source Attribution of Health Benefits from Air Pollution Abatement in Canada and the United States: An Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pappin, Amanda Joy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Decision making regarding air pollution can be better informed if air quality impacts are traced back to individual emission sources. Adjoint or backward sensitivity analysis is a modeling tool that can achieve this goal by allowing for quantification of how emissions from sources in different locations influence human health metrics. Objectives: We attributed short-term mortality (valuated as an overall “health benefit”) in Canada and the United States to anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions across North America. Methods: We integrated epidemiological data derived from Canadian and U.S. time-series studies with the adjoint of an air quality model and also estimated influences of anthropogenic emissions at each location on nationwide health benefits. Results: We found significant spatiotemporal variability in estimated health benefit influences of NOx and VOC emission reductions on Canada and U.S. mortality. The largest estimated influences on Canada (up to $250,000/day) were from emissions originating in the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, where population centers are concentrated. Estimated influences on the United States tend to be widespread and more substantial owing to both larger emissions and larger populations. The health benefit influences calculated using 24-hr average ozone (O3) concentrations are lower in magnitude than estimates calculated using daily 1-hr maximum O3 concentrations. Conclusions: Source specificity of the adjoint approach provides valuable information for guiding air quality decision making. Adjoint results suggest that the health benefits of reducing NOx and VOC emissions are substantial and highly variable across North America. PMID:23434744

  6. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  7. The impact of land management in agricultural catchments on groundwater pollution levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysik, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Agricultural activity results in water pollution from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Increased concentrations of nitrogen compounds pose a threat to animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of agriculture in a catchment basin on the level of groundwater pollution from biogenic compounds. Spatial analysis of the land cover was conducted using a GIS and was based on data from the Corine Land Cover databases.

  8. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE: AN APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...

  9. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  10. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on agriculture: an annotated bibliography. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Barse, J.R.; Ferguson, W.; Whetzel, V.

    1985-10-01

    Ozone and sulfur dioxide-gaseous air pollutants--can reduce the yields of key agricultural crops such as soybeans, corn, wheat, citrus fruit, cotton, and peanuts by interfering with plant photosynthesis. In general, the greater the pollutant concentration, the greater the yield reduction. Based on this biological evidence, economists are now estimating dollar impacts of ozone pollution on agriculture. By contrast, evidence on the biological impacts of acid rain on crops, soils, and forests is much less clear, often ambiguous. Some acid rain impacts can be favorable, because rainfall acids contain nitrogen and sulfur--major plant nutrients.

  11. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    My career started with Cliff Dahm at the University of New Mexico. The western United States had been experiencing a new “gold rush” using cyanide to mine previously unextractable, low-grade ore and we studied the potential to stimulate native cyanide-degrading micro...

  12. INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL FEEDLOT POLLUTION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Huron to Redfield, South Dak...

  13. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide provides an overview of non-agricultural pesticide se and presents options for minimizing waste through source-reduction and recycling. onagricultural pesticide users are defined as lawn garden; forestry, tree and shrub; sanitary; structural; nursery; and greenhouse pe...

  14. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on forests, wetlands, and agricultural ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Meema, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book reports on the knowledge of the sensitivities and responses of forests, wetlands and crops to airborne pollutants. Pollutants examined include: acidic depositions, heavy metal particulates, sulphur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, acid fogs, and mixtures of these. Various types of ecosystem stresses and physiological mechanisms pertinent to acid deposition are also discussed. Related subjects, such as the effects of ethylene on vegetation, the physiology of drought in trees, the ability of soils to generate acidity naturally, the role of Sphagnum moss in natural peatland acidity, the use of lichens as indicators of changing air quality, and the magnitude of natural emissions of reduced sulphur gases from tropical rainforests and temperate deciduous forests, are covered.

  15. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  16. Effects of Agricultural Pollutants on Competition Between Filter-Feeding Caddis Flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, D. A.; Watzin, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    The effects of agricultural pollutants on competition between lotic macroinvertebrates are largely unstudied. We investigated how agricultural pollution affects competition between larvae of two caddis flies, Hydropsyche spp. and Brachycentrus appalachia. Month-long laboratory experiments were conducted in recirculating stream microcosms at two levels of Hydropsyche abundance: low density (80 Hydropsyche and 40 Brachycentrus per tank) and high density (300 Hydropsyche and 40 Brachycentrus). Experimental factors tested were agricultural pollutant addition (cow manure compost and sand) versus control tanks and taxon combination (Hydropsyche only, Brachycentrus only, and both taxa). In high-density experiments, mortality and drift of Hydropsyche were higher in agricultural tanks than in controls and more Brachycentrus drifted in tanks with Hydropsyche present. In low-density experiments, mortality of Brachycentrus was higher in tanks with Hydropsyche present. In both high and low-density experiments,Brachycentrus had lower mean condition (as measured by body-length residuals) in the presence ofHydropsyche, although these differences were only statistically significant in the high-density experiment. No difference in condition was observed for Hydropsyche at either density. Our results provide evidence of both competition between Hydropsyche and Brachycentrus and direct effects of pollutant addition, but the pollution effects did not alter the competitive interactions between the two species.

  17. Should pollution reductions count as productivity gains for agriculture?

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.

    1998-08-01

    Productivity changes have been used to gauge economic performance for at least fifty years. Because productivity measures have been so closely linked to changes in living standards, it is natural to ask whether net increases in marketed outputs are the only things that should count as gains to the standard of living. The articles by Faere and Grosskopf (FG) and Gollop and Swinand (GS) consider several different technical aspects of addressing this question. The purpose of this article is to comment on their proposals. Both articles implicitly accept the notion that changes in commodities that are not available in markets should be considered in evaluating performance. Faere and Grosskopf focus on how they should be valued in the productivity indexes, while Gollop and Swinand define conditions when pollution reductions can be allowed to count. The best overall summary of this comment on both papers repeat an overworked phrase--the devil is in the details.

  18. A GIS-based approach for spatial analysis of agricultural nitrogen pollution and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liping; Liu, Weidong; Sun, Lin; Qin, Zhihao

    2009-10-01

    Agricultural pollution, which has a direct impact on the water, soil and air quality, is a common but increasingly serious environmental problem nowadays. The misusage of fertilizer, high application fertilizer and low utilization rate, are the major factors of the pollution. Therefore, the pollution caused by nitrate nitrogen has posed a very serious problem to the ecological environment. Combined with the GIS technology, this paper takes Majiang County in Guizhou province that is at southwest of China as a case, to carry out the research on the calculation of the nitrogen surplus in paddy field and the dry land based on the farmland nutrient balance model using the fertilizer amount. This paper reveals the spatial distribution characteristic of the nitrogen pollution, which can help to find a reasonable crop cultivation and fertilization methods to increase the effective utilization fertilization and therefore reduce the pollution.

  19. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS: LESSONS FROM THE MINNESOTA RIVER BASIN. (R825290)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The Minnesota River (Minnesota, USA) receives large non-point source pollutant loads. Complex interactions between agricultural, state agency, environmental groups, and issues of scale make watershed management difficult. Subdividing the basin's 12 major water...

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of agricultural N-heterocyclic organic pollutants using immobilized nanoparticles of titania.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Limaee, Nargess Yousefi; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2007-06-25

    Degradation and mineralization of two agricultural organic pollutants (Diazinon and Imidacloprid as N-heterocyclic aromatics) in aqueous solution by nanophotocatalysis using immobilized titania nanoparticles were investigated. Insecticides, Diazinon and Imidacloprid, are persistent pollutants in agricultural soil and watercourses. A simple and effective method was developed to immobilization of titania nanoparticles. UV-vis, ion chromatography (IC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses were employed. The effects of operational parameters such as H(2)O(2) and inorganic anions (NO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-)) were investigated. The mineralization of Diazinon and Imidacloprid was evaluated by monitoring of the formed inorganic anions. The selected pollutants are effectively degraded following first order kinetics model. Results show that the nanophotocatalysis using immobilized titania nanoparticle is an effective method for treatment Diazinon and Imidacloprid from contaminated water. PMID:17145132

  2. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Inoue, K; Fujiwara, T; Yamane, S; Yasutake, D; Maeda, M; Nagare, H; Akao, S; Ohtoshi, K

    2013-01-01

    An in situ technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution using catch crops was developed for simultaneously preventing nitrate groundwater pollution, reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) gas emissions, and removing salts from the topsoil. Seasonal changes in the performance of a catch crop were investigated using lysimeters in a full-scale greenhouse experiment with 50 d cultivation of dent corn. Catch crop cultivation significantly reduced the leached mineral nitrogen by 89-91% in summer, 87-89% in spring, and 61-82% in winter, and it also significantly reduced the N2O emission by 68-84% in summer. The amounts of nitrogen uptake by the catch crop were remarkably higher than those of leached nitrogen and N2O emission in each season. Catch crop cultivation is a promising technology for mitigating diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:23985506

  3. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. PMID:21546665

  4. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  5. Evaluation of groundwater pollution risk (GPR) from agricultural activities using DRASTIC model and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ariffin, Sabrina; Zawawi, Mohamed Azwan Mohamed; Che Man, Hasfalina

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater Pollution risk (GPR) map which utilized groundwater quality is important in order to prevent the groundwater contaminant concentration due to the agricultural activities. DRASTIC model and GIS application are two important tools that had been used for accessing and predicting the quality of groundwater. These supplementary tools are calculating, visualizing, and presenting the GPR by using DRASTIC index for each hydrogeologic factor through ArcGIS software. This study was covered approximately Selangor basin area where the GPR has been defined. There are four categories of agricultural activities in the Selangor basin which are animal husbandary areas, horticultural lands, short term crops and tree, palm and other permanent crops. The map showed that the “low” zones of GPR occupied 56% of the east side of the Selangor basin, 34% of the west side of the Selangor basin exposed to “medium” zones of GPR and the “high” zones of GPR covered 10% at the north side and the south to the west side of the Selangor basin. As a particular, for agricultural activities which is 52% of Selangor basin area, the “low”, ‘’medium” and “high” zones of GPR was occupied as 42%, 43% and 15% respectively. Based on four categories of agricultural landuse, GPR map validated by nitrate distribution map, shows that the 99% of the variation in nitrate distribution zones are explained by GPR zones. In conclusion, groundwater pollution risk was affected by agricultural activities.

  6. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

  7. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  8. Soil enzyme activities as affected by anthropogenic alterations: intensive agricultural practices and organic pollution.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, Liliana; Antonietta Rao, Maria; Piotrowska, Anna; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Colombo, Claudio

    2005-04-01

    The activity of a range of enzymes related to the cycling of the main biologically important nutrients C, N, P and S was investigated in cultivated and non-cultivated soils from various parts of Europe. Two agricultural sites from North Italy under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with and without organic fertilization were compared. Two other agricultural sites from South Italy under hazel (Corylus avellana L.) never flooded or repeatedly flooded over by uncontrolled urban and industrial wastes were investigated. The non-cultivated soils were from Middle and South Europe with different pollution history such as no-pollution and pollution with organic contaminants, which is phenanthrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Agricultural soils showed significant differences in some of physical-chemical properties (i.e. organic C, total and labile phosphate contents, available Ca and Mg) between the two sites studied. Enzyme activities of hazel sites periodically flooded by wastes were mainly higher than in the hazel sites never flooded. Sites under many years of continuous corn showed dehydrogenase, invertase, arylsulphatase and beta-glucosidase activities generally lower than the soils under hazel either flooded or not by wastes. As compared to agricultural soils, non-cultivated soils heavily or moderately polluted by organic contaminants displayed much lower values or complete absence of enzymatic activities. Dissimilar, contradictory correlations between soil enzyme activities and the majority of soil properties were observed separately in the two groups of soils. When the whole set of enzyme activities and soil properties were considered, all significant correlations found separately for the groups of soils were lost. The overall results seem to confirm that no direct cause-effect relationships can be derived between the changes of a soil in response to a given factor and both the variations of the activity and the behaviour of the enzymes in soil

  9. Setting priorities for research on pollution reduction functions of agricultural buffers.

    PubMed

    Dosskey, Michael G

    2002-11-01

    The success of buffer installation initiatives and programs to reduce nonpoint source pollution of streams on agricultural lands will depend the ability of local planners to locate and design buffers for specific circumstances with substantial and predictable results. Current predictive capabilities are inadequate, and major sources of uncertainty remain. An assessment of these uncertainties cautions that there is greater risk of overestimating buffer impact than underestimating it. Priorities for future research are proposed that will lead more quickly to major advances in predictive capabilities. Highest priority is given for work on the surface runoff filtration function, which is almost universally important to the amount of pollution reduction expected from buffer installation and for which there remain major sources of uncertainty for predicting level of impact. Foremost uncertainties surround the extent and consequences of runoff flow concentration and pollutant accumulation. Other buffer functions, including filtration of groundwater nitrate and stabilization of channel erosion sources of sediments, may be important in some regions. However, uncertainty surrounds our ability to identify and quantify the extent of site conditions where buffer installation can substantially reduce stream pollution in these ways. Deficiencies in predictive models reflect gaps in experimental information as well as technology to account for spatial heterogeneity of pollutant sources, pathways, and buffer capabilities across watersheds. Since completion of a comprehensive watershed-scale buffer model is probably far off, immediate needs call for simpler techniques to gage the probable impacts of buffer installation at local scales. PMID:12375085

  10. A hydro-economic modelling framework for optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Sahuquillo, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    SummaryA hydro-economic modelling framework is developed for determining optimal management of groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. A holistic optimization model determines the spatial and temporal fertilizer application rate that maximizes the net benefits in agriculture constrained by the quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. Since emissions (nitrogen loading rates) are what can be controlled, but the concentrations are the policy targets, we need to relate both. Agronomic simulations are used to obtain the nitrate leached, while numerical groundwater flow and solute transport simulation models were used to develop unit source solutions that were assembled into a pollutant concentration response matrix. The integration of the response matrix in the constraints of the management model allows simulating by superposition the evolution of groundwater nitrate concentration over time at different points of interest throughout the aquifer resulting from multiple pollutant sources distributed over time and space. In this way, the modelling framework relates the fertilizer loads with the nitrate concentration at the control sites. The benefits in agriculture were determined through crop prices and crop production functions. This research aims to contribute to the ongoing policy process in the Europe Union (the Water Framework Directive) providing a tool for analyzing the opportunity cost of measures for reducing nitrogen loadings and assessing their effectiveness for maintaining groundwater nitrate concentration within the target levels. The management model was applied to a hypothetical groundwater system. Optimal solutions of fertilizer use to problems with different initial conditions, planning horizons, and recovery times were determined. The illustrative example shows the importance of the location of the pollution sources in relation to the control sites, and how both the selected planning horizon and the target recovery time can

  11. Overcoming agricultural pollution of water: The challenge of integrating agricultural and environmental policies in the European union. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scheierling, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to address the particular policy challenges posed by the agriculture/water quality dilemma, this study, focuses on the experience of the European Community (EC), where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. Agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at EC level, as well as national level, are examined, and new policy approaches that try to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations are discussed. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution, which might be useful in other parts of the world.

  12. Fuzzy rule based estimation of agricultural diffuse pollution concentration in streams.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Mohan

    2008-04-01

    Outflow from the agricultural fields carries diffuse pollutants like nutrients, pesticides, herbicides etc. and transports the pollutants into the nearby streams. It is a matter of serious concern for water managers and environmental researchers. The application of chemicals in the agricultural fields, and transport of these chemicals into streams are uncertain that cause complexity in reliable stream quality predictions. The chemical characteristics of applied chemical, percentage of area under the chemical application etc. are some of the main inputs that cause pollution concentration as output in streams. Each of these inputs and outputs may contain measurement errors. Fuzzy rule based model based on fuzzy sets suits to address uncertainties in inputs by incorporating overlapping membership functions for each of inputs even for limited data availability situations. In this study, the property of fuzzy sets to address the uncertainty in input-output relationship is utilized to obtain the estimate of concentrations of a herbicide, atrazine, in a stream. The data of White river basin, a part of the Mississippi river system, is used for developing the fuzzy rule based models. The performance of the developed methodology is found encouraging. PMID:19295100

  13. Lead Isotopic Tracing of Coal-Based Anthropogenic Pollution in Agricultural Soils in Jianghan Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. N.; Ying, S.; Zhao, R.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weiss, D. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese demand for energy is one of the greatest in the world, and the vast majority of it is generated through coal combustion - a process by which diverse pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Due to the relative proximity of croplands to power plants in much of China, these pollutants can be deposited onto agricultural soils via atmospheric transport. Relative amounts of lead (Pb) isotopes in airborne anthropogenic coal-based contaminants (fly ash) are currently understood. However, contaminants' effects on agricultural soil composition are less clear. We investigate the prevalence of anthropogenic contaminants in cropland soils using lead (Pb) isotope ratios as a tracer. Surface soil samples and deep core samples, taken from Chinese field sites in proximity to a coal combustion plant, undergo an acid extraction process and lead (Pb) isotope concentrations are measured. The results of this study illustrate the extent to which airborne contaminants have entered cropland soils and integrated themselves into the chemical processes at work. They further expand our understanding of the impacts of human coal combustion activities on the biogeochemistry of agricultural soils.

  14. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  15. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  16. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  17. Impact of legacy phosphorus sources on diffuse phosphorus pollution from agriculture: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legacy phosphorus (P), the accumulation of P in soils and sediments due to past agricultural management activities, represents an emerging challenge to ongoing efforts to mitigate diffuse P pollution from agriculture. Nutrient management programs, already tasked with minimizing the effects of today...

  18. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY (1ST), HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 30-NOVEMBER 1, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium was organized into air, water, and solids sessions. Air pollution topics included: emission standards, assessment of coke quench tower and by-product recovery plant emissions, sealing of coke-oven doors, volatilization of hydrocarbons in steel rolling operations, de...

  19. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  1. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  2. Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

    2004-03-31

    The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

  3. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  4. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOEpatents

    Scheffer, Karl D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  5. Potential of the Conservation Reserve Program to control agricultural surface water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lant, Christopher L.

    1991-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), initiated by the Conservation Title of the Food Security Act of 1985, is the primary federal program to control nonpointsource pollution in agricultural watersheds of the United States. However, the program is designed primarily to reduce soil erosion rather than to retire croplands in a manner optimal for controlling runoff of sediment and associated pollutants. This study estimates potential enrollment of streamside and floodplain croplands in this ten-year retirement program in order to gauge the potential of the CRP as a water-quality improvement policy. A contingent choice survey design was employed in Fayette County, Illinois, to demonstrate that there is substantial potential for retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands in the CRP. Enrollments in each program climb from less than 6% to over 83% of eligible croplands as the annual rental rate is increased from 20 to 200/acre. Potential retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands declines, however, if tree planting, drainage removal, or a 20-year contract are required. The potential of a CRP-based water-quality program to improve water quality and aquatic ecosystems in agricultural watersheds is thus substantial but constrained by the economic trade-offs that farmers make between crop production and conservation incentives in determining the use of their riparian lands.

  6. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  7. Agricultural land use and best management practices to control nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Lo Porto, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  8. Technological development and pollution abatement. A study of how enterprises are finding alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons. Energy series. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper is intended to document the move to low-polluting practices by enterprises in response to the global problem of stratospheric ozone depletion. The Montreal Protocol, an international agreement, sets a specific timetable for the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other substances that deplete the ozone layer. The paper examines some of the alternatives developed to date to decrease or eliminate use of these substances. In separate chapters, the paper examines alternatives to ozone-depleting substances in aerosols, as solvents, in foam-blowing, in refrigerators and air conditioners, and in fire-extinguishing, together with their associated costs.

  9. Spatially-Distributed Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution.

    PubMed

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ''best approach" depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program efficiency

  10. Spatially-Distributed Cost–Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program–FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ‘‘best approach” depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program

  11. Approximating pollution abatement costs via alternative specifications of a multi-output production technology: a case of the US electric utility industry.

    PubMed

    Vardanyan, Michael; Noh, Dong-Woon

    2006-07-01

    Using a panel of observations from the US electric utility industry, we analyze the output set frontiers that are produced by modeling the technology with different functional forms. Our specifications rely on a series of mapping regimes, based on the paths in which the outputs are scaled toward the frontier, and their outcomes are assessed against the general axiomatic framework of the production model. We demonstrate that different parameterization methodologies produce different empirical analogues of the output set and, as a consequence, can generate rather different estimates of the shadow prices of socially undesirable outputs, or 'bads,' as well. We benchmark our results by assessing the shadow price estimates, often interpreted as the opportunity cost of pollution reduction, against the market prices of pollution permits. The outcomes of our analysis suggest that the estimate of the output set boundary varies with the choice of a parameterization technique, which provides a possible explanation for the sizeable differences between the shadow prices of bads reported in the literature. We also demonstrate that among a variety of existing parametric methodologies no single technique is superior to all others. PMID:16377071

  12. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  13. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. PMID:23998504

  14. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  15. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  16. Using molecular-scale tracers to investigate transport of agricultural pollutants in soil and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D.; Dungait, J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    We explore the use of molecular-scale tracers to investigate the transport of potential pollutants due to the application of slurry to soil. The molecular-scale approach allows us to separate the pollutants which are moved to water bodies through sediment-bound and dissolved transport pathways. Slurry is applied to agricultural land to as a soil-improver across a wide-range of topographic and climatic regimes, hence a set of experiments were designed to assess the effect of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the transport of pollutants. The experiments were carried out using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. The facility includes a dual axis soil slope (6 x 2.5 x 0.3 m3) and 6-nozzle rainfall simulator, which enables the manipulation of the slope to simulate different slope gradient and rainfall scenarios. Cattle slurry was applied to the top 1 metre strip of the experimental soil slope followed by four rainfall simulations, where the gradient (5° & 10°) and the rainfall intensity (60 & 120 mm hr-1) were co-varied. Leachate was sampled from different flow pathways (surface, subsurface and percolated) via multiple outlets on the slope throughout the experiments and soil cores were taken from the slope after each experiment. Novel tracers were used to trace the pollutants in both dissolved and sediment-bound forms. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to trace dissolved slurry-derived material via water flow pathways, as the slurry was found to have a distinct signature compared with the soil. The fluorescence signatures of the leachates were compared with those of many organic compounds in order to characterise the origin of the signal. This allowed the assessment of the longevity of the signal in the environment to establish if it could be used as a robust long-term tracer of slurry material in water or if would be subject to transform processes through time. 5-βstanols, organic compounds

  17. A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that

  18. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM) and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55), Stenotrophomonas strain (C21) and Arthrobacter strain (O4) are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants. Five bacterial isolates

  19. Towards a nutrient export risk matrix approach to managing agricultural pollution at source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, C. J. M.; Quinn, P. F.; Whitehead, P. G.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Flynn, N. J.

    A generic Nutrient Export Risk Matrix (NERM) approach is presented. This provides advice to farmers and policy makers on good practice for reducing nutrient loss and, hopefully, persuades them to implement such measures. Combined with a range of nutrient transport modelling tools and field experiments, NERMs can play an important role in reducing nutrient export from agricultural land. The Phosphorus Export Risk Matrix (PERM) is presented as an example NERM. The PERM integrates hydrological understanding of runoff with a number of agronomic and policy factors into a clear problem-solving framework. This allows farmers and policy makers to visualise strategies for reducing phosphorus loss through proactive land management. The risk of pollution is assessed by a series of informed questions relating to farming intensity and practice. This information is combined with the concept of runoff management to point towards simple, practical remedial strategies which do not compromise farmers’ ability to obtain sound economic returns from their crop and livestock.

  20. Impacts of input parameter spatial aggregation on an agricultural nonpoint source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzHugh, T. W.; Mackay, D. S.

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends in part on how well model input parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. The spatial extent of input parameter aggregation has previously been shown to have a substantial impact on model output. This study investigates this problem using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed-parameter agricultural nonpoint source pollution model. The primary question addressed here is: how does the size or number of subwatersheds used to partition the watershed affect model output, and what are the processes responsible for model behavior? SWAT was run on the Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, WI, using eight watershed delineations, each with a different number of subwatersheds. Model runs were conducted for the period 1990-1996. Streamflow and outlet sediment predictions were not seriously affected by changes in subwatershed size. The lack of change in outlet sediment is due to the transport-limited nature of the Pheasant Branch watershed and the stable transport capacity of the lower part of the channel network. This research identifies the importance of channel parameters in determining the behavior of SWAT's outlet sediment predictions. Sediment generation estimates do change substantially, dropping by 44% between the coarsest and the finest watershed delineations. This change is primarily due to the sensitivity of the runoff term in the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to the area of hydrologic response units (HRUs). This sensitivity likely occurs because SWAT was implemented in this study with a very detailed set of HRUs. In order to provide some insight on the scaling behavior of the model two indexes were derived using the mathematics of the model. The indexes predicted SWAT scaling behavior from the data inputs without a need for running the model. Such indexes could be useful for model users by providing a direct way to evaluate alternative models

  1. [Analysis of heavy metals distribution characteristics and pollution assessment in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Ming-Jun; Fang, Li; Wang, Yin; Meng, De-Shuo; Yu, Yang; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk. PMID:25269280

  2. [Purification capacity of ditch wetland to agricultural non-point pollutants].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cui-ling; Cui, Guang-bo; Fan, Xiao-qiu; Zhang, Yi-bing

    2004-03-01

    Ditch wetlands have the capacity to remove and purify non-point pollutants from agricultural drainage by sediment retention, plant absorption and microorganism decomposition. Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia are two main kinds of plants growing naturally in ditch wetlands in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. They can absorb N and P efficiently, which is the main mechanism of non-point source pollutants purification by wetlands. The harvest of Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia will take away 463-515 kg/hm2 of N and 127-149 kg/hm2 of P each year, it equal to N and P discharged from 2.3-3.2 hm2 and 1.3-3.0 hm2 of fields respectively in this area. The absorption and decomposition capacity of Zizania latifolia wetland is higher than Phragmites communis wetland. After harvest of plants, wetlands are uncovered to sunlight and oxygen that speeds the transportation and decomposition of nutrients. The amount of organic matters, TN and TP are higher in sediment of harvested area than in that of control. Therefore, seasonal harvest of plants is an efficient measure for wetlands to purify nutrients and alleviate eutrophication of lakes. PMID:15202249

  3. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (< 0.1-12 ??g/L), nitrate (0.1 to 15 mg/L, and chloride (1.5 to 26 mg/L) in water were similar for creek and tile samples. Water draining predominantly agricultural row crop areas had much higher concentrations than water draining restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to

  4. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  5. The Use of Passive Samplers to Reveal Industrial and Agricultural Pollution Trends in Swiss Rivers.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Adrien; Estoppey, Nicolas; Omlin, Julien; Udrisard, Robin; Esseiva, Pierre; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2014-11-01

    This study shows the efficiency of passive sampling to reveal industrial and agricultural pollution trends. Two practical applications for nonpolar and polar contaminants are presented. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samplers were deployed for one year in the Venoge River (VD) to monitor indicator PCBs (iPCBs, IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). The results showed that the impact of PCB emissions into the river is higher in summer than in other seasons due to the low flow rate of the river during this period. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed for 4 months in the Sion-Riddes canal (VS) to investigate herbicides (terbuthylazine, diuron and linuron). Desisopropylatrazine-d5 (DIA-d5) was tested as a performance reference compound (PRC) to estimate aqueous concentration. The results showed an increase of water contamination due to the studied agricultural area. The maximal contamination was observed in April and corresponds to the period of herbicide application on the crops. PMID:26508484

  6. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  7. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  8. Predicting the impacts of climate change on nonpoint source pollutant loads from agricultural small watershed using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjeong; Seong, Chounghyun; Hakkwan, Kim; Park, Seungwoo; Kang, Moonseong

    2010-01-01

    This study described the development and validation of an artificial neural network (ANN) for the purpose of analyzing the effects of climate change on nonpoint source (NPS) pollutant loads from agricultural small watershed. The runoff discharge was estimated using ANN algorithm. The performance of ANN modelwas examined using observed data from s tudy watershed. The simulationresults agreed well with observed values during calibration and validation periods. NPS pollutant loads were calculated from load-discharge relationship driven by long-term monitoring data. LARS-WG (Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator) model was used to generate rainfall data. The calibrated ANN model and load-discharge relationship with the generated data from LARS-WGwere applied to analyze the effects of climate change on NPS pollutant loads from the agricultural small watershed. The results showed that the ANN model provided valuable approach i n estimating future runof f discharge, and the NPS pollutantloads. PMID:20923094

  9. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  10. Effects on environment and agriculture of geothermal wastewater and boron pollution in great Menderes basin.

    PubMed

    Koç, Cengiz

    2007-02-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can be limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments through the world. High concentrations of Boron may occur naturally in the soil or in groundwater, or be added to the soil from mining, fertilizers, or irrigation water. Off all the potential resources, irrigation water is the most important contributor to high levels of soil boron, boron is often found in high concentrations in association with saline soil and saline well water. Although of considerable agronomic importance, our understanding of Boron toxicity is rather fragment and limited. In this study, Boron content of Great Menderes River and Basin was researched. Great Menderes Basin is one of the consequence basins having agricultural potential, aspect of water and soil resources in Turkey. Great Menderes River, water resource of the basin was to be polluted by geothermal wastewater and thermal springs including Boron element. Great Menderes Basin has abundant geothermal water resources which contain high amounts of Boron and these ground water are brought to surface and used for various purposes such as power generation, heating or thermal spring and than discharged to Great Menderes River. In order to prevent Boron pollution and hence unproductively in soils, it is necessary not to discharged water with Boron to irrigation water. According to results, it was obtained that Boron content of River was as high in particular Upper Basin where there was a ground thermal water reservoir. Boron has been accumulated more than plant requirement in this area irrigated by this water. Boron content of River was relatively low in rainy months and irrigation season while it was high in dry season. Boron concentration in the River was to decrease from upstream to downstream. If it is no taken measure presently, about 130,000 ha irrigation areas which was constructed irrigation scheme in the Great Menderes basin will expose the Boron pollution and salinity

  11. Modular approaches to the control of diffuse agricultural pollution: buffer zones, bioreactors, ditches and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J. M. B.; Blackwell, M. S. A.; Granger, S.; Chadwick, D.; Haygarth, P.; Bol, R.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the abundance of literature reporting both riparian and non-riparian buffer strip performance in the control of diffuse pollutants from agriculture, the spatial and temporal mechanistics of the processes involved are poorly understood. As a result, buffer zones have often been implemented incorrectly and have failed to deliver the benefits expected of them. One of the main challenges with buffer zone effectiveness has been found to be their by-passing by the passage of polluted water through sub-surface drains which in many regions of the UK has regularly been shown to greatly limit their value with regard to nutrient control [MAFF report, Leeds-Harrison 1996]. In addition, little work has been carried out on the role of additional, complementary structural buffering methods such as managed ditches and ponds, which may provide more benefits, especially if used either alongside or instead of the more conventional use of buffer strips. This paper describes a new 5 year Defra funded project*, which is using a multi-scaled approach to understand the abiotic and biotic drivers of the short-term and ‘long-term' effectiveness of conventional grassed buffer strips. At the field scale, we are using high resolution monitoring methods to compare the effectiveness of other mitigation methods including buffer strips enhanced with subsurface bioreactors, managed ditches, and ponds, to control a range of water pollutants and hydrology. Each of the mitigation methods is being investigated both individually, and as part of a strategic modular network of mitigation methods in a purposely constructed and replicated experimental site. References Leeds-Harrison , P. B., Quinton, J. N., Walker, M., Harrison, K. S., Gowing, D. G., Tyrrel, S. F., Morris, J., Mills, J., and Harrod, T. (1996). "Buffer zones in headwater catchments ". MAFF-English Nature Buffer Zone project CSA 2285, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford, UK. *Link to Defra website: http://randd.defra.gov.uk

  12. POLLUTION ABATEMENT IN A COPPER WIRE MILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Capsule Report shows how water consumption in copper wire mills can be reduced by 90%. The reduction was from 200,000 gallons per day to 20,000 gallons per day by chemical rinsing and water reuse. The sulfuric acid pickle was regenerated and high purity metallic copper recov...

  13. Measurements of air pollution in a non-urban, non-agricultural airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Eldering, A.; Glasgow, R.; Cole, A.; Edwards, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    Pocatello, Idaho has an air quality problem that is unique, challenging, and complex. Pocatello is a city of about 46,000 located in southeastern Idaho, almost completely surrounded by national forests and an Indian reservation. It suffers from a particulate matter air pollution problem with 13 exceedances of the federal particulate air quality standard (a 24-hr average of 15- {mu}g/m{sup 3} of PM10) since 1986. In relation to other cities with a significant particulate air quality problem, Pocatello is not large and unlike the six counties which had more particulate matter exceedances than Pocatello, it is neither urban or highly agricultural. Pocatello does have an industrial area, and among the facilities present are manufacturing plants for phosphate fertilizer and for elemental phosphorus. Preliminary investigations show two of these exceedances are associated with fog and low speed winds. It has been suggested that secondary aerosols may account for a large fraction of PM 10 material. In addition, these episodes have been observed to range in duration from a few hours to a period of days, with the geography of the are contributing to complex meteorology.

  14. Protection of groundwater from agricultural pollution: institutions and incentives. [Long Island case study

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by agricultural practices presents a dilemma between protecting a vital resource and preserving a valuable part of the economy. Legal institutions to protect groundwater have been developed on an ad hoc basis. The institutions that deal with the following environmental problems are critically evaluated: prevention of water pollution, regulation of pesticides, and protection of drinking water. While these institutions mitigate the problem, they fail to solve it. Long Island is used as a case study. This unique region presents a case where groundwater contamination problems are particularly troublesome. The dominant crop of the region is potatoes. Monocultural practices have led to severe pest problems, including a large infestation of the Colorado potato beetle. Methods of pest control have employed large doses of pesticides. The hydrogeology of the region makes the underlying aquifer particularly susceptible to pesticide leaching. The resulting contamination has caused two pesticides to be banned, and a third to be withdrawn from the market. Producers have had difficulty adjusting to the unavailability of these means to reduce Colorado potato beetle damage.

  15. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  16. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  17. Assessing the cost of groundwater pollution: the case of diffuse agricultural pollution in the Upper Rhine valley aquifer.

    PubMed

    Rinaudo, J-D; Arnal, C; Blanchin, R; Elsass, P; Meilhac, A; Loubier, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the costs of diffuse groundwater pollution by nitrates and pesticides for the industrial and the drinking water sectors in the Upper Rhine valley, France. Pollution costs which occurred between 1988 and 2002 are described and assessed using the avoidance cost method. Geo-statistical methods (kriging) are then used to construct three scenarios of nitrate concentration evolution. The economic consequences of each scenario are then assessed. The estimates obtained are compared with the results of a contingent valuation study carried out in the same study area ten years earlier. PMID:16445184

  18. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management. PMID:24975091

  19. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  20. Assessing the Success of Regional Measures for Lowering Agricultural Nutrient Pollution in Headwater Streams.

    PubMed

    Barry, C D; Foy, R H

    2016-07-01

    Lowland waters in Northern Ireland experience elevated agricultural phosphorus (P) inputs, and in response a variety of control measures targeting farm nutrient management have been implemented. Their efficacy in lowering nitrogen (N) and P exports and improving water quality is examined in 40 headwater streams from 1990 to 2009, and to 2014 for 24 of these. Over this period manure production in the study catchments declined by 7%, but regional chemical fertilizer inputs declined by 37% for N and 79% for P, and the regional nutrient surplus was lowered by 18% for N and 49% for P. Diminished pollution by organic wastes meant that 85% of streams exhibited chemistry suitable for salmonids in 2009 compared to 40% in 1990. Flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of nutrients declined between 1990 and 2009, and their correlations with catchment stocking rates became stronger over time. For catchments with manure inputs <16.6 kg P ha, total P and nitrate FWMCs declined from 123 ± 19 μg P L and 1.92 ± 0.5 mg N L in 1990 at rates of 2.2 ± 0.5 and 30 ± 10 μg L yr, respectively. For catchments with higher manure inputs the respective rates of decline were greater at 5.8 ± 1.0 μg P L yr and 160 ± 20 μg N L yr from 1990 concentrations of 270 ± 25 μg P L and 5.99 ± 0.4 mg N L. Although now lower, P concentrations in the more highly stocked catchments still exceed regional nutrient standards so that the identification of further factors impinging on nutrient losses is critical if such standards are to be achieved. PMID:27380082

  1. Controlled drainage and wetlands to reduce agricultural pollution: a lysimetric study.

    PubMed

    Borin, M; Bonaiti, G; Giardini, L

    2001-01-01

    Controlled drainage and wetlands could be very effective practices to control nitrogen pollution in the low-lying agricultural plains of northeast Italy, but they are not as popular as in other countries. An experiment on lysimeters was therefore carried out in 1996-1998, with the double aim of obtaining local information to encourage the implementation of these practices and to gain more knowledge on the effects involved. Controlled drainage + subirrigation and wetlands were all considered as natural systems where alternative water table management could ameliorate water quality, and were compared with a typical water management scheme for crops in the open field. Eight treatments were considered: free drainage on maize (Zea mays L.) and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), two treatments of controlled drainage on the same crops, and five wetland treatments using common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.], common cattail (Typha latifolia L.), and tufted sedge (Carex elata All.), with different water table or flooding levels. Lysimeters received about 130 g m 2 of N with fertilization and irrigation water, with small differences among treatments. The effects of treatments were more evident for NO3-N concentrations than for the other chemical parameters (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, pH, and electrical conductivity), with significantly different medians among free drainage (33 mg L(-1)), controlled drainage (1.6 and 2.6 mg L(-1)), and wetlands (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)). Referring to free drainage, NO3-N losses were reduced by 46 to 63% in controlled drainage and 95% in the average of wetlands. Wetlands also reduced losses of total dissolved solids from 253 g m(-2) (average of crop treatments) to 175 g m(-2) (average of wetlands). PMID:11476512

  2. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  3. Cross-sectional health study in polluted and nonpolluted agricultural settlements in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, A.I.; Brenner, S.; Hellmann, S.

    1988-08-01

    During the summer of 1984 a health survey was carried out among the population of six rural settlements, three in a polluted and three in a low polluted area. Residents of these settlements between 6 and 65 years of age filled out an ATS-NHLI health questionnaire and performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT): FVC, FEV/sub 1/, FEV/sub 1//FVC, PEF, FEF/sub 50/, and FEF/sub 75/. A trend of higher prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms and diseases characterizes children growing up in a polluted rural as compared with a low polluted rural area. The relative risks (calculated from logistic models) for children from the polluted area to have sputum with cold is 2.13, cough accompanied by sputum 3.89, and for their siblings to have respiratory diseases 3.02, as compared with 1.00 in the low polluted area. A trend of lower PFT characterizes children from the polluted area, with significantly reduced PEF. The trends for adults in the two areas were similar to those for the children. The relative risks for adults from the polluted area to have sputum is 1.7 and cough accompanied by sputum 2.6, as compared with 1.0 in the low polluted area. PEF is significantly lower among adults from the polluted area, while FEF/sub 50/ and FEF/sub 75/ are lower (not significantly) among adults from the low polluted area.

  4. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  5. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    This factsheet reviews what is currently known about pollutant sources, abatement and control equipment and techniques for poorly ventilated houses. Radon, formaldehyde, tobacco smokes, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, bacteria, fungi and viruses are addressed. (PSB)

  6. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  7. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  8. Vulnerability and risk evaluation of agricultural nitrogen pollution for Hungary's main aquifer using DRASTIC and GLEAMS models.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Ripa, M N; Uricchio, V; Deák, J; Vargay, Z

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, the significant improvement in point source depuration technologies has highlighted problems regarding, in particular, phosphorus and nitrogen pollution of surface and groundwater caused by agricultural non-point (diffuse) sources (NPS). Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the relationship between agriculture and chemical and ecological water quality. This is a worldwide problem, but it is particularly relevant in countries, such as Hungary, that have recently become members of the European Community. The Italian Foreign Ministry has financed the PECO (Eastern Europe Countries Project) projects, amongst which is the project that led to the present paper, aimed at agricultural sustainability in Hungary, from the point of view of NPS. Specifically, the aim of the present work has been to study nitrates in Hungary's main aquifer. This study compares a model showing aquifer intrinsic vulnerability to pollution (using the DRASTIC parameter method; Aller et al. [Aller, L., Truman, B., Leher, J.H., Petty, R.J., 1986. DRASTIC: A Standardized System for Evaluating Ground Water Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Settings. US NTIS, Springfield, VA.]) with a field-scale model (GLEAMS; Knisel [Knisel, W.G. (Ed.), 1993. GLEAMS--Groudwater Leaching Effects of Agricultural Management Systems, Version 3.10. University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experimental Station, Tifton, GA.]) developed to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems within and through the plant root zone. Specifically, GLEAMS calculates nitrate nitrogen lost by runoff, sediment and leachate. Groundwater monitoring probes were constructed for the project to measure: (i) nitrate content in monitored wells; (ii) tritium (3H) hydrogen radioisotope, as a tool to estimate the recharge conditions of the shallow groundwater; (iii) nitrogen isotope ratio delta15N, since nitrogen of organic and inorganic origin can easily be distinguished. The results obtained are satisfactory

  9. Source apportionment of groundwater pollutants in Apulian agricultural sites using multivariate statistical analyses: case study of Foggia province

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ground waters are an important resource of water supply for human health and activities. Groundwater uses and applications are often related to its composition, which is increasingly influenced by human activities. In fact the water quality of groundwater is affected by many factors including precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater flow, and the characteristics of the catchment area. During the years 2004-2007 the Agricultural and Food Authority of Apulia Region has implemented the project “Expansion of regional agro-meteorological network” in order to assess, monitor and manage of regional groundwater quality. The total wells monitored during this activity amounted to 473, and the water samples analyzed were 1021. This resulted in a huge and complex data matrix comprised of a large number of physical-chemical parameters, which are often difficult to interpret and draw meaningful conclusions. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques such as Cluster Analysis (CA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS) for interpretation of the complex databases offers a better understanding of water quality in the study region. Results Form results obtained by Principal Component and Cluster Analysis applied to data set of Foggia province it’s evident that some sampling sites investigated show dissimilarities, mostly due to the location of the site, the land use and management techniques and groundwater overuse. By APCS method it’s been possible to identify three pollutant sources: Agricultural pollution 1 due to fertilizer applications, Agricultural pollution 2 due to microelements for agriculture and groundwater overuse and a third source that can be identified as soil run off and rock tracer mining. Conclusions Multivariate statistical methods represent a valid tool to understand complex nature of groundwater quality issues, determine priorities in the use of ground waters as irrigation water

  10. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken. PMID:23653907

  11. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

  12. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  13. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  14. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    PubMed

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil. PMID:26398021

  15. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  16. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  17. Potential risks of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices in the Nurra region, northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Barbieri, Giulio; Vernier, Antonio; Carletti, Alberto; Demurtas, Nicola; Pinna, Rosanna; Pittalis, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe paper describes the methodological and innovative approach, which aims to evaluate the potential risk of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices by combining intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination, according to the SINTACS R5 method, with agricultural nitrates hazard assessment, according to the IPNOA index. The proposed parametric model adopts a geographically based integrated evaluation system, comprising qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators. In some cases, the authors have modified this model, revising and adjusting scores and weights of the parameter to account for the different environmental conditions, and calibrating accordingly. The method has been successfully implemented and validated in the pilot area of the Alghero coastal plain (northwestern Sardinia, Italy) where aquifers with high productivity are present. The classes with a major score (high potential risk) are in the central part of the plain, in correspondence with the most productive aquifers, where most actual or potential pollution sources are concentrated. These are mainly represented by intensive agricultural activities, by industrial agglomerate and diffused urbanisation. For calibrating the model and optimizing and/or weighting the examined factors, the modelling results were validated by comparison with groundwater quality data, in particular nitrate content, and with the potential pollution sources census data. The parametric method is a popular approach to groundwater vulnerability assessment, in contrast to groundwater flow model and statistical method ones: it is, indeed, relatively inexpensive and straightforward, and use data commonly available or that can be estimated. The zoning of nitrate vulnerable areas provides regional authorities with a useful decision support tool for planning land-use properly managing groundwater and combating and/or mitigating desertification processes. However, a careful validation of the results is

  18. A Methodological Approach for Spatiotemporally Analyzing Water-Polluting Effluents in Agricultural Landscapes Using Partial Triadic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J J; Darwiche-Criado, N; Sorando, R; Comín, F A; Sánchez-Pérez, J M

    2015-09-01

    Multivariate techniques for two-dimensional data matrices are normally used in water quality studies. However, if the temporal dimension is included in the analysis, other statistical techniques are recommended. In this study, partial triadic analysis was used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in water quality variables sampled in a northeastern Spain river basin. The results highlight the spatiality of the physical and chemical properties of water at different sites along a river over 1 yr. Partial triadic analysis allowed us to clearly identify the presence of a stable spatial structure that was common to all sampling dates across the entire catchment. Variables such as electrical conductivity and Na and Cl ions were associated with agricultural sources, whereas total dissolved nitrogen, NH-N concentrations, and NO-N concentrations were linked to polluted urban sites; differences were observed between irrigated and nonirrigated periods. The concentration of NO-N was associated with both agricultural and urban land uses. Variables associated with urban and agricultural pollution sources were highly influenced by the seasonality of different activities conducted in the study area. In analyzing the impact of land use and fertilization management on water runoff and effluents, powerful statistical tools that can properly identify the causes of pollution in watersheds are important. Partial triadic analysis can efficiently summarize site-specific water chemistry patterns in an applied setting for land- and water-monitoring schemes at the landscape level. The method is recommended for land-use decision-making processes to reduce harmful environmental effects and promote sustainable watershed management. PMID:26436278

  19. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use. PMID:20453343

  20. Non-point pollution of groundwater from agricultural activities in Mediterranean Spain: the Balearic Islands case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, L.; Wallis, K. J.; Mateos, R. M.

    2008-04-01

    Mediterranean Spain is a region with intensive agricultural production combined with an important seasonal water demand for water supply. High application rates of inorganic nitrogen fertiliser, input of plant protection products and intensive irrigation, sometimes with treated wastewater, is a common practice. As a result, most aquifers show nitrate contamination problems of agricultural origin. Data on pesticide residues is scarce, as systematic monitoring is not currently done. In Majorca Island, values up to 700 mg/l of nitrate in groundwater have been observed. To analyse the current situation derived from non-point pollution, several actions have been taken at different scales: declaration of a nitrate vulnerable zone, field experiments to evaluate nitrogen transport to the aquifer and the development of a GIS-simulation model to generate nitrate risk maps.

  1. Identifying major pesticides affecting bivalve species exposed to agricultural pollution using multi-biomarker and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Damásio, Joana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Soares, Amadeu M V M; López, Miguel Angel; Riva, Mari Carmen; Barata, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify major pesticides that may cause detrimental effects in bivalve species affected by agricultural pollution. Investigations were carried out using freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) transplanted in the main drainage channels that collect the effluents coming from agriculture fields in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) during the main growing season of rice (from May to August). Environmental hazards were assessed by measuring simultaneous up 46 contaminant levels and 9 biomarker responses. Measured biological responses showed marked differences across sites and months. Antioxidant and esterase enzyme responses were in most cases inhibited. Lipid peroxidation levels increased steadily from May in upstream stations to August in drainage channels. Principal Component (PCA) and Partial Least Squares to Latent Structure regression (PLS) analyses allowed the identification of endosulfan, propanil, and phenylureas as being the chemical contaminants causing the most adverse effects in the studied species. PMID:20369380

  2. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines. (Contains a minimum of 143 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Nitrous oxide and methane emission in an artificial wetland treating polluted runoff from an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo; Tournebize, Julien; Soosaar, Kaido; Chaumont, Cedric; Hansen, Raili; Muhel, Mart; Teemusk, Alar; Vincent, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    An artificial wetland built in 2010 to reduce water pollution in a drained agricultural watershed showed real potential for pesticide and nitrate removal. The 1.2 ha off-shore wetland with a depth of from 0.1 to 1 m intercepts drainage water from a 450 ha watershed located near the village of Rampillon (03°03'37.3'' E, 48°32'16.7'' N, 70 km south-east of Paris, France). A sluice gate installed at the inlet makes it possible to close the wetland during the winter months (December - March), when no pesticides are applied and rainfall events are more frequent. The flow entering the wetland fluctuates from 0 to 120 L/s. The wetland is partially covered by Carex spp., Phragmites australis, Juncus conglomeratus, Typha latifolia and philamentous algae. Since 2011, an automatic water quality monitoring system measures water discharge, temperature, dissolved O2, conductivity pH, NO3- and DOC in both inlet and outlet. In May 2014, an automatic weather station and Campbell Irgason system for the measurement of CO2 and H2O fluxes were installed in the middle of the wetland. In May and November 2014 one-week high frequency measurement campaigns were conducted to study N2O and CH4 fluxes using 6 manually operated opaque floating static chambers and 12 floating automatic dynamic chambers. The latter were operated via multiplexer and had an incubation time of 5 minutes, whereas the gas flow was continuously measured using the Aerodyne TILDAS quantum cascade laser system. During the campaign, the reduction of NO3- concentration was measured in nine reactor pipes. Also, water samples were collected for N2O and N2 isotope analysis, and sediments were collected for potential N2 emission measurements. In May, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 30 days, and the average NO3- concentration decreased from 24 in the inflow to 0 mg/L in the outflow. Methane flux was relatively high (average 1446, variation 0.2-113990 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1), while about 2/3 was emitted via ebullition

  5. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  6. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  7. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  8. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  9. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  10. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  11. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land. PMID:20811881

  12. Cost-effective means of reducing ammonia emissions from UK agriculture using the NARSES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J.; Ryan, M.; Anthony, S. G.; Brewer, A.; Laws, J.; Aller, M. F.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    To comply with International agreements to improve air quality, signatory states need to reduce emissions of ammonia (NH 3). Since the majority of NH 3 emissions come from agriculture, measures may need to be implemented by the farming industry. Member states of the EU will, by 2010, require large pig and poultry production units to reduce NH 3 emissions to comply with the integrated pollution prevention and control directive (IPPC). The NARSES model uses a mass-flow method to estimate NH 3 emission from UK agriculture and to identify the most cost-effective means of reducing NH 3 emissions. Model runs were carried out to assess the likely impact of the IPPC Directive on UK NH 3 emissions and the sensitivity of model output to input data on the costs and abatement efficiencies of proposed abatement measures. The impact of the IPPC Directive is likely to be small, offering a reduction of c. 8700 t, 3.5% of total UK agricultural NH 3 emissions. Even large (30%) changes in our estimates of cost or changes of 10% in our estimates of abatement efficiency will make little difference to the ranking of abatement techniques according to cost-effectiveness. The most cost-effective reductions may be achieved by replacing urea fertilizer with ammonium nitrate, immediate incorporation of manures and slurries to tillage land by discs, storing all FYM and poultry manures before spreading to land and applying slurries to grassland by trailing shoe.

  13. Biological cycling of carbon and nitrogen to reduce agricultural pollution by nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon and nitrogen are two key elements of global significance, playing large roles in the production of food, feed, fiber, and fuel for human existence, as well as providing numerous other ecosystem services. Although nitrogen is often a limiting element in natural systems, it can become a pollut...

  14. The impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants on the prevalence of allergic diseases in people from Qassim, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Elshabrawy, Walaa Othman; Ismail, Hisham Abdel-Sadek; Hassanein, Khaled Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background There are multiple environmental factors that influence a sensitized (IgE antibody positive) patient’s predisposition to manifest allergic symptoms following allergen exposure. The majority of allergens are known to induce morbidity with chronic symptoms such as rhinitis, pruritis, dermatitis and urticaria. Aim To study the impact of environmental and agricultural pollutants with different pollens on the immunological, hematological and biochemical markers and to determine the prevalence of sensitization to allergens among exposed individuals as well as to identify the eliciting allergens. Subjects and Methods Ninety six highly exposed individuals to environmental and agricultural pollution in addition to 20 as controls were selected. A solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the EUROLINE test kit were used for the quantitative determination of total IgE concentration and semi-quantitative in vitro assay of human IgE antibodies to some of the inhalant, ingestant and contactant allergens in serum samples, respectively. Percentage and absolute eosinophil counts and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results Thirteen (13.5%) out of the 96 studied highly exposed subjects were manifesting allergic symptoms. Higher significant total serum IgE levels and absolute eosinophil counts in groups 1 and 3 of the highly exposed individuals compared to the control group were found (p1=0.00, p3=0.001 and p1=0.016, p3=0.028, respectively). Higher sensitization with inhalant Timothy grass, Aspergillus fumigatus, Der. Farinae and Olive; ingestant Egg yolk, Mango, Strawberry and Codfish and with contactant Latex/plastic and Crude oil was found in the studied groups compared with the controls. Conclusion The present data suggest that the highly exposed subjects to pollution are at high risk of developing an allergy. For the screening of those with suspected allergen sensitization, the determination of specific IgE antibodies is a suitable marker of type I

  15. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  16. Evolution over time of the agricultural pollution of waters in an area of Salamanca and Zamora (Spain).

    PubMed

    Carabias-Martínez, Rita; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Fernández-Laespada, M Esther; Calvo-Seronero, Lorenzo; Sánchez-San Román, Francisco Javier

    2003-02-01

    A survey of the herbicides present in surface and groundwaters was conducted in 1999 in an area of the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora (Central-Western Spain) to assess the degree of pollution of the agricultural land and seasonal changes in the presence of herbicide residues. Ten sites were sampled and screened for 17 herbicides commonly used in the area; the compounds were ureas, triazines, amides, and others. A previously optimised method involving solid-phase extraction with polymeric cartridges, followed by HPLC with diode array detection, was used to monitor the herbicides. Of the 17 compounds examined, eight were found: chlorotoluron (41% of total detections), terbutryn (21%), atrazine (14%), linuron (7%), isoproturon and metolachlor (5.5% each), lenacil (4%) and metamitron (2%). Of the detections, 66% corresponded to river water samples (three sites). The herbicides found in groundwaters (seven sites) were: chlorotoluron, atrazine, terbutryn, linuron, and isoproturon, all of which are classified as probable or transient leachers in Europe. The temporal evolution of the herbicide content in river waters shows that the observed pollution is a function of time and is related to the application and use of the herbicides. By contrast, the pollution found in groundwaters was lower than that seen in surface waters, except that due to chlorotoluron, which, additionally, remained almost constant throughout the study period. PMID:12531276

  17. Tackling agricultural diffuse pollution: What might uptake of farmer-preferred measures deliver for emissions to water and air?

    PubMed

    Collins, A L; Zhang, Y S; Winter, M; Inman, A; Jones, J I; Johnes, P J; Cleasby, W; Vrain, E; Lovett, A; Noble, L

    2016-03-15

    Mitigation of agricultural diffuse pollution poses a significant policy challenge across Europe and particularly in the UK. Existing combined regulatory and voluntary approaches applied in the UK continue to fail to deliver the necessary environmental outcomes for a variety of reasons including failure to achieve high adoption rates. It is therefore logical to identify specific on-farm mitigation measures towards which farmers express positive attitudes for higher future uptake rates. Accordingly, a farmer attitudinal survey was undertaken during phase one of the Demonstration Test Catchment programme in England to understand those measures towards which surveyed farmers are most receptive to increasing implementation in the future. A total of 29 on-farm measures were shortlisted by this baseline farm survey. This shortlist comprised many low cost or cost-neutral measures suggesting that costs continue to represent a principal selection criterion for many farmers. The 29 measures were mapped onto relevant major farm types and input, assuming 95% uptake, to a national scale multi-pollutant modelling framework to predict the technically feasible impact on annual agricultural emissions to water and air, relative to business as usual. Simulated median emission reductions, relative to current practise, for water management catchments across England and Wales, were estimated to be in the order sediment (20%)>ammonia (16%)>total phosphorus (15%) ≫ nitrate/methane (11%)>nitrous oxide (7%). The corresponding median annual total cost of the modelled scenario to farmers was £3 ha(-1)yr(-1), with a corresponding range of -£84 ha(-1)yr(-1) (i.e. a net saving) to £33 ha(-1)yr(-1). The results suggest that those mitigation measures which surveyed farmers are most inclined to implement in the future would improve the environmental performance of agriculture in England and Wales at minimum to low cost per hectare. PMID:26789365

  18. A coupled stochastic inverse-management framework for dealing with nonpoint agriculture pollution under groundwater parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Palacios-Marqués, Daniel; Merigó, José M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a methodology for the stochastic management of groundwater quality problems is presented, which can be used to provide agricultural advisory services. A stochastic algorithm to solve the coupled flow and mass transport inverse problem is combined with a stochastic management approach to develop methods for integrating uncertainty; thus obtaining more reliable policies on groundwater nitrate pollution control from agriculture. The stochastic inverse model allows identifying non-Gaussian parameters and reducing uncertainty in heterogeneous aquifers by constraining stochastic simulations to data. The management model determines the spatial and temporal distribution of fertilizer application rates that maximizes net benefits in agriculture constrained by quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. The quality constraints can be taken, for instance, by those given by water laws such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Furthermore, the methodology allows providing the trade-off between higher economic returns and reliability in meeting the environmental standards. Therefore, this new technology can help stakeholders in the decision-making process under an uncertainty environment. The methodology has been successfully applied to a 2D synthetic aquifer, where an uncertainty assessment has been carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

  20. FILTRATION OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE PHOSPHORUS POLLUTION WITH INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural lands to water bodies is an environmental concern. Ditch drainage from lands with heavy poultry manure application on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay provides a pathway to deliver dissolved P to the bay. Best management practices designed to reduce ...

  1. Assessing the dynamics of fluvial nitrate over short stream reaches in watersheds impacted by agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurley, J. W.; Showers, W. J.; Osburn, C. L.; Levine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated nitrate levels in many aquatic systems can be related to changes in land use/land cover and agricultural practices. However, these relations are often based on synoptic point sampling of independent drainage basins, neglecting in-stream processes that may affect nitrate dynamics upstream and resulting in correlations based on large spatial coverage. Understanding regional trends and implementing effective management strategies are hindered by the inability to determine the sources and dynamics of nitrate over stream reaches at small scales. To address this issue, continuous downstream measurements were made on two low-order streams draining small watersheds of mixed agricultural and natural land cover. Small, yet significant changes in nitrate concentration were observed at river lengths ranging from a few hundred meters to kilometers. This variability was related to the inputs of smaller streams and artificial drainages as well as the presence of natural dams. These patterns represent downstream nitrate variation as a stepped progression with little to no gradual in-stream processing over short distances. On both streams, average nitrate concentration downstream of inputs showed a positive correlation with proportion of agricultural land use within the input drainage basin while proportion of wetland cover correlated negatively with nitrate concentration in one stream. Reduction of nitrate downstream of natural dams indicates that these structures may serve as zones of nitrate removal in these low-order streams. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of nitrate and suggest that small-scale terrestrial and in-stream processes are of ecological importance when determining riverine nitrate influences in agricultural watersheds.

  2. The difficulties of abating smoke in late Victorian York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    Historical railway documents and council minutes for the city of York reveal an active interest in abating smoke. As early as the mid-nineteenth century the public became less willing to accept pollution as a necessary part of economic progress. The Sanitary Committee of the council, while diligent in the latter part of the century, seemed unable to use the Public Health Act (1875) effectively. It undertook studies of smoke control devices and their use, but could not identify a workable method of smoke control. Industry, under continual pressure from the Town Clerk's office usually took steps to control smoke emissions. However the improvements in air quality, even when control procedures were adopted by many of the city's major factories, seem disappointing. Weak laws and limited technology hampered a very clear enthusiasm to abate smoke.

  3. Economic and legal analysis of strategies for managing agricultural pollution of ground water. Final report, 1 October 1986-15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Kramer, R.A.; Cox, W.E.

    1989-10-15

    The overall objectives were to identify constitutional and legal strategies for the management of ground-water quality, to design alternative state and/or federal strategies for the management of environmental risks associated with agricultural pollution of ground water, and to estimate first-round impacts of farm income, land use, government revenues, and ground-water pollution levels resulting from implementation of alternative management strategies in a case-study context.

  4. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Manh Hoai; Sebesvari, Zita; Tu, Binh Minh; Pham, Hung Viet; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2011-12-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. PMID:21920648

  5. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. PMID:26232739

  6. Reclamation of DPK hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil using a selected bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Orji, Michael U; Anaukwu, Chika G; Okafor, Uchenna C; Azi, Fidelis; Martins, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laboratory scale bioremediation of dual purpose kerosene (DPK) hydrocarbon polluted soil using bulking agent (saw dust) was carried out. The effect of different parameters such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), dehydrogenase activity (DHase) and pH on bioremediation performance were evaluated. Studied parameters such as microbial dynamics, percentage degradation (95.20%), DHase (8.20 ± 0.43) were found to be higher in saw dust amended system and significantly differed with control at p < 0.05. Experimental data adequately fitted the first order kinetic thus, generated r(2) values (0.966), first order degradation constant (0.659 d(-1)), and degradation half-life t1/2 = ln2/k (1.05 d). Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus sp., Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus sp. were isolated from the study. The use of saw dust as bulking agent greatly increased biodegradation rate and resulted in effective DPK hydrocarbon clean up. Therefore, saw dust could serve as an effective biostimulant towards improved bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted environment. PMID:26934642

  7. Assessment of selenium pollution in agricultural soils in the Xuzhou District, Northwest Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shunsheng; Hua, Ming; Feng, Jinshun; Zhong, Xinyong; Jin, Yang; Zhu, Baiwan; Lu, Hua

    2009-01-01

    Xuzhou City is an important base for coal production and coal-fired power. To evaluate selenium contamination in this area, we sampled agricultural soil, soil profile, irrigation water, bedrock, coal, fly ash, paddy rice, and vegetables from the north of Xuzhou City, and determined their selenium contents. The background level of selenium in the soil profile was 0.08 mg/kg. The selenium concentrations in agricultural soils and irrigation water were in the range of 0.21-4.08 mg/kg and 0.002-0.29 mg/L, respectively. Soils with high selenium content were located closely to coalmines and power plants. The average selenium concentrations in coal and coal fly ash were 5.46 and 2.81 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, the concentrations of selenium in bedrock and in the soil profile were very low. These results imply that the high selenium level in agricultural soils is mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, rather than by parent material. The arithmetic mean of selenium concentration in paddy rice was 0.116 mg/kg, and in cabbage was 0.05 mg/kg. The selenium concentration in rice was positively correlated with total selenium concentration in soil, suggesting that selenium in soil is readily transferred into the crops. Furthermore, the estimated dietary intake (88.8 microg) of selenium from paddy rice and cabbage exceeds the recommended dietary allowance (55 microg). Therefore, there is a potential health risk from consumption of local staple food in the study area. PMID:19634423

  8. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  9. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... abatement permit holder may use captive-bred raptors held under his or her migratory bird master falconry permit for abatement activities without transferring them to his or her abatement permit, provided the... used under his or her abatement permit. Raptors used under a Federal abatement permit must be...

  10. Implementing the Water Framework Directive: Contract Design and the Cost of Measures to Reduce Nitrogen Pollution from Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures.

  11. Implementing the water framework directive: contract design and the cost of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide

    2007-10-01

    The performance of different policy design strategies is a key issue in evaluating programmes for water quality improvement under the Water Framework Directive (60/2000). This issue is emphasised by information asymmetries between regulator and agents. Using an economic model under asymmetric information, the aim of this paper is to compare the cost-effectiveness of selected methods of designing payments to farmers in order to reduce nitrogen pollution in agriculture. A principal-agent model is used, based on profit functions generated through farm-level linear programming. This allows a comparison of flat rate payments and a menu of contracts developed through mechanism design. The model is tested in an area of Emilia Romagna (Italy) in two policy contexts: Agenda 2000 and the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform. The results show that different policy design options lead to differences in policy costs as great as 200-400%, with clear advantages for the menu of contracts. However, different policy scenarios may strongly affect such differences. Hence, the paper calls for greater attention to the interplay between CAP scenarios and water quality measures. PMID:17879126

  12. Cotton production and water quality: Economic and environmental effects of pollution prevention. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Crutchfield, S.R.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Hansen, L.T.; Quiroga, R.

    1992-12-01

    Cotton production, compared with other crops, is less likely to cause erosion-induced water-quality problems because cotton acreage is not the major source of erosion in most regions. For cotton production, the most widespread potential damages to water quality are nitrates from fertilizer polluting ground water and pesticides contaminating surface water. This damage could be reduced by restricting chemical and fertilizer use on all cotton production, but doing so could reduce cotton yields and raise cotton prices. The same level of water-quality improvement could be achieved at less cost by targeting the chemical use or erosion restrictions only to cotton farms with the most vulnerable soils. Data come from a 1989 USDA survey of cotton producers.

  13. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  14. Agriculture Crop Burning in Northwestern India and Its Impact on Atmospheric Pollution and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Chauhan, A.; Gonzalez Abad, G.

    2014-12-01

    Crop burning season, over northern India, occurs during October-November and April-May after harvesting season. The mechanized harvesting started in 1986, and every year crop residues are burnt in the northwestern parts of India. During post-monsoon season, October - November, the boundary layer is shallow; as a result the crop burning greatly impacts the regional air quality and climate of the northern parts of south Asia. Due to intense burning episodes, heavy smoke pollution-laden plumes are transported all along the Indo-Gangetic basin in the northern parts of India, depending upon diurnal changes in the wind patterns. We find that, in general, the dominant westerly winds transport the plumes and emissions far away from the source region up to the eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic basin, further dispersing over central India to the south. We use retrievals of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide and Aerosol Index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA Aura satellite together with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA Terra and Aqua fire counts to assess the seasonal variation and geographical extent of the emissions due to burning of crop residues. In addition, our results, based on satellite measurements, indicate that the smoke plumes and biomass burning emissions are also transported over the Himalayan region and beyond, resulting in enhanced concentrations of aerosol loading and trace gases. Overall, our findings suggest that, during post-monsoon season, crop burning smoke plumes and emissions are the main cause of poor air quality, high atmospheric pollution and dense haze/smog, especially in the Indo-Gangetic basin.

  15. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  16. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    PubMed

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-01

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual. PMID:1002088

  17. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  18. Alarming nutrient pollution of Chinese rivers as a result of agricultural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokal, Maryna; Ma, Lin; Bai, Zhaohai; Luan, Shengji; Kroeze, Carolien; Oenema, Oene; Velthof, Gerard; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-02-01

    Transitions in Chinese agriculture resulted in industrial animal production systems, disconnected from crop production. We analyzed side-effects of these transitions on total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP) inputs to rivers. In 2000, when transitions were ongoing, 30%-70% of the manure was directly discharged to rivers (range for sub-basins). Before the transition (1970) this was only 5%. Meanwhile, animal numbers more than doubled. As a result, TDN and TDP inputs to rivers increased 2- to 45-fold (range for sub-basins) during 1970-2000. Direct manure discharge accounts for over two-thirds of nutrients in the northern rivers and for 20%-95% of nutrients in the central and southern rivers. Environmental concern is growing in China. However, in the future, direct manure inputs may increase. Animal production is the largest cause of aquatic eutrophication. Our study is a warning signal and an urgent call for action to recycle animal manure in arable farming.

  19. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction. PMID:20048309

  20. Organic carbon concentration profiles in recent cave sediments: records of agricultural pollution or diagenesis?

    PubMed

    Bottrell, S H

    1996-01-01

    Recent (<7 years old) cave sediments in Speedwell Cavern, Derbyshire, show an approximately exponential decay of organic carbon with depth. This phenomenon was thought to be due to one of two causes: (i) changing agricultural practice within the catchment feeding the cave, especially the increased use of sewage sludge and animal slurry as fertilizer; (ii) a relatively constant organic carbon concentration over time in the input sediment, with subsequent carbon mineralization during diagenesis. Carbon isotope composition of the organic material and the evolution of H/C ratio with depth indicate that the latter hypothesis is correct and that the profiles result from microbial diagenesis, not increased organic carbon inputs. By comparison with sediment of known (7 years) age, temporal decay constants for organic matter can be derived; these lie between rates previously determined for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments and soils. The H/C ratio of organic matter can be modelled as a function of time and proceeds in a similar fashion to soil organic material. PMID:15091425

  1. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. ach abatement took place in a school buildin...

  2. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  3. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information. PMID:25391462

  4. Assessment of natural fluorescence as a tracer of diffuse agricultural pollution from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Eliot-Laize, Caroline; Granger, Steve J; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Haygarth, Phil

    2010-03-01

    The value of natural fluorescence in tracing diffuse pollution, in liquid phase, following slurry application to land was assessed by field experiment using twelve one hectare lysimeters on a heavy clay soil in Devon, UK, during autumn 2007. A strong linear relationship was found between natural fluorescence intensity and slurry concentration. The ratio of indices of tryptophan-like and fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (TI:FI) varied between 2 and 5 for a range of slurries sampled from Devon farms and allowed slurry to be distinguished from uncontaminated drainage waters (TI:FI<1). Incidental losses of slurry, indicated by significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios, high TI and high ammonium levels, occurred via the drain flow pathway of the drained lysimeters during the first small event following slurry-spreading. The maximum estimated loss from a single lysimeter was 2-8kg or 0.004-0.016% of the applied slurry. In the second larger storm event, some five weeks later, significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios in the drain flows were not associated with high TI but with high nitrate levels and, compared to the earlier storm, an increase in the humification index. This implies the loss of slurry decomposition products during this event but further work is needed to validate this. There was no significant enhancement of TI:FI in the surface/throughflow pathways of the drained or undrained lysimeters in either of the events. The observed change over a period of weeks in the strength and nature of the fluorescence signal from spread slurry restricts quantification of slurry losses to those immediately after slurry spreading. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates the utility of fluorescence as an indicator of slurry in drainage waters and the importance of field drains in diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:20018337

  5. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui-mei; Liang, Jun-wu

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methods and equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Three separating methods and equipment are used to control three different groups of electronic wastes. The first group includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes of semiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure for this group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric and manganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. The second group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus, HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedure involves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with a separator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions of As, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in a flocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test results showed that all waste gases and water after the abatement procedures presented in this article passed the discharge standards set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. PMID:12491721

  6. Designing Schemes to Mitigate Non-Point Source Water Pollution from Agriculture: The Value of High-Resolution Hydrochemical and Hydrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    To effectively mitigate non-point source water pollution from agriculture, first it is vital to have an awareness of a watershed's hydrological and contaminant regime. Understanding the magnitude and timing of pollutant export, as well as the pathways by which different constituents are delivered to a water course, is paramount. One approach to gaining this type of knowledge is to observe pollutant fluxes at the watershed outlet. The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchments programme uses in-situ monitoring equipment to provide high-resolution (30 minute) data for three mixed-agriculture watersheds (ca. 10km2) in north western England. Determinands measured include turbidity, phosphorus, nitrate, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH and temperature, along with river discharge and rainfall. Provided with these data, and an awareness of significant agricultural activities carried out in the watershed on an annual basis, this study demonstrates how it is possible to identify different pollutant transfer pathways, along with their spatio-temporal nature, and their relative importance. This information is then used to inform appropriate mitigation design. In relation to this purpose, the pros and cons of the different hydrochemical and hydrophysical data are described, and recommendations made for other determinands that should be considered for measurement in future similar studies.

  7. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  8. Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; -Rahman, Naveed-ur; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2014-02-01

    A long-term energy crisis has resulted in increased combustion of biomass fuel in industrial and household sectors in Pakistan. We report results of a study on the emission characteristics of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse since they are frequently used as biomass fuel and differed remarkably in physico-chemical and combustion characteristics. Emission concentrations and emission factors were determined experimentally by burning the biomass fuel using a burning tower. Modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse was >0.97 indicating that combustion was dominated by flaming mode. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 for rice straw were calculated to be 17.19 ± 0.28, 1090.07 ± 24.0, 0.89 ± 0.03, 1.48 ± 0.04, 3.16 ± 0.08 and 0.38 ± 0.03 g kg-1 respectively which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to those from rice husk (14.05 ± 0.18, 880.48 ± 8.99, 0.19 ± 0.01, 1.38 ± 0.02, 2.31 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 g kg-1), corncobs (8.63 ± 0.12, 595.44 ± 10.38, 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.70 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.00 g kg-1) and bagasse (12.39 ± 0.08, 937.03 ± 9.07, 0.36 ± 0.03, 1.44 ± 0.02, 2.57 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.02 g kg-1). Total emissions of CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 were estimated to be 3.68, 230.51, 0.05, 0.36, 0.60 and 0.03 Gg for rice husk, 33.75, 2140.35, 1.75, 2.91, 6.20 and 0.75 Gg for rice straw, 1.11, 76.28, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03 Gg for corncobs and 42.12, 3185.53, 1.22, 4.90, 8.74 and 0.61 Gg for bagasse respectively. Rice straw, however, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher potential of gaseous pollutant emission factors. Bagasse had the highest values of total emissions followed by rice straw, rice husk and corncobs. Rice straw and bagasse, on cumulative basis, contributed more than 90% of total emissions of gaseous pollutants. Results reported in this study are important in formulating provincial and regional emission budgets of gaseous pollutants

  9. A simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic model for agricultural non-point source pollution control through land retirement.

    PubMed

    Luo, B; Li, J B; Huang, G H; Li, H L

    2006-05-15

    This study presents a simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic programming (SITSP) model for agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution control through land retirement under uncertain conditions. The modeling framework was established by the development of an interval two-stage stochastic program, with its random parameters being provided by the statistical analysis of the simulation outcomes of a distributed water quality approach. The developed model can deal with the tradeoff between agricultural revenue and "off-site" water quality concern under random effluent discharge for a land retirement scheme through minimizing the expected value of long-term total economic and environmental cost. In addition, the uncertainties presented as interval numbers in the agriculture-water system can be effectively quantified with the interval programming. By subdividing the whole agricultural watershed into different zones, the most pollution-related sensitive cropland can be identified and an optimal land retirement scheme can be obtained through the modeling approach. The developed method was applied to the Swift Current Creek watershed in Canada for soil erosion control through land retirement. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate the sediment information for this case study. Obtained results indicate that the total economic and environmental cost of the entire agriculture-water system can be limited within an interval value for the optimal land retirement schemes. Meanwhile, a best and worst land retirement scheme was obtained for the study watershed under various uncertainties. PMID:16242757

  10. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in... accordance with § 35.1355. Abatement of an intact, factory-applied prime coating on metal surfaces is...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in... accordance with § 35.1355. Abatement of an intact, factory-applied prime coating on metal surfaces is...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  15. Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of water pollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291

  16. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution. PMID:27441855

  17. Interannual climate variability and spatially heterogeneous improvement of agricultural management impede detection of a decreasing trend in nitrate pollution in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, Ophélie; Dupas, Rémi; Durand, Patrick; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard; Hamon, Yannick; Petitjean, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread implementation of the nitrate directive in the European Union since the 1990s, the impact on nitrate concentration in rivers is limited (Bouraoui and Grizzetti, 2011). To assess whether this lack of response is due to the long time lags of nitrate transfer or to inadequate programs of measure, long term river and groundwater monitoring data are necessary. This study analyses 15 years of daily nitrate concentration data at the outlet of an intensively farmed catchment in Western France (Kervidy-Naizin, 5 km²) and quarterly nitrate concentration data in the groundwater of two hillslopes equipped with piezometers (Kerroland and Gueriniec) within the same catchment. In this catchment groundwater contribution to annual stream flow is dominant. The objectives of this study were to i) disentangle the influence of interannual climate variability and improvement of agricultural practices (i.e. reduction in N surplus) in the stream chemistry and ii) discuss the reasons for slow catchment recovery from nitrate pollution by comparing trends in groundwater and stream concentrations. Analysis of stream data showed that flow-weighted mean annual concentration at the outlet of the Kervidy-Naizin catchment has decreased by 1.2 mg NO3- l-1 yr-1 from 1999 to 2015. This decrease was slow but significant (p value < 0.01) even though interannual climate variability (i.e. annual cumulated runoff) added noise to the signal: i) deviation in the linear model of nitrate decrease with time was negatively correlated with annual runoff (r = -0.54, p < 0.01) and ii) local minimums in the nitrate time series were coincident with local maximums in the annual runoff. Thus high runoff during wet years led to dilution of the nitrate originating from groundwater, which added variability to the signal of linear decrease in stream concentration. Analysis of groundwater data showed a significant and sharp decrease in nitrate concentration in the Kerroland piezometer transect (4.0 mg

  18. Scale appropriate modelling to represent dominant pollution processes in agricultural catchments, to underpin management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Russell; Quinn, Paul

    2014-05-01

    We present the development of scale appropriate modelling techniques to represent dominant pollution processes in agricultural catchments to underpin catchment management and its implications on policy. A quasi-physically based, spatially lumped macro-model (CRAFT), has been developed to assess mitigation options for nitrogen and phosphorus. CRAFT has been developed to use daily time series data of rainfall, stream flow and nutrient concentration data, and can be applied to catchments varying in size from a few hectares to 100s of square kilometres. If stream flow routing is added to the model then potentially larger catchments and sub-daily time steps could be represented. There are two key issues addressed here. Firstly, the model can be used to assess the usefulness of monitoring data collected at a high temporal resolution at considerable expense compared to routine grab sampling. An earlier study in the Frome catchment in southern England collected sub-daily water quality data for more than 12 months at the catchment outlet, comprising: total oxidised nitrogen (TON); soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. The three data sets have quite different temporal signals relating to flow pathways with different residence times and the importance of runoff events in generating acute pollution. The flexible model structure was therefore developed to include different sources of runoff including overland flow from impervious areas in the catchment, where pollution hotspots will be located (e.g. farmyards). The model has been used to assess the value of collecting high resolution monitoring data, in this case by resampling the Frome sub-daily data to a daily timestep, and comparing these model simulations against those calibrated using all the samples. The usefulness of the high resolution data can be assessed on whether a daily model would undepredict (for example) high nutrient concentrations that can be identified in the sub

  19. Spatial Optimization of Cropping Pattern in an Agricultural Watershed for Food and Biofuel Production with Minimum Downstream Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pv, F.; Sudheer, K.; Chaubey, I.; RAJ, C.; Her, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Biofuel is considered to be a viable alternative to meet the increasing fuel demand, and therefore many countries are promoting agricultural activities that help increase production of raw material for biofuel production. Mostly, the biofuel is produced from grain based crops such as Corn, and it apparently create a shortage in food grains. Consequently, there have been regulations to limit the ethanol production from grains, and to use cellulosic crops as raw material for biofuel production. However, cultivation of such cellulosic crops may have different effects on water quality in the watershed. Corn stover, one of the potential cellulosic materials, when removed from the agricultural field for biofuel production, causes a decrease in the organic nutrients in the field. This results in increased use of pesticides and fertilizers which in turn affect the downstream water quality due to leaching of the chemicals. On the contrary, planting less fertilizer-intensive cellulosic crops, like Switch Grass and Miscanthus, is expected to reduce the pollutant loadings from the watershed. Therefore, an ecologically viable land use scenario would be a mixed cropping of grain crops and cellulosic crops, that meet the demand for food and biofuel without compromising on the downstream water quality. Such cropping pattern can be arrived through a simulation-optimization framework. Mathematical models can be employed to evaluate various management scenarios related to crop production and to assess its impact on water quality. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is one of the most widely used models in this context. SWAT can simulate the water and nutrient cycles, and also quantify the long-term impacts of land management practices, in a watershed. This model can therefore help take decisions regarding the type of cropping and management practices to be adopted in the watershed such that the water quality in the rivers is maintained at acceptable level. In this study, it

  20. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  1. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. [Pollution of agricultural soils by a wastewater outflow from a metal smelter in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in the farmland soil nearby a metal smelter were studied. Soil samples were collected and the contents of elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, U and As in the bulk samples of soil profiles were measured, with the objectives to identify the pollution status and pollution characteristics of the farmland soil that were suffered from smelter effluents flooding, an acute pollution accident. The results indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Cd,Sb in the soil were 113.28-212.22, 251.67-2 429.29, 34.44-130.28, 50.63-544.74, 63.44-317.33, 39.41-551.17 mg/kg, respectively, higher than the background level. These polluted soils not only have high concentrations of As, but also of the Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Sb. According to correlation analysis, pollution level is closely with local nonferrous metal exploitation, and principal pollutants have the same source. Some trace metals, such as Zn, Cr, Cd, show increasing concentration first and then decreasing trend in the soil profile. Soil acidification appears in the topsoil. This study has characterized the metal pollution in soils flooded by sudden smelting effluents spilling, and provided a theory base for pollution treatment. PMID:22295629

  3. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  4. Predictive modeling of groundwater nitrate pollution using Random Forest and multisource variables related to intrinsic and specific vulnerability: a case study in an agricultural setting (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Mendes, Maria Paula; Garcia-Soldado, Maria Jose; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Watershed management decisions need robust methods, which allow an accurate predictive modeling of pollutant occurrences. Random Forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning data driven method that is rarely used in water resources studies, and thus has not been evaluated thoroughly in this field, when compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques key advantages of RF include: its non-parametric nature; high predictive accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. This last characteristic can be used to better understand the individual role and the combined effect of explanatory variables in both protecting and exposing groundwater from and to a pollutant. In this paper, the performance of the RF regression for predictive modeling of nitrate pollution is explored, based on intrinsic and specific vulnerability assessment of the Vega de Granada aquifer. The applicability of this new machine learning technique is demonstrated in an agriculture-dominated area where nitrate concentrations in groundwater can exceed the trigger value of 50 mg/L, at many locations. A comprehensive GIS database of twenty-four parameters related to intrinsic hydrogeologic proprieties, driving forces, remotely sensed variables and physical-chemical variables measured in "situ", were used as inputs to build different predictive models of nitrate pollution. RF measures of importance were also used to define the most significant predictors of nitrate pollution in groundwater, allowing the establishment of the pollution sources (pressures). The potential of RF for generating a vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is assessed considering multiple criteria related to variations in the algorithm parameters and the accuracy of the maps. The performance of the RF is also evaluated in comparison to the logistic regression (LR) method using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of RF to build accurate models

  5. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  6. Styrene emission abatement in a bathtub manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Niezgodski, D.M.

    1997-12-31

    EPA is moving forward on promulgating the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP-MACT) for the Reinforced Plastics/Composites Source Category which affects styrene emitters like the American Standard plant. While most composites manufacturers are taking a wait and see approach, American Standard realized the need to move foreward with the controls. Styrene has a reputation of being a difficult VOC to abate. Most adsorption technologies shy away from this monomer due to reactions that cause fires. Weatherly refined their treatment of styrene emissions with experience from installations at similar plants in Europe. Weatherly installed a 35,000 scfm concentrator/oxidation Polyad{trademark} system in 1996 at American Standard`s bathtub manufacturing plant in Salem, Ohio. The styrene emissions are captured in the spray booth exhaust and discharged to the Polyad{trademark} system. The system is achieving 93% removal efficiency on the styrene emissions. This paper will describe the Weatherly Polyad{trademark} VOC abatement system at American Standard`s Salem Ohio plant.

  7. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments. PMID:26940382

  8. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (<75 μm) was low, even minus results being recorded, especially for particles smaller than 25 μm. The length of GSs is a key factor in its performance. The WDPs can remove particles of all sizes by sedimentation. In addition, WDPs can improve water quality due to their buffering and dilution capacity during rainfall as well as their water purification ability during dry periods. Overall, the ecological system of GSs coupled with WDPs is an effective system for agricultural runoff pollution control. PMID:26832867

  9. Support vector machine-an alternative to artificial neuron network for water quality forecasting in an agricultural nonpoint source polluted river?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Lu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Water quality forecasting in agricultural drainage river basins is difficult because of the complicated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution transport processes and river self-purification processes involved in highly nonlinear problems. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector model (SVM) were developed to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations for any location of the river polluted by agricultural NPS pollution in eastern China. River flow, water temperature, flow travel time, rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and upstream TN or TP concentrations were selected as initial inputs of the two models. Monthly, bimonthly, and trimonthly datasets were selected to train the two models, respectively, and the same monthly dataset which had not been used for training was chosen to test the models in order to compare their generalization performance. Trial and error analysis and genetic algorisms (GA) were employed to optimize the parameters of ANN and SVM models, respectively. The results indicated that the proposed SVM models performed better generalization ability due to avoiding the occurrence of overtraining and optimizing fewer parameters based on structural risk minimization (SRM) principle. Furthermore, both TN and TP SVM models trained by trimonthly datasets achieved greater forecasting accuracy than corresponding ANN models. Thus, SVM models will be a powerful alternative method because it is an efficient and economic tool to accurately predict water quality with low risk. The sensitivity analyses of two models indicated that decreasing upstream input concentrations during the dry season and NPS emission along the reach during average or flood season should be an effective way to improve Changle River water quality. If the necessary water quality and hydrology data and even trimonthly data are available, the SVM methodology developed here can easily be applied to other NPS-polluted rivers. PMID:24894753

  10. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  11. FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

  12. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  13. Influence of varying nutrient and pesticide mixtures on abatement efficiency using a vegetated free water surface constructed wetland mesocosm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of a vegetated free water surface constructed wetland in abating agrichemicals was examined using varying types of pollutant mixtures. Three different mixture conditions were assessed: nutrients only (N and P); pesticides only (2 herbicides and 1 insecticide); and a mixture of nutrie...

  14. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  15. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure". PMID:22768736

  16. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  17. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standard and in conformance with the provisions of 40 CFR 1506.5(c) and 23 CFR 636.109. (j) Third party... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated...

  18. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are...

  19. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are...

  20. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.22 Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified...

  1. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow...

  2. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow...

  3. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  4. Database assessment of pollution control in the military explosives and propellants production industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, B.C.; Ryon, M.G.

    1986-02-01

    A database on the current and proposed methods of pollution abatement in the munition production industry is presented. Information on current pollution status and waste treatment methods for the Army ammunition plants is also presented. 31 figs., 71 tabs.

  5. [Effects of long-term petroleum and heavy metals pollution on the diversity and community structure of Pesudomonas populations in agricultural soils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Hui-wen; Su, Zhen-cheng; Li, Xin-yu; Zhang, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    By using PCR-DGGE method, this paper studied the diversity and community structure of Pseudomonas populations in long-term petroleum- and heavy metals-contaminated agricultural soils in Northeast China. The results showed that the Shannon diversity index of Pseudomonas was significantly higher in petroleum- than in heavy metals-contaminated soils. The diversity of Pseudomonas in petroleum-contaminated soil was approached to that in clean soil but lower than that in polluted lowland rice soil, suggesting that contaminant type and cultivation mode were the main factors affecting the diversity of Pseudomonas in agricultural soils. The sequences of V6/V7 regions in 16S rRNA gene indicated that P. mendocina, P. stutzeri and P. aeruginosa were the dominant species in both petroleum- and heavy metals-contaminated soils, demonstrating that these three species were enriched under the stress of long-term pollution, which might correlate with the natural degradation of petroleum and the resistance of Pseudomonas to heavy metals. PMID:17763738

  6. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  7. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production

    SciTech Connect

    Chameides, W.L.; Kasibhatla, P.S. ); Yienger, J.; Levy, H. II )

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O[sub 3]) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO[sub x] emissions are not abated.

  8. Growth of Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plexes, Regional Ozone Pollution, and World Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Yienger, J.; Levy, H., II

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O_3) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO_x emissions are not abated.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in residential and agricultural soils from an electronic waste polluted region in South China: distribution, compositional profile, and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Yousheng; Ge, Jingjing; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2014-05-01

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the concentration, distribution, profile and possible source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential and agricultural soils from Guiyu, Shantou, China, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and dismantling areas in the world. Ten PBDEs were analyzed in 46 surface soil samples in terms of individual and total concentrations, together with soil organic matter concentrations. Much higher concentrations of the total PBDEs were predicted in the residential areas (more than 2000 ng g(-1)), exhibiting a clear urban source, while in the agricultural areas, concentrations were lower than 1500 ng g(-1). PBDE-209 was the most dominant congener among the study sites, indicating the prevalence of commercial deca-PBDE. However signature congeners from commercial octa-PBDE were also found. The total PBDE concentrations were significantly correlated with each individual PBDE. Principal component analysis indicated that PBDEs were mainly distributed in three groups according to the number of bromine atoms on the phenyl rings, and potential source. This study showed that the informal e-waste recycling has already introduced PBDEs into surrounding areas as pollutant which thus warrants an urgent investigation into the transport of PBDEs in the soil-plant system of agricultural areas. PMID:24374188

  10. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  11. Delimitation of areas under the real pressure from agricultural activities due to nitrate water pollution in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, E.; Nasilowska, S.; Jarocinska, A.; Igras, J.; Stolarska, M.; Bernoussi, A. S.; Karaczun, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the performed research was to determine catchments under the nitrogen pressure in Poland in period of 2007-2010. National Water Management Authority in Poland uses the elaborated methodology to fulfil requirements of Nitrate Directive and Water Framework Directive. Multicriteria GIS analysis was conducted on the base on various types of environmental data, maps and remote sensing products. Final model of real agricultural pressure was made using two components: (i) potential pressure connected with agriculture (ii) the vulnerability of the area. The agricultural pressure was calculated using the amount of nitrogen in fertilizers and the amount of nitrogen produced by animal breeding. The animal pressure was based on the information about the number of bred animals of each species for communes in Poland. The spatial distribution of vegetation pressure was calculated using kriging for the whole country base on the information about 5000 points with the amount of nitrogen dose in fertilizers. The vulnerability model was elaborated only for arable lands. It was based on the probability of the precipitation penetration to the ground water and runoff to surface waters. Catchment, Hydrogeological, Soil, Relief or Land Cover maps allowed taking into account constant environmental conditions. Additionally information about precipitation for each day of analysis and evapotranspiration for every 16-day period (calculated from satellite images) were used to present influence of meteorological condition on vulnerability of the terrain. The risk model is the sum of the vulnerability model and the agricultural pressure model. In order to check the accuracy of the elaborated model, the authors compared the results with the eutrophication measurements. The model accuracy is from 85,3% to 91,3%.

  12. Mining-related nonpoint-source pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Gorman, J. )

    1991-06-01

    This article describes the effects of increased mining activity on surface and groundwater. The topics covered include pollutant sources, contaminant transport and fate, trace element toxicity, pollution control and abatement, treating acid mine drainage, modern constructed wetlands and site reclamation including site stabilization, refuse burial and sludge application.

  13. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  14. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Agricultural Soils of Siling Reservoir Watershed in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Naveedullah; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Hui; Duan, Dechao; Lou, Liping; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-01-01

    Presence of heavy metals in agriculture soils above the permissible limit poses threats to public health. In this study, concentrations of seven metals were determined in agricultural soils from Yuhang county, Zhejiang, China. Multivariate statistical approaches were used to study the variation of metals in soils during summer and winter seasons. Contamination of soils was evaluated on the basis of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (Cf), and degree of contamination (Cdeg). Heavy metal concentrations were observed higher in winter as compared to summer season. Cr and Cd revealed random distribution with diverse correlations in both seasons. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu in the soils. Enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment (EF > 5) of Zn, Cd, and Pb, whereas geoaccumulation index and contamination factor exhibited moderate to high contamination for Zn, Cr, Cd, and Pb. In light of the studied parameters, permissible limit to very high degree of contamination (Cdeg > 16) was observed in both seasons. PMID:24151611

  15. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern. PMID:26822217

  16. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Cereal straws and stover were burned in fires spreading against an impressed wind, pile burns in wood fuels were naturally ventilaled through the side doors. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factor affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed.

  18. The setting of standards for agricultural nitrogen emissions: a case study of the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Angus, A J; Hodge, I D; McNally, S; Sutton, M A

    2003-12-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of aggregating the judgement of a panel of experts in order to improve the quality of decision-making. This paper provides a case study of the technique by undertaking a three-round Delphi study to determine a package of best available techniques to reduce nitrogen emissions from a poultry unit under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC). Forms of nitrogen addressed included ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) nitrogen oxides (NOx), dusts and nitrate (NO3-), with the study providing a means to prioritise the pollution concerns on different spatial scales. The priority pollutant issues were the contribution of NH3 to eutrophication, the global cooling effect of NH4+ aerosol, the role of NH4+ as a vector for atmospheric transport of NOx and SO2, the contribution of N2O to global warming, and NO3- leaching. Reduced nitrogen (NHx) was rated as a priority on all scales, while N2O and NO3- were rated as priorities only on global and local scales, respectively. The study indicated the need for abatement techniques at each stage of poultry rearing and waste management, with particular attention to reduce NH3 emissions, reflecting the priority pollutant concerns. Measures identified by the panel include maintenance of dry litter, low emission removal of litter from housing and storage of litter under cover. Once the litter has left the farm, this should either be used as a biofuel for electricity generation or rapidly incorporated into agricultural soils. The amounts and timing of manure application should be tuned to crop needs. Uncertainties in the Delphi technique limit its suitability as a stand-alone decision making tool. However, the Delphi technique proved useful in identifying priority pollutant issues, areas of agreement, disagreement and where information is lacking. This demonstrates its use when dealing with the complex issues of prioritising pollution issues and abatement approaches. PMID:14680894

  19. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  20. Using lumped modelling for providing simple metrics and associated uncertainties of catchment response to agricultural-derived nitrates pollutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RUIZ, L.; Fovet, O.; Faucheux, M.; Molenat, J.; Sekhar, M.; Aquilina, L.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    The development of simple and easily accessible metrics is required for characterizing and comparing catchment response to external forcings (climate or anthropogenic) and for managing water resources. The hydrological and geochemical signatures in the stream represent the integration of the various processes controlling this response. The complexity of these signatures over several time scales from sub-daily to several decades [Kirchner et al., 2001] makes their deconvolution very difficult. A large range of modeling approaches intent to represent this complexity by accounting for the spatial and/or temporal variability of the processes involved. However, simple metrics are not easily retrieved from these approaches, mostly because of over-parametrization issues. We hypothesize that to obtain relevant metrics, we need to use models that are able to simulate the observed variability of river signatures at different time scales, while being as parsimonious as possible. The lumped model ETNA (modified from[Ruiz et al., 2002]) is able to simulate adequately the seasonal and inter-annual patterns of stream NO3 concentration. Shallow groundwater is represented by two linear stores with double porosity and riparian processes are represented by a constant nitrogen removal function. Our objective was to identify simple metrics of catchment response by calibrating this lumped model on two paired agricultural catchments where both N inputs and outputs were monitored for a period of 20 years. These catchments, belonging to ORE AgrHys, although underlain by the same granitic bedrock are displaying contrasted chemical signatures. The model was able to simulate the two contrasted observed patterns in stream and groundwater, both on hydrology and chemistry, and at the seasonal and pluri-annual scales. It was also compatible with the expected trends of nitrate concentration since 1960. The output variables of the model were used to compute the nitrate residence time in both the

  1. Airborne pollutant characteristics in an urban, industrial and agricultural complex metroplex with high emission loading and ammonia concentration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Li-Peng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The size distribution of particulate mass and water-soluble ionic constituents and their gaseous precursors was investigated in a subtropical area, southern Taiwan. Field sampling and chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) were conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI, and gaseous pollutants were determined by a denuder-filter pack system. PM size mass distribution, mass concentration and ionic species concentration were measured during the day and at night in the winter and summer. Average PM concentrations in the winter were as high as 132 ± 42 μg/m(3), and PM mass concentrations in the summer were as low as 38 ± 19 μg/m(3). Generally, PM concentration was 111 ± 60 μg/m(3) at night, which was 20% higher than that in the daytime. The size-segregated mass distribution of PM mass concentration was over 85% in the 0.1-3.2 μm range. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were the dominant water-soluble ionic species in PM, contributing 34%-48% of PM mass. High ammonia (12.9-49 μg/m(3)) and SO2 (2.6-27 μg/m(3)) were observed in the gas precursors. The molar ratio [Formula: see text] was 3.18 ± 1.20 at PM1.0, which indicated that the PM was rich in ammonium. Therefore, the excess ammonium could neutralize nitrate to form ammonium nitrate, after the more stable ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate formation. PMID:25037046

  2. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  3. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  4. Pollution of River Mahaweli and farmlands under irrigation by cadmium from agricultural inputs leading to a chronic renal failure epidemic among farmers in NCP, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Bandara, Y M A Y; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Rajapaksha, H

    2011-10-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) associated with elevated dietary cadmium (Cd) among farming communities in the irrigated agricultural area under the River Mahaweli diversion scheme has reached a significantly higher level of 9,000 patients. Cadmium, derived from contaminated phosphate fertilizer, in irrigation water finds its way into reservoirs, and finally to food, causing chronic renal failure among consumers. Water samples of River Mahaweli and its tributaries in the upper catchment were analyzed to assess the total cadmium contamination of river water and the possible source of cadmium. Except a single tributary (Ulapane Stream, 3.9 μg Cd/l), all other tested tributaries carried more than 5 μg Cd/l, the maximum concentration level accepted to be safe in drinking water. Seven medium-sized streams carrying surface runoff from tea estates had 5.1-10 μg Cd/l. Twenty larger tributaries (Oya), where the catchment is under vegetable and home garden cultivation, carried 10.1-15 μg Cd/l. Nine other major tributaries had extremely high levels of Cd, reaching 20 μg Cd/l. Using geographic information system (GIS), the area in the catchment of each tributary was studied. The specific cropping system in each watershed was determined. The total cadmium loading from each crop area was estimated using the rates and types of phosphate fertilizer used by the respective farmers and the amount of cadmium contained in each type of fertilizer used. Eppawala rock phosphate (ERP), which is mostly used in tea estates, caused least pollution. The amount of cadmium in tributaries had a significant positive correlation with the cadmium loading of the cropping system. Dimbula Tea Estate Stream had the lowest Cd loading (495.9 g/ha/year), compared with vegetable-growing areas in Uma Oya catchment with 50,852.5 g Cd/ha/year. Kendall's τ rank correlation value of total Cd loading from the catchment by phosphate fertilizer used in all crops in the catchment to the Cd content in

  5. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.10 Plan rules for abatement. (a) General rule. Subject to...

  6. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...

  7. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.878 Obligation to abate...

  8. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  9. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. hese 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Departm...

  10. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  11. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  12. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  13. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  14. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The... the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, please refer to that document at 76 FR 39368 (July 6, 2011... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement...

  15. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

  16. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. he AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary co...

  17. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  18. Geospatial data resampling and resolution effects on watershed modeling: A case study using the agricultural non-point source pollution model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Scheidt, D.J.; Ruhl, S.; Beard, T.; Bearden, M.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have been coupling geographic information systems (GIS) data handling and processing capability to watershed and waterquality models for many years. This capability is suited for the development of databases appropriate for water modeling. However, it is rare for GIS to provide direct inputs to the models. To demonstrate the logical procedure of coupling GIS for model parameter extraction, we selected the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model. Investigators can generate data layers at various resolutions and resample to pixel sizes to support models at particular scales. We developed databases of elevation, land cover, and soils at various resolutions in four watersheds. The ability to use multiresolution databases for the generation of model parameters is problematic for grid-based models. We used database development procedures and observed the effects of resolution and resampling on GIS input datasets and parameters generated from those inputs for AGNPS. Results indicate that elevation values at specific points compare favorably between 3- and 30-m raster datasets. Categorical data analysis indicates that land cover classes vary significantly. Derived parameters parallel the results of the base GIS datasets. Analysis of data resampled from 30-m to 60-, 120-, 210-, 240-, 480-, 960-, and 1920-m pixels indicates a general degradation of both elevation and land cover correlations as resolution decreases. Initial evaluation of model output values for soluble nitrogen and phosphorous indicates similar degradation with resolution. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  19. Geospatial data resampling and resolution effects on watershed modeling: A case study using the agricultural non-point source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Ruhl, Sheila; Beard, Thomas; Bearden, Morgan

    2004-10-01

    Researchers have been coupling geographic information systems (GIS) data handling and processing capability to watershed and water-quality models for many years. This capability is suited for the development of databases appropriate for water modeling. However, it is rare for GIS to provide direct inputs to the models. To demonstrate the logical procedure of coupling GIS for model parameter extraction, we selected the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model. Investigators can generate data layers at various resolutions and resample to pixel sizes to support models at particular scales. We developed databases of elevation, land cover, and soils at various resolutions in four watersheds. The ability to use multiresolution databases for the generation of model parameters is problematic for grid-based models. We used database development procedures and observed the effects of resolution and resampling on GIS input datasets and parameters generated from those inputs for AGNPS. Results indicate that elevation values at specific points compare favorably between 3- and 30-m raster datasets. Categorical data analysis indicates that land cover classes vary significantly. Derived parameters parallel the results of the base GIS datasets. Analysis of data resampled from 30-m to 60-, 120-, 210-, 240-, 480-, 960-, and 1920-m pixels indicates a general degradation of both elevation and land cover correlations as resolution decreases. Initial evaluation of model output values for soluble nitrogen and phosphorous indicates similar degradation with resolution.

  20. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  1. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  2. NO{sub x} Emission Abatement Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will convert Hanford Site high-level liquid defense waste to a solid vitrified (glass) form suitable for final disposal in a geological repository. Future process flow sheet developments may establish a need for a NO, scrubber in the melter off-gas system. Consequently, a technology review has been conducted to identify and compare applicable off-gas processing alternatives should NO, emission abatement be required. Denitrification processes can be separated into two distinct categories, wet or dry, depending upon whether or not NO{sub x} is absorbed into an aqueous solution. The dry methods of removal are generally more efficient (>90%) than wet scrubbing approaches (>60%); however, most dry approaches are applicable only to NO,. Of the dry removal methods, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using NH3 reductant and a hydrogen zeolite catalyst appears to be the most suitable technology for reducing HWVP NO{sub x} emissions should emission abatement be required. SCR is a relatively simple, well established technology that produces no secondary waste stream and is applicable to a wide range of NO{sub x} concentrations (500 to 30,000 ppm). This technology has been successfully applied to uranium dissolver exhaust streams and has, more recently, been tested and evaluated as the best available control technology for reducing NO, emissions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's waste calciner facility, and at DOE's West Valley Demonstration Project. Unlike dry NO, scrubbing methods, the wet techniques are not specific to NO{sub x}, so they may support the process in more than one way. This is the only major advantage associated with wet technologies. Their disadvantages are that they are not highly efficient at low NO{sub x} concentrations, they produce a secondary waste stream, and they may require complex chemical support to reduce equipment size. Wet scrubbing of HWVP process NO{sub x} emissions is an option that

  3. SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT ABATEMENT PROGRAM (SNAP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to SNAP curriculum/training materials, a number of additional outreach materials will be developed. These include an inspection checklist for municipal erosion control inspectors; and stormwater pollution prevention pamphlets for equipment rental business customers, ...

  4. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable... licensee that can show that its signal does not directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to...

  5. Air Pollution Aspects of Odorous Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ralph J.

    This report deals with the less ubiquitous, but potentially harmful, contaminants that are in our atmosphere. Thirty such pollutants have been identified and available information has been summarized in a series of reports describing their sources, distribution, effects, and control technology for their abatement. A total of 27 reports have been…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

  7. A Comparison of Lead Abatement Technologies at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeziorowski, Luz Y.; Calla, Joanne

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Lewis participated in a pilot test of Lead Specifications. The Specifications were sponsored by the Center to Protect Worker's Rights (CPWR). Entitled "Model Specifications for the Protection of Worker's from Lead on Steel Structures", one aspect of this endeavor was to test and compare several lead abatement technologies. The project overview, objectives, team, and requirements as well as abatement methods and materials are outlined.

  8. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  9. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-06-27

    This research is directed towards the development of engineering guidelines that define the application of distributed fuel addition as a technique for NOx abatement. It is expected that multiple fuel and air addition in the post-flame of a combustion process will increase free radical concentrations which destroy nitrogenous species and thus help them decay toward their equilibrium concentrations, which can be very low in that region of the combustor. Screening experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale downfired combustor. The objective was to compare NOx emissions arising from various combustion configurations, including fuel and/or air staging. Although the primary focus of this research is on NO control, a secondary effort was directed towards the measurement of N2O emissions from various coal combustion processes. N2O has been identified as a trace gas responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion, and has been hypothesized to arise from combustion processes, in amounts roughly proportional to NO emissions. Results presented in this report showed that the ratio N2O/NO was far from constant. The introduction of secondary air into a combustion process was accompanied an increase in N2O emissions. The measured N2O was always less than 10 ppm even under the most favorable combustion conditions. Reburning with premixed fuel and air mixtures was not effective in reducing NO emissions.

  10. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  11. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  12. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  13. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  14. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  15. HERBICIDE ABATEMENT BY A RIPARIAN WETLAND SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffers are touted for their ability to remove agricultural contaminants; however, little is known about the specific processes that function to arrest pesticide movement and transport. Five years of data have been gathered on the movement and fate of atrazine and metolachlor into a ripari...

  16. Herbicide Abatement by a Riparian Wetland System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffers are touted for their ability to remove agricultural contaminants. However, little is known about the specific processes that function to arrest pesticide movement and transport. Five years of data have been gathered on the movement and fate of atrazine and metolachlor into a ripar...

  17. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

  18. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

  19. CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

  20. Agricultural Science Protects Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    Included are a 49 frame filmstrip and a script for narrating a presentation. The presentation is aimed at the secondary school level with an emphasis on how agricultural scientists investigate problems in farmland erosion, stream pollution, road building erosion problems, air pollution, farm pollution, pesticides, and insect control by biological…

  1. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, S.R.; Surowka, J.

    1995-11-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy.

  2. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  3. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  6. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China. PMID:24083613

  7. Long-run energy-technology choices, CO/sub 2/ abatement policies, and CO/sub 2/ shadow prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1983-01-01

    This study advances a particular research methodology in which existing knowledge of CO/sub 2/ environmental quality and damage functions is embedded in a long-run growth model that permits substitution among energy technologies. The authors illustrate a decentralized abatement policy in which the shadow price of constraining CO/sub 2/ concentrations is utilized to estimate an optimal tax rate on CO/sub 2/ polluting technologies. A quantitative implementation of this approach is carried out based on existing energy-resource reserve and technology cost data, and on their appraisal of preliminary environmental quality and damage data.

  8. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  9. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A C; Maucieri, C; Ioppolo, A; Milani, M; Cavallaro, V

    2014-04-01

    Direct spreading on agricultural lands may represent an environmentally friendly disposal method and a possible use of water and nutrients from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). However, the agronomic use of OMWs is limited, among others by polyphenols, which exert phytotoxic effects. Activated charcoal (AC) has been recognized as a very effective agent for polyphenol abatement, as it enables an irreversible process of phenol adsorption. Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has also been described as a cheap and effective method in polyphenols abatement. However, the effects of Ca(OH)2 addition to OMW on seed germination are unclear. In this paper, the effects of AC and/or Ca(OH)2 on OMW polyphenols abatement, and Lolium multiflorum seed germination have been investigated. The highest polyphenols removal, approximately 95%, was observed when 80 g L(-1) of AC was added to OMWs (the maximum dose in this investigation). The addition of Ca(OH)2 not only improved the effectiveness of the AC treatment but also resulted in a significant rise in Lolium seed germination at the highest AC doses (60 and 80 g L(-1)). Considering the high salinity (7300 μS cm(-1)) of these wastewaters, low quantities of Ca(OH)2 may also exert a protective effect on soil structure counteracting the sodium-induced dispersion through the binding action of calcium cation on clays and organic matter. PMID:24289894

  10. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  11. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  12. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine and..., giving weight to the benefits and cost of abatement, and to the overall social, economic...

  13. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable..., causes or contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of this chapter... or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  14. Compressor station noise-abatement: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bianucci, J.A.; Bush, R.C.; Dooher, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the noise abatement measures incorporated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company into the design of its Brannan Island Compressor Station. This two unit reciprocating compressor station is located within 100 feet of a state park and 600 feet of a camp site. Operating noise level data is presented and compared to design expectations.

  15. 26 CFR 301.6656-1 - Abatement of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....6656-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6656-1 Abatement of penalty. (a) Exception for first...

  16. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPA FILTRATION UNITS AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine-the filtering efficiencies of 31 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units in use at asbestos-abatement projects. article-removal efficiencies for these units ranged from 90.53 to > 99.99 percent. ineteen (61%) of the units tested ...

  17. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  18. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  19. PFC Abatement in Capacitevely-Coupled Plasma Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porshnev, P. I.; Alaoui, M.; Diamant, Stela; Francis, Terry; Raoux, Sebastien; Woolston, Mike

    2001-10-01

    A low-pressure plasma reactor, was developed to reduce PFC emissions of dielectric etch tools, is a point-of-use environmentally and economically sound solution. Generally, local electric fields in capacitively-coupled (CC) plasmas are higher than in inductively-coupled (IC) plasmas. As a result, electron energy distributions in CC plasmas have more pronounced high-energy part compared to the ones in IC plasmas. This is particularly important for effective breaking of the strong C-F bonds, which dissociation potentials are observably higher than the average electron energy. CC plasma in the Pegasys (Plasma Exhaust Gas Abatement SYStem) reactor was found to be in so-called g-regime, in which ionization is provided with secondary emission electrons. Though in these plasmas, the majority of electrons still reside in plasma bulk, the most important discharge characteristics, in particular, the abatement efficiency, are determined by highly-energetic electrons from sheath zones. With water being added to the incoming gas mixture, better than 95% destruction removal efficiency of the PFCs has been achieved for all dielectric etch applications. CC plasma-based abatement significantly differs from existing abatement methods, especially combustion and catalytic oxidation, which are much less environmentally friendly and economically viable.

  20. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  1. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  2. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are numerous uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. the large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  3. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  4. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  5. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  6. AGRICULTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE EFFECTIVENESS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Agricultural Best Management Practice Effectiveness Database contains the results of research projects which have collected water quality data for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in reducing pollutants ...

  7. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  8. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  9. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  10. Pollution Control Companies U.S.A., 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    This book is intended to serve as a useful guide and directory to the present industries embracing the field of environmental control, with emphasis on the prevention and abatement of pollution in its broadest aspects. The volume is divided into two sections: the first section is an alphabetical listing of approximately 1,500 companies or company…

  11. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

  12. INNOVATIVE USES OF VEGETATED DRAINAGE DITCHES FOR REDUCING AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing concerns over agricultural contributions to water quality degradation have resulted in increased emphasis on discovering new, innovative best management practices (BMPs) to decrease effects of storm water runoff containing potential agricultural pollutants. Vegetated agricultural ditches pla...

  13. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  14. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  15. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of lead on human beings, and particularly on young children, have been known for many years. Amendments to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (LPPPA) in 1987 and 1988 required the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to undertake a lead-based paint abatement demonstration program. The overall objective of the demonstration was to 'utilize a sufficient number of abatement methods in a sufficient number of areas and circumstances to demonstrate their relative cost-effectiveness...' One component of the demonstration was conducted in HUD-owned, vacant, single-family properties and was completed in the fall of 1990. A public housing component is expected to be completed in 1991. The report describes the objectives, research design, experience and findings of the completed component, which is generally known as the FHA demonstration, named after the Federal Housing Administration, which held title to the houses.

  16. Sulfur deposition simulations over China, Japan, and Korea: a model intercomparison study for abating sulfur emission.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Chang, Lim-Seok; Meng, Fan; Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yuanhang; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Jong-Jae; He, Youjiang; Xu, Jun; Sato, Keiichi; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Duan, Lei; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Song, Chang-Keun; Ban, Soo-Jin; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Sunwoo, Young; Lee, Tae-Young

    2012-11-01

    In response to increasing trends in sulfur deposition in Northeast Asia, three countries in the region (China, Japan, and Korea) agreed to devise abatement strategies. The concepts of critical loads and source-receptor (S-R) relationships provide guidance for formulating such strategies. Based on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project, this study analyzes sulfur deposition data in order to optimize acidic loads over the three countries. The three groups involved in this study carried out a full year (2002) of sulfur deposition modeling over the geographic region spanning the three countries, using three air quality models: MM5-CMAQ, MM5-RAQM, and RAMS-CADM, employed by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean modeling groups, respectively. Each model employed its own meteorological numerical model and model parameters. Only the emission rates for SO(2) and NO(x) obtained from the LTP project were the common parameter used in the three models. Three models revealed some bias from dry to wet deposition, particularly the latter because of the bias in annual precipitation. This finding points to the need for further sensitivity tests of the wet removal rates in association with underlying cloud-precipitation physics and parameterizations. Despite this bias, the annual total (dry plus wet) sulfur deposition predicted by the models were surprisingly very similar. The ensemble average annual total deposition was 7,203.6 ± 370 kt S with a minimal mean fractional error (MFE) of 8.95 ± 5.24 % and a pattern correlation (PC) of 0.89-0.93 between the models. This exercise revealed that despite rather poor error scores in comparison with observations, these consistent total deposition values across the three models, based on LTP group's input data assumptions, suggest a plausible S-R relationship that can be applied to the next task of designing cost-effective emission abatement strategies. PMID:22869502

  17. Microwave plasma torch abatement of NF3 and SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup; Chun, Byung Jun; Lee, Sun Ku; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Kim, Dong Su

    2006-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch as a tool for fluorinated compounds (FCs) abatement was presented. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Swirl gas, compressed air for stable plasma, was tangentially injected into the microwave plasma torch and a mixture of N2, NF3, or SF6, and C2H4 was axially injected. The DRE of 99.1% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the total flow rate of 50.1 liters per minute (lpm) by applying a microwave power of 1.4kW. Also, a DRE of SF6 up to 90.1% was obtained at the total flow rate of 40.6lpm using an applied microwave power of 1.4kW. Experimental results indicate that the microwave plasma abatement device can successfully eliminate FCs in the semiconductor industry.

  18. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  19. The use of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to identify agricultural land management practices which cause surface water pollution in drinking water supply catchments.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern. PMID:19029721

  20. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

  1. The nitrate and phosphorus response to dynamic control of tile drain levels in a Dutch lowland area with high agricultural pollution loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borren, W.; Rozemeijer, J.; Visser, A.; Broers, H.

    2011-12-01

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes from upstream agriculture threaten aquatic ecosystems in surface waters and estuaries, especially in areas characterized by high agricultural N and P inputs and densely drained catchments like the Netherlands. Previous studies (Rozemeijer et al. 2010a,b, vdVelde 2010) revealed that tile drains are a dominant transport route for nitrate in a Dutch lowland catchment. Overland flow is an important transport route for P. Local measures aimed at reducing the solute inputs from agriculture to surface water are studied, in addition to national management approaches. We designed a small scale (1 ha) field experiment to investigate whether nutrient outflow from tile drains can be reduced by dynamically controlling the outflow level of the drains. Our hypothesis was that higher water tables in spring and summer may increase denitrification rates in the soil and reduce N fluxes, but this could also increase overland flow and P transport by reducing storage capacity. Controlling the drain levels may also promote water storage in catchments, which may enhance agricultural productivity in dry summers. In our two-year experiment we adjusted the tile drain levels for periods of 2 months or longer. We measured precipitation rates and the response of water tables and drain fluxes at the agricultural field and measured N and P concentrations continuously using auto-analyzers. This yielded continuous time series for all relevant hydrological and chemical parameters. Moreover, we measured monthly-averaged N and P concentrations using passive samplers, installed at the field experiment and in 20 drains distributed over the catchment. We concluded that raising drain outflow levels in early spring until end of summer has a positive effect on water storage in the catchment and effectively reduces nitrate outflow to the surface water by reducing the water fluxes. However, the eventual effects of reduction of nitrate fluxes and storage of water

  2. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 3. Results, wood fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stover, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rate were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factors affecting the buring rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed. Volume 3 contains data from wood fuels.

  3. Atmospheric pollutant emission factors from open burning of agricultural and forest biomass by wind tunnel simulations. Volume 2. Results, cereal crop residues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.; Goronea, M.; Abd-el-Fattah, H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutant emission factors were determined by wind tunnel simulations of spreading and pile fires for 8 different types of fuel including barley, rice and wheat straw, corn stove, almond and walnut tree prunings, and Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine slash. Emission factors were determined for each fuel for CO, NO, NOx, SO2, total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, total sulfur, CO2, particulate matter, volatile organic matter (VOC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Elemental compositions of particulate matter were determined by size category. Bulk aerosol absorption coefficients were determined from light transmission measurements through filter samples. Emission rates were correlated against burning conditions and fuel compositions. Factors affecting the burning rates and emission factors included inlet air temperature, loading rate, and wind speed. Vol. 2 contains data from cereal straws and stovers.

  4. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  5. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success. PMID:25647492

  6. At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, J.R. )

    1998-01-01

    The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

  7. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  8. Abatement of methane emissions from landfills -- the German way

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, G.; Kalb, H.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills are a major source of methane. Methane is generated by biological degradation of native organic matter under anaerobic conditions. In Germany one quarter to one third of the total methane emissions into the air originate from landfills for municipal wastes. These emissions amounts to 1.2--1.9 million metric tons annually. Landfills represent the second most important methane source. For stock farming the technical opportunities to reduce methane emissions are limited. Therefore, environmental policy aiming to abate methane emissions focuses on waste management. In Germany the most effective policy instrument for this task is the Third Administrative Provision to the waste framework law. This provision came into operation in 1993 and requires that waste disposed in landfills must be inert. Beginning in the year 2005 the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the waste will be limited to 1--3%. This limit requires a pretreatment of municipal waste, and among the currently available technology options only an incineration is able to fulfill the stipulated criteria. Methane abatement will be further regulated by the new waste law, Cycle Economy and Waste Law.

  9. Introduction to the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a long-term biological monitoring program and the Environmental Management special issue titled Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management. The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, or BMAP, was implemented to assess biological impairment downstream of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, beginning in 1985. Several of the unique aspects of the program include its long-term consistent sampling, a focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific facility abatement and remedial actions, and the use of quantitative sampling protocols using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper describes the need and importance of long-term watershed-based biological monitoring strategies, in particular for addressing long-term stewardship goals at DOE sites, and provides a summary of the BMAP's objectives, spatial and temporal extent, and overall focus. The primary components of the biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee are introduced, as are the additional 9 papers in this Environmental Management special issue.

  10. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25588032

  11. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  12. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  13. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. PMID:25516254

  14. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Shoemaker, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  15. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A. ); Hinzman, R.L. )

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  16. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  18. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  19. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  20. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  1. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  2. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  4. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement...

  5. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  6. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  7. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  8. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  9. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  10. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed...

  11. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed...

  12. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a...

  13. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a...

  14. URBAN SOIL LEAD ABATEMENT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT: VOLUME I, U.S. EPA INTEGRATED REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Soil Lead Abatement Demonstration Project (USLADP), known also as the A Three City Lead Study,was authorized in 1986 under Section 111(b)(6) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), which mandated that EPA conduct soil lead abatement projects in up to...

  15. Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

  16. Mercury abatement report on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Mercury Abatement Report for fiscal year 1995 summarizes the status of activities and the levels of mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulting from activities at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The report outlines the status of the on-going project activities in support of project compliance, the results of the ongoing sampling and characterization efforts, the biological monitoring activities, and our conclusions relative to the progress in demonstrating compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit. Overall, the pace of mercury activities at the Y-12 Plant is ahead of the compliance schedules in the NPDES permit and new and exciting opportunities are being recognized for achieving additional mercury reductions. These opportunities were not felt to be achievable several years ago.

  17. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... here: EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be ... epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information ...

  19. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  20. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. Pollution caused by peoples' use for socio-economic purposes (agricultural, recreation and tourism) in the Gölcük Plain Settlement at Bozdağ Plateau (Ödemiş-İzmir/Turkey): a case study.

    PubMed

    Kurtaslan, Banu Ozturk; Demirel, Öner

    2011-04-01

    Mountainous areas, which form the largest geography of our country and are called reserves of resources owing to their difficulty of accessibility, have been increasingly under threat of exploitation and overuse in recent years. The area in question from among the mountainous areas, which are sensitive ecosystems with their environmental components, is the Bozdağ mass located in Gölcük Plateau Settlement, which has been subject to intensive construction and use. This study is intended to reveal the current uses of Gölcük Plateau (agricultural, recreation, and tourism) and determine the sources and effects of pollution as a result of these uses and aims at revealing how the permanent residents of Gölcük Plateau Settlement on Bozdağ Plateau, which is a center of attraction with respect of recreation and tourism activities, and those who go there only in certain periods, use the environment for tourism and recreational purposes, and determine their positive and negative impacts on environment through SWOT analysis. PMID:20585852

  2. Asbestos and silicate pollution: Public health. July 1976-March 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for July 1976-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurence and effects of asbestos and silicate pollution as a public health risk. This bibliography covers research on the epidemiological and medical studies involving exposure to asbestos and silicates, ingestion of asbestos, and methods to measure asbestos and silicate pollution. Topics include cancer risks, asbestos in drinking water, hazards of silica dust inahalation, and hazard management and abatement. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, and asbestos removal technology are found in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 104 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  4. Metal pollution of river Msimbazi, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Ak'habuhaya, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1988-01-01

    The Misimbazi River in Dar es Salaam is polluted with industrial, urban and agricultural waste waters. A preliminary investigation on the extent of metal pollution (Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Mn, Al) was made from samples of sediments and biological indicators. The metal concentrations were in general low, but some of our results indicated industrial pollution.

  5. A Study of Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Douglas, Willard L.; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Previously, preliminary data on the ability of a group of common indoor plants to remove organic chemical from indoor air was presented. The group of plants chosen for this study was determined by joint agreement between NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America. The chemicals chosen for study were benzene, trichloroethylene, and formaldehyde. The results show that plants can play a major role in removal of organic chemicals from indoor air.

  6. Evidence for Near-Road Air Pollution Abatement by Tree Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanized areas represent concentrated demand for ecosystem services to buffer hazards and promote healthful lifestyles. Urban tree cover has been linked to multiple local health benefits including clean air and water, flood and drought protection, heat mitigation, and opportuni...

  7. A SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS: THE STRATEGIES THAT THEY USE TO ABATE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is designed for use as a handbook for those people involved in international environmental administration and assistance. The handbook addresses 16 major international organizations and the Law of the Sea Conference. The organizations selected are those with which th...

  8. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  9. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  10. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  11. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  12. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  13. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  14. Soil lead abatement and children's blood lead levels in an urban setting.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, K P; Brophy, M C; Chisolm, J J; Rohde, C A; Strauss, W J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effect of abating soil lead was assessed among Baltimore children. The hypothesis was that a reduction of 1000 parts per million would reduce children's blood lead levels by 0.14 to 0.29 mumol/L (3-6 micrograms/dL). METHODS: In 2 neighborhoods (study and control), 187 children completed the protocol. In the study area, contaminated soil was replaced with clean soil. RESULTS: Soil lead abatement in this study did not lower children's blood lead. CONCLUSIONS: Although it did not show an effect in this study, soil lead abatement may be useful in certain areas. PMID:9842383

  15. Urban noise pollution. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning aspects of noise in the urban environment. Topics include noise pollution from airports, rail systems, and vehicular traffic. Abatement techniques and community response to urban noise are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. A STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR COST ANALYSIS OF POLLUTION CONTROL OPERATIONS. VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume I is a user guide for a standard procedure for the engineering cost analysis of pollution abatement operations and processes. The procedure applies to projects in various economic sectors: private, regulated, and public. Volume II, the bulk of the document, contains 11 app...

  17. THE GREAT LAKES: AN EXAMPLE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO CONTROL LAKE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of international cooperation efforts between the United States of America and Canada to control and abate pollution of the North American Great Lakes began in the early 1900's. The more than seventy years of joint efforts fall into three phases: (1) an early concern w...

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders in labor-intensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Fadi A

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview of the extent of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in agriculture, and a historical perspective on how ergonomics has been used to reduce the health effects of labor-intensive agriculture. A summary of exposure to MSD physical risk factors within various classes of crops, along with various administrative and engineering controls for abating MSDs in agriculture is given. These controls range from programmed rest breaks to mechanized or partially-mechanized operations. Worker-based approaches such as prone carts and platforms, and load transfer devices hold promise in combating the prevalent stooped work in agriculture. Including the worker as an integral contributor to all aspects of developing and implementing an intervention, and considering the psychosocial and socio-cultural aspects of the work environment are crucial elements of effective interventions for reducing MSDs. Despite the advent progress in new technologies in agricultural practices, reliance on labor, especially in fresh market fruits and vegetables, will always be a major cornerstone of agriculture for at least the foreseen future. It is encouraging to see the increased interest among health and safety professionals, epidemiologists, engineers, social scientists, and ergonomists throughout the world who are committed to the plight of reducing MSDs and other health problems among agricultural workers. PMID:20398891

  19. Strategies for steam handling and H/sub 2/S abatement at geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.F.; Stephens, F.B.

    1981-08-05

    Strict limitations on the emission of H/sub 2/S from new geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California have been imposed by Lake and Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control Districts. Lake County, under new source review rules, has stipulated that specific technologies shall be utilized to limit H/sub 2/S emissions to 5 lb/h as a condition for determination of compliance. The status of these technologies as well as other ongoing technology development efforts to conserve steam and abate H/sub 2/S are evaluated. Although projections indicate that it may be possible to meet the 5 lb/h limit, there is no firm assurance of achievement at this time because of the unproven, full-scale performance status of some key technologies specified by the air pollution control districts.

  20. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  1. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  2. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF AIR FILTRATION SYSTEMS IN USE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES: RESEARCH IN PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration systems serve as the principal engineering control to remove asbestos particulate from airstreams at abatement projects. owever, little quantitative information is available on the integrity of these air filtration systems in prev...

  3. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  4. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  5. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  6. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  7. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  8. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. ); Black, M.C. ); Gatz, A.J. Jr. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  9. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  10. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection

    PubMed Central

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ∼2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ∼$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  11. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  12. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  13. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs. PMID:11057602

  14. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23350

  15. Identification of root cause and abatement of vibration of monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J. A.

    1998-01-13

    Silicon crystal mirrors are used to reflect high-intensity X-ray beams. A large amount of heat is generated in each mirror. To minimize the effect of thermal expansion on the crystal mirrors, heat is removed by pumping liquid gallium (with a boiling point of 29.8 C) through passages in the crystal mirrors. During system operation, mirror motion should be kept to an acceptable level to avoid performance degradation. There are many potential sources of excitation to the crystal assembly; one such source is the flowing gallium. Two series of tests were performed earlier for a near-prototypical gallium cooling system (1-2). This paper describes a series of tests to measure the general vibration response characteristics of critical components in the monochromator system that contains the mirrors. The main objective of this work is to identify the root cause of vibration and to recommend general guidelines for abatement of vibration. This is achieved by performing many tests to understand the response characteristics under various conditions, by analysis of the response data, and by use of some theoretical considerations.

  16. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  17. Yale FICSIT: risk factor abatement strategy for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, M E; Baker, D I; Garrett, P A; Gottschalk, M; Koch, M L; Horwitz, R I

    1993-03-01

    Based on finding a strong association between number of impairments and risk of falling in earlier studies, Yale FICSIT investigators are conducting an intervention trial comparing the effectiveness of usual care plus social visits (SV) and a targeted risk abatement intervention (TI) strategy in reducing falls among at risk community elderly persons. Subjects include members of a participating HMO who are > or = 70 years of age, cognitively intact, not terminally ill, not too physically active, and possess at least one fall risk factor. The targeted risk factors include postural hypotension; sedative use; at least four targeted medications; upper and lower extremity strength and range of motion impairments; foot problems; and balance, gait, and transfer dysfunctions. The interventions include medication adjustments, behavioral change recommendations, education and training, and home-based exercise regimens targeting the identified risk factors. The interventions are carried out by the study nurse practitioner and physical therapist in TI subjects' homes. The SV subjects receive a comparable number of home visits as the TI subjects during which a structured life review is performed by social work students. The primary outcome is occurrence of falls during the 12-month followup. Secondary outcomes include change in mobility performance and fall-related efficacy. PMID:8440856

  18. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  19. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiantao; Pan, Hua; Su, Qingfa; Liu, Yamin; Shi, Yao

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m(3) reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O(3) and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML+dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20mg/kJ. PMID:20116170

  20. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  1. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  2. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  5. A MODELING-GIS APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water pollution due to agriculture activities is a major source of concern. Vast agricultural lands constitute a nonpoint source for pollutants, such as pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, which threatens ground water resources and the integrity of aquatic and terrestria...

  6. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  7. A modeling study of coarse particulate matter pollution in Beijing: regional source contributions and control implications for the 2008 summer Olympics

    SciTech Connect

    Litao Wang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He

    2008-08-15

    In the last 10 yr, Beijing has made a great effort to improve its air quality. However, it is still suffering from regional coarse particulate matter (PM10) pollution that could be a challenge to the promise of clean air during the 2008 Olympics. To provide scientific guidance on regional air pollution control, the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) air quality modeling system was used to investigate the contributions of emission sources outside the Beijing area to pollution levels in Beijing. The contributions to the PM10 concentrations in Beijing were assessed for the following sources: power plants, industry, domestic sources, transportation, agriculture, and biomass open burning. In January, it is estimated that on average 22% of the PM10 concentrations can be attributed to outside sources, of which domestic and industrial sources contributed 37 and 31%, respectively. In August, as much as 40% of the PM10 concentrations came from regional sources, of which approximately 41% came from industry and 31% from power plants. However, the synchronous analysis of the hourly concentrations, regional contributions, and wind vectors indicates that in the heaviest pollution periods the local emission sources play a more important role. The implications are that long-term control strategies should be based on regional-scale collaborations, and that emission abatement of local sources may be more effective in lowering the PM10 concentration levels on the heavy pollution days. Better air quality can be attained during the Olympics by placing effective emission controls on the local sources in Beijing and by controlling emissions from industry and power plants in the surrounding regions. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Cost effectiveness of abatement options for emissions control in Egyptian iron foundries

    SciTech Connect

    Rabah, M.A. . Industrial Wastes Lab.)

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on an evaluation of the cost effectiveness of abatement options for controlling emissions in existing iron foundries in Egypt. It is expected that such a study will enable decision by identifying concrete measures for abating total solid emissions (TSP). The structure of iron foundries in the country have been surveyed and the variant types of furnaces, the TSP emission level without any abatement options and data of the annual turnover of these foundries have been obtained. Possible market based instruments (MBI) options that might encourage these firms to seek the most efficient control measures have also been examined. Different abatement options such as updating burner design, switching heavy fuel oil to kerosene or natural gas, installing cleaning systems and/or updating the process technology were tested in terms of emission level and the overall turnover. The effect of installing different cleaning systems such as wet scrubbers and filter bags on the running cost of abating TSP was also investigated. Results obtained reveal that crucible (CrF) and short rotary (SRF) furnaces are the most numerous types of plants in Egypt. The concentration of TSP emissions exceeds the standards as specified in Law. Poor quality scrap input adversely affects the operation of the furnace, and impairs product quality and causes excessive TSP emissions. TSP emissions per ton of cast iron produced are relatively low for induction furnaces (EIFs), and very high in the dirtier technologies, particularly CrF and SRF. Cost analysis shows that the cost of abating one ton of TSP emitted amounts to 3000--5000 L.E and this cost represents a high percentage of turnover to plants abating emissions.

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  12. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR STATIONARY SOURCES IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of Japanese government efforts to regulate SOx emissions: the efforts were prompted by serious air pollution problems in Japan during the 1960s. Several technologies are being developed including production of low sulfur gas from coal, fuel des...

  13. Air pollution and plant life

    SciTech Connect

    Treshow, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

  14. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  15. Noise: combating a ubiquitous and hazardous pollutant.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2000-01-01

    With a growing body of data suggesting a link between noise and adverse mental and physical health and with noise pollution becoming even more pervasive, especially from the rapid increase in air travel and highway traffic, individuals worldwide are forging alliances to combat this hazardous pollutant. Especially active are the anti-aircraft noise groups. In the United States, the federal government has limited its responsibilities with respect to noise control after an initial interest in the 1970s when legislation was passed promising to protect the American people against the harmful effects of noise. These past years anti-noise activists in the United States have been working arduously to urge the federal government to once again take an active role in abating and controlling noise. They have also been enlisting more citizens to their cause as they educate them to the hazards of noise. PMID:12689475

  16. Urban noise pollution. November 1981-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for November 1981-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning aspects of noise in the urban environment. Topics include noise pollution from airports, rail systems, and vehicular traffic. Abatement techniques and community response to urban noise are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 122 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-01

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers. PMID:25369123

  18. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  19. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  20. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context

  1. Inventing pollution: coal, smoke, and culture in Britain since 1800

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Thorsheim

    2006-07-01

    Peter Throsheim explains that, for much of the nineteenth century, few people in Britain even considered coal smoke to be pollution. To them, pollution meant miasma: invisible gases generated by decomposing plant and animal matter. Far from viewing coal smoke as pollution, most people considered smoke to be a valuable disinfectant, for its carbon and sulfur were thought capable of rendering miasma harmless. The book examines the radically new understanding of pollution that emerged in the late nineteenth century, one that centered not on organic decay but on coal combustion. This change, it is argued, gave birth to the smoke-abatement movement and to new ways of thinking about the relationships among humanity, technology, and the environment.

  2. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    SciTech Connect

    Katerina Dobesova; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. The authors examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, mercury, and CO{sub 2}. The focus is on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO{sub 2}. The private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS is compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions. It was found that society paid about 5.7 cents/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cents/kWh in reduced SO{sub 2}, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO{sub 2} emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  4. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  5. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  6. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  7. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  8. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  9. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  10. Abatement of CF4 by atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-08-01

    An atmospheric microwave plasma torch is presented for post-pump destruction of perfluorocompound gases (PFCs), which are used widely in the semiconductor industry and are emitted with nitrogen gas for vacuum pump purges. Discharges of the microwave plasma torch are well suited for abatement of PFC contaminants discharged at a typical flow rate. The abatement was carried out using oxygen or air as additive gases. Analytical results are systematically compared to quadrupole mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data in the laboratory. Destruction and removal efficiency of more than 99% in FTIR data was achieved for carbon tetrafluoride.

  11. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23182778

  12. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  13. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF FINAL CLEANING AND AHERA CLEARANCE SAMPLING AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES IN NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document final cleaning procedures and evaluate Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air sampling practices used at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school building and...

  14. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint.

    PubMed Central

    Farfel, M R; Chisolm, J J

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: 1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and 2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity. PMID:2136329

  15. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  16. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  17. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  18. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  19. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... to survive. Many different pollutants can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. The three most common ... and bacteria. Rain washes soil into streams and rivers. The soil can kill tiny animals and fish ...

  20. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  1. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent....

  2. 29 CFR 1903.14a - Petitions for modification of abatement date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions for modification of abatement date. 1903.14a Section 1903.14a Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.14a Petitions...

  3. Biological inhibitor abatement and ethanol fermentation of sugars from dilute acid-pretreated rice hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation inhibitors arise from lignin, hemicellulose, and degraded sugar during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a microbe has been explored for abatement of pretreated biomass in which fermentation inhibitors, if left untreated, can complicate microbial conversion of biomass to f...

  4. WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

  5. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  6. Relative toxicity of decamethrin, chlorphoxim and temephos (abate) to simulium larvae.

    PubMed

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C

    1981-09-01

    Tolerance levels Simulium larvae (S. ornatum and S. equinum) to chlorphoxim and decamethrin, relative to those with Abate, were determined in rapid through-flow laboratory test vessels; a 1-hour exposure followed by 24-hour mortality observations being the standard of comparison of the three chemicals. In addition, a further comparison between chlorphoxim and Abate was made on the basis of a 15-minute exposure in a miniature simulated stream, with the same mortality criteria. On the basis of LC95/1-hour data the results showed that decamethrin was approximately 4 times as lethal as chlorphoxim, and approximately 20 times more than Abate. On the basis of a 15-minute exposure, chlorphoxim was found to be even more toxic than Abate--approximately 10 times more--than with the 1-hour exposure--viz 5 times more. Concentration/mortality curves indicate that with both the organophosphorus larvicides there is a critical zone where mortality increases sharply with increase in concentration of toxinant. With decamethrin, there is a more uniform rate of increase in mortality with increasing concentration, these differences being illustrated by comparison at both LC50 and LC95 levels. These findings are discussed firstly, in relation to other laboratory test methods in use, and secondly with reference to the scarcity of comparable laboratory data for Simulium damnosum in the Onchosceriasis Control Programme (OCP) in the Volta River basin area of West Africa. PMID:6179275

  7. IN-PLACE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF HEPA-FILTRATION SYSTEMS AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to assess the in-place performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems at asbestos-abatement siteS in New Jersey to determine each systems particle-removal efficiency. n air-generated dioctyl phthalate aerosol was used to challeng...

  8. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-ABATEMENT DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize post-abatement dust collected with a HEPA filtered vacuum. hree size fractions of resuspended dust (0-30 pm, 2.5-15 pm, and <2.5 pm) were collected on teflon filters and analyzed ...

  9. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  10. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... making scheduled withdrawal liability payments in the second year for those withdrawals, provide a bond... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...) Plan amendments concerning bond/escrow. A plan may, by amendment, adopt rules decreasing the amount...

  11. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... making scheduled withdrawal liability payments in the second year for those withdrawals, provide a bond... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...) Plan amendments concerning bond/escrow. A plan may, by amendment, adopt rules decreasing the amount...

  12. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  13. ACHIEVING A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY CLEARANCE CRITERION AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES IN NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Representatives of the New Jersey Department of Health's Asbestos Control Service conducted final clearance evaluations at 79 schools where asbestos removal took place during the Summer of 1987. The evaluations entailed a thorough visual inspection of each abatement area by an ex...

  14. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  15. Fermentation of Bioenergy Crops Into Ethanol Using Biological Abatement for Removal of Inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals is hampered by the presence of inhibitory compounds contained in sugar streams derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Biological abatement is a promising method for removing these inhibitors because it neither consumes chemicals nor generates wastes. In t...

  16. 29 CFR 1903.14a - Petitions for modification of abatement date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petitions for modification of abatement date. 1903.14a Section 1903.14a Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.14a Petitions...

  17. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  18. [A survey on physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer].

    PubMed

    Tochihara, Y; Ohnaka, T; Nagai, Y; Muramatsu, T

    1993-01-01

    Since the health hazard of asbestos fibers has been widely recognized, the number of asbestos abatement projects in schools has increased rapidly. Most of these projects were planned during summer vacation from school. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing because of the asbestos exposure risk. The purpose of this survey is to study the workload of asbestos abatement work by measuring physiological reactions. Physiological strains of 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatements work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. Body weight loss by the work of all workers was measured, and heart rate, rectal temperature and skin temperatures at five sites of some of them were measured every minute. In both workplaces, the workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoes covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6 degrees C and 28.8 degrees C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces were covered with vinyl seats, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working hours of asbestos abatement were between 46 minutes and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were between 217 g/h and 605 g/h. These values were greater compared to the estimate values when work was done wearing commonly used light clothing. Heart rates during asbestos abatement work did not exceed 150 beats/min in one school where the temperature was 25 degrees C-27 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8507292

  19. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  20. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.