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Sample records for agricultural practice gap

  1. Validation of good agricultural practices (GAP) on Minnesota vegetable farms.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Karin E; Umber, Jamie; Hultberg, Annalisa; Tong, Cindy; Schermann, Michele; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Bender, Jeff B

    2015-02-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture jointly published the "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," which is used as a basis for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) audits. To understand barriers to incorporation of GAP by Minnesota vegetable farmers, a mail survey completed in 2008 was validated with visits to a subset of the farms. This was done to determine the extent to which actual practices matched perceived practices. Two hundred forty-six producers completed the mail survey, and 27 participated in the on-farm survey. Over 75% of the on-farm survey respondents produced vegetables on 10 acres or less and had 10 or fewer employees. Of 14 questions, excellent agreement between on-farm interviews and mail survey responses was observed on two questions, four questions had poor or slight agreement, and eight questions had no agreement. Ninety-two percent of respondents by mail said "they took measures to keep animals and pests out of packing and storage buildings." However, with the on-site visit only 45% met this requirement. Similarly, 81% of respondents by mail said "measures were taken to reduce the risk of wild and/or domestic animals entering into fruit and vegetable growing areas." With direct observation, 70% of farms actually had taken measures to keep animals out of the growing areas. Additional, on-farm assessments were done regarding employee hygiene, training, presence of animals, water sources, and composting practices. This validation study demonstrated the challenge of creating nonleading and concise questions that are not open to broad interpretation from the respondents. If mail surveys are used to assess GAP, they should include open-ended questions and ranking systems to better assess farm practices. To provide the most accurate survey data for educational purposes or GAP audits, on-farm visits are recommended.

  2. Validation of good agricultural practices (GAP) on Minnesota vegetable farms.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Karin E; Umber, Jamie; Hultberg, Annalisa; Tong, Cindy; Schermann, Michele; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Bender, Jeff B

    2015-02-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture jointly published the "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," which is used as a basis for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) audits. To understand barriers to incorporation of GAP by Minnesota vegetable farmers, a mail survey completed in 2008 was validated with visits to a subset of the farms. This was done to determine the extent to which actual practices matched perceived practices. Two hundred forty-six producers completed the mail survey, and 27 participated in the on-farm survey. Over 75% of the on-farm survey respondents produced vegetables on 10 acres or less and had 10 or fewer employees. Of 14 questions, excellent agreement between on-farm interviews and mail survey responses was observed on two questions, four questions had poor or slight agreement, and eight questions had no agreement. Ninety-two percent of respondents by mail said "they took measures to keep animals and pests out of packing and storage buildings." However, with the on-site visit only 45% met this requirement. Similarly, 81% of respondents by mail said "measures were taken to reduce the risk of wild and/or domestic animals entering into fruit and vegetable growing areas." With direct observation, 70% of farms actually had taken measures to keep animals out of the growing areas. Additional, on-farm assessments were done regarding employee hygiene, training, presence of animals, water sources, and composting practices. This validation study demonstrated the challenge of creating nonleading and concise questions that are not open to broad interpretation from the respondents. If mail surveys are used to assess GAP, they should include open-ended questions and ranking systems to better assess farm practices. To provide the most accurate survey data for educational purposes or GAP audits, on-farm visits are recommended. PMID:25564923

  3. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  4. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  5. Agricultural Management Practices Explain Variation in Global Yield Gaps of Major Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The continued expansion and intensification of agriculture are key drivers of global environmental change. Meeting a doubling of food demand in the next half-century will further induce environmental change, requiring either large cropland expansion into carbon- and biodiversity-rich tropical forests or increasing yields on existing croplands. Closing the “yield gaps” between the most and least productive farmers on current agricultural lands is a necessary and major step towards preserving natural ecosystems and meeting future food demand. Here we use global climate, soils, and cropland datasets to quantify yield gaps for major crops using equal-area climate analogs. Consistent with previous studies, we find large yield gaps for many crops in Eastern Europe, tropical Africa, and parts of Mexico. To analyze the drivers of yield gaps, we collected sub-national agricultural management data and built a global dataset of fertilizer application rates for over 160 crops. We constructed empirical crop yield models for each climate analog using the global management information for 17 major crops. We find that our climate-specific models explain a substantial amount of the global variation in yields. These models could be widely applied to identify management changes needed to close yield gaps, analyze the environmental impacts of agricultural intensification, and identify climate change adaptation techniques.

  6. Practice Gaps in Pruritus.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    There are several practice gaps in the evaluation and management of itch. These gaps include a dearth of objective measures of itch, infrequent use of validated patient-reported outcomes for itch, non-evidence-based treatment, and lack of consensus about the ideal workup for generalized itch. The present article reviews these gaps and presents potential solutions. PMID:27363881

  7. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms.

  8. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. PMID:25631403

  9. Gaps in agricultural climate adaptation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The value of the social sciences to climate change research is well recognized, but notable gaps remain in the literature on adaptation in agriculture. Contributions focus on farmer behaviour, with important research regarding gender, social networks and institutions remaining under-represented.

  10. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  11. Knowledge Gained from Good Agricultural Practices Courses for Iowa Growers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7-hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions.…

  12. Agricultural drainage practices in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, T. D.

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural drainage practices are reviewed under two main headings: arterial drainage of river catch-ments by developing main channels, and field drainage of smaller parcels of land using pipes and open trenches. The use of cost/benefit analysis on the arterial drainage program is considered and the inherent errors are discussed. Conservation of the environment is described as it applies to land-scaping, fisheries, and wildlife, and the drainage authorities are shown to have an enlightened attitude to proper preservation of the world around us.

  13. Examining the Principal Preparation and Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Papa, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    To anticipate the future needs of principal preparation, it is important to understand past efforts to bridge the preparation and practice gap. Decades ago, both the military and corporate industries discovered that classroom training was not meeting their needs for preparing soldiers and business professionals for real-life challenges. So they…

  14. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  15. Practice and Educational Gaps in Genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Julie V

    2016-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, there has been enormous progress in determining the molecular bases of genodermatoses. This progress has expanded the interface between dermatology and genetics. Integration of clinical and molecular data has simplified disease classification and highlighted relationships among conditions. However, the recent explosion in genetic knowledge has not yet been fully incorporated into clinical dermatology practice or dermatology resident education. This article highlights strategies to overcome barriers and correct practice and educational gaps, enhancing the ability of dermatologists to diagnose, counsel, evaluate, and treat patients and families affected by genodermatoses. PMID:27363887

  16. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions.

  17. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

  18. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap

    PubMed Central

    Ponisio, Lauren C.; M'Gonigle, Leithen K.; Mace, Kevi C.; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

  19. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  20. Bridging the theory-practice gap.

    PubMed

    McKenna, B; Roberts, R

    1999-03-01

    In New Zealand, there is a festering debate over a "theory-practice gap" in nursing. Joint appointments may be a potential solution to this issue. Joint appointments refer to a variety of arrangements whereby concurrent employment occurs within an educational institution and a clinical setting. Advantages for the appointees include job satisfaction and professional growth. Clinical credibility for nurse educators enables improved facilitation of student learning. In clinical areas, benefits in patient care are associated with the marrying of academic rigour with clinical practice. Some appointees assist with staff development, act as consultants on nursing issues and undertake research. Disadvantages in the concept focus on role conflict, i.e. incongruity between the roles and role ambiguity, i.e. lack of clarity concerning expectations. Success depends upon the personal attributes of appointees; realistic expectations; flexibility to allow the concept to evolve; and support from colleagues and management. This research describes a case study of a joint appointment between a nurse lecturer and a staff nurse in an acute forensic psychiatry unit. Advantages, disadvantages and reasons for success are discussed in relation to the literature findings. (See p15-15) The discussion focuses on the need to develop research methodology to further clarify potential benefits and advantages.

  1. Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucks, Carlos Alberto

    Conducted in Uruguay during 1965-68, this study compared adoption rates for selected agricultural practices between one area which received an extension program and one which did not; and sought relationships between selected characteristics of individual farmers and the adoption of new practices. Data came from interviews with 69 experimental and…

  2. Mind the Gap: How do climate and agricultural management explain the "yield gap" of croplands around the world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licker, R.; Foley, J. A.; Johnston, M.

    2007-12-01

    At present, cultivated lands extend across approximately fifteen million square kilometers of the Earth's surface, making it one of the most dominant land cover types. The management practices used on these lands have become increasingly intensified, requiring large inputs of fertilizers and water, in addition to mechanization and biotechnology. These intensified practices have had implications for ecosystem goods and services ranging from water quality and availability to carbon sequestration. However, the billions of additional people that are projected to inhabit the planet in the twenty-first century will require further outputs from our global agricultural system. Given our food system's already expansive and intensive state, it is important to consider where the additional yields might come from and what additional management inputs this might require. In this study, we compare yields both within crop types and within regions of similar climate to determine where yield gaps exist. We do so using recently created, five-minute datasets of the area harvested and yield of 175 different crop types for the year 2000. We also explore the links of these yield gaps to global patterns of management. For example, we consider the ways in which management practices such as irrigation and fire are influencing yields around the world - analyses that can help critically evaluate the level of management currently employed and help imagine what management might be necessary to achieve higher yields in the future. These data will be needed in the next generation of Earth System models, in order to better represent the practices of agricultural land use in more realistic ways, thereby improving our understanding of land use / land cover change on the global carbon and water cycles, and the climate system.

  3. Closing the gap: global potential for increasing biofuel production through agricultural intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Matt; Licker, R.; Foley, J.; Holloway, T.; Mueller, N. D.; Barford, C.; Kucharik, C.

    2011-07-01

    Since the end of World War II, global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification achieved through a combination of increased applications of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, the implementation of best management practice techniques, mechanization, irrigation, and more recently, through the use of optimized seed varieties and genetic engineering. However, not all crops and not all regions of the world have realized the same improvements in agricultural intensity. In this study we examine both the magnitude and spatial variation of new agricultural production potential from closing of 'yield gaps' for 20 ethanol and biodiesel feedstock crops. With biofuels coming under increasing pressure to slow or eliminate indirect land-use conversion, the use of targeted intensification via established agricultural practices might offer an alternative for continued growth. We find that by closing the 50th percentile production gap—essentially improving global yields to median levels—the 20 crops in this study could provide approximately 112.5 billion liters of new ethanol and 8.5 billion liters of new biodiesel production. This study is intended to be an important new resource for scientists and policymakers alike—helping to more accurately understand spatial variation of yield and agricultural intensification potential, as well as employing these data to better utilize existing infrastructure and optimize the distribution of development and aid capital.

  4. Spanning the Gap between Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that new developments in prescriptive theory offer an opportunity for instructional designers to combine research and practice in developing instruction. Ways in which instructional theories can facilitate practical applications are suggested. (MER)

  5. Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Polasky, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation. In turn, ecosystem services affect agricultural productivity. Understanding the contribution of various agricultural practices to the range of ecosystem services would help inform choices about the most beneficial agricultural practices. To accomplish this, however, we must overcome a big challenge in measuring the impact of alternative agricultural practices on ecosystem services and of ecosystem services on agricultural production.

  6. Common-Cause Failure Mitigation Practices and Knowledge Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Pullum, Laura L; Smith, Cyrus M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2012-11-01

    This technical report documents the findings from first phase of research activities by ORNL. Specifically, the report describes the results of the investigation of CCF mitigation practices and determination of knowledge gaps.

  7. Practice and Educational Gaps in Dermatology: Disorders of the Hair.

    PubMed

    Colavincenzo, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    Clinical practice gaps exist in the care of hair patients. Attitude gaps include a relative lack of dermatologists interested in caring for patients with hair complaints, a potential underestimation of the effect of hair disorders on the quality of patients' lives, and potential failure to recognize the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder among patients with hair complaints. Knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence and presentation of hair loss disorders may lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment of hair patients. Skill gaps in physical examination, particularly with dermoscopy of the scalp and hair, may affect the care of hair patients. PMID:27363884

  8. Hyperspectral image classification for mapping agricultural tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An efficient classification framework for mapping agricultural tillage practice using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is proposed, which has the potential to be implemented practically to provide rapid, accurate, and objective surveying data for precision agricultural management and appraisal f...

  9. Methodology and the Research-Practice Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the mismatch between educational research methodologies and its application to generic features of practice and proposes a problem-based methodology that better links research with problem solving. Implications of this methodology are discussed from recent research on school tracking. (GR)

  10. The Gap between Research and Practice Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korthagen, Fred A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, teachers--but also parents and politicians--voice dissatisfaction with the divide they experience between research and practice and the resulting minimal impact of teacher education (Ashton, 1996; Barone, Berliner, Blanchard, Casanova, & McGowan, 1996). The problem seems to be perennial. More than a century ago, John Dewey pointed…

  11. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  12. Bridging the Gap between Ethics and Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamric, Ann B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes attitude sets characterized as ethics as intuition, ethics as foreign language, and ethics as irrelevant to practice among nurses and physicians and the consequences they engender. Addresses strategies to bridge the gap between ethics knowledge and clinical practice, including interdisciplinary ethics education. (JOW)

  13. Why Closing the Research-Practice Gap Is Critical to Closing Student Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Discussions of the research-practice gap often assume that K-12 educators are uninterested in or even derisive about the value of research for improving student learning. The work of K-12 educators in the Minority Student Achievement Network (MSAN) counters this conventional wisdom. This article provides evidence that MSAN educators not only value…

  14. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  15. A District Wellness Policy: The Gap between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgeon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the gap between a federally-mandated wellness policy and its practice in U.S. schools. To address the problem of childhood obesity, the United States government requires school districts to develop a District Wellness Policy (DWP) that promotes a healthy school environment, healthy food choices, nutrition education, and…

  16. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Voice of Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the strategies that could be potentially employed in the Iranian ELT context to bridge the gap between research and practice. Data were collected through conducting a "focus group discussion" with a number of practitioner-researchers. The findings showed that to improve the relationship between…

  17. [Effects of agricultural practices on community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural ecosystem: a review].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ping-Ping; Li, Min; Liu, Run-Jin

    2011-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are rich in diversity in agricultural ecosystem, playing a vital role based on their unique community structure. Host plants and environmental factors have important effects on AM fungal community structure, so do the agricultural practices which deserve to pay attention to. This paper summarized the research advances in the effects of agricultural practices such as irrigation, fertilization, crop rotation, intercropping, tillage, and pesticide application on AM fungal community structure, analyzed the related possible mechanisms, discussed the possible ways in improving AM fungal community structure in agricultural ecosystem, and put forward a set of countermeasures, i.e., improving fertilization system and related integrated techniques, increasing plant diversity in agricultural ecosystem, and inoculating AM fungi, to enhance the AM fungal diversity in agricultural ecosystem. The existing problems in current agricultural practices and further research directions were also proposed.

  18. Environmental Effects of Agricultural Practices - Summary of Workshop Held on June 14-16, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    A meeting between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners was held June 14-16, 2005, in Denver, CO, to discuss science issues and needs related to agricultural practices. The goals of the meeting were to learn about the (1) effects of agricultural practices on the environment and (2) tools for identifying and quantifying those effects. Achieving these goals required defining the environmental concerns, developing scientific actions to address assessment of environmental effects, and creating collaborations to identify future research requirements and technical gaps. Five areas of concern were discussed-emerging compounds; water availability; genetically modified organisms; effects of conservation practices on ecosystems; and data, methods, and tools for assessing effects of agricultural practices.

  19. Translational ethics? The theory-practice gap in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Translational research is now a critically important current in academic medicine. Researchers in all health-related fields are being encouraged not only to demonstrate the potential benefits of their research but also to help identify the steps through which their research might be 'made practical'. This paper considers the prospects of a corresponding movement of 'translational ethics'. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of focusing upon the translation of ethical scholarship are reviewed. While emphasising the difficulties of crossing the gap between scholarship and practice, the paper concludes that a debate about the business of translation would be useful for medical ethics.

  20. Practice and Educational Gaps in Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Abigail; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2016-07-01

    This article identifies gaps in the practice of cosmetic dermatology and cosmetics education, and how to overcome these limitations. There is a rapid development of new devices and procedures, with limited data, patient-reported outcomes, and comparative effectiveness research from which to develop best cosmetic practice. There is a need for increased research and funding dedicated to these goals, improved and convenient training for staff to adopt new devices/procedures, and continuous evolution of databases to pool outcome data and develop outcome sets. Resident education can be improved by dedicated resident cosmetic clinics, didactic teaching from visiting professors, attendance of cosmetic dermatology courses and meetings, and encouraging postresidency training.

  1. Practice Patterns of School-Based Occupational Therapists Targeting Handwriting: A Knowledge-to-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…

  2. Evidence-Based Practice in Kinesiology: The Theory to Practice Gap Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2005-01-01

    As evidence-based practice sweeps the applied health professions, it is a good time to evaluate the generation of knowledge in Kinesiology and its transmission to professionals and the public. Knowledge transmission has been debated in the past from the perspectives of the theory-to-practice gap and the discipline versus profession emphasis.…

  3. Practice Gaps in Dermatology: Melanocytic Lesions and Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Marino, Maria L; Carrera, Cristina; Marchetti, Michael A; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2016-07-01

    Early detection remains the most important strategy to reduce melanoma mortality. The identification and evaluation of new or changing skin lesions are important components of melanoma screening and are best performed today using complementary noninvasive imaging technologies, such as total body photography (TBP), dermoscopy, sequential digital dermoscopic imaging (SDDI), and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Despite strong evidence showing that these screening techniques improve diagnostic accuracy for melanoma, they are not widely used by dermatologists. In this practice gaps review, the authors highlight the use, evidence, and rationale for TBP, dermoscopy, SDDI, and RCM. PMID:27363893

  4. Cost of areal reduction of gulf hypoxia through agricultural practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool ...

  5. The theory-practice gap in cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2013-12-01

    This special series is devoted to understanding the theory-practice gap in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). Although CBT enjoys considerable empirical support, and is widely recognized as an efficacious approach to a diversity of psychiatric disorders and includes many different forms of treatment, it is unclear whether clinicians are familiar with the underlying theories of the treatments they are practicing. Moreover, it is unclear to what degree an understanding of the theory is necessary for effective practice. Gaining clarity on the role of understanding underlying theory and identifying potential disparities between theory and practice may have implications for the way graduate training programs are structured and current professionals approach continuing education. A brief exploration of these implications will be offered by introducing issues related to the scientist-practitioner model and dissemination of efficacious treatments, in addition to an outline of potential advantages and disadvantages of knowing underlying theory. This special series will then feature several major approaches to treatment wherein the role of theory and practice are discussed.

  6. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  7. An Analysis of Agricultural Mechanics Safety Practices in Agricultural Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Michael K.

    North Dakota secondary agricultural mechanics instructors were surveyed regarding instructional methods and materials, safety practices, and equipment used in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. Usable responses were received from 69 of 89 instructors via self-administered mailed questionnaires. Findings were consistent with results of similar…

  8. Yield gap mapping as a support tool for risk management in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Ouiam; Imani, Yasmina; Slimani, Imane; Van Wart, Justin; Yang, Haishun

    2016-04-01

    The increasing frequency and magnitude of droughts in Morocco and the mounting losses from extended droughts in the agricultural sector emphasized the need to develop reliable and timely tools to manage drought and to mitigate resulting catastrophic damage. In 2011, Morocco launched a cereals multi-risk insurance with drought as the most threatening and the most frequent hazard in the country. However, and in order to assess the gap and to implement the more suitable compensation, it is essential to quantify the potential yield in each area. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, a study is carried out in Morocco and aims to determine the yield potentials and the yield gaps in the different agro-climatic zones of the country. It fits into the large project: Global Yield Gap and Water Productivity Atlas: http://www.yieldgap.org/. The yield gap (Yg) is the magnitude and difference between crop yield potential (Yp) or water limited yield potential (Yw) and actual yields, reached by farmers. World Food Studies (WOFOST), which is a Crop simulation mechanistic model, has been used for this purpose. Prior to simulations, reliable information about actual yields, weather data, crop management data and soil data have been collected in 7 Moroccan buffer zones considered, each, within a circle of 100 km around a weather station point, homogenously spread across the country and where cereals are widely grown. The model calibration was also carried out using WOFOST default varieties data. The map-based results represent a robust tool, not only for drought insurance organization, but for agricultural and agricultural risk management. Moreover, accurate and geospatially granular estimates of Yg and Yw will allow to focus on regions with largest unexploited yield gaps and greatest potential to close them, and consequently to improve food security in the country.

  9. The theory-practice gap in cognitive behavioral therapy: reflections and a modest proposal to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Keith; Beshai, Shadi

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the issues related to the gap between theory and practice in the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The article begins with a review of the evidence for such a gap, and having demonstrated that the gap exists, provides a discussion of some of the factors that are likely important in its genesis and maintenance. The article then focuses on potential strategies to reduce the theory-practice gap that go beyond the common recommendation for both efficacy and effectiveness research. In particular, we provide recommendations for protocol planning and design, training and competency maintenance, dissemination research, and implementation and policy change. We conclude with the proposition that theory and research should not only inform practice, but that practice should have a reciprocal benefit on theory and research.

  10. Assessment of the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Implications for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonge, Adewale Johnson; Martin, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed farmers (115 of 150) were very positive about the profitability and compatibility of sustainable agriculture, although certain practices elicited negative reactions. They wanted research and development directed toward maximizing profitability and compatibility to facilitate their adoption of these practices. (SK)

  11. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  12. Effects of conservation practices on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles within agricultural streams and wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices have been traditionally used to manage soil and water resources to improve agricultural production, and now include methods to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture on streams and wetlands. These practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watershed...

  13. "Welcome to the Real World": Navigating the Gap between Best Teaching Practices and Current Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Preservice teachers sometimes experience a gap between best practices that they learn in teacher preparation programs and actual practices that they encounter in classrooms as student teachers. In this self-study, I investigate the gap between best and actual practices, as experienced by a university teacher educator who spent a year as a student…

  14. The Meaning of Practices: Farmers' Conceptions in Agricultural Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural development programs often produce unexpected results. This can be attributed to the fact that the target-farmers already have their own knowledge and competencies which, in turn, determine their practices. In order to be adopted, an innovation has first to be discussed, and then appropriated by a local group of farmers in their…

  15. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  16. Mind the Gap: Integrating Science and Policy Cultures and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, S. M.; Simon, I.

    2015-12-01

    A 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center asked members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science about their support for active engagement in public policy debates. The survey found that 87% of the respondents supported scientists taking an active role in public policy debates about science and technology (S&T), but most believed that regulations related to areas like land use and clean air and water are not guided by the best science. Despite the demand for actionable scientific information by policy makers, these survey results underscore the gap that exists between the scientific and the public policy communities. There are fundamental differences that exist between the perspectives of these two groups, even within Federal S&T agencies that are required to balance the perspectives of the science and policy communities in order to fulfill their agency mission. In support of an ongoing agency effort to strengthen communication and interaction among staff, we led a Federal S&T agency office through an examination and comparison of goals, processes, external drivers, decision making, and timelines within their organization. This workshop activity provided an opportunity to identify the interdependence of science and policy, as well as the challenges to developing effective science-based policy solutions. The workshop featured strategies for achieving balanced science policy outcomes using examples from a range of Federal S&T agencies. The examples presented during the workshop illustrated best practices for more effective communication and interaction to resolve complex science policy issues. The workshop culminated with a group activity designed to give participants the opportunity to identify the challenges and apply best practices to real world science policy problems. Workshop examples and outcomes will be presented along with lessons learned from this agency engagement activity.

  17. Breast ultrasound tomography: bridging the gap to clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Janer, Roman; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Goll, Jeffrey; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Greenway, William

    2012-03-01

    Conventional sonography, which performs well in dense breast tissue and is comfortable and radiation-free, is not practical for screening because of its operator dependence and the time needed to scan the whole breast. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can significantly improve on these limitations, it is also not practical because it has long been prohibitively expensive for routine use. There is therefore a need for an alternative breast imaging method that obviates the constraints of these standard imaging modalities. The lack of such an alternative is a barrier to dramatically impacting mortality (about 45,000 women in the US per year) and morbidity from breast cancer because, currently, there is a trade-off between the cost effectiveness of mammography and sonography on the one hand and the imaging accuracy of MRI on the other. This paper presents a progress report on our long term goal to eliminate this trade-off and thereby improve breast cancer survival rates and decrease unnecessary biopsies through the introduction of safe, cost-effective, operatorindependent sonography that can rival MRI in accuracy. The objective of the study described in this paper was to design and build an improved ultrasound tomography (UST) scanner in support of our goals. To that end, we report on a design that builds on our current research prototype. The design of the new scanner is based on a comparison of the capabilities of our existing prototype and the performance needed for clinical efficacy. The performance gap was quantified by using clinical studies to establish the baseline performance of the research prototype, and using known MRI capabilities to establish the required performance. Simulation software was used to determine the basic operating characteristics of an improved scanner that would provide the necessary performance. Design elements focused on transducer geometry, which in turn drove the data acquisition system and the image reconstruction engine

  18. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C.J.M.; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  19. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches.

    PubMed

    Hunting, Ellard R; Vonk, J Arie; Musters, C J M; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vijver, Martina G

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  20. Commentary: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.

    2003-01-01

    Ringeisen, Henderson, and Hoagwood (2003) present a compelling case that: (a) there is a gap between mental health research and the delivery of mental health services in school settings; (b) in order to bridge this gap, mental health professionals must consider contextual factors at the individual, organization, and state/federal policy levels;…

  1. Practical Issues in Estimating Achievement Gaps from Coarsened Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented methods for estimating achievement gaps when test scores are coarsened into a small number of ordered categories, preventing fine-grained distinctions between individual scores. We demonstrated that gaps can nonetheless be estimated with minimal bias across a broad range of simulated and real coarsened data…

  2. Diffusion of Innovation Theory: A Bridge for the Research-Practice Gap in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a diffusion of innovation theory-based framework for addressing the gap between research and practice in the counseling profession. The author describes the nature of the research-practice gap and presents an overview of diffusion of innovation theory. On the basis of the application of several major postulates of diffusion…

  3. Collaborative Professional Development in Chemistry Education Research: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szteinberg, Gabriela; Balicki, Scott; Banks, Gregory; Clinchot, Michael; Cullipher, Steven; Huie, Robert; Lambertz, Jennifer; Lewis, Rebecca; Ngai, Courtney; Weinrich, Melissa; Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Professional development that bridges gaps between educational research and practice is needed. However, bridging gaps can be difficult because teachers and educational researchers often belong to different Communities of Practice, as their activities, goals, and means of achieving those goals often differ. Meaningful collaboration among teachers…

  4. Bridging the Theory-to-Practice Gap: Some Thoughts from an Internal OD Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her thoughts on bridging the theory-to-practice gap in human resource development (HRD). She says both theorists and practitioners are responsible for the gap between theory and practice. They need to open up their respective cultures to each other and invite one another to participate. They have to discard…

  5. Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Research Translation and/or Research Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschkorn, Mark; Geelan, David

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the "research-practice gap"--the problematic relationship between research in education and educational practice--has been widely reported in the literature. This critical literature review explores some of the causes and features of the gap and suggests some possible approaches for addressing it. These solutions involve changes in…

  6. Knowledge needs, available practices, and future challenges in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Georgina; Whitfield, Mike G.; Cooper, Julia; De Vries, Franciska T.; Collison, Martin; Dedousis, Thanasis; Heathcote, Richard; Roth, Brendan; Mohammed, Shamal; Molyneux, Andrew; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Sutherland, William J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify research needs and identify effective practices for enhancing soil health. This was done by a synopsis of soil literature that specifically tests practices designed to maintain or enhance elements of soil health. Using an expert panel of soil scientists and practitioners, we then assessed the evidence in the soil synopsis to highlight practices beneficial to soil health, practices considered detrimental, and practices that need further investigation. A partial Spearman's correlation was used to analyse the panel's responses. We found that increased certainty in scientific evidence led to practices being considered to be more effective due to them being empirically justified. This suggests that for practices to be considered effective and put into practice, a substantial body of research is needed to support the effectiveness of the practice. This is further supported by the high proportion of practices (33 %), such as changing the timing of ploughing or amending the soil with crops grown as green manures, that experts felt had unknown effectiveness, usually due to insufficiently robust evidence. Only 7 of the 27 reviewed practices were considered to be beneficial, or likely to be beneficial in enhancing soil health. These included the use of (1) integrated nutrient management (organic and inorganic amendments); (2) cover crops; (3) crop rotations; (4) intercropping between crop rows or underneath the main crop; (5) formulated chemical compounds (such as nitrification inhibitors); (6) control of traffic and traffic timing; and (7) reducing grazing intensity. Our assessment, which uses the Delphi technique, is increasingly used to improve decision-making in conservation and agricultural policy, identified practices that can be put into practice to benefit soil health. Moreover, it has enabled us to identify practices that need further research and a need for increased communication between researchers, policy-makers, and

  7. Agricultural employers' hiring and safety practices for adolescent workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, B C; Westaby, J D; Chyou, P H; Purschwitz, M A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the "Safety Training for Employers and Supervisors of Adolescent Farmworkers" initiative is to improve the occupational health and safety knowledge and practices of agricultural employers and supervisors responsible for employees, ages 14 to 17 years. Surveys were sent to members of the National Council of Agricultural Employers and the Washington Growers League to measure attitudes regarding adolescent employees, current hiring and training practices, and future intentions. More than half of the respondents hire adolescents. Two-thirds were male, nearly three-quarters of the respondents had college or post-graduate degrees, and more than half were 50 years or older. The majority of respondents had positive perceptions of adolescents in terms of dependability, helpfulness, and work ethic. Among those who currently hire young workers, the most common reasons were to provide a job for children of friends and family and because they can work part-time to fill a labor demand. Among those not hiring adolescents, the most common reason was concern about child labor regulations and associated tasks (e.g., paperwork, monitoring hours). Respondents use a variety of safety training resources, especially posters and safety meetings. For the future, they expect to need more handout materials and training videos. Study results provide insights into barriers to the employment of young workers and suggest methods by which agricultural safety specialists can best assist those employers and producers who are willing to hire adolescents into agricultural work settings. PMID:17370911

  8. Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

  9. Gender Gap or Program Gap? Students' Negotiations of Study Practice in a Course in Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013.…

  10. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process. PMID:24682661

  11. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.

  12. Overcoming the Gap between Diversity Recruitment Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of school psychology has repeatedly advocated for increasing the diversity of its membership. However, the production of diversity recruitment research has not coalesced with the urgency espoused by organizations governing school psychology. This gap between official organizational position and production of literature has…

  13. Cost of areal reduction of gulf hypoxia through agricultural practice.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Gerald; Barnhart, Bradley L; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2015-02-01

    A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool using observed daily weather to simulate the reduction in nitrogen loading in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) that would result from enrolling all row crop acreage in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Nitrogen loadings at the outlet of the UMRB are used to predict Gulf hypoxic area, and net cash farm rent is used as the price for participation in the CRP. Over the course of the 42 year simulation, direct CRP costs total more than $388 billion, and the Inter-Governmental Task Force goal of hypoxic area less than 5000 square kilometers is met in only two years. PMID:25461017

  14. Cost of areal reduction of gulf hypoxia through agricultural practice.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Gerald; Barnhart, Bradley L; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2015-02-01

    A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool using observed daily weather to simulate the reduction in nitrogen loading in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) that would result from enrolling all row crop acreage in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Nitrogen loadings at the outlet of the UMRB are used to predict Gulf hypoxic area, and net cash farm rent is used as the price for participation in the CRP. Over the course of the 42 year simulation, direct CRP costs total more than $388 billion, and the Inter-Governmental Task Force goal of hypoxic area less than 5000 square kilometers is met in only two years.

  15. Grassland birds associated with agricultural riparian practices in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational grazing has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for minimizing runoff in Wisconsin agricultural riparian areas. The influence of this land management practice on grassland birds has not been evaluated in relation to more traditional agricultural land management systems in Midwestern riparian areas. This study compared the grassland bird community in riparian areas in Wisconsin that were rotationally grazed to 2 common land use practices along streams in Wisconsin: continuously grazed pastures and rowcrop fields with 10-m-wide ungrazed buffer strips located along the stream. We calculated total number of birds, the Berger-Parker Index of Dominance, and number of birds ha-1 for each site. Vegetation variables used were height-density, litter depth, and percent bare ground. Bird species richness, species dominance, and density did not differ among land use types. In contrast, grassland bird species of management concern [Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis Gmelin), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna L.), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus L.)] were found on continuous and rotational pastures but very rarely or never occurred on buffer strips. Contrary to previous research, however, rotationally grazed pastures did not support more of these species than continuously grazed pastures. Bird density was related to vegetation structure, with higher densities found on sites with deeper litter. Within the pasture land use types, there were no consistent differences between species richness and density near the stream (10 m).

  16. Agricultural practices in grasslands detected by spatial remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dusseux, Pauline; Vertès, Françoise; Corpetti, Thomas; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    The major decrease in grassland surfaces associated with changes in their management that has been observed in many regions of the earth during the last half century has major impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems. This study focuses on the identification of grassland management practices in an intensive agricultural watershed located in Brittany, France, by analyzing the intra-annual dynamics of the surface condition of vegetation using remotely sensed and field data. We studied the relationship between one vegetation index (NDVI) and two biophysical variables (LAI and fCOVER) derived from a series of three SPOT images on one hand and measurements collected during field campaigns achieved on 120 grasslands on the other. The results show that the LAI appears as the best predictor for monitoring grassland mowing and grazing. Indeed, because of its ability to characterize vegetation status, LAI estimated from remote sensing data is a relevant variable to identify these practices. LAI values derived from the SPOT images were then classified based on the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) supervised algorithm. The results points out that the distribution of grassland management practices such as grazing and mowing can be mapped very accurately (Kappa index = 0.82) at a field scale over large agricultural areas using a series of satellite images.

  17. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  18. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap: A Review of the Literature Focusing on Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grima-Farrell, Christine R.; Bain, Alan; McDonagh, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in our knowledge of evidence-based inclusive educational practice, much of this knowledge does not reach routine classroom practice. There remains a significant gap between our accumulated knowledge about what can work in classrooms and the extent to which evidence-based practice is used in sustainable ways. This inability to…

  19. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  20. Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty Impact: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is practiced. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the impact of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…

  1. Modelling the effect of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon stocks: does soil erosion matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decades, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of soil management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. At regional scales, biogeochemical models such as CENTURY or Roth-C have been commonly applied. These models simulate SOC dynamics at the profile level (point basis) over long temporal scales but do not consider the continuous lateral transfer of sediment that takes place along geomorphic toposequences. As a consequence, the impact of soil redistribution on carbon fluxes is very seldom taken into account when evaluating changes in SOC stocks due to agricultural management practices on the short and long-term. To address this gap, we assessed the role of soil erosion by water and tillage on SOC stocks under different agricultural management practices in the Walloon region of Belgium. The SPEROS-C model was run for a 100-year period combining three typical crop rotations (using winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet and maize) with three tillage scenarios (conventional tillage, reduced tillage and reduced tillage in combination with additional crop residues). The results showed that including soil erosion by water in the simulations led to a general decrease in SOC stocks relative to a baseline scenario (where no erosion took place). The SOC lost from these arable soils was mainly exported to adjacent sites and to the river system by lateral fluxes, with magnitudes differing between crop rotations and in all cases lower under conservation tillage practices than under conventional tillage. Although tillage erosion plays an important role in carbon redistribution within fields, lateral fluxes induced by water erosion led to a higher spatial and in-depth heterogeneity of SOC stocks with potential effects on the soil water holding capacity and crop yields. This indicates that studies assessing the effect of agricultural management practices on SOC stocks and other soil properties over the landscape should

  2. Comparing three gap filling methods for eddy covariance crop evapotranspiration measurements within a hilly agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudhina, Nissaf; Prévot, Laurent; Zitouna Chebbi, Rim; Mekki, Insaf; Jacob, Frédéric; Ben Mechlia, Netij; Masmoudi, Moncef

    2015-04-01

    Hilly watersheds are widespread throughout coastal areas around the Mediterranean Basin. They experience agricultural intensification since hilly topographies allow water-harvesting techniques that compensate for rainfall storage, water being a strong limiting factor for crop production. Their fragility is likely to increase with climate change and human pressure. Within semi-arid hilly watershed conditions, evapotranspiration (ETR) is a major term of both land surface energy and water balances. Several methods allow determining ETR, based either on direct measurements, or on estimations and forecast from weather and soil moisture data using simulation models. Among these methods, eddy covariance technique is based on high-frequency measurements of fluctuations of wind speed and air temperature / humidity, to directly determine the convective fluxes between land surface and atmosphere. In spite of experimental and instrumental progresses, datasets of eddy covariance measurements often experience large portions of missing data. The latter results from energy power failure, experimental maintenance, instrumental troubles such as krypton hygrometer malfunctioning because of air humidity, or quality assessment based filtering in relation to spatial homogeneity and temporal stationarity of turbulence within surface boundary layer. This last item is all the more important as hilly topography, when combined with strong winds, tends to increase turbulence within surface boundary layer. The main objective of this study is to establish gap-filling procedures to provide complete chronicles of eddy-covariance measurements of crop evapotranspiration (ETR) within a hilly agricultural watershed. We focus on the specific conditions induced by the combination of hilly topography and wind direction, by discriminating between upslope and downslope winds. The experiment was set for three field configurations within hilly conditions: two flux measurement stations (A, B) were installed

  3. Minding the Gap: Some Theory-Practice Disjunctions in Nursing Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Sheila; Cooke, Peggy; Stronach, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Deconstruction of three British nursing research projects found that, due to a "Utopian" perspective, they reintroduce theory-practice gaps they sought to close. Future nursing research should avoid idealistic prescriptions and promote more skeptical and realistic approaches. (SK)

  4. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  5. Learning from Cases and Bridging Some "Theory-Practice" Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizukami, Maria da Graca Nicoletti

    This study described the professional learning of teacher educators in graduate schools which allowed, by the consideration of different pedagogical practices, the construction of bridges between those practices and theories supporting them. It analyzed the effectiveness of teaching and learning case studies in promoting teachers' personal…

  6. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  7. Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bode, L E

    1990-01-01

    Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft.

  8. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Alicia C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Extends research by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn. Models pressures on grading practices using higher education production functions. (Author/SLD)

  9. International Preschool Inclusion: Bridging the Gap between Vision and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.; Gold, Susan; Ajodhia-Andrews, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion, promoted internationally by both legislative mandate and societal values, is a practice in which early childhood educators are encouraged to explore new methods for serving children with disabilities and developmental delays in typical early childhood programs. The belief that children with disabilities should participate within natural…

  10. The Gap between Educational Research and Practice: Views of Teachers, School Leaders, Intermediaries and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The relation between educational research and practice is a growing point of interest and has produced numerous lively debates. Although many reports and position papers have been published on this topic, little empirical data are available. The aim of this study is to explore the gap between educational research and practice and to assess the…

  11. No Teacher Is an Island: Bridging the Gap between Teachers' Professional Practice and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Deborah; Daubenmire, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research regarding best practices for the teaching and learning of chemistry, as well as two sets of national reform documents for science education, classroom instruction in high school chemistry classrooms remains largely unchanged. One key reason for this continued gap between research and practice is a reliance on…

  12. Excellence in Teaching and Learning: Bridging the Gaps in Theory, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salhi, Adnan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book represents a collaborative effort among education scholars that addresses the theory, practice, and policy gaps that have plagued classrooms for a long time. Divided into three parts, it focuses on practical strategies for teaching and learning in different subject areas and at all levels; provides research-based models for improving…

  13. Not Enough Science or Not Enough Learning? Exploring the Gaps between Leadership Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationships between leadership theory, practice and development, drawing on both the higher education and wider leadership literature. It explores why challenges and problems exist within the contested field of leadership theory and why gaps remain between theory and practice after more than a century of research--and…

  14. Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice: Connecting Courses with Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, David H.; DeMarie, Darlene; Alvarez-McHatton, Patricia; Doone, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A long-standing goal for many teacher preparation programs is to link theory to practice (i.e., "linkages") for teacher candidates through close university-school partnerships. Essentially, the professional development schools (PDS) models were established to bridge this gap of theory and practice and to provide an environment in which…

  15. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  16. Agricultural Literacy: Clarifying a Vision for Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David; Agnew, David; Trexler, Cary

    2008-01-01

    "Agricultural literacy" is a working concept with considerable range in meaning and impact. An overview of agricultural literacy curricula shows complementary deductive and inductive approaches to the systematic incorporation of agricultural education in K-12 classrooms. Based on positions discussed at the 2005 Agricultural Literacy Special…

  17. Bridging the theory-practice gap in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Zena

    Pressure ulcers are a largely preventable problem, but the incidence can impact negatively on the ability of the health service to deliver effective and quality care. Pressure ulcers commonly occur in the very old, the malnourished and those with acute illness. As pressure ulcers most commonly occur in the hospital setting, this can increase both length of stay and costs to the health service. As a result, prevention and management strategies should be core components in the strategic planning of healthcare services. This article discusses the importance of education and knowledge in pressure ulcers, and the onus of the nurse to put theory into practice in order to prevent this problem. PMID:20852478

  18. Personalized medicine. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes.

  19. Personalized medicine. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. PMID:27302209

  20. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  1. The Influence of Perceptions of Practice Characteristics: An Examination of Agricultural Best Management Practice Adoption in Two Indiana Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Adam P.; Weinkauf, Denise Klotthor; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural best management practices (BMPs), or conservation practices, can help reduce nonpoint source pollution from agricultural lands, as well as provide valuable wildlife habitat. There is a large literature exploring factors that lead to a producer's voluntary adoption of BMPs, but there have been inconsistent findings. Generally, this…

  2. The theory-practice gap and skill acquisition: an issue for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Scully, Natashia Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Matching textbook descriptions of clinical situations with the reality of practice is an ongoing problem faced by members of the nursing profession and is commonly referred to as the "theory-practice gap". This ubiquitous gap is inevitably encountered by all nurses at various times; yet it is widely agreed that it is student nurses--given their novice, rule governed status--who find themselves in the midst of the theory-practice void. This paper will discuss the nature of the theory-practice gap and skill acquisition, in relation to a personal experience of mine as an undergraduate nursing student, and its significance in relation to student anxiety levels, nurse education (specifically the roles of the classroom teacher and clinical educators), teaching methods and the responsibility of the student to become accountable for their own education. I intend to communicate how my personal situation was dealt with and evaluate that experience in relation to current nursing literature. Ultimately, this discussion will demonstrate the value of reflection underpinning the development of competency in nursing and its role in bridging the theory-practice gap. PMID:21706997

  3. The theory-practice gap and skill acquisition: an issue for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Scully, Natashia Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Matching textbook descriptions of clinical situations with the reality of practice is an ongoing problem faced by members of the nursing profession and is commonly referred to as the "theory-practice gap". This ubiquitous gap is inevitably encountered by all nurses at various times; yet it is widely agreed that it is student nurses--given their novice, rule governed status--who find themselves in the midst of the theory-practice void. This paper will discuss the nature of the theory-practice gap and skill acquisition, in relation to a personal experience of mine as an undergraduate nursing student, and its significance in relation to student anxiety levels, nurse education (specifically the roles of the classroom teacher and clinical educators), teaching methods and the responsibility of the student to become accountable for their own education. I intend to communicate how my personal situation was dealt with and evaluate that experience in relation to current nursing literature. Ultimately, this discussion will demonstrate the value of reflection underpinning the development of competency in nursing and its role in bridging the theory-practice gap.

  4. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  5. Acid precipitation impacts on agricultural soil management practices

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Coveney, E.A.; Lewin, K.F.; Rosenthal, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Acid precipitation can have positive (reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirements) and negative (increased need to neutralize soil acidity) impacts on agricultural soil management practices. This paper compares the total annual deposition of nitrogen in acid precipitation with farmer applied fertilizer use and with nitrogen uptake for major crops. It also estimates the amount of lime needed to neutralize soil acidity originating from wet H/sup +/ deposition. First-order estimates indicate that the quantity of nitrogen annually deposited in the eastern US by wet acid deposition on croplands is 6% of the amount applied as fertilizer. Nitrogen deposited as wet deposition may be relatively important to unmanaged nonleguminous crops (e.g., hay) which are grown over extensive land areas. Soil acidity, which can be increased by natural (e.g., nitrogen fixation) and anthropogenic mechanisms (e.g., fertilizer application, acidic deposition) is often neutralized by the application of lime. Estimates indicate that in the eastern US, approx.2% of applied lime is used to neutralize acidity caused by wet acid deposition.

  6. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  7. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under distinct agricultural practices in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, A D; Gumiere, T; Andrade, P A M; Lima-Perim, J E; Durrer, A; Baigori, M; Vazquez, F; Andreote, F D

    2015-02-01

    Plants interact with a myriad of microbial cells in the rhizosphere, an environment that is considered to be important for plant development. However, the differential structuring of rhizosphere microbial communities due to plant cultivation under differential agricultural practices remains to be described for most plant species. Here we describe the rhizosphere microbiome of grapevine cultivated under conventional and organic practices, using a combination of cultivation-independent approaches. The quantification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, by quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealed similar amounts of these genes in the rhizosphere in both vineyards. PCR-DGGE was used to detect differences in the structure of bacterial communities, including both the complete whole communities and specific fractions, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and those harboring the nitrogen-fixing related gene nifH. When analyzed by a multivariate approach (redundancy analysis), the shifts observed in the bacterial communities were poorly explained by variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere. These approaches were complemented by high-throughput sequencing (67,830 sequences) based on the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, identifying the major bacterial groups present in the rhizosphere of grapevines: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Cloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, which occur in distinct proportions in the rhizosphere from each vineyard. The differences might be related to the selection of plant metabolism upon distinct reservoirs of microbial cells found in each vineyard. The results fill a gap in the knowledge of the rhizosphere of grapevines and also show distinctions in these bacterial communities due to agricultural practices. PMID:25527391

  8. What determines the income gap between French male and female GPs - the role of medical practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many OECD countries, the gender differences in physicians’ pay favour male doctors. Due to the feminisation of the doctor profession, it is essential to measure this income gap in the French context of Fee-for-service payment (FFS) and then to precisely identify its determinants. The objective of this study is to measure and analyse the 2008 income gap between males and females general practitioners (GPs). This paper focuses on the role of gender medical practices differentials among GPs working in private practice in the southwest region of France. Methods Using data from 339 private-practice GPs, we measured an average gender income gap of approximately 26% in favour of men. Using the decomposition method, we examined the factors that could explain gender disparities in income. Results The analysis showed that 73% of the income gap can be explained by the average differences in doctors’ characteristics; for example, 61% of the gender income gap is explained by the gender differences in workload, i.e., number of consultations and visits, which is on average significantly lower for female GPs than for male GPs. Furthermore, the decomposition method allowed us to highlight the differences in the marginal returns of doctors’ characteristics and variables contributing to income, such as GP workload; we found that female GPs have a higher marginal return in terms of earnings when performing an additional medical service. Conclusions The findings of this study help to understand the determinants of the income gap between male and female GPs. Even though workload is clearly an essential determinant of income, FFS does not reduce the gender income gap, and there is an imperfect relationship between the provision of medical services and income. In the context of feminisation, it appears that female GPs receive a lower income but attain higher marginal returns when performing an additional consultation. PMID:22998173

  9. On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Chinitz, David P; Rodwin, Victor G

    2014-12-01

    We argue that the field of Health Policy and Management (HPAM) ought to confront the gap between theory, policy, and practice. Although there are perennial efforts to reform healthcare systems, the conceptual barriers are considerable and reflect the theory-policy-practice gap. We highlight four dimensions of the gap: 1) the dominance of microeconomic thinking in health policy analysis and design; 2) the lack of learning from management theory and comparative case studies; 3) the separation of HPAM from the rank and file of healthcare; and 4) the failure to expose medical students to issues of HPAM. We conclude with suggestions for rethinking the field of HPAM by embracing broader perspectives, e.g. ethics, urban health, systems analysis and cross-national analyses of healthcare systems.

  10. On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, David P; Rodwin, Victor G

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the field of Health Policy and Management (HPAM) ought to confront the gap between theory, policy, and practice. Although there are perennial efforts to reform healthcare systems, the conceptual barriers are considerable and reflect the theory-policy-practice gap. We highlight four dimensions of the gap: 1) the dominance of microeconomic thinking in health policy analysis and design; 2) the lack of learning from management theory and comparative case studies; 3) the separation of HPAM from the rank and file of healthcare; and 4) the failure to expose medical students to issues of HPAM. We conclude with suggestions for rethinking the field of HPAM by embracing broader perspectives, e.g. ethics, urban health, systems analysis and cross-national analyses of healthcare systems. PMID:25489592

  11. Exploring the Theory-Practice Gap: Applications to Health Information Management/Technology Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Zakevia Denise

    2013-01-01

    Although research on the theory-practice gap is available across multiple disciplines, similar studies focusing on the profession of health information management/technology (HIM/T) are not yet available. The projected number of qualified HIM/T needed with advanced skills and training suggests that skillful use of electronic health records (EHR)…

  12. Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Chong, Siong-Choy; Wong, Kuan-Yew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions--"use" and "importance"--was used as the instrument for this study. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was administered to academics…

  13. Translating Research into Practice in Nursing Homes: Can We Close the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Anna N.; Applebaum, Robert A.; Schnelle, John F.; Simmons, Sandra F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A gap between research and practice in many nursing home (NH) care areas persists despite efforts by researchers, policy makers, advocacy groups, and NHs themselves to close it. The reasons are many, but two factors that have received scant attention are the dissemination process itself and the work of the disseminators or change agents.…

  14. Closing the Gap between Research and Practice: Case Study of School-Wide Literacy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Sharon; Justice, Laura M.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.

    2004-01-01

    This case study of one elementary school describes an ongoing effort to close the gaps between literacy research and practice in order to promote the successful literacy transitions of all students. Jefferson Elementary School's reading program is a research-driven, school-wide program emphasizing prevention-based instruction, early…

  15. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  16. Practice-Based Research: Another Pathway for Closing the Research-Practice Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Practice-based research is proposed as an additional way to bridge the divide between research and practice. Method: The article compares the traditional, laboratory-based research with research that is generated from practice: practice-based research. The defining features of each are described, with an emphasis on contrasting internal…

  17. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D; Agudo, Yesmina Cruz; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers’ abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0–36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women’s time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also

  18. ASSESSING EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON WILDLIFE HABITAT IN IOWA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A habitat-change model was used to compare past, present, and future land cover and management practices to assess potential impacts of alternative agricultural practices on wildlife in two agricultural watersheds, Walnut Creek and Buck Creek, in central Iowa, USA. This approach ...

  19. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  20. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  1. Combining agricultural practices key to elevating soil microbial activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of soil health is an emerging topic in applied ecology, specifically as it pertains to the agriculture, which utilizes approximately 40% of earth’s land. However, rigorous quantification of soil health and the services provided by soil organisms to support agriculture production (e.g., n...

  2. Climate Forcing Datasets for Agricultural Modeling: Merged Products for Gap-Filling and Historical Climate Series Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Goldberg, Richard; Chryssanthacopoulos, James

    2014-01-01

    The AgMERRA and AgCFSR climate forcing datasets provide daily, high-resolution, continuous, meteorological series over the 1980-2010 period designed for applications examining the agricultural impacts of climate variability and climate change. These datasets combine daily resolution data from retrospective analyses (the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA, and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, CFSR) with in situ and remotely-sensed observational datasets for temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, leading to substantial reductions in bias in comparison to a network of 2324 agricultural-region stations from the Hadley Integrated Surface Dataset (HadISD). Results compare favorably against the original reanalyses as well as the leading climate forcing datasets (Princeton, WFD, WFD-EI, and GRASP), and AgMERRA distinguishes itself with substantially improved representation of daily precipitation distributions and extreme events owing to its use of the MERRA-Land dataset. These datasets also peg relative humidity to the maximum temperature time of day, allowing for more accurate representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface moisture in agricultural models. AgMERRA and AgCFSR enable a number of ongoing investigations in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) and related research networks, and may be used to fill gaps in historical observations as well as a basis for the generation of future climate scenarios.

  3. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: state of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps.

    PubMed

    Yates, S R; McConnell, L L; Hapeman, C J; Papiernik, S K; Gao, S; Trabue, S L

    2011-01-01

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more serious effects on human or environmental health, such as those posed by pesticides and other toxic industrial pollutants. It is recognized that deterioration of the atmosphere is undesirable, but the short- and long-term impacts of specific agricultural activities on air quality are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2009 American Chemical Society Symposium titled . An outcome of this symposium is this special collection of 14 research papers focusing on various issues associated with production agriculture and its effect on air quality. Topics included emissions from animal feeding operations, odors, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, mitigation, modeling, and risk assessment. These papers provide new research insights, identify gaps in current knowledge, and recommend important future research directions. As the scientific community gains a better understanding of the relationships between anthropogenic activities and their effects on environmental systems, technological advances should enable a reduction in adverse consequences on the environment. PMID:21869496

  4. An investigation of theory-practice gap in undergraduate paramedic education

    PubMed Central

    Michau, Rebecca; Roberts, Samantha; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Background Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) (BEH) students at Monash University undertake clinical placements to assist with the transition from student to novice paramedic. Anecdotally, students report a lack of opportunity to practise their clinical skills whilst on placements. The barriers to participation and the theory-practice gap have not been previously documented in Australian paramedic literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the theory-practice gap for paramedic students by linking education and skill level to case exposure and skills praxis during clinical placements. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study using a convenience sample of second and third year BEH undergraduate students. Ethics approval was granted. Results Eighty four second and third year BEH students participated. 59.5% were female (n = 50), 40.5% were male (n = 34). Overall, students most commonly reported exposure to cardiac and respiratory cases and were satisfied with the number of cases encountered during placement. However, over half (n = 46) reported being exposed to < 50% of cases that allowed skills praxis. The most common barrier to participation (34.5%) was the opportunity to participate in patient care and 68% of student's were unsure if paramedics understood their role during clinical placements. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the majority of students were satisfied with their clinical placement experience; even though they were exposed to < 50% of cases that allowed skills practice. Identifying these educational barriers will assist in improving the quality and theory-practice gap of paramedic clinical education. PMID:19445726

  5. Dissemination 2.0: closing the gap between knowledge and practice with new media and marketing.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Mays, Darren; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Despite substantial investments in public health and clinical research at the national level, and significant advancements in these areas of science, few evidence-based programs and services are rapidly implemented in health care or public health practice as a result of failures of dissemination. A significant gap in current processes to disseminate and implement effective programs relates to the lack of systems and infrastructure to facilitate distribution of scientific research products to potential end users, including clinicians and other practitioners. In this article, the authors assert that Web 2.0 technologies can be leveraged to enhance dissemination efforts and increase the implementation of evidence-based programs and services in everyday practice. The authors describe the research-to-practice delivery process and highlight gaps in the supply chain necessary to translate research findings into evidence-based practice. The authors critically evaluate the 4 most prominent strategies currently used to promote dissemination and implementation of research evidence in practice, and they detail how each can be improved by leveraging Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination of research evidence. Last, the authors provide examples and suggestions for capitalizing on Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination efforts and ensure that evidence-based research products reach intended end users and are implemented in clinical practice.

  6. Dissemination 2.0: closing the gap between knowledge and practice with new media and marketing.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Mays, Darren; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Despite substantial investments in public health and clinical research at the national level, and significant advancements in these areas of science, few evidence-based programs and services are rapidly implemented in health care or public health practice as a result of failures of dissemination. A significant gap in current processes to disseminate and implement effective programs relates to the lack of systems and infrastructure to facilitate distribution of scientific research products to potential end users, including clinicians and other practitioners. In this article, the authors assert that Web 2.0 technologies can be leveraged to enhance dissemination efforts and increase the implementation of evidence-based programs and services in everyday practice. The authors describe the research-to-practice delivery process and highlight gaps in the supply chain necessary to translate research findings into evidence-based practice. The authors critically evaluate the 4 most prominent strategies currently used to promote dissemination and implementation of research evidence in practice, and they detail how each can be improved by leveraging Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination of research evidence. Last, the authors provide examples and suggestions for capitalizing on Web 2.0 technologies to enhance dissemination efforts and ensure that evidence-based research products reach intended end users and are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:21843094

  7. Knowledge Gaps and Rural Development in Tajikistan: Agricultural Advisory Services as a Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtaltovna, Anastasiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge systems and channels of innovation diffusion in Tajikistan. In particular, I look at the formation of agricultural advisory services (AASs) and how these provide a vital source of knowledge and innovation for farmers during the transition process. Methodology: Empirically, this paper draws…

  8. Closing the prediction gap between agricultural nutrient losses and riparian zone ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecological health of the Chesapeake Bay is an ongoing concern and, as the more obvious and direct contributors are mitigated, focus is moving upstream to the agricultural headwaters of the basin. TMDLs and Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs) have been developed by all states in the basin to co...

  9. Developing Confidence in Practical Science Activities in Novice Teachers: Policy, Practice and the Implementation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youens, Bernadette; Gordon, Jules; Newton, Len

    2014-01-01

    Practical work has a long history in science education in the UK. This article explores how the influences of curriculum and assessment policy have shaped practical work over recent years. We argue that, together with changes in teacher training programmes, these influences have weakened science teachers' capacity to meet the challenge of…

  10. Using Constructivism and Reflective Practice To Bridge the Theory/Practice Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Karen F.

    Constructivism is a theory about knowledge, whereas reflective practice is a professional development strategy with roots in the constructivist paradigm. A way to integrate these two conceptual frameworks within the context of professional development for prospective administrators is offered here. Constructivism and reflective practice share…

  11. Identifying the Gaps in Practice for Combating Lead in Drinking Water in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wai Ling; Jia, Jie; Bao, Yani

    2016-01-01

    Excessive lead has been found in drinking water in Hong Kong in tests carried out in 2015. Investigations have identified that the problem in public rental housing estates was caused by the problematic solders used in the plumbing, and recommendations on enhancing the quality control system and strengthening the relevant water quality standards have been proposed. The cause for the same problem happening in other premises where soldering has not been adopted for water pipe connections is left unidentified. Considering the unidentified cause and the recommendations made, this study aims to identify the gaps in practice followed in Hong Kong for safeguarding the water quality of new installations. A holistic review of governing ordinances and regulations, products and materials used and the testing and commissioning requirements adopted in Hong Kong and elsewhere in the world were conducted. Based on international practices and parametric analysis, it was found that there are gaps in practices followed in Hong Kong, which are directly and indirectly leading to the lead-in-water crisis. Recommendations for improvement in the quality control system, and the water quality standards including the allowable lead content and leaching limit for products and materials and the testing and commissioning requirements on plumbing installations have been made. The review and the identified gaps would become useful reference for countries in strengthening their relevant water quality standards. PMID:27706062

  12. Cross-disciplinary research in cancer: an opportunity to narrow the knowledge–practice gap

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, R.; Grunfeld, E.; Jackson, L.; Sargeant, J.; Porter, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Health services researchers have consistently identified a gap between what is identified as “best practice” and what actually happens in clinical care. Despite nearly two decades of a growing evidence-based practice movement, narrowing the knowledge–practice gap continues to be a slow, complex, and poorly understood process. Here, we contend that cross-disciplinary research is increasingly relevant and important to reducing that gap, particularly research that encompasses the notion of transdisciplinarity, wherein multiple academic disciplines and non-academic individuals and groups are integrated into the research process. The assimilation of diverse perspectives, research approaches, and types of knowledge is potentially effective in helping research teams tackle real-world patient care issues, create more practice-based evidence, and translate the results to clinical and community care settings. The goals of this paper are to present and discuss cross-disciplinary approaches to health research and to provide two examples of how engaging in such research may optimize the use of research in cancer care. PMID:24311951

  13. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Nathaniel P.; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R.; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F.; Tomich, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today’s globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly—depending largely on the stakeholder perspective—as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 “integrated” issues—24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues —that are composed of 318 “component” issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them

  14. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  15. Mentoring Functions Practiced by Undergraduate Faculty in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Ashley J.; Retallick, Michael S.; Martin, Robert; Steiner, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The literature has indicated that faculty and administrators are often uncertain about how to foster effective mentoring relationships with undergraduate students. This study analyzed the mentoring functions of faculty in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University regarding the undergraduate mentoring process. Six…

  16. Educational Delivery Methods to Encourage Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamon, Julia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of 143 farmers who attended sustainable agriculture conferences (76% response) with 143 controls (57% response) found no significant differences between the 2 groups, suggesting a need to change delivery methods for extension programming. Chemical dealers were the top source of information for both groups. (SK)

  17. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  18. Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

    2005-01-01

    Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

  19. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on oxbow lake watersheds in the Mississippi River alluvial plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to major sources of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. While conservation practices have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing agricultural related pollutants on test plot scales, they typ...

  20. Relevance of integrating agricultural practices in pesticide dietary intake indicator.

    PubMed

    Menard, Céline; Heraud, Fanny; Nougadere, Alexandre; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new indicator of pesticide dietary intake to screen pesticides to include in monitoring programs. This new indicator called the adjusted TMDI (TMDI_Ad), taking account actual pesticide agricultural uses in France, is more precise than the theoretical maximum dietary intake (TMDI), based on maximum residue levels (MRLs) that is usually used. This new modeling of dietary intake is refined according to actual agricultural pesticide uses on 44 raw agricultural commodities (RAC), among the most consumed in France, and the rate of food importation of these RAC. The TMDI_Ad was below the TMDI for 322 pesticides (79%). The TMDI was above the ADI, for 46 substances. Although 43 of them had a TMDI_Ad below the TMDI, still 36 had a TMDI_Ad above the ADI, which corresponded to substances with the lowest ADIs. Overall, these results indicate that the TMDI_Ad is a useful tool to plan monitoring programs and to refine dietary exposure, according to actual pesticide uses. However, for very toxic substances, having a very low ADI, such as unauthorized substances, other studies have to be conducted in order to better estimate consumer dietary intakes.

  1. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    PubMed

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  2. Integrating seasonal climate prediction and agricultural models for insights into agricultural practice

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James W

    2005-01-01

    Interest in integrating crop simulation models with dynamic seasonal climate forecast models is expanding in response to a perceived opportunity to add value to seasonal climate forecasts for agriculture. Integrated modelling may help to address some obstacles to effective agricultural use of climate information. First, modelling can address the mismatch between farmers' needs and available operational forecasts. Probabilistic crop yield forecasts are directly relevant to farmers' livelihood decisions and, at a different scale, to early warning and market applications. Second, credible ex ante evidence of livelihood benefits, using integrated climate–crop–economic modelling in a value-of-information framework, may assist in the challenge of obtaining institutional, financial and political support; and inform targeting for greatest benefit. Third, integrated modelling can reduce the risk and learning time associated with adaptation and adoption, and related uncertainty on the part of advisors and advocates. It can provide insights to advisors, and enhance site-specific interpretation of recommendations when driven by spatial data. Model-based ‘discussion support systems’ contribute to learning and farmer–researcher dialogue. Integrated climate–crop modelling may play a genuine, but limited role in efforts to support climate risk management in agriculture, but only if they are used appropriately, with understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and with cautious evaluation of model predictions and of the insights that arises from model-based decision analysis. PMID:16433092

  3. Instructional Strategies and Best Practices to Narrow the Mathematics Achievement Gaps between African American, Hispanic, and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Felicia Mickles

    2012-01-01

    A persistent mathematics achievement gap between African American, Hispanic, and European American students at one elementary school was the focus of this investigation. The research questions of this single site case study involved understanding why an achievement gap exists, and to identify the instructional strategies and best practices used to…

  4. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  5. Conceptualizing Telehealth in Nursing Practice: Advancing a Conceptual Model to Fill a Virtual Gap.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Daniel A; Penner, Jamie L

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly nurses use various telehealth technologies to deliver health care services; however, there has been a lag in research and generation of empirical knowledge to support nursing practice in this expanding field. One challenge to generating knowledge is a gap in development of a comprehensive conceptual model or theoretical framework to illustrate relationships of concepts and phenomena inherent to adoption of a broad range of telehealth technologies to holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature revealed eight published conceptual models, theoretical frameworks, or similar entities applicable to nursing practice. Many of these models focus exclusively on use of telephones and four were generated from qualitative studies, but none comprehensively reflect complexities of bridging nursing process and elements of nursing practice into use of telehealth. The purpose of this article is to present a review of existing conceptual models and frameworks, discuss predominant themes and features of these models, and present a comprehensive conceptual model for telehealth nursing practice synthesized from this literature for consideration and further development. This conceptual model illustrates characteristics of, and relationships between, dimensions of telehealth practice to guide research and knowledge development in provision of holistic person-centered care delivery to individuals by nurses through telehealth technologies. PMID:25858897

  6. Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zahra, T R

    2011-09-15

    An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content.

  7. Managing the gap: balancing advances in technology with advances in management practice.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, D

    1997-01-01

    Expenditure on information systems is widely anticipated to lead to improved management of health care resources. Despite large investments in hardware and software, these expectations are difficult to realise. Part of the difficulty lies in the manner in which information systems are applied to, rather than integrated within, organisations. This paper considers some of the the personal and organisational issues that need to be addressed to 'manage the gap' in balancing advances in information technology with advances in management practice. The issues identified are consistent with the concept of a learning organisation dealing with environmental change.

  8. Usefulness of a KT Event to Address Practice and Policy Gaps Related to Integrated Care.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Karen; Boakye, Omenaa; Wallace, Nicole

    2016-02-01

    There are limited evaluations of the impact of knowledge translation (KT) activities aimed at addressing practice and policy gaps. We report on the impact of an interactive, end-of-grant KT event. Although action items were developed and key stakeholder support attained, minimal follow-through had occurred three months after the KT event. Several organizational obstacles to transitioning knowledge into action were identified: leadership, program policies, infrastructure, changing priorities, workload and physician engagement. Key messages include: (1) ensure ongoing and facilitated networking opportunities, (2) invest in building implementation capacity, (3) target multi-level implementation activities and (4) focus further research on KT evaluation.

  9. [Implementation of clinical practice guidelines: how can we close the evidence-practice gap?].

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Nothacker, M; Kopp, I

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines are intended as instruments of knowledge transfer to support decision-making by physicians, other health professionals and patients in clinical practice and thereby contribute to quality improvements in healthcare. To date they are an indispensable tool for healthcare. Their benefit for patients can only be seen in application, i.e. the implementation of guideline recommendations. For successful implementation, implementability and practicability play a crucial role and these characteristics can be influenced and should be promoted by the guideline development group. In addition, a force field analysis to identify barriers against and facilitators for the implementation of specific guideline recommendations from the perspective of physicians and patients is recommended to guide the development of an individual implementation strategy and the selection of appropriate interventions. However, implementation cannot be achieved by the guideline development group alone and a universal implementation strategy does not exist. Therefore, a process using theory, analysis, experience and shared responsibility of stakeholders in healthcare is recommended, with the aim to achieve sustainable behavioral change and improve the quality of care by guideline-oriented behavior.

  10. Reduction of earthquake risk in the united states: Bridging the gap between research and practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    Continuing efforts under the auspices of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program are under way to improve earthquake risk assessment and risk management in earthquake-prone regions of Alaska, California, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho, the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones in the central United States, the southeastern and northeastern United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, and Hawaii. Geologists, geophysicists, seismologists, architects, engineers, urban planners, emergency managers, health care specialists, and policymakers are having to work at the margins of their disciplines to bridge the gap between research and practice and to provide a social, technical, administrative, political, legal, and economic basis for changing public policies and professional practices in communities where the earthquake risk is unacceptable. ?? 1998 IEEE.

  11. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  12. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  13. Forest management devolution: gap between technicians' design and villagers' practices in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rives, Fanny; Carrière, Stéphanie M; Montagne, Pierre; Aubert, Sigrid; Sibelet, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    In the 1980s, tropical forest-management principles underwent a shift toward approaches giving greater responsibilities to rural people. One argument for such a shift were the long-term relations established between rural people and their natural resources. In Madagascar, a new law was drawn up in 1996 (Gelose law), which sought to integrate rural people into forest management. A gap was observed between the changes foreseen by the projects implementing the Gelose law and the actual changes. In this article, we use the concept of the social-ecological system (SES) to analyze that gap. The differences existing between the planned changes set by the Gelose contract in the village of Ambatoloaka (northwest of Madagascar) and the practices observed in 2010 were conceptualized as a gap between two SESs. The first SES is the targeted one (i.e., a virtual one); it corresponds to the designed Gelose contract. The second SES is the observed one. It is characterized by the heterogeneity of forest users and uses, which have several impacts on forest management, and by very dynamic social and ecological systems. The observed SES has been reshaped contingent on the constraints and opportunities offered by the Gelose contract as well as on other ecological and social components. The consequences and opportunities that such an SES reshaping would offer to improve the implementation of the Gelose law are discussed. The main reasons explaining the gap between the two SESs are as follows: (1) the clash between static and homogeneous perceptions in the targeted SES and the dynamics and heterogeneity that characterize the observed SES; and (2) the focus on one specific use of forest ecosystems (i.e., charcoal-making) in the targeted SES. Forest management in the observed SES depends on several uses of forest ecosystems. PMID:23974902

  14. Knowledge and Practice Gaps among Pediatric Nurses at a Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roshan Essani, Rozina; Ali, Tazeen Saeed

    2011-01-01

    The advancement in medical science has created health care environments that require nursing professionals who posses specialized clinical knowledge and skills to provide care and deal with critically and acutely ill children. This study explored gaps between knowledge and practice as perceived by the registered nurses of pediatric units by further recommending the changes suggested by them. A descriptive exploratory study design under the quantitative research methodology was utilized using universal sampling of all pediatric nurses working at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The gaps between knowledge and practice, as perceived by the participants, were categorized into five major categories: (1) medication (34%), (2) skills (28.3%), (3) knowledge (13.36%), (4) handling of code blue and intubations (12.6%), and (5) operating medical devices (11.58%). As a result, anxiety and incompetency were notably seen in the participants which had great amount of impact on the level of care provided to the patients. The implications of the findings for quality patient care were also analyzed. PMID:22389778

  15. Scientists in the swamp: narrowing the language-practice gap in community psychology.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jacob Z

    2005-06-01

    As a confluence of unique values and activities, the collective practice of community psychology is difficult to characterize in a simple way. Increasingly, however, professional contexts are laden with pressure to define any practice--from library work to medical interventions--in the orderly, compact language of traditional science. This trend has historically been resisted in the field by those sensing a fundamental lack of fit between the fluid, emergent aspects of community psychological practice and the fixed, precise language of classic science. In response to this "language-practice gap," some have attempted to adapt the traditional language of science to better fit the field's practice, while others have explored alternative languages of practice seemingly more indigenous to the messy "swamp" of actual communities. While the former effort leaves some theoretical contradictions intact, the latter tends to discount scientific identity entirely. This paper proposes a potential step forward by resituating questions of disciplinary language and identity within a current philosophical discourse where the nature of social science itself remains sharply contested. This suggests shifting attention away from "should we be a science?" to "what kind of science might we be after all?"; in turn, alternative languages may be re-cast as legitimate contributors to a kind of science more authentic to human communities--even a viable "science in the swamp." One such language-philosophical hermeneutics--is presented as a particularly valuable supplement to traditional science. Illustrations highlight ways that hermeneutics may advance the formal language of the field towards a closer fit of what actually happens in practice, while preserving and even bolstering the empirical rigor and scientific identity of the field.

  16. Using knowledge of agricultural practices to enhance through-the-season interpretation of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Pestre, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat data contain features that can be interpreted to produce information about crops, in support of crop estimation procedures. This paper considers ways in which detailed knowledge of agricultural practices and events might increase and improve the utilization of Landsat data in both the predictive and observational or measurement components of such procedures. Landsat observables related to agricultural practices and events throughout the cropping season are listed. Agricultural fields are identified as the preferred observational units for incorporating refined agricultural understanding, such as crop rotation patterns, into machine procedures. Uses of Landsat data from both prior seasons and the current season are considered, as is use of predictive models of crop appearance. The investigation of knowledge engineering systems tailored to through-the-season estimation problems is recommended for long range development.

  17. Gaps between Global Guidelines and Local Practices in CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The term 'chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder' (CKD-MBD) is a new term that, in contrast to the old term 'renal osteodystrophy', implies a systemic syndrome associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This new terminology is in line with previous studies that show elevated serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In order to improve outcomes in patients with CKD-MBD, many countries have developed clinical practice guidelines. Globally, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines are the most commonly used. However, whether these global guidelines can be successfully implemented on a local level needs to be studied. Differences in medical care and social factors between countries may limit the generalizability of global guidelines. Reports from the Korean registry and the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) suggest that many dialysis patients are not within the target ranges recommended by the KDOQI and KDIGO guidelines for serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH, suggesting gaps between global guidelines and local practices. Clinical studies with Korean CKD-MBD patients are necessary to compare Korean practices and outcomes to those suggested by global guidelines and to determine the target serum mineral levels associated with the best local outcomes. PMID:25606042

  18. Estimating the Overall Impact of a Change in Agricultural Practices on Atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    West, T.O.

    2001-08-23

    One option for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is to increase the carbon (C) stocks in agricultural soils. There is now an extensive literature on the amount of C that has been lost from soils as a consequence of humans disturbing natural ecosystems, and of the amount of C that might be returned to soils with improved management practices. Improvements in management practices could include efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation water, use of crop rotations, and changing from conventional tillage (CT) to conservation tillage (or, more specifically, to no-till (NT)). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that 55 x 10{sup 9} Mg of soil C have been lost, globally, largely as a result of cultivating former grasslands, forests, and wetlands. The IPCC estimated further that 22-29 x 10{sup 9} Mg of C could be returned to existing, world, agricultural soils under improved management regimes. Historical losses of soil organic C (SOC) in the US, due to cultivation, have been estimated to be 1.3 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup 9} Mg (Kern and Johnson 1993). Kern and Johnson projected that by increasing NT practice in the US from 27% in 1990 to 76%, a total of 0.4 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 9} Mg C could be sequestered in the soil during the interval 1990-2020. These studies tend to focus on increasing the C stocks in soils rather than on the overall effect that changes in agricultural practice would have on C stocks in the atmosphere. Changing agricultural practice can impact net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere in three fundamental ways: (1) it can lead to an increase in the C held in agricultural soils, (2) it can lead to a change in emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning, and (3) it can change agricultural productivity, and hence the amount of cultivated land needed to meet the demand for agricultural products. Changing agricultural practice can also affect the net emissions of other greenhouse gases, such as N{sub 2}O emissions

  19. Colorado's AgrAbility Project's Effects on KASA and Practice Changes with Agricultural Producers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Jackman, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Disability rates resulting from work-related injuries remain steadily high among farmers and ranchers. To address the gap in services within this population, USDA implemented AgrAbility nationally. Using part of Bennett's hierarchical model, the current study evaluated the KASA and practice change levels of 401 farmers and ranchers and compared…

  20. Gaps in Science Content Knowledge Encountered during Teaching Practice: A Study of Early-Career Middle-School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Brian Edward

    2013-01-01

    Subject-specific content knowledge is crucial for effective science teaching, yet many teachers are entering the field not fully equipped with all the science content knowledge they need to effectively teach the subject. Learning from practice is one approach to bridging the gap between what practicing teachers know and what they need to know.…

  1. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  2. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  3. Pesticide regulations for agriculture: Chemically flawed regulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Donald S; Bruccoleri, Aldo G

    2016-08-01

    Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of PRZM.gw. They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why PRZM.gw predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated. PMID:27166991

  4. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  5. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area. PMID

  6. Translating the Socio-Ecological Perspective Into Multilevel Interventions: Gaps Between Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Schölmerich, Vera L N; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Multilevel interventions are inspired by socio-ecological models, and seek to create change on various levels-for example by increasing the health literacy of individuals as well as modifying the social norms within a community. Despite becoming a buzzword in public health, actual multilevel interventions remain scarce. In this commentary, we explore the operational and empirical barriers to designing and implementing multilevel interventions, and argue that the current theoretical framework based on the socio-ecological model is insufficient to guide those seeking to design multilevel interventions. We consider two theories, namely, the complementarity principle theory and the risk compensation theory-to address the gap between theory and translation into practice.

  7. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future.

  8. Nursing organizations call for phase-out of agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Rebecca

    2006-02-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is considered a contributing factor to the problem of antibiotic resistance. A majority of antibiotics and related drugs produced in the United States are not used to treat the infirm, but rather are used as feed additives for agricultural animals to promote growth and compensate for stressful and crowded growing conditions. Significant efforts must be made to decrease inappropriate overuse in animals and agriculture. Several leading health and political organizations have begun to address the issue. The American Nurses Association has established policies that call on Congress, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and meat producers to promptly phase out the agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance. PMID:16682370

  9. Modeling the impacts of climate change and agricultural management practices on surface erosion in a dryland agricultural basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottenbreit, E.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of climate change and agricultural management practices on suspended sediment concentrations in the Potlach River basin in northwestern Idaho. Suspended sediment is a pollutant in many water systems and contributes to the impairment of streams. Conventional tillage practices and rain-on-snow events in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington can produce some of the highest sediment losses per acre in the United States. Climate change may lead to further problems as more frequent and intense winter storm events are predicted to occur. Many hydrological models have been developed which examine suspended sediment in river systems. The Potlatch River basin near Julietta, ID was examined using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), which has a sediment module that includes surface erosion and channel sediment transport. DHSVM was calibrated and evaluated over the historical period of streamflow observations and was used to predict soil erosion rates and suspended sediment concentrations using a range of downscaled Global Climate Models (GCMs) emissions scenarios for the year 2045. Furthermore, the sensitivity of suspended sediment concentrations to conventional versus convservative tillage practices was explored. The results show that as the projected climate-driven intensity of storms increase, more sediment is predicted in the Potlatch River. Suspended sediment and streamflow are predicted to increase during the late fall through the early spring. This increase occurs during times of heightened runoff when suspended sediment concentration in the river is highest. Three tillage scenarios were incorporated into DHSVM for winter wheat: conventional till, reduced till, and no till. Erosion and suspended sediment were higher during storm events under conventional agricultural tillage scenarios. In the long-term, this research can lead to examination of the effects of climate

  10. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K. Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods. PMID:27272142

  11. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Wang, Junming; Reddy, K Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT), in combination with nitrogen type (URAN or chicken litter) and application method, biochar, or denitrification inhibitor. A randomized complete block design was applied with six replications. Leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration, plant height, leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and yield were measured. Results showed that different agricultural practices had significant effects on plant leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, soil respiration, height, and yield, but not on LAI and biomass. The average corn yield in the NT-URAN was 10.03 ton/ha, 28.9% more than in the CT-URAN. Compared to the NT-URAN, the NT-biochar had lower soil respiration and similar yield. All variables measured showed remarkable variations among the three years. Our results indicated that no tillage treatment substantially increased corn yield, probably due to the preservation of soil moisture during drought periods. PMID:27272142

  12. Animating Community Supported Agriculture in North East England: Striving for a "Caring Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Liz

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a new Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme in the north of England to draw attention to some of the ethical issues encountered when using a participatory action research approach to animating CSA. Both CSA and participatory action research have been associated with the concept of "caring practice" and an…

  13. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  14. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  15. EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY IN AGRICULTURAL AND NATIVE SYSTEMS IN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increase in agricultural practices in the Cerrado (tropical savannah) and Amazon regions in Brazil is causing drastic changes in the nutrient and carbon cycling of native areas. Because microorganisms play a key role in biogeochemical cycling, monitoring the shifts in the microb...

  16. Mind the gap: a survey of how cancer drug carriers are susceptible to the gap between research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Stirland, Darren Lars; Nichols, Joseph W.; Miura, Seiji; Bae, You Han

    2013-01-01

    With countless research papers using preclinical models and showing the superiority of nanoparticle design over current drug therapies used to treat cancers, it is surprising how deficient the translation of these nano-sized drug carriers into the clinical setting is. This review article seeks to compare the preclinical and clinical results for Doxil®, PK1, Abraxane®, Genexol-PM®, Xyotax™, NC-6004, Mylotarg®, PK2, and CALAA-01. While not comprehensive, it covers nano-sized drug carriers designed to improve the efficacy of common drugs used in chemotherapy. While not always available or comparable, effort was made to compare the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy between the animal and human studies. Discussion is provided to suggest what might be causing the gap. Finally, suggestions and encouragement are dispensed for the potential that nano-sized drug carriers hold. PMID:24096014

  17. Ecologically asynchronous agricultural practice erodes sustainability of the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianming; Wu, Jianguo; Kou, Xiaojun; Oliver, Chadwick; Mou, Pu; Ge, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Sustainability of agricultural landscapes depends largely on land-use practices. As one of the most productive and widespread agricultural soils, loess is often deep and easily eroded, posing grand challenges for environmental sustainability around the world. One prime example is the Loess Plateau of China, which has been cultivated for more than 7500 years. Based on long-term data sets, this study demonstrates that the dominant agricultural practice, winter wheat cropping, continues to be the primary driver for the massive soil erosion and landscape modifications on the Loess Plateau. This traditional farming system is asynchronous with the dynamic rhythm between natural vegetation and climate in the region. In particular, the long summer fallow period for winter wheat fields is concurrent with the heavy-rainstorm season, which greatly accelerates soil erosion. Our finding indicates that common land-use practices that have lasted for thousands of years in China are not environmentally sustainable. Agriculture in this region has relied primarily on the continuous "mining" of the soil for the past several thousand years but does not have a one-thousand-year future because of myriad environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with soil erosion. To contain soil erosion and promote sustainability on the Loess Plateau, therefore, a change in the agricultural regime is needed to make sure that current and future agricultural practices follow the vegetation-climate rhythm. In addition, to achieve environmental, economic, and social sustainability in this region, multifunctional land-use planning is required to increase landscape diversity and functions (e.g., proper arrangement of crop fields, orchards, and protected areas).

  18. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  19. Two approaches to bridging the knowledge-practice gap in oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Peek, Gloanna J

    2015-01-01

    The field of oncology nursing is continually changing. New drugs to aid in the fight against cancer are being developed, complementary therapies to ease symptoms are gaining prominence, and survivorship care is becoming a welcome yet challenging area of subspecialty. For oncology nurses to provide quality care and to develop improved care delivery systems, they must not only have access to the most current knowledge in the field, but also be equipped with the skills necessary to integrate that knowledge into practice for the benefit of patients and families (LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014). The importance of nursing research and its relationship to the practice of oncology nursing cannot be minimized (Moore & Badger, 2014). Oncology nurse researchers advance knowledge and, consequently, improve the quality of care for patients with cancer and their families. For example, the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) regularly surveys its membership to identify key areas of research focus that then guide the work of nurse investigators (LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014; ONS Research Agenda Team, 2009). Unfortunately, the shortage of nurse scientists, particularly in oncology nursing, continues to increase as senior doctoral faculty reach retirement age and doctoral education program development remains stagnant (Glasgow & Dreher, 2010; LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014). This shortage has and will continue to lead to gaps in the generation and implementation of new knowledge, negatively affecting the quality of patient care. As a result, an urgent need exists for innovative and quality doctoral educational programs to develop nurse scientists (Moore & Badger, 2014).

  20. Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-08-01

    Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute.

  1. Of birds, carbon and water: integrating multiple ecosystem service impacts to identify locations for agricultural conservation practice adoption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation practices are touted as mitigating these impacts. Many of these practices are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...

  2. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  3. Competency-based postgraduate training: can we bridge the gap between theory and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Olle; Scheele, Fedde

    2007-06-01

    The introduction of competency-based postgraduate medical training, as recently stimulated by national governing bodies in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and other countries, is a major advancement, but at the same time it evokes critical issues of curricular implementation. A source of concern is the translation of general competencies into the practice of clinical teaching. The authors observe confusion around the term competency, which may have adverse effects when a teaching and assessment program is to be designed. This article aims to clarify the competency terminology. To connect the ideas behind a competency framework with the work environment of patient care, the authors propose to analyze the critical activities of professional practice and relate these to predetermined competencies. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) and statements of awarded responsibility (STARs) may bridge a potential gap between the theory of competency-based education and clinical practice. EPAs reflect those activities that together constitute the profession. Carrying out most of these EPAs requires the possession of several competencies. The authors propose not to go to great lengths to assess competencies as such, in the way they are abstractly defined in competency frameworks but, instead, to focus on the observation of concrete critical clinical activities and to infer the presence of multiple competencies from several observed activities. Residents may then be awarded responsibility for EPAs. This can serve to move toward competency-based training, in which a flexible length of training is possible and the outcome of training becomes more important than its length.

  4. Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-10-01

    The number of US adults classified as overweight or obese has dramatically increased in the past 25 years, resulting in a significant body of research addressing weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, little is known about the potential of weight loss maintenance interventions to be translated into actual practice settings. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the translation potential of published weight loss maintenance intervention studies by determining the extent to which they report information across the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A secondary purpose is to provide recommendations for research based on these findings. To identify relevant research articles, a literature search was conducted using four databases; 19 weight loss maintenance intervention studies were identified for inclusion. Each article was evaluated using the RE-AIM Coding Sheet for Publications to determine the extent to which dimensions related to internal and external validity were reported. Approximately half of the articles provided information addressing three RE-AIM dimensions, yet only a quarter provided information addressing adoption and maintenance. Significant gaps were identified in understanding external validity, and metrics that could facilitate the translation of these interventions from research to practice are presented. Based upon this review, it is unknown how effective weight loss maintenance interventions could be in real-world situations, such as clinical or community practice settings. Future studies should be planned to address how weight loss maintenance intervention programs will be adopted and maintained, with special attention to costs for participants and for program implementation.

  5. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  6. Pesticide fate modeling in soils with the crop model STICS: Feasibility for assessment of agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Queyrel, Wilfried; Habets, Florence; Blanchoud, Hélène; Ripoche, Dominique; Launay, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Numerous pesticide fate models are available, but few of them are able to take into account specific agricultural practices, such as catch crop, mixing crops or tillage in their predictions. In order to better integrate crop management and crop growth in the simulation of diffuse agricultural pollutions, and to manage both pesticide and nitrogen pollution, a pesticide fate module was implemented in the crop model STICS. The objectives of the study were: (i) to implement a pesticide fate module in the crop model STICS; (ii) to evaluate the model performance using experimental data from three sites with different pedoclimatic contexts, one in The Netherlands and two in northern France; (iii) to compare the simulations with several pesticide fate models; and (iv) to test the impact of specific agricultural practices on the transfer of the dissolved fraction of pesticides. The evaluations were carried out with three herbicides: bentazone, isoproturon, and atrazine. The strategy applied in this study relies on a noncalibration approach and sensitivity test to assess the operating limits of the model. To this end, the evaluation was performed with default values found in the literature and completed by sensitivity tests. The extended version of the STICS named STICS-Pest, shows similar results with other pesticide fate models widely used in the literature. Moreover, STICS-Pest was able to estimate realistic crop growth and catch crop dynamic, which thus illustrate agricultural practices leading to a reduction of nitrate and a change in pesticide leaching. The dynamic plot-scale model, STICS-Pest is able to simulate nitrogen and pesticide fluxes, when the hydrologic context is in the validity range of the reservoir (or capacity) model. According to these initial results, the model may be a relevant tool for studying the effect of long-term agricultural practices on pesticide residue dynamics in soil and the associated diffuse pollution transfer.

  7. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  8. Closing the Theory-Practice Gap: Physical Education Students' Use of Jigsaw Learning in a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Nick; Wattison, Nicole; Edwards, Toni; Bryan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Recognising that the theory-practice gap remains problematic in the preparation of physical education (PE) teachers, this study sought to explore three undergraduate students use of jigsaw learning teaching gymnastics during a secondary school placement. Specifically, the research attempted to identify those issues that arose using this learning…

  9. Toward an Integrated Theory of Relational Youth Violence: Bridging a Gap among the Theory, Research, and Practice of Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brion-Meisels, Gretchen; Garnett, Bernice Raveche

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased interest in bullying prevention programming over the last 10 years, significant gaps remain among theory, research, and practice in this critical area of school psychology. This article argues that the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition of bullying does not fully capture the experiences of many…

  10. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice in Bereavement: Report from the Center for the Advancement of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin; Balk, David; Jordan, John; Kennedy, Cara; Nadeau, Janice; Shapiro, Ester

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses issues in bridging the gap between research and practice in the field of bereavement. A conceptual framework is developed that emphasizes that the gulf reflects the lack of exchange and mutual influence between researchers and practitioners. Studies are presented using qualitative and quantitative methods to gain a better…

  11. How Front-End Loading Contributes to Creating and Sustaining the Theory-Practice Gap in Higher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeanne Maree

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I show how Mead's theory of emergence can prove explanatory in how the theory-practice gap is co-created and sustained in "front-end loading" university programs. Taking teacher education as an exemplar, I argue that trainee teachers encounter different and oft-times conflicting environmental, social and cultural conditions in the…

  12. Bridging the Theory-Practice Gap in an Urban Teacher Residency: Two Interventions and a Cautionary Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Wendy; Salmon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, National Louis University and the Academy for Urban School Leadership partnered to create the country's first Urban Teacher Residency (UTR) program. Ten years later, with the assistance of Teacher Quality Partnership funding, the program quadrupled in size. As the UTR expanded, an increasing theory-practice gap became apparent,…

  13. The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of our findings…

  14. An evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Vietnam: The gap between theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Alison; Vu, Hoang Hoa; Pedrono, Miguel

    2011-03-15

    Vietnam has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has achieved significant socio-economic development in recent years. However this growth is placing increased pressure on an already depleted natural environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is recognised by the Government and international organizations as an important tool in the management of the impacts of future development on the country's natural resource base. The Government's commitment to EIA has been demonstrated through the development and adoption of the Law on Environment Protection (Revised) in 2005 which sets out the requirements for EIA and which represents a major step in the development of a robust legislative framework for EIA in Vietnam. The Law on Environment Protection (Revised) 2005 has now been operational for several years and we have undertaken an evaluation of the resulting EIA system in Vietnam. We argue that while significant improvements have been achieved in the EIA policy framework, an important gap remains between EIA theory and practice. We contend that the basis of the current EIA legislation is strong and that future developments of the EIA system in Vietnam should focus on improving capacity of EIA practitioners rather than further substantial legislative change. Such improvements would allow the Vietnamese EIA system to emerge as an effective and efficient tool for environmental management in Vietnam and as a model EIA framework for other developing countries.

  15. Bridging the gap in ageing: Translating policies into practice in Malaysian Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Population ageing is poised to become a major challenge to the health system as Malaysia progresses to becoming a developed nation by 2020. This article aims to review the various ageing policy frameworks available globally; compare aged care policies and health services in Malaysia with Australia; and discuss various issues and challenges in translating these policies into practice in the Malaysian primary care system. Fundamental solutions identified to bridge the gap include restructuring of the health care system, development of comprehensive benefit packages for older people under the national health financing scheme, training of the primary care workforce, effective use of electronic medical records and clinical guidelines; and empowering older people and their caregivers with knowledge, skills and positive attitudes to ageing and self care. Ultimately, family medicine specialists must become the agents for change to lead multidisciplinary teams and work with various agencies to ensure that better coordination, continuity and quality of care are eventually delivered to older patients across time and settings. PMID:21385446

  16. Factors affecting science reform: Bridging the gap between reform initiatives and teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensak, Karl John

    In response to the perceived deficiencies in science education today, and to the expressed need for research into the culture of schools (due primarily to the failure of many science reforms in the past), this study used a broad based approach to study the gap between science education research and science education practice. This study identified 47 factors that may encourage or inhibit science curriculum reform. A survey was conducted to determine which factors were perceived to be important by local and national K-12 classroom teachers, science supervisors/coordinators, and college/university professors. Continual staff development (scheduled as part of teachers' work day/week/month), funding (for long-term staff development, teacher training and support, science laboratory facilities and materials), teacher motivation and "ownership" of the reform, the need for collaborative opportunities for classroom teachers, teachers' college preparation, textbook reform, community support, and reform initiatives that are "in tune" with assessment, are major factors identified as having a substantial affect on the successful adoption, implementation, and institutionalization of science reforms.

  17. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  18. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  19. Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Concentrations and Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, N.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Horwath, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Organic matter from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a significant concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during water treatment with chlorine. Reducing DOC concentration at the source water is a possible management strategy being explored for the reduction of DBP precursors. We examined a variety of land use/land cover, i.e. natural grasslands and intensive agriculture in the Willow Slough Watershed (415 km2) in Yolo County, California to determine the temporal and spatial DOC dynamics. Surface water DOC concentrations ranged from 1.62 to 11.44 mg L-1 at the mouth of the watershed during the first two years, with about two times higher DOC concentrations measured downstream in an intensive agricultural subwatershed dominated by summer flood irrigation. The mean DOC yield was also the highest from the agricultural subwatershed at 0.74 g m-2 over the six months of active irrigation. Results suggest that there is a positive correlation between cropland area and DOC yield. Among many crop species examined, alfalfa showed the strongest positive linear relationship with R2 = 0.91 between the irrigation season DOC yield and percentage crop area of each subwatershed, indicating that agricultural practices such as flood irrigation have a greater impact on DOC loads than other irrigation systems. The results indicate that agricultural practices may deserve further attention for watershed management of DOC and DBP precursors and that flood irrigation practices should be targeted to reduce DOC loading within the main watershed.

  20. Evaluating agricultural best management practices in tile-drained subwatersheds of the Mackinaw River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lemke, A M; Kirkham, K G; Lindenbaum, T T; Herbert, M E; Tear, T H; Perry, W L; Herkert, J R

    2011-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are widely promoted in agricultural watersheds as a means of improving water quality and ameliorating altered hydrology. We used a paired watershed approach to evaluate whether focused outreach could increase BMP implementation rates and whether BMPs could induce watershed-scale (4000 ha) changes in nutrients, suspended sediment concentrations, or hydrology in an agricultural watershed in central Illinois. Land use was >90% row crop agriculture with extensive subsurface tile drainage. Outreach successfully increased BMP implementation rates for grassed waterways, stream buffers, and strip-tillage within the treatment watershed, which are designed to reduce surface runoff and soil erosion. No significant changes in nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus, total suspended sediment (TSS), or hydrology were observed after implementation of these BMPs over 7 yr of monitoring. Annual NO-N export (39-299 Mg) in the two watersheds was equally exported during baseflow and stormflow. Mean annual TP export was similar between the watersheds (3.8 Mg) and was greater for TSS in the treatment (1626 ± 497 Mg) than in the reference (940 ± 327 Mg) watershed. Export of TP and TSS was primarily due to stormflow (>85%). Results suggest that the BMPs established during this study were not adequate to override nutrient export from subsurface drainage tiles. Conservation planning in tile-drained agricultural watersheds will require a combination of surface-water BMPs and conservation practices that intercept and retain subsurface agricultural runoff. Our study emphasizes the need to measure conservation outcomes and not just implementation rates of conservation practices.

  1. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  2. Detecting Agricultural Practices Using Envisat ASAR DualPol and RADARSAT-2 QadPol Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weydahl, Dan Johan; Eggestad, Hans Olav; Oygarden, Lillian; Sorensen, Kai

    2010-12-01

    Satellite SAR images may be used to detect tillage practices over agricultural fields at times of the year where optical imaging is hampered by cloud conditions. Analysis of multitemporal SAR data sets show that ploughing may be detected using ERS, ENVISAT or Radarsat-2 images. A combination of temporal SAR data sets together with polarimetric data acquired at times with high soil moisture, will increase the detection probability.

  3. Gaps in patient care practices to prevent hospital-acquired delirium

    PubMed Central

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Marrie, Thomas; Rolfson, Darryl; Coke, William; Camicioli, Richard; Duggan, D’Arcy; Launhardt, Bonnie; Fisher, Bruce; Gordon, Debbie; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Magee, Bernice; Wiens, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the current patient care practices that address the predisposing and precipitating factors contributing to the prevention of hospital-acquired delirium in the elderly. DESIGN Prospective cohort (observational) study. PARTICIPANTS Patients 65 years of age and older who were admitted to medical teaching units at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton over a period of 7 months and who were at risk of delirium. SETTING Medical teaching units at the University of Alberta. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic data and information on predisposing factors for hospital-acquired delirium were obtained for all patients. Documented clinical practices that likely prevent common precipitants of delirium were also recorded. RESULTS Of the 132 patients enrolled, 20 (15.2%) developed hospital-acquired delirium. At the time of admission several predisposing factors were not documented (eg, possible cognitive impairment 16 [12%], visual impairment 52 [39.4%], and functional status of activities of daily living 99 [75.0%]). Recorded precipitating factors included catheter use, screening for dehydration, and medications. Catheters were used in 35 (26.5%) patients, and fluid intake-and-output charting assessed dehydration in 57 (43.2%) patients. At the time of admission there was no documentation of hearing status in 69 (52.3%) patients and aspiration risk in 104 (78.8%) patients. After admission, reorientation measures were documented in only 16 (12.1%) patients. Although all patients had brief mental status evaluations performed once daily, this was not noted to occur twice daily (which would provide important information about fluctuation of mental status) and there was no formal attention span testing. In this study, hospital-acquired delirium was also associated with increased mortality (P < .004), increased length of stay (P < .007), and increased institutionalization (P < .027). CONCLUSION Gaps were noted in patient care practices that might

  4. Ochratoxin A in grain dust--estimated exposure and relations to agricultural practices in grain production.

    PubMed

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Elen, Oleif; Eduard, Wijnand

    2004-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin frequently contaminating grains. OTA inhalation during grain handling may therefore represent a health risk to farmers, and was the subject of this study. Airborne and settled grain dust was collected during grain work on 84 Norwegian farms. Climate and agricultural practices on each farm were registered. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and OTA in settled dust were measured. Settled dust contained median 4 microg OTA/kg dust (range 2-128), correlating with Penicillium spp. (median 40 cfu/mg; range 0-32000, rs =0.33; p < 0.01). Similar levels were found across grain species, districts and agricultural practices. Penicillium levels, but not OTA levels, were higher in storage than in threshing dust (p=0.003), and increased with storage time (rs =0.51, p < 0.001). Farmers were exposed to median 1 mg/m3 (range 0.2-15) dust during threshing and median 7 mg/m3 (range 1-110) dust during storage work, equalling median 3.7 pg/m3 (range 0.6-200) and median 40 pg/m3 (range 2-14000) OTA, respectively (p < 0.001). Agricultural practices could not predict OTA, Penicillium or Aspergillus contamination. Compared to oral intake of OTA, the inhalant exposure during grain work was low, although varying by more than 1,000-fold. However, the farmers may occasionally be highly exposed, particularly during handling of stored grain.

  5. Climate sensitivity of DSSAT under different agriculture practice scenarios in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are sensitive to both agricultural practice and climate changes. Under different agricultural practice scenarios, crop yield may have different climate sensitivities. Since it is important to understand how future climate changes affect agriculture productivity and what the potential adaptation strategies would be to compensate for possible negative impacts on crop production, we performed experiments to study climate sensitivity under different agricultural practice scenarios for rice, maize and wheat in the top four production provinces in China using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. The agricultural practice scenarios include four categories: different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer or no nitrogen stress; irrigation turned on or off, or no water stress; all possible seeds in the DSSAT cultivar data base; and different planting dates. For the climate sensitivity test, the control climate is from 1998 to 2007, and we individually modify four climate variables: daily maximum and minimum temperature by +2 °C and -2 °C, daily precipitation by +20% and -20%, and daily solar radiation by + 20% and -20%. With more nitrogen fertilizer applied, crops are more sensitive to temperature changes as well as precipitation changes because of their release from nitrogen limitation. With irrigation turned on, crop yield sensitivity to temperature decreases in most of the regions depending on the amount of the local precipitation, since more water is available and soil temperature varies less with higher soil moisture. Those results indicate that there could be possible agriculture adaptation strategies under certain future climate scenarios. For example, increasing nitrogen fertilizer usage by a certain amount might compensate for the negative impact on crop yield from climate changes. However, since crops are more sensitive to climate changes when there is more nitrogen fertilizer applied, if the climate changes are

  6. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-02-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  7. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    SciTech Connect

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  8. Effects of different management practices on fungal biodiversity in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, R.; Lumini, E.; Bonfante, P.; Bianciotto, V.

    2009-04-01

    Symbiotic associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are widespread in natural environments and provide a range of benefits to the host plant. These include improved nutrition, enhanced resistance to soil-borne pests, diseases, and drought, as well as tolerance to heavy metals. In addition, the presence of a well developed AMF hyphal network improve the soil structure. As obligate mutualistic symbionts these fungi colonize the roots of many agricultural crops and it is often claimed that agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and biocides, tillage, dominance of monocultures and the growing of non-mycorrhizal crops) are detrimental to AMF. As a result, agro ecosystems impoverished in AMF may not get the fully expected range of benefits from these fungi. Using molecular markers on DNA extracted directly from soil and roots we studied the effects of different management practices (tillage and nitrogen fertilization) on the AMF populations colonizing an experimental agro ecosystem in Central Italy. Fungi in roots and soil were identified by cloning and sequencing a region of ~550bp of the 18S rDNA and ~600bp of the 28S rDNA. In symbiosis with the maize roots we detected only members of Glomeraceae group A that showed decrement in number under nitrogen fertilization. Instead in soil were mainly present members of two AMF groups, respectively Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae group A. In addition only the low input management practices preserve also members of Diversisporaceae and Glomeraceae group B. From our study we can conclude that agricultural practices can directly or indirectly influence AMF biodiversity. The result of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long term nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on specific groups of fungi playing a key role in arable soils. The research was founded by Biodiversity Project (IPP-CNR) and by SOILSINK (FISR-MIUR)

  9. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: State of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more seriou...

  10. MAEviz: Seismic Risk Assessment Environment - bridging the gap between research and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, C.; Lee, J. S.; Tolbert, N.; Hampton, S.; McLaren, T.; Myers, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the field of hazard risk assessment, a new generation of tools is needed to allow researchers and practicing engineers the ability to leverage investments in new methodologies and software infrastructure while enabling customization to local conditions. MAEviz represents such a next generation of seismic risk assessment environment, based on the Mid-America Earthquake (MAE) Center research and designed to be extended, customized, and evolved to meet the needs of specific organizations and regions. It is built upon an extensible Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi) based GIS application platform and leverages distributed content management, workflow, and virtual-organization based design concepts. MAEviz has been developed as a collaboration between the Mid-America Earthquake (MAE) Center community and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and is an implementation of the MAE Centers research Consequence-based Risk Management (CRM) methodology. MAEviz is open source and provides a modern GIS application interface with sophisticated visualization and reporting capabilities. It also incorporates mechanisms to integrate distributed data sources, provides approximately 50 reusable analyses, and has the ability to save and share scenarios to coordinate work in distributed teams. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) application, MAEviz is composed of multiple plugins and clearly defined extension points that leverage numerous open source libraries such as Geotools, iText, kTable, JFreeChart and the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) as well as middleware components developed at NCSA. This architecture enables MAEviz to rapidly be extended with new scientific analyses and allows reuse of the base GIS environment capabilities. MAEviz helps bridge the gap between researchers, practitioners and policy-makers by integrating the latest research findings and most accurate data, state-of-the-art methodologies in an extensible open source platform.

  11. Effects of controlled agricultural practices on water quality in the Minnesota sand-plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.W.; Stoner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of Minnesota's sand plains indicate that ground-water chemistry is related to agricultural practices. Surficial sand-plain aquifers cover 8,000,000 acres of Minnesota and are a major source of water for domestic use, irrigation, and some municipal systems. The sand-plain aquifers consist of sand and gravel deposits that are from 20 to greater than 100 feet thick and are covered by a thin sandy loam that generally is less than 2 feet thick. Sand-plain aquifers are recharged by the downward percolation of precipitation through the soil root zone and the unsaturated zone in the sand to the water table. The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation and forms the top of the sand-plain aquifer. Sand-plain aquifers are susceptible to contamination by agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), if downward-percolating recharge water contains these chemicals. The concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and some other chemical constituents fluctuate seasonally and differ with depth below the water table (Anderson, 1989). Despite the availability of water-quality data for about 260 wells that were collected during previous studies in three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project areas in Minnesota, it is not known how concentrations of agricultural chemicals in ground water relate to the rate and timing of fertilizer and pesticide application or to the tillage practices used. Field-scale research is needed to determine the effects of different farming practices on the concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals in ground water in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

  12. Influence of management practices on microbial nitrogen cyclers in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land management has great influences on soil properties, in particular on microbial communities, due to their sensitivity to the perturbations of the soils. This is even more relevant in Mediterranean agricultural areas under semi-arid conditions. The Mediterranean belt is suffering from an intense degradation of its soils due to the millennia of intense land use and due to unsustainable management practices. As a consequence this area is suffering from a depletion of N content. In this work we investigated the effect of several traditional agricultural management practices on specific functional groups related to the nitrogen cycle in the soil. A field experiment was performed with orchard orange trees (citrus sinesis) in Eastern Spain to assess the long-term effects of ploughing with inorganic fertilization (PI) and ecological practices (EP) (chipped pruned branches and weeds as well as manure from sheep and goats) on microbes that can undertake nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Nine samples of soil were taken from every treatment, near the drip irrigation point and in a zone without the influence of drip irrigation (between trees row), and total DNA extracted. DNA samples were stored at minus-20°C to be analysed by qPCR. Microbial populations involved in the N biochemical cycle were analysed by targeted amplification of key functional biomarker genes: the abundance of nifH (nitrogen fixation), nirS, nirK and nosZ (denitrification) detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has shown significant differences between treatments with higher abundance of all four genes in soils from ecological agricultural treatments. This may indicate that the ecological treatment created conditions that are more suitable for N cyclers in the soil and a better fertility and quality status of these soils.

  13. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  14. Spatial data in geographic information system format on agricultural chemical use, land use, cropping practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial data in geographic information system format described in this report consist of estimates for all counties in the conterminous United States of the annual use of 96 herbicides in 1989; annual sales of nitrogen fertilizer, in tons, for 1985-91; and agricultural expenses, land use, chemical use, livestock holdings, and cropping practices in 1987. The source information, originally in tabular form, is summarized as digital polygon attribute data in the 18 geographic information system spatial data layers (coverages) provided. The information in these coverages can be used in estimating regional agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices and in producing visual displays and mapping relative rates of agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices across broad regions of the United States.

  15. Closing the Gap between Policy and Practice in Screening for Perinatal Depression: A Policy Analysis and Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Sampson, McClain

    2016-10-01

    Although perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common maternal morbidities, it is frequently undetected. Screening for early detection and intervention has the potential to prevent depressive symptoms from worsening. In the United States, five states have enacted legislation in relation to screening for PND, but a gap remains between policy and practice in providing continuum of care for mothers who may be suffering from depressive symptoms. From the perspective of policy formation, the reasons for this gap include a discrepancy between policy and practice goals, lack of regulations on capability building among perinatal care providers, and few pathways for establishing collaborations between medical providers and mental health professionals. The authors recommend involving social workers in the process to promote a better continuum of care after screening through comprehensive policy that explicitly states goals to effectively screen women in the perinatal period. PMID:27254263

  16. Closing the Gap between Policy and Practice in Screening for Perinatal Depression: A Policy Analysis and Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Sampson, McClain

    2016-10-01

    Although perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common maternal morbidities, it is frequently undetected. Screening for early detection and intervention has the potential to prevent depressive symptoms from worsening. In the United States, five states have enacted legislation in relation to screening for PND, but a gap remains between policy and practice in providing continuum of care for mothers who may be suffering from depressive symptoms. From the perspective of policy formation, the reasons for this gap include a discrepancy between policy and practice goals, lack of regulations on capability building among perinatal care providers, and few pathways for establishing collaborations between medical providers and mental health professionals. The authors recommend involving social workers in the process to promote a better continuum of care after screening through comprehensive policy that explicitly states goals to effectively screen women in the perinatal period.

  17. Best Management Practices for sediment control in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion can lead to severe destruction of agricultural sustainability that affects not only productivity, but the entire ecosystem in the neighboring areas. Sediments transported together with the associated nutrients and chemicals can significantly impact downstream water bodies. Various conservation and management practices implemented individually or integrated together as a system can be used to reduce the negative impacts on agricultural watersheds from soil erosion. Hydrological models are useful tools for decision makers when selecting the most effective combination of management practices to reduce pollutant loads within a watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading management model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of diverse management and conservation practices that can control or reduce the impact of soil erosion processes and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A 506 km2 Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) located in Apulia, Southern Italy was used as a case study to evaluate the model and best management practices (BMPs) for sediment load control. A monitoring station located at the Ordona bridge has been instrumented to continuously monitor stream flow and suspended sediment loads. The station has been equipped with an ultrasound stage meter and a stage recorder to monitor stream flow. An infrared optic probe was used to measure suspended sediment concentrations (Gentile et al., 2010 ). The model was calibrated and validated in the Carapelle watershed on an event basis (Bisantino et al., 2013), and the validated model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment reduction. Various management practices were investigated including evaluating the impact on sediment load of: (1) converting all cropland areas into forest and grass covered conditions; (2) converting the highest eroding cropland areas to forest or grass covered conditions; and (3

  18. Glucosinolates profile and antioxidant capacity of Romanian Brassica vegetables obtained by organic and conventional agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Vicas, Simona I; Teusdea, Alin C; Carbunar, Mihai; Socaci, Sonia A; Socaciu, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The profile of glucosinolates in relation to the antioxidant capacity of five Brassica vegetables (Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, White and Red Cabbage) grown by organic and conventional agricultural practices in Transylvania region-Romania, were determined and compared. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of glucosinolates were determined by HPLC-PDA technique. The antioxidant capacity was comparatively determined by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. The highest glucosinolates levels were found in the Broccoli samples grown under conventional practices (14.24 μmol/g dry weight), glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin and neo-glucobrassicin being the major components. The total glucosinolates content was similar in Kohlrabi and Cauliflower (4.89 and 4.84 μmol/g dry weight, respectively), the indolyl glucosinolates were predominant in Kohlrabi, while the aliphatic derivatives (sinigrin and glucoiberin) were major in Cauliflower. In Cabbage samples, the aliphatic glucosinolates were predominat against indolyl derivatives, glucoraphanin and glucoiberin being the main ones in Red Cabbage. The principal component analysis was applied to discriminate among conventional and organic samples and demonstrated non-overlaps between these two agricultural practices. Meanwhile it was shown that glucosinolates may represent appropriate molecular markers of Brassica vegetables, their antioxidant capacity being higher in organic crops, without significant differences among different Brassica varieties.

  19. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  20. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  1. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon for Agricultural Land Use Under Various Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Jacob, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Bioenergy is generating tremendous interest as an alternative energy source that is both environmentally friendly and economically competitive. The amount of land designated for agriculture is expected to expand, including changes in the current distribution of crops, as demand for biofuels increases as a carbon neutral alternative fuel source. However, the influence of agriculture on the carbon cycle is complex, and varies depending on land use change and management practices. The purpose of this research is to integrate agriculture in the carbon-nitrogen based Community Land Model (CLM) to evaluate the above and below ground carbon storage for corn, soybean, and wheat crop lands. The new model, CLM-Crop simulates carbon allocation during four growth stages, a soybean nitrogen fixation scheme, fertilizer, and harvest practices. We present results from this model simulation, which includes the impact of a new dynamic roots module to simulate the changing root structure and depth with growing season based on the availability of water and nitrogen in the root zone and a retranslocation scheme to simulate redistribution of nitrogen from leaves, roots, and stems to grain during organ development for crop yields, leaf area index (LAI), carbon allocation, and changes in soil carbon budgets under various practices such as fertilizer and residue management. Simulated crop yields for corn, soybean and wheat are in general agreement with measurements. Initial model results indicate a loss of soil organic carbon over cultivated lands after removal of natural vegetation which continues in the following years. Soil carbon in crop lands is a strong function of the residue management and has the potential to impact crop yields significantly.

  2. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  3. Agricultural practices that store organic carbon in soils: is it only a matter of inputs ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenu, Claire; Cardinael, Rémi; Autret, Bénédicte; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Girardin, Cyril; Mary, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the world soils carbon stocks by a factor of 4 per mil annually would compensate the annual net increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This statement is the core of an initiative launched by the French government at the recent COP21, followed by many countries and international bodies, which attracts political attention to the storage potential of C in soils. Compared to forest and pasture soils, agricultural soils have a higher C storage potential, because they are often characterized by low C contents, and increasing their C content is associated with benefits in terms of soil properties and ecosystem services. Here we quantified, under temperate conditions, the additional C storage related to the implementation of two set of practices that are recognized to be in the framework of agroecology: conservation tillage on the one hand and agroforestry on the other hand. These studies were based on long-term experiments, a 16-years comparison on cropping systems on luvisols in the Paris area and a 18-year-old silvoarable agroforestry trial, on fluvisols in southern France, the main crops being cereals in both cases. C stocks were measured on an equivalent soil mass basis. Both systems allowed for a net storage of C in soils, which are, for the equivalent of the 0-30 cm tilled layer, of 0.55 ± 0.16 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for conservation agriculture (i.e. no tillage with permanent soil coverage with an associated plant, fescue or alfalfa) and of 0.25 ± 0.03 t ha-1 yr-1 for the agroforestry system. These results are in line with estimates proposed in a recent French national assessment concerning the potential of agricultural practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to recent literature, they further show that practices that increase C inputs to soil through additional biomass production would be more effective to store C in soil (tree rows, cover crops in conservation agriculture) than practices, such as no-tillage, that are assumed to reduce

  4. Agricultural practices that store organic carbon in soils: is it only a matter of inputs ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenu, Claire; Cardinael, Rémi; Autret, Bénédicte; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Girardin, Cyril; Mary, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the world soils carbon stocks by a factor of 4 per mil annually would compensate the annual net increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This statement is the core of an initiative launched by the French government at the recent COP21, followed by many countries and international bodies, which attracts political attention to the storage potential of C in soils. Compared to forest and pasture soils, agricultural soils have a higher C storage potential, because they are often characterized by low C contents, and increasing their C content is associated with benefits in terms of soil properties and ecosystem services. Here we quantified, under temperate conditions, the additional C storage related to the implementation of two set of practices that are recognized to be in the framework of agroecology: conservation tillage on the one hand and agroforestry on the other hand. These studies were based on long-term experiments, a 16-years comparison on cropping systems on luvisols in the Paris area and a 18-year-old silvoarable agroforestry trial, on fluvisols in southern France, the main crops being cereals in both cases. C stocks were measured on an equivalent soil mass basis. Both systems allowed for a net storage of C in soils, which are, for the equivalent of the 0-30 cm tilled layer, of 0.55 ± 0.16 t ha‑ 1 yr‑ 1 for conservation agriculture (i.e. no tillage with permanent soil coverage with an associated plant, fescue or alfalfa) and of 0.25 ± 0.03 t ha-1 yr-1 for the agroforestry system. These results are in line with estimates proposed in a recent French national assessment concerning the potential of agricultural practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to recent literature, they further show that practices that increase C inputs to soil through additional biomass production would be more effective to store C in soil (tree rows, cover crops in conservation agriculture) than practices, such as no-tillage, that are assumed to

  5. Holding children and young people: identifying a theory-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew A

    Holding practices are employed to help a child or young person stay still during the administration of treatments, prevent treatment interference or to undertake an examination, which can sometimes be invasive. The aim of this study was to explore assumptions and practices of holding to develop theories about teaching practices following Grounded Theory methodology for undergraduate nursing students, university lecturers and clinical mentors. The practice of therapeutic holding is often covert and not considered to be part of the treatment per se, which has led to concealment and a reticence to discuss practices openly. This study identified that there is variance in the experiences and practices. Prominent themes that emerged were a lack of clarity and lack of training. It appears that therapeutic holding practices have moved from being viewed as 'uncontested' (practice is not disputed) to 'indifferent' (where there is denial about this practice). These findings have serious implications for current practice and future training.

  6. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  7. The correction factors for sucrose gap measurements and their practical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Jirounek, P; Jones, G J; Burckhardt, C W; Straub, R W

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of extracellular and intracellular potential in the sucrose gap apparatus, previously established for a single fiber using the cable equations for a core conductor model (Jirounek and Straub, Biophys. J., 11:1, 1971), is obtained for a multifiber preparation. The exact equation is derived relating the true membrane potential change to the measured potential differences across the sucrose gap, the junction potentials between sucrose and physiological solution, the membrane potential in the sucrose region, and the electrical parameters of the preparation in each region of the sucrose gap. The extracellular potential distribution has been measured using a modified sucrose gap apparatus for the frog sciatic nerve and the rabbit vagus nerve. The results indicate a hyperpolarization of the preparations in the sucrose region, of 60--75 mV. The hyperpolarization is independent of the presence of junction potentials. The calculation of the correction terms in the equation relating the actual to the measured potential change is illustrated for the case of complete depolarization by KC1 on one side of the sucrose gap. The correction terms in the equation are given for various experimental conditions, and a number of nomographic charts are presented, by means of which the correction factors can be rapidly evaluated. PMID:6974012

  8. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  9. Climate benefits of changes in agricultural practices in the context of heat wave mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, E.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    About half of the terrestrial biosphere is under direct human influence through land management (i.e., agricultural areas and managed forests). Changing management practices is therefore a promising avenue for climate change mitigation. The mitigation potential arising from changes in land management practices has been mainly evaluated in terms of carbon storage and GHG emissions [2]. On the other hand, these practices can also influence climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface, but these effects have received less attention so far. Here we show that peak temperatures during heat heaves can be attenuated through cropland albedo management [2]. We first present observational evidence that a substantial summer albedo increase can be obtained by switching from conventional to no-till agriculture. Then, using a regional climate model, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of a full conversion to no-till management over Europe. The cooling effect owing to albedo increase under no-till farming appears to be strongly amplified during warm events. This is due to the low cloud cover during these events, thus leading to a more efficient radiative cooling from albedo change. This implies a strong potential of no-till farming to mitigate heat wave impacts. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect remains the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 degrees. These findings strongly suggest that the biogeophysical effect of management practices should be considered in the design of climate mitigation policies involving land management. References:[1] Smith, P. et al. (2014): Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel

  10. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  11. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes.

  12. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  13. An investigation of the practice of scientific inquiry in secondary science and agriculture courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Julie R.

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate the practice of scientific inquiry in two secondary biology classes and one agriculture class from different schools in different communities. The focus was on teachers' interests and intentions for the students' participation in inquiry, the voices contributing to the inquiry, and students' opportunities to confront their conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) served as the context by providing students with opportunities to design and conduct original experiments to help elucidate the function(s) of a disabled gene in Arabidopsis thaliana . Transcripts of teacher and student semi-structured interviews, field notes of classroom observations and classroom conversations, and documents (e.g., student work, teacher handouts, school websites, PREP materials) were analyzed for evidence of the practice of scientific inquiry. Teachers were interested in implementing inquiry because of potential student learning about scientific research and because PREP supports course content and is connected to a larger scientific project outside of the school. Teachers' intentions regarding the implementation of inquiry reflected the complexity of their courses and the students' previous experiences. All inquiries were student-directed. The biology students' participation more closely mirrored the practice of scientists, while the agriculture students were more involved with the procedural display of scientific inquiry. All experiences could have been enhanced from additional knowledge-centered activities regarding scientific reasoning. No activities brought explicit attention to NOS. Biology activities tended to implicitly support NOS while the agriculture class activities tended to implicitly contradict NOS. Scientists' interactions contributed to implied support of the NOS. There were missed opportunities for explicit attention to NOS in all classes

  14. Impact of agricultural management practices on DOC leaching - results of a long-term lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Ollesch, G.; Seeger, J.; Meißner, R.; Rode, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes are recently increasing in surface waters of humid climate regions. Due to its substantial importance for leaching processes, aquatic foodwebs, and drinking water purification a better understanding of sources and pathways of DOC is needed. Therefore this study aims to analyse and simulate DOC fluxes in agricultural ecosystems with selected crop rotations. A data set of 24 lysimeters of the UFZ Lysimeter station at Falkenberg (Saxony-Anhalt) covering nine years of DOC investigation has been selected and examined. The data set covers a wide range of climatic conditions with deviating management practices for grasslands and agricultural crop rotations. The monthly DOC concentrations assessed in the leached water range from 2.4 to 34.1 mg /l. DOC concentrations depend on temperature, precipitation and discharge. The type of crop grown on the lysimeter is an important trigger for DOC leaching - especially lysimeters used as pasture, or planted with rape and carrots exhibit high DOC concentrations. Management practices and fertilizer application modify the leaching of DOC and offer potentials to reduce DOC losses. The results form the basis of further process simulation studies and upscaling of the results to the small catchment scale.

  15. Impact of agricultural practices on microbiology of hay, silage and flour on Finnish and French farms.

    PubMed

    Reboux, Gabriel; Reiman, Marjut; Roussel, Sandrine; Taattola, Kirsti; Millon, Laurence; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to microorganisms in farm environments may cause respiratory disorders, e.g. asthma, organic dust toxic syndrome and allergic alveolitis. By reducing microbiological deterioration of organic materials, some agricultural practices have a protective effect. Microbiological analyses were carried out on hay, silage and flour samples (n=107) from farms in Finland and France (n=23) that use different methods of haymaking. High concentrations of Absidia corymbifera were found in approximately 35 % of French hay samples and only 10 % of Finnish hay samples. Concentrations of Eurotium spp. were found in 20 % of hay samples from both regions. High concentrations of Wallemia sebi typified Finnish hay (38 %) more than French hay (8 %). Rhodotorula yeast was frequently and abundantly found in Finland, but never in France. The method used to make hay appeared to be the main factor affecting the microbiology of the hay. A. corymbifera and Eurotium spp. concentrations were smaller in low-density square bales than in others. In conclusion, our results emphasize the importance of good agricultural practice in the microbiological quality of fodder. PMID:17196000

  16. Creating the Opportunity to Learn: Moving from Research to Practice to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wade; Noguera, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    After years of applying more pressure on schools to raise achievement levels for all students, particularly those who underperform their mainstream peers, the achievement gap today remains virtually unchanged. But the reality is that there's proof that, under the right conditions, all students can achieve at high levels. Instead of "quick-fix…

  17. How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read and their success at school. Vocabulary has also been identified as a key factor in the achievement gap, with children from low-income families knowing significantly fewer words when they enter school. Although book reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for…

  18. Internet Research Ethics and the Policy Gap for Ethical Practice in Online Research Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrell, Jacqueline G.; Jacobsen, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of education and social science researchers design and conduct online research. In this review, the Internet Research Ethics (IRE) policy gap in Canada is identified along with the range of stakeholders and groups that either have a role or have attempted to play a role in forming better ethics policy. Ethical issues that current…

  19. The effect of changes in agricultural practices on the density of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-07-30

    The impact of agricultural practices/ activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe due to the widespread exodus of inhabitants from rural areas. The associated abandonment of agricultural lands has enabled a wide range of wild animals to prosper in the countryside, including birds, ungulates and large carnivores. One consequence has been the increase in ticks and associated tick-borne diseases which now constitute a greater threat for public health than earlier. The aim of the present study was to compare tick densities in different habitats (pasture, meadow, fallow land, post-fire areas) to assess the impact of different agricultural practices on tick densities in vicinities close to human habitation. Between September 2011 and June 2014, 2985 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by conventional dragging, in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) and Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Masuria) regions of Poland. In each region, 3 study sites were selected, each situated near surface water sources (i.e., ponds or canals). At each site, three neighboring habitats of surface area 150-600 m(2) were dragged: one on a cattle/horse pasture; the second on meadow; the third on fallow land (abandoned field or meadow), at least twice during each spring and autumn. Additionally, four post-fire areas (one in 2013 and three in 2014) were identified in the Mazowieckie region, and dragging was conducted there in spring and autumn, including in each case a 'control area' comprising intact unburned fallow land situated in close vicinity to the burned areas. Eight hundred D. reticulatus ticks were collected and the densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. The highest tick densities were recorded on the fallow lands, and the lowest - on the grazed pastures. Tick densities were up to 10 × times higher on the control sites compared to neighboring post-fire sites. PMID:26073110

  20. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  1. A DISCUSSION OF THE GAP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF NEW PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOEWENSTEIN, DUANE E.; AND OTHERS

    A STUDY ON FARMERS' USE OF SUGGESTED PRACTICES IN HANDLING ALFALFA CROP PRODUCTION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE (1) IF SELECTED PERSONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS MIGHT AFFECT HAY PRODUCTION METHODS, (2) IF A DISCREPANCY EXISTS BETWEEN THE FARMER'S LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF QUALITY HAY PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND HIS USE OF THESE PRACTICES, AND (3)…

  2. Exercise and Fall Prevention: Narrowing the Research-to-Practice Gap and Enhancing Integration of Clinical and Community Practice.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Harmer, Peter; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Voit, Jan; Cameron, Kathleen A

    2016-02-01

    Falls in older adults are a global public health crisis, but mounting evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that falls can be reduced through exercise. Public health authorities and healthcare professionals endorse the use of evidence-based, exercise-focused fall interventions, but there are major obstacles to translating and disseminating research findings into healthcare practice, including lack of evidence of the transferability of efficacy trial results to clinical and community settings, insufficient local expertise to roll out community exercise programs, and inadequate infrastructure to integrate evidence-based programs into clinical and community practice. The practical solutions highlighted in this article can be used to address these evidence-to-practice challenges. Falls and their associated healthcare costs can be reduced by better integrating research on exercise intervention into clinical practice and community programs. PMID:26825429

  3. Exercise and Fall Prevention: Narrowing the Research-to-Practice Gap and Enhancing Integration of Clinical and Community Practice.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Harmer, Peter; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Voit, Jan; Cameron, Kathleen A

    2016-02-01

    Falls in older adults are a global public health crisis, but mounting evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that falls can be reduced through exercise. Public health authorities and healthcare professionals endorse the use of evidence-based, exercise-focused fall interventions, but there are major obstacles to translating and disseminating research findings into healthcare practice, including lack of evidence of the transferability of efficacy trial results to clinical and community settings, insufficient local expertise to roll out community exercise programs, and inadequate infrastructure to integrate evidence-based programs into clinical and community practice. The practical solutions highlighted in this article can be used to address these evidence-to-practice challenges. Falls and their associated healthcare costs can be reduced by better integrating research on exercise intervention into clinical practice and community programs.

  4. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  5. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  6. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  7. Identification and prioritization of management practices to reduce methylmercury exports from wetlands and irrigated agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    McCord, Stephen A; Heim, Wesley A

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site. PMID:25566831

  8. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (<15 cm) tillage. - Introducing cover crops in cropping systems: sown between two cash crops on arable farms, in orchards and vineyards (permanent or temporary cover cropping) . - Expanding agroforestry systems; planting of tree lines in cultivated fields and grasslands, and hedges around the field edges. - Increasing the life time of temporary sown grasslands: increase of life time to 5 years. The recent literature was reviewed in order to determine long term (>20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when

  9. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    PubMed

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods.

  10. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    PubMed

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods. PMID:26196068

  11. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  12. Variability of Total Below Ground Carbon Allocation amongst Common Agricultural Land Management Practices: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacha, K. M.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wilson, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    Field measurements and numerical models are currently being used to estimate quantities of Total Belowground Carbon Allocation (TBCA) for three representative land uses, viz. corn, soybeans, and prairie bromegrass for CRP (Conservation Reserve Program) of an agricultural Iowa sub-watershed, located within the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW). Since it is difficult to measure TBCA directly, a mass balance approach has been implemented to estimate TBCA as follows: TBCA = FS + FE+ Δ(CS + CR + CL) - FA , where the term Fs denotes soil respiration; FE is the carbon content of the eroded/deposited soil; ΔCS, ΔCR, ΔCL denote the changes in carbon content of the mineral soil, plant roots, and litter layer, respectively; and FA is the above ground litter fall of dead plant material to the soil. The terms are hypothesized to have a huge impact on TBCA within agricultural settings due to intensive tillage practices, water-driven soil erosion/deposition, and high usage of fertilizer. To test our hypothesis, field measurements are being performed at the plot scale, replicating common agricultural land management practices. Soil respiration (FS) is being measured with an EGM-4 CO2 Gas Analyzer and SRC-1 Soil Respiration Chamber (PP Systems), soil moisture and temperature are recorded in the top 20 cm for each respective soil respiration measurement, and litter fall rates (FA) are acquired by collecting the residue in a calibrated pan. The change in carbon content of the soil (ΔCS), roots (ΔCR) and litter layer (ΔCL) are being analyzed by collecting soil samples throughout the life cycle of the plant. To determine the term FE for the three representative land management practices, a funnel collection system located at the plot outlet was used for collecting the eroded material after natural rainfall events. Field measurements of TBCA at the plot scale via the mass balance approach are used to calibrate the numerical agronomic process model DAYCENT, which simulates the daily

  13. Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

    2003-08-20

    In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers.

  14. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Agriculture Practices on Natural Resources: Scientific Contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to Enhance the Management of Agricultural Landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) enhances and protects the quality of life in the United States by advancing scientific knowledge to facilitate effective management of hydrologic, biologic, and geologic resources. Results of selected USGS research and monitoring projects in agricultural landscapes are presented in this Fact Sheet. Significant environmental and social issues associated with agricultural production include changes in the hydrologic cycle; introduction of toxic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens; reduction and alteration of wildlife habitats; and invasive species. Understanding environmental consequences of agricultural production is critical to minimize unintended environmental consequences. The preservation and enhancement of our natural resources can be achieved by measuring the success of improved management practices and by adjusting conservation policies as needed to ensure long-term protection.

  15. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  16. A Case Study to Explore Rigorous Teaching and Testing Practices to Narrow the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Tesha

    2012-01-01

    The problem examined in this study: Does the majority of teachers use rigorous teaching and testing practices? The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the classroom techniques of six effective teachers who use rigorous teaching and testing practices. The hypothesis for this study is that the examination of the…

  17. Strategies for Filling a Performance Gap between Practice and High-Level Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Many athletes display great sport skills in noncompetitive situations such as during practice, but fail to successfully execute these same skills in competition. Coaches often wonder (1) from a technical perspective, why is the good performance of athletes during practice sessions not transferred to actual competition; (2) what are the flaws of…

  18. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Susan A.; Luera, Gail R.; Otto, Charlotte A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the two related links of "research to teaching practice" and "teaching practice to research" that pre-service elementary teachers made during an action research project focusing on a conceptual-change teaching experience with elementary school students. Data were collected from the final written reports from…

  19. Annual cycle of humic substances in a temperate estuarine system affected by agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeles, Matthieu; Riso, Ricardo; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Quentel, François; Durrieu, Gaël; Tissot, Cyril

    2013-04-01

    Although widely studied for their chemical structures and properties (e.g., metal complexation, growth stimulation of planktonic species), humic substances (HS) have been very poorly quantified in fluvial and estuarine waters. In this monthly basis study, we determined HS concentrations (by Adsorptive Square Wave Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry) along the entire river-seawater gradient of the Penzé estuary (NW France), with the aim to characterize the export of these compounds. In this watershed where agricultural activities are predominant, manuring activities were identified as being the main source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and HS. HS concentrations varied usually within a narrow range in fluvial waters, i.e., 1.8 ± 0.4 mgC L-1 (150 ± 40 μM), but increased significantly as the first flood of autumn occurred (>4 mgC L-1 in river and upper estuary). At this time, HS accounted for a very high proportion of DOC (>80%). As evidenced by the increasing contribution of HS to DOC, and by the increasing contribution of small colloidal HS species; this autumnal flood increase should be attributed to a greater retention and transformation of organic matter on soils over the hotter, drier, and lighter period preceding the first autumnal flood. In the mixing zone, HS displayed mostly conservative behaviour, although some removals were occasionally observed. Overall, our study suggests that preservation of HS could be relatively important during their transfer across macrotidal temperate estuaries, at least in systems affected by agricultural practices.

  20. Practical split-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature over agricultural areas from ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Songhan; He, Longhua

    2014-01-01

    A practical split-window algorithm which involves two parameters (transmittance and emissivity) utilized to retrieve land-surface temperature over agricultural areas from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data is presented. First, by calculating the relationship between thermal radiation intensity and temperature, the Planck function is simplified using exponential function which is applied to deduce the split-window algorithm. Second, how to obtain transmittance from water vapor content and the method for estimating emissivity using normalized difference vegetation index are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the algorithm is not sensitive to these two parameters. Finally, a standard atmospheric simulation method has been used to validate the proposed algorithm, and comparison between the algorithm and the prior study has been carried out. The results indicate that the average accuracy is 0.32 K for the case without error in both transmittance and emissivity, which is better than the prior algorithm. The accuracy is also 0.32 K when the transmittance is computed from the water content by piecewise cubic polynomial fit. The accuracy is about 0.30 K˜0.33 K corresponding to different Pv (Pv is the proportion of vegetation) values, which indicates that this algorithm is suitable for different land surface types over agricultural areas.

  1. Australian clinicians and educators identify gaps in specialist cardiac nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, D; Duffield, C; Adams, A; Mitten-Lewis, S; Crisp, J; Nagy, S

    2000-01-01

    Change is endemic in both the health care and higher education sectors in Australia. Consequently professional roles and educational pathways must also evolve and adapt, often catalysed by those in leadership positions. Two national Delphi panels, one of cardiac nurse educators and the other of cardiac nurses, were convened to answer the question 'What knowledge, skills and attitudes are required for an expert nurse practising in the highly technological cardiac care environment?' Respondents indicated on a Likert scale the importance of 107 items to the nurse's role in both the 'real' and 'ideal' worlds of practice. Overall there was very strong agreement between the two panels with results indicating that Australian nurses perform close to their ideal in many areas of practice. For 31 of the items, both panels identified that the reality of practice is quite far from their ideal. Both panels agree that 10 of the behaviours are carried out or valued very little in practice. Reasons why nurses are not carrying out these elements of the role to their satisfaction are discussed and remediation strategies suggested. The findings can inform both curriculum development and clinical practice. In the dynamic health care arena, the nursing profession continues to respond to community and professional needs, seeking to establish sound research-based practice and maintain a high quality of clinical care and nursing management. The development of competencies by the Confederation of Critical Care Nurses (1996) is a good example of professional groups taking the initiative both in defining the practice role and providing tools that assist educational bodies to develop programs appropriate for a practice based discipline. Specialty nursing practice is 'under the microscope' in Australia as the profession seeks the best methods to weight nursing activities, measure nursing outcomes and recruit, retain and justify the use of specialist practitioners.

  2. Influence of agricultural practices on the contamination of maize by fumonisin mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ariño, A; Herrera, M; Juan, T; Estopañan, G; Carramiñana, J J; Rota, C; Herrera, A

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of different agricultural practices on the contamination of maize by fumonisin mycotoxins. Corn samples were collected from 16 maize fields located in Aragón (northeastern Spain) during the 2007 crop year. Corn samples were collected from each field five times at different maturation stages: F1, day 0 (milky corn); F2, day 15; F3, day 30 (yellow corn); F4, day 45; and F5, ripe corn at harvest. The agricultural practices evaluated were type of seed (conventional and transgenic), planting method (dry and wet planting), tillage system (plowing and minimum tillage), type of irrigation (flood and sprinkler), residue management of preceding crop (removal and burial), nitrogen fertilization level (kg N per ha), and harvest date. Mycotoxin analysis was carried out with the ROSA Fumonisin test, which measures both fumonisin B1 and B2 by lateral flow immunoassay. No fumonisins were detected in milky corn (F1 and F2 stages). Only one field had fumonisins in F3 yellow corn (1,037 microg/kg); this field was part of the only farm affected by borer insects. One-third of fields had fumonisins at the F4 stage (363 microg/kg), and 62.5% of the fields were positive for fumonisins at the F5 harvest stage (520 microg/kg). Wet planting and the removal of debris from the previous crop significantly lowered the risk of fumonisin in corn. The use of insect-resistant maize seeds tended to reduce fumonisin levels. However, higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer had a tendency to increase fumonisin levels in corn. Tillage system, type of irrigation, and harvest date had no clear effect on fumonisin levels.

  3. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  4. Influence of agricultural practices on the contamination of maize by fumonisin mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ariño, A; Herrera, M; Juan, T; Estopañan, G; Carramiñana, J J; Rota, C; Herrera, A

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of different agricultural practices on the contamination of maize by fumonisin mycotoxins. Corn samples were collected from 16 maize fields located in Aragón (northeastern Spain) during the 2007 crop year. Corn samples were collected from each field five times at different maturation stages: F1, day 0 (milky corn); F2, day 15; F3, day 30 (yellow corn); F4, day 45; and F5, ripe corn at harvest. The agricultural practices evaluated were type of seed (conventional and transgenic), planting method (dry and wet planting), tillage system (plowing and minimum tillage), type of irrigation (flood and sprinkler), residue management of preceding crop (removal and burial), nitrogen fertilization level (kg N per ha), and harvest date. Mycotoxin analysis was carried out with the ROSA Fumonisin test, which measures both fumonisin B1 and B2 by lateral flow immunoassay. No fumonisins were detected in milky corn (F1 and F2 stages). Only one field had fumonisins in F3 yellow corn (1,037 microg/kg); this field was part of the only farm affected by borer insects. One-third of fields had fumonisins at the F4 stage (363 microg/kg), and 62.5% of the fields were positive for fumonisins at the F5 harvest stage (520 microg/kg). Wet planting and the removal of debris from the previous crop significantly lowered the risk of fumonisin in corn. The use of insect-resistant maize seeds tended to reduce fumonisin levels. However, higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer had a tendency to increase fumonisin levels in corn. Tillage system, type of irrigation, and harvest date had no clear effect on fumonisin levels. PMID:19435247

  5. Comparison of soil bacterial communities under diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiehang; Chellemi, Dan O; Graham, Jim H; Martin, Kendall J; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2008-02-01

    The composition and structure of bacterial communities were examined in soil subjected to a range of diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of bacterial DNA extracted from soil was used to generate amplicon profiles that were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Five land management programs were initiated in July 2000: conventional, organic, continuous removal of vegetation (disk fallow), undisturbed (weed fallow), and bahiagrass pasture (Paspalum notatum var Argentine). Similar levels in the diversity of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were detected in soil samples collected from organically and conventionally managed plots 3 and 4 years after initiation of land management programs, whereas significantly lower levels of diversity were observed in samples collected from bahiagrass pasture. Differences in diversity were attributed to effects on how the relative abundance of individual amplicons were distributed (evenness) and not on the total numbers of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons detected (richness). Similar levels of diversity were detected among all land management programs in soil samples collected after successive years of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivation. A different trend was observed after a multivariate examination of the similarities in genetic composition among soil bacterial communities. After 3 years of land management, similarities in genetic composition of soil bacterial communities were observed in plots where disturbance was minimized (bahiagrass and weed fallow). The genetic compositions in plots managed organically were similar to each other and distinct from bacterial communities in other land management programs. After successive years of tomato cultivation and damage from two major hurricanes, only the composition of soil bacterial communities within organically managed plots continued to maintain a high degree of similarity

  6. Midwest Climate and Agriculture - Monitoring Tillage Practices with NASA Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, N. I.; Archer, S.; Rooks, K.; Sparks, K.; Trigg, C.; Lourie, J.; Wilkins, K.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about climate change have driven efforts to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural activity has drawn considerable attention because it accounts for nearly twelve percent of total anthropogenic emissions. Depending on the type of tillage method utilized, farm land can be either a source or a sink of carbon. Conventional tillage disturbs the soil and can release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Conservational tillage practices have been advocated for their ability to sequester carbon, reduce soil erosion, maintain soil moisture, and increase long-term productivity. If carbon credit trading systems are implemented, a cost-effective, efficient tillage monitoring system is needed to enforce offset standards. Remote sensing technology can expedite the process and has shown promising results in distinguishing crop residue from soil. Agricultural indices such as the CAI, SINDRI, and LCA illuminate the unique reflectance spectra of crop residue and are thus able to classify fields based on percent crop cover. The CAI requires hyperspectral data, as it relies on narrow bands within the shortwave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although limited in availability, hyperspectral data has been shown to produce the most accurate results for detecting crop residue on the soil. A new approach to using the CAI was the focus of this study. Previously acquired field data was located in a region covered by a Hyperion swath and is thus the primary study area. In previous studies, ground-based data were needed for each satellite swath to correctly calibrate the linear relationship between the index values and the fraction of residue cover. We hypothesized that there should be a standard method which is able to convert index values into residue classifications without ground data analysis. To do this, end index values for a particular data set were assumed to be associated with end values of residue cover percentages. This method may prove

  7. Bridging the Theory-Practice Gap by Getting Even Bolder with the Boulder Model

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for virtually all psychiatric disorders. However, very few patients have access to it and few therapists are trained in the theory and practice of cognitive behavioral therapy. Based on the existing evidence and the articles of this series, the following recommendations are made: (1) all mental health care providers (including PsyD and social workers) need to be trained in the practice and theories of empirically-supported treatments, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy; (2) clinical practice also needs to be based on theory, not just treatment manuals; and (3) psychological treatments have to move beyond the DSM boundaries. PMID:24094785

  8. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  9. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  10. Practical recommendations to help students bridge the research-implementation gap and promote conservation.

    PubMed

    Pietri, Diana M; Gurney, Georgina G; Benitez-Vina, Nancy; Kuklok, Audrey; Maxwell, Sara M; Whiting, Libby; Vina, Michael A; Jenkins, Lekelia D

    2013-10-01

    Seasoned conservation researchers often struggle to bridge the research-implementation gap and promote the translation of their work into meaningful conservation actions. Graduate students face the same problems and must contend with obstacles such as limited opportunities for relevant interdisciplinary training and a lack of institutional support for application of research results. However, students also have a crucial set of opportunities (e.g., access to academic resources outside their degree programs and opportunities to design research projects promoting collaboration with stakeholders) at their disposal to address these problems. On the basis of results of breakout discussions at a symposium on the human dimensions of the ocean, a review of the literature, and our own experiences, we devised recommendations on how graduate students can create resources within their academic institutions, institutionalize resources, and engage with stakeholders to promote real-world conservation outcomes. Within their academic institutions, graduate students should foster links to practitioners and promote knowledge and skill sharing among students. To institutionalize resources, students should cultivate student leaders and faculty sponsors, systematically document their program activities, and engage in strategic planning to promote the sustainability of their efforts. While conducting research, students should create connections to and engage actively with stakeholders in their relevant study areas and disseminate research results both to stakeholders and the broader public. Our recommendations can serve as a template for graduate students wishing to bridge the research-implementation gap, both during their current studies and in their future careers as conservation researchers and practitioners.

  11. Modelling the impacts of agricultural management practices on river water quality in Eastern England.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M

    2016-09-15

    Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term impacts of potential changes to agricultural management practices on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the impacts of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those impacts. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of

  12. Using evidence-based practice to address gaps in nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Tagney, Jenny; Haines, Caroline

    Implementing evidence based-practice and research findings into nursing care has been identified as a challenge to nursing staff. This article identifies key barriers to the use of research in the international literature, however, there are limited suggestions as to how to improve this in the clinical arena. This article aims to identify how nurses could optimize the implementation of evidence and research into their clinical care and reviews barriers to implementing and undertaking nursing research, suggesting a framework for improvement. It considers the widely varied levels of knowledge of research and equally varied critical appraisal skills present both at a pre and post-registration nursing level. The authors discuss an innovative, collaborative approach that considers the role of the nurse consultant, clinical academic and research facilitator posts. To ensure quality evidence-based practice is implemented into clinical nursing care a realistic and practical structure must be applied. With the appropriate framework, clinical structure and organizational support, promotion of evidence-based practice and research for patient benefit can be optimized. The implications for practice are also discussed. The implementation of a realistic research framework into clinical nursing practice has the potential to influence and develop a more active nursing research culture and promote evidence-based care within the workplace.

  13. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  14. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  15. Surgical treatment for epilepsy: the potential gap between evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Jetté, Nathalie; Sander, Josemir W; Keezer, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Findings from randomised controlled trials, along with more than 100 case series and observational studies, support the efficacy and safety of resective surgery and, more recently, non-resective surgical interventions for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in appropriately selected individuals. There is an argument that epilepsy surgery remains underused, but the evidence to support this assertion is at times unclear. Results from longitudinal studies show a stagnant or declining rate of epilepsy surgery over time, despite the evidence and guidelines supporting its use. Some suggest that this stagnation is due to a decreasing pool of eligible surgical candidates, whereas others emphasise the numerous barriers to epilepsy surgery. Strategies exist to increase access to surgery and to improve communication about the effectiveness of this potentially life-changing procedure. Further investigation into the nature and causes of the presumed underuse of epilepsy surgery and the elaboration of strategies to address this treatment gap are necessary and pressing. PMID:27478955

  16. Surgical treatment for epilepsy: the potential gap between evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Jetté, Nathalie; Sander, Josemir W; Keezer, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Findings from randomised controlled trials, along with more than 100 case series and observational studies, support the efficacy and safety of resective surgery and, more recently, non-resective surgical interventions for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in appropriately selected individuals. There is an argument that epilepsy surgery remains underused, but the evidence to support this assertion is at times unclear. Results from longitudinal studies show a stagnant or declining rate of epilepsy surgery over time, despite the evidence and guidelines supporting its use. Some suggest that this stagnation is due to a decreasing pool of eligible surgical candidates, whereas others emphasise the numerous barriers to epilepsy surgery. Strategies exist to increase access to surgery and to improve communication about the effectiveness of this potentially life-changing procedure. Further investigation into the nature and causes of the presumed underuse of epilepsy surgery and the elaboration of strategies to address this treatment gap are necessary and pressing.

  17. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    . However, these growth benefits subsequently diminished over time. Insignificant growth benefits were observed for lucerne. The analysis of the literature and our own work indicates that it is difficult to account for all the possible variables where research is used to inform land management practices. Assisting farmers to conduct localised research in cooperative ventures is likely to bring about the best outcomes where site-specific research directly informs land management practices. 1. Michael T. Rose, Antonio F. Patti, Karen R. Little, Alicia L. Brown, W. Roy Jackson, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, A Meta-Analysis and Review of Plant-Growth Response to Humic Substances: Practical Implications for Agriculture, Advances in Agronomy, 2013, 124, 37-89

  18. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Cerdà, Artemi; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  19. Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure Influenced by Agricultural Management Practices in a Mediterranean Agro-Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage. PMID:24260409

  20. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Aspirations for Curricular Autonomy--The Gap between an Ideal and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuul, Maire; Mikser, Rain; Neudorf, Evelyn; Ugaste, Aino

    2015-01-01

    Establishing national framework curricula is a growing tendency in early childhood education internationally, and is considered to be part of the regulatory requirements framework for enhancing preschool teachers' professionalism. A topical issue in this context is whether and how teachers themselves see these practices as contributing to their…

  1. Concussion Management in Community College Athletics: Revealing and Understanding the Gap between Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes; Porter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The seriousness of concussions in athletics is only recently becoming fully understood and appreciated. There are significant implications for the concussed student-athlete both in returning to the playing field and the classroom. Although practices are now in place to improve identification and management of concussions in professional sports,…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap. A Vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Belinda, Ed.

    Chapters in this book, based on the efforts of the Urban Education National Network Task Force, define the nature of obstacles to the academic performance of urban students and identify, validate, and disseminate a knowledge base of theory and practice to inform decision making about urban schools. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of the…

  3. Bridging the research-practice gap: exploring the research cultures of practitioners and managers.

    PubMed

    Le May, A; Mulhall, A; Alexander, C

    1998-08-01

    To ensure effective utilization of research in nursing more evidence is needed which illuminates the way nurses think about research, the value which they put on it, and how they envisage that it may help or hinder them in their everyday work. This English study aimed to meet these objectives by describing the research culture of practising nurses, health visitors and midwives, and their managers. It rests on two assumptions. Firstly that the reasons why practitioners do, or do not, base their practice on research are complex, and secondly, that interventions to increase research utilization must be grounded in an appreciation of this complex 'whole'. Thus the study took a qualitative approach to exploring: what participants thought and felt about research; the current status of research based practice; and the opportunities and constraints to increasing research based practice. The results confirm the hypothesis that many factors, both individual and organizational affect research utilization. Furthermore, practitioners and managers hold differing perceptions regarding the nature of research, its role, and the opportunities and constraints which effect its dissemination and utilization. The implications of the results for education, policy and practice are discussed. PMID:9725742

  4. Sustainable Development: Assessing the Gap between Preaching and Practice at Aalborg University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel; Jorgensen, Tine Herreborg; Lehmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to discuss the contradiction between signing an agreement to work for sustainable universities and the lack of practical commitment in one case, namely at Aalborg University (AAU). Focus is placed both on the University's core processes such as education, research and outreach; on the necessary inputs and outputs related…

  5. Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice: The Effective Nationwide Transport of MST Programs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Christensen, Bernadette; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Holth, Per

    2008-01-01

    The successful nationwide transport and evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) programs in Norway is described. This description is provided within the context of the nation's movement towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) during the past decade, the conduct of a multisite randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness…

  6. L2 Vocabulary Research and Instructional Practices: Where Are the Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.; Kushnir, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the vocabulary knowledge, beliefs, and practices of adult English as a second language (ESL) instructors. Thirty participants responded to an online survey designed to elicit information regarding their knowledge and beliefs; approaches to assessment; vocabulary teaching techniques and strategies; instructional practices…

  7. Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2011-01-01

    Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

  8. Team Learning to Narrow the Gap between Healthcare Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Tejwansh S.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored team-based learning in teams of healthcare professionals working on making meaning of evidence-based clinical guidelines in their field to apply them within their practice setting. The research based team learning models posited by Kasl, Marsick, and Dechant (1997) and Edmondson, Dillon, and Roloff (2007) were used as the…

  9. Action Research in Education: Addressing Gaps in Ethical Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda L.; Putten, Jim Vander

    2007-01-01

    Action research in education has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. It is viewed as a practical yet systematic research method that enables teachers to investigate their own teaching and their students' learning. However, the ethical issues unique to this form of insider research have received less attention. Drawing on several…

  10. Academic nursing education guidelines: tool for bridging the gap between theory, research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jerlock, Margaretha; Falk, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop educational guidelines to be used as a tool for the integration of theory, research and practice to ensure that nursing knowledge and practical skills form the basis of academic nursing education. An additional aim was to describe the nursing competence expected of the students at four academic levels: introductory, intermediate and advanced levels I and II. Clinical nursing education plays a crucial role in assisting nursing students to integrate the theory and practice of nursing at the baccalaureate level, as well as in further specialization and in-depth nursing studies at the advanced level. A research group consisting of lecturers from the Institute of Nursing, Göteborg University, Sweden, was given the objective to formulate educational guidelines for clinical practice within nursing education. The study took the form of a literature search. In addition, the Delphi method, aimed at reaching a consensus of opinion among colleagues, was used. Based on the literature review and the collegial discussions, four core concepts emerged: professional stance, reflective processes, problem-solving processes, and practical skills, from which the educational guidelines were developed. Guidelines were formulated both in general and abstract form. They were not connected to a specific care context, specific patient group or specific nursing problems. The most important objective of academic education is that the student develops abilities and techniques necessary for life-long learning. Students will, in their professional life as nurses, continuously meet situations where they are challenged to take appropriate decisions and actions. This demands training in problem-solving, reflection, decision-making and the ability to use both deductive and inductive learning strategies. The guidelines describe what is expected of the students in terms of nursing competence and personal qualifications to ensure that they will be ready to

  11. Modeling watershed-scale effectiveness of agricultural best management practices to reduce phosphorus loading.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nalini S; Easton, Zachary M; Schneiderman, Elliot M; Zion, Mark S; Lee, David R; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2009-03-01

    Planners advocate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce loss of sediment and nutrients in agricultural areas. However, the scientific community lacks tools that use readily available data to investigate the relationships between BMPs and their spatial locations and water quality. In rural, humid regions where runoff is associated with saturation-excess processes from variable source areas (VSAs), BMPs are potentially most effective when they are located in areas that produce the majority of the runoff. Thus, two critical elements necessary to predict the water quality impact of BMPs include correct identification of VSAs and accurate predictions of nutrient reduction due to particular BMPs. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of BMPs using the Variable Source Loading Function (VSLF) model, which captures the spatial and temporal evolutions of VSAs in the landscape. Data from a long-term monitoring campaign on a 164-ha farm in the New York City source watersheds in the Catskills Mountains of New York state were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a range of BMPs. The data spanned an 11-year period over which a suite of BMPs, including a nutrient management plan, riparian buffers, filter strips and fencing, was installed to reduce phosphorus (P) loading. Despite its simplicity, VSLF predicted the spatial distribution of runoff producing areas well. Dissolved P reductions were simulated well by using calibrated reduction factors for various BMPs in the VSLF model. Total P losses decreased only after cattle crossings were installed in the creek. The results demonstrated that BMPs, when sited with respect to VSAs, reduce P loss from agricultural watersheds, providing useful information for targeted water quality management.

  12. Soil organic carbon fractionation for improving agricultural soil quality diagnosis in different management practices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Chartin, Caroline; Kruger, Inken; Carnol, Monique; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2016-04-01

    Preserving ecosystem functions of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils is a key challenge. The need for an efficient diagnosis of SOM state in agricultural soils is a priority in order to facilitate the detection of changes in soil quality as a result of changes in management practices. The nature of SOM is complex and cannot readily be monitored due to the heterogeneity of its components. Assessment of the SOM level dynamics, typically characterized as the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC), can be refined by taking into account carbon pools with different turnover rates and stability. Fractionating bulk SOC in meaningful soil organic fractions helps to better diagnose SOC status. By separating carbon associated with clay and fine silt particles (stable carbon with slow turnover rate) and carbon non-associated with this fraction (labile and intermediate carbon with higher turnover rates), effects of management can be detected more efficiently at different spatial and temporal scales. Until now, most work on SOC fractionation has focused on small spatial scales along management or time gradients. The present case study focuses on SOC fractionation applied in order to refine the interpretation of organic matter turnover and SOC sequestration for regional units in Wallonia with comparable climate, management and, to a certain extent, soil conditions. In each unit, random samples from specific land uses are analyzed in order to assess the Normal Operative Ranges (NOR) of SOC fraction contents for each unit and land use combination. Thus, SOC levels of the different fractions of a specific field in a given unit can be compared to its corresponding NOR. It will help to better diagnose agricultural soil quality in terms of organic carbon compared to a bulk SOC diagnosis.

  13. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  14. Agricultural land use and best management practices to control nonpoint water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Lo Porto, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  15. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  16. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  17. Bridging the gap between CBME in theory and practice: the role of a teacher community.

    PubMed

    Gercama, Ale; van Lankveld, Thea; Kleinveld, Johanna; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi

    2014-12-01

    The success of curricular reforms is dependent on the teachers who put the reforms into practice. In medical education, clinicians as teachers are important in this endeavour and the educational organization can learn from their efforts. The 'Vygotsky space' construct may help to analyze the learning process between teachers and organization. A case study is presented that shows how a teaching community acted as an enabler in this learning process. PMID:25488188

  18. Estimating the effects of agricultural conservation practices on phosphorus loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin (MARB) is important in terms of both the national economy and the nutrients discharged to the basin and the Gulf of Mexico. Conservation practices are installed on cropland to reduce the nutrient losses. A recent study by the Conservation Effec...

  19. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  20. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  1. Agricultural conservation planning framework: 1. Developing multi-practice watershed planning scenarios and assessing nutrient reduction potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We show that spatial data on soils, land use, and high-resolution topography, combined with knowledge of conservation practice effectiveness, can be leveraged to identify and assess alternatives to reduce nutrient discharge from small (HUC12) agricultural watersheds. Databases comprising soil attrib...

  2. Role of Leadership in Narrowing the Gap between Science and Practice: Improving Treatment Outcomes at the Systems Level.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Bloch, Richard M; Silver, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    It's been well documented that health care does not reliably transfer what we know from science into clinical practice. As a result, Americans do not always receive the care suggested by the scientific evidence. Despite the best intentions of a dedicated and skilled healthcare workforce, this can often lead to poor clinical outcomes. As research and technology rapidly advance, this gap between science and practice appears to be widening. There is an increasing public concern about a lack of access to appropriate treatment, pervasiveness of unsafe practices, and wasteful uses of precious health care resources leading to suboptimum treatment outcomes. Leadership has a critical role in creating and sustaining the environment that supports health services for individuals and populations that increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. Leadership has some responsibility to improve outcomes by insuring effective use of evidence-based treatment guidelines; measurement-based care; knowledge and skills management; care coordination; and information technologies. This paper addresses leadership issues in these components of a system's ability to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:26031668

  3. The practice gap in the care of women following successful infertility treatments: unasked research questions in midwifery and nursing.

    PubMed

    Allan, Helen; Finnerty, Gina

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the gap between existing research evidence and nursing and midwifery practices in caring for women following successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and to suggest directions for research within these disciplines. We argue that although the number of couples in the UK experiencing fertility problems has risen, 1.4% of all births in the UK are as the result of infertility treatments (HFEA, 2005/2006); yet there is little research into the experiences of motherhood for women who successfully achieve pregnancy following IVF or GIFT. Consequently, there is negligible research evidence for nurses and midwives practicing in this area, and British healthcare staff appear to be unaware of the specific needs of infertile women during pregnancy, birth and early motherhood. In this paper we review the existing literature on this group of women, which falls into three areas: studies into the psychosocial development of the child conceived via IVF/GIFT/donor insemination; comparative studies into experiences of women following successful infertility treatment and women who conceive naturally; and studies into the experiences of women following successful IVF treatment. We review this literature to argue for research into the needs of infertile women following successful IVF/GIFT, to inform evidence for practice. PMID:17564889

  4. Role of Leadership in Narrowing the Gap between Science and Practice: Improving Treatment Outcomes at the Systems Level.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Bloch, Richard M; Silver, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    It's been well documented that health care does not reliably transfer what we know from science into clinical practice. As a result, Americans do not always receive the care suggested by the scientific evidence. Despite the best intentions of a dedicated and skilled healthcare workforce, this can often lead to poor clinical outcomes. As research and technology rapidly advance, this gap between science and practice appears to be widening. There is an increasing public concern about a lack of access to appropriate treatment, pervasiveness of unsafe practices, and wasteful uses of precious health care resources leading to suboptimum treatment outcomes. Leadership has a critical role in creating and sustaining the environment that supports health services for individuals and populations that increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. Leadership has some responsibility to improve outcomes by insuring effective use of evidence-based treatment guidelines; measurement-based care; knowledge and skills management; care coordination; and information technologies. This paper addresses leadership issues in these components of a system's ability to improve treatment outcomes.

  5. Expanding the use of empiricism in nursing: can we bridge the gap between knowledge and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Karen K

    2003-04-01

    The philosophy of Aristotle and its impact on the process of empirical scientific inquiry has been substantial. The influence of the clarity and orderliness of his thinking, when applied to the acquisition of knowledge in nursing, can not be overstated. Traditional empirical approaches have and will continue to have an important influence on the development of nursing knowledge through nursing research. However, as nursing is primarily a practice discipline, the transition from empirical and syllogistic reasoning is problematic. Other types of inquiry are essential in the application of nursing knowledge obtained by empirical scientific approaches and to understand how that knowledge can best be used in the care of patients. This paper reviews the strengths and limitations of syllogistic reasoning by applying it to a recently published study on temperature measurement in nursing. It then discusses possible ways that the empirical knowledge gained from that study and confirmed in its reasoning by logical analysis could be used in the daily care of critically ill patients. It concludes by highlighting the utility of broader approaches to knowledge development, including interpretative approaches and contemporary empiricism, as a way to bridge the gap between factual empirical knowledge and the practical application of that knowledge in everyday clinical nursing practice.

  6. Responding to Australia's National Hepatitis B Strategy 2010-13: gaps in knowledge and practice in relation to Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anna; Wallace, Jack; Maher, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Australian National Hepatitis B Strategy 2010-13 outlines five priority areas for developing a comprehensive response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV): building partnerships and strengthening community action; preventing HBV transmission; optimising diagnosis and screening; clinical management of people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); and developing health maintenance, care and support for people with HBV. A scoping study was used to map the main sources and types of evidence available on the epidemiology and natural history of HBV among Indigenous Australians as well as public health responses published since 2001 (January 2001-May 2013). Gaps in current knowledge were identified. While the literature documents the success of universal infant immunisation and indicates the potential for screening initiatives to identify infected and susceptible individuals, prevalence of CHB and hepatocellular cancer remain high in Indigenous Australians. Significant gaps in knowledge and practice were identified in relation to each of the five National Hepatitis B Strategy priority action areas. Successful implementation of the strategy in Indigenous communities and reducing the burden of HBV and hepatocellular cancer in Indigenous Australians will require increased investment in research and knowledge transfer across all priority areas.

  7. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed. PMID:19965338

  8. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Gaglioti, Anne H.; Werner, James J.; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  9. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers.

    PubMed

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Werner, James J; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  10. Research that matters: bridging the gap between research and practice in thanatology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J R

    2000-09-01

    This article serves as an Introduction to this two-issue special series of Death Studies on the integration of research and practice in thanatology. After discussing the lack of dialogue between researchers and practitioners in the field, the author identifies some common elements of the research and clinical processes in thanatology. These include the central role of pragmatic theory building and the universal human encounter with loss. The author then offers suggestions for enhancing the exchange between researchers and clinicians, including improvements in theory, methodology, and the dissemination of research findings. Lastly, the individual articles in the series are introduced to the reader.

  11. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: a multimedia tutorial for students of voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M; Syder, D; Nicolson, R

    1996-09-01

    A computer-based tutorial for speech and language therapy students is described in which a digitized video-recording of a diagnostic interview with a voice-disordered client was dynamically linked to an on-screen transcript window. A student-centered tutorial package, which provided guidance through questions, assessment tasks, and commentary from an experienced speech and language pathologist as well as the lecturer in voice disorder, was constructed. Evaluation of the tutorial as an aid to active learning, including feedback from students and supervising clinicians, is reported and the role of this type of program as a preparation for clinical practice is discussed.

  12. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment. PMID:26023951

  13. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Latham, A. David M.; Latham, M. Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate (‘1080’) delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10–15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30–35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93–94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  14. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Latham, A David M; Latham, M Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('1080') delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10-15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30-35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93-94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  15. Assertive Outreach Strategies for Narrowing the Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Gap: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    2009-01-01

    In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540

  16. Bridging the gap between education and appropriate use of benzodiazepines in psychiatric clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Osso, Bernardo; Albert, Umberto; Atti, Anna Rita; Carmassi, Claudia; Carrà, Giuseppe; Cosci, Fiammetta; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Di Nicola, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Goracci, Arianna; Iasevoli, Felice; Luciano, Mario; Martinotti, Giovanni; Nanni, Maria Giulia; Nivoli, Alessandra; Pinna, Federica; Poloni, Nicola; Pompili, Maurizio; Sampogna, Gaia; Tarricone, Ilaria; Tosato, Sarah; Volpe, Umberto; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    More than half a century after their discovery, benzodiazepines (BDZs) still represent one of the largest and most widely prescribed groups of psychotropic compounds, not only in clinical psychiatry but also in the entire medical field. Over the last two decades, however, there has been an increased focus on the development of antidepressants and antipsychotics on the part of the pharmaceutical industry, clinicians, and researchers, with a reduced interest in BDZs, in spite of their widespread clinical use. As a consequence, many psychiatric residents, medical students, nurses, and other mental health professionals might receive poor academic teaching and training regarding these agents, and have the false impression that BDZs represent an outdated chapter in clinical psychopharmacology. However, recent advances in the field, including findings concerning epidemiology, addiction risk, and drug interactions, as well as the introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition with related diagnostic changes, strongly encourage an updated appraisal of the use of BDZs in clinical practice. During a recent thematic event convened with the aim of approaching this topic in a critical manner, a group of young Italian psychiatrists attempted to highlight possible flaws in current teaching pathways, identify the main clinical pros and cons regarding current use of BDZs in clinical practice, and provide an updated overview of their use across specific clinical areas and patient populations. The main results are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:26257524

  17. Sensory substitution: closing the gap between basic research and widespread practical visual rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Abboud, Sami; Amedi, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) have come a long way since first developed for visual rehabilitation. They have produced exciting experimental results, and have furthered our understanding of the human brain. Unfortunately, they are still not used for practical visual rehabilitation, and are currently considered as reserved primarily for experiments in controlled settings. Over the past decade, our understanding of the neural mechanisms behind visual restoration has changed as a result of converging evidence, much of which was gathered with SSDs. This evidence suggests that the brain is more than a pure sensory-machine but rather is a highly flexible task-machine, i.e., brain regions can maintain or regain their function in vision even with input from other senses. This complements a recent set of more promising behavioral achievements using SSDs and new promising technologies and tools. All these changes strongly suggest that the time has come to revive the focus on practical visual rehabilitation with SSDs and we chart several key steps in this direction such as training protocols and self-train tools.

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  19. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  20. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  1. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Oliver E.; Steele, Val J.; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H.; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D. Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  2. Nitrate nitrogen in surface waters as influenced by climatic conditions and agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Randall, G W; Mulla, D J

    2001-01-01

    Subsurface tile drainage from row-crop agricultural production systems has been identified as a major source of nitrate entering surface waters in the Mississippi River basin. Noncontrollable factors such as precipitation and mineralization of soil organic matter have a tremendous effect on drainage losses, nitrate concentrations, and nitrate loadings in subsurface drainage water. Cropping system and nutrient management inputs are controllable factors that have a varying influence on nitrate losses. Row crops leak substantially greater amounts of nitrate compared with perennial crops; however, satisfactory economic return with many perennials is an obstacle at present. Improving N management by applying the correct rate of N at the optimum time and giving proper credits to previous legume crops and animal manure applications will also lead to reduced nitrate losses. Nitrate losses have been shown to be minimally affected by tillage systems compared with N management practices. Scientists and policymakers must understand these factors as they develop educational materials and environmental guidelines for reducing nitrate losses to surface waters. PMID:11285893

  3. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  4. The impact of agricultural practices on shallow groundwater in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, S.K.; Sendlein, L.V.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    To study the effects of agricultural practices on the groundwater quality of the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky, a large representative row crop and livestock production operation was chosen. Located in southeastern Bourbon County, the study area encompasses a 1,400 acre watershed underlain by limestones and shales of the Ordovician age Lexington Limestone Formation. Sampling and testing of surface water, ephemeral, and perennial spring waters began in the area in October, 1989. At crop and pasture micro-sites within the study area, nests containing porous-cup lysimeters and monitoring wells were installed prior to the 1992 growing season. Samples from the nest locations were analyzed for Nitrate-N, triazines, metolochlor, carbofuran, alachlor, and 2,4-D. While only ten per cent of the total samples from the study area showed triazine or Nitrate-N concentrations in excess of EPA limits, greater than 80 per cent of the samples showed concentrations of triazines above detection limits, and greater than 70 per cent of the samples contained concentrations of Nitrate-N above detection limits. Occurrences of detectable concentrations of triazines and Nitrate-N were more frequent at crop-site nests, than at pasture-site nests. Nests at both the crop and pasture sites indicated dilution of Nitrate-N and triazine concentrations with depth.

  5. Understanding the relative influence of climatic variations and agricultural management practices on crop yields at the US county level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, G.; Zhang, X.; Huang, M.; Yang, Q.; Rafique, R.; Asrar, G.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Crop yields are largely determined by climate variations and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation, fertilization and residue management. Understanding the role of these factors in regulating crop yield variations is not only important for improved crop yield production, but also equally valuable for future crop yield prediction and food security assessments. Recently, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented and evaluated for simulating corn, soybean and cereals at coarse aerial resolutions of 2 degrees (2000x2000 km). To better understand the underlying mechanisms controlling yield variations, we implemented and validated the agricultural version of CLM (CLM-crop) at a 0.125 degree resolution over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). We conducted a suite of numerical experiments to untangle the relative influence of climatic variations (temperature, precipitation, and radiation) and agricultural management practices on yield variations for the past 30 years at the US county level. Preliminary results show that the model with default parameter settings captures well the temporal variations in crop yields, as compared with the actual yield reported by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). However, the magnitude of simulated crop yields is substantially higher, especially in the Mid-western US. We find that improved characterization of fertilizers and irrigation practices is key to model performance. Retrospectively (1979-2012), crop yields are more sensitive to changes in climate factors (such as temperature) than to changes in crop management practices. The results of this study advances understanding of the dominant factors in regulating the crop yield variations at the county level, which is essential for credible prediction of crop yields in a changing climate, under different agricultural management practices.

  6. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of

  7. Narrowing the gap: practical strategies for increasing whole-grain consumption.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, N E

    1994-01-01

    Overcoming consumer confusion and doubt regarding nutrition recommendations is key to communicating the message to increase whole-grain foods in the diet. Nutrition communicators may do that more successfully by using four tactics to fashion messages about whole grains: (1) present a positive message; (2) keep it short and simple; (3) keep the message practical and flexible; (4) speak with a united voice. The quantitative recommendation to eat at least three servings of whole-grain foods daily also must be integrated into national nutrition documents, such as Healthy People 2000, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the Food Guide Pyramid, Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians, and Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating, if we are to be truly successful in communicating the need to increase whole-grain consumption. PMID:7811381

  8. Bridging the gap between research-supported interventions and everyday social work practice: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Allen

    2014-07-01

    This article describes a rationale for a focus on case studies that would provide a database of single-group pre-post mean effect sizes that could be analyzed to identify which service provision characteristics are associated with more desirable outcomes when interventions supported by randomized clinical trials are adapted in everyday practice settings. In addition, meta-analyses are proposed that would provide benchmarks that agency practitioners could compare with their mean effect size to inform their decisions about whether to continue, modify, or replace existing efforts to adopt or adapt a specific research-supported treatment. Social workers should be at the forefront of the recommended studies in light of the profession's emphasis on applied research in real-world settings and the prominence of social work practitioners in such settings.

  9. Pregnancy and oral health: a review and recommendations to reduce gaps in practice and research.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stefanie L; Mayberry, Linda J

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of the research relevant to oral health during pregnancy and includes nursing practice recommendations for referral of women to a dentist for safe and effective dental care during pregnancy. In recent years, research linking periodontitis to the risk for adverse birth outcomes has resulted in increased interest in the topic of oral health during pregnancy. The achievement of optimal oral health in pregnant women as its own benefit, however, has in the past been hampered by myths surrounding the safety of dental care during pregnancy. Many women also lack access to dental care and dental insurance, which interferes with their ability to receive adequate oral care during pregnancy. Intraoral changes that occur with pregnancy because of hormonal changes, combined with lack of routine exams and delays in treatment for oral disease, place pregnant women at higher risk for dental infections.

  10. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  11. Pre-Practicum Training in Professional Psychology to Close the Research-Practice Gap: Changing Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Wadkins, Melanie; Bailin, Abby; Doctoroff, Greta

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid proliferation of mental health interventions with proven benefit for youth, empirically supported interventions (ESIs) are underutilized in most service settings. Treatment outcome studies in these community-based settings suggest that the majority of youth do not show improvement, underscoring the importance of addressing the gap between research and practice. Clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) may limit the use of ESIs, and efforts to address these attitudes with post-graduate training pose significant challenges. Pre-practicum training in EBP may address these challenges by familiarizing students with the framework of EBP as well as with the current youth treatment evidence base and the theories and strategies of well-supported interventions. We describe a required EBP course within a professional psychology doctoral program. Forty-two students in two class cohorts completed a measure of attitudes toward EBP prior to the first class and after the final class lecture. Students were predominantly Caucasian women with bachelor's degrees. As expected, over the course of the class, student attitudes became significantly more favorable toward EBP. Students who had previously received a master's degree had more favorable attitudes prior to the class, and students with a prior bachelor's degree showed the greatest change in attitude. The results support the use of pre-practicum training in EBP to improve attitudes toward EBP, which may lead to use of effective practices with clients following training. PMID:25745525

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity influenced by different agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mar Alguacil, Maria; Torrecillas, Emma; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldan, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study a field experiment was performed at the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station (eastern Spain) to assess the influence during a 6-yr period of different agricultural practices on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The management practices included residual herbicide use, ploughing, ploughing + oats, addition of oat straw mulch and a control (land abandonment). Adjacent soil under natural vegetation was used as a reference for local, high-quality soil and as a control for comparison with the agricultural soils under different management practices. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in four families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Ambisporaceae and Claroideoglomeraceae. The first results showed significant differences in the distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between agricultural management practices. Thus, the lowest diversity was observed for the plot that was treated with herbicide. The management practices including ploughing and ploughing + oats had similar AMF diversity. Oat straw mulching yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types and showed the highest diversity index. Thus, this treatment could be more suitable in sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity.

  13. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  14. Nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater systems from agricultural fields with different management practices.

    PubMed

    Nila Rekha, P; Kanwar, R S; Nayak, A K; Hoang, C K; Pederson, C H

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring the concentration of NO(3)-N from agricultural fields to the subsurface and shallow ground water resources have received considerable interest worldwide, since agriculture has been identified as a major source of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) pollution of groundwater systems in intensively farmed watersheds. A study was conducted to quantify the impact of two tillage practices viz. chisel plow (CP) and no till (NT) with liquid swine manure application on nitrate leaching to the shallow ground water system under corn-soybean production system. This study is part of the long-term field experiments conducted at Iowa State University using completely randomized block design. The NO(3)-N concentrations in the shallow ground water were monitored at three depths viz., a network of subsurface drains at a depth of 1.2 m and piezometers at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m. Results of this study showed that the average NO(3)-N concentration during the study period was 16.1 mg l(-1), 14.4 mg l(-1) and 11.8 mg l(-1) at 1.2 m, 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths, respectively implying significant amount of NO(3)-N leaching past the subsurface drain depth of 1.2 m into the shallow groundwater but the NO(3)-N concentration decreases with the depth. The NO(3)-N concentrations in shallow groundwater were significantly higher under the chisel plow system in comparison with the no till method of tillage. Fall application of liquid swine manure caused more leaching in comparison with the spring application. Higher NO(3)-N concentration was observed under corn in comparison with the soybean plots. An in-depth analysis of the data showed a definite relationship between the NO(3)-N concentration in subsurface drain water at a depth of 1.2 m and shallow groundwater at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths.

  15. Linking agricultural practices, mycorrhizal fungi, and traits mediating plant-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Theis, Nina; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural management has profound effects on soil communities. Activities such as fertilizer inputs can modify the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities, which form important symbioses with the roots of most crop plants. Intensive conventional agricultural management may select for less mutualistic AMF with reduced benefits to host plants compared to organic management, but these differences are poorly understood. AMF are generally evaluated based on their direct growth effects on plants. However, mycorrhizal colonization also may alter plant traits such as tissue nutrients, defensive chemistry, or floral traits, which mediate important plant-insect interactions like herbivory and pollination. To determine the effect of AMF from different farming practices on plant performance and traits that putatively mediate species interactions, we performed a greenhouse study by inoculating Cucumis sativus (cucumber, Cucurbitaceae) with AMF from conventional farms, organic farms, and a commercial AMF inoculum. We measured growth and a suite of plant traits hypothesized to be important predictors of herbivore resistance and pollinator attraction. Several leaf and root traits and flower production were significantly affected by AMF inoculum. Both conventional and organic AMF reduced leaf P content but increased Na content compared to control and commercial AMF. Leaf defenses were unaffected by AMF treatments, but conventional AMF increased root cucurbitacin C, the primary defensive chemical of C. sativus, compared to organic AMF. These effects may have important consequences for herbivore preference and population dynamics. AMF from both organic and conventional farms decreased flower production relative to commercial and control treatments, which may reduce pollinator attraction and plant reproduction. AMF from both farm types also reduced seed germination, but effects on plant growth were limited. Our results suggest that studies only considering AMF

  16. Bridging the Science/Policy Gap through Boundary Chain Partnerships and Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafatis, S.

    2014-12-01

    Generating the capacity to facilitate the informed usage of climate change science by decision makers on a large scale is fast becoming an area of great concern. While research demonstrates that sustained interactions between producers of such information and potential users can overcome barriers to information usage, it also demonstrates the high resource demand of these efforts. Our social science work at Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments (GLISA) sheds light on scaling up the usability of climate science through two research areas. The first focuses on partnerships with other boundary organizations that GLISA has leveraged - the "boundary chains" approach. These partnerships reduce the transaction costs involved with outreach and have enhanced the scope of GLISA's climate service efforts to encompass new users such as First Nations groups in Wisconsin and Michigan and underserved neighborhoods in St. Paul, Minnesota. The second research area looks at the development of information usability across the regional scale of the eight Great Lakes states. It has identified the critical role that communities of practice are playing in making information usable to large groups of users who work in similar contexts and have similar information needs. Both these research areas demonstrate the emerging potential of flexible knowledge networks to enhance society's ability to prepare for the impacts of climate change.

  17. Collaboration and cogenerativity: on bridging the gaps separating theory-practice and cognition-emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetsenko, Anna

    2008-07-01

    In this rejoinder, I comment on how going through the activity of participating in this forum and of engaging in dialogue with my commentators makes sense at several levels—most importantly, at the personal and the conceptual—and how these two levels are intricately connected. The link between the personal and conceptual (cognition and emotion)—their de facto unity—is highlighted through a discussion of a theoretical stance that has to do with ineluctable dialogicality of any and all aspects, incarnations, and expressions of human development, being, and learning. The dialogicality of knowing comes to the fore if knowledge is understood as being part and parcel of ongoing real life activities out in the world imbued with ideology, values, and commitments. In this stance, knowing and acting, words and deeds, theory and practice cannot be ever thought of as separate realms; instead they inevitably and necessarily appear as belonging together and as forming inherent aspects (or dimensions) of one and the same process of people collaboratively engaging with and transforming the world.

  18. The discrepancy between recommendations and clinical practice for viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis: mind the gap!

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Bizzi, E; Herrero-Beaumont, J; Petrella, R J; Raman, R; Chevalier, X

    2015-04-01

    Recently AAOS, ACR and OARSI revised their recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and for hand, knee and hip joints. During ISIAT (International Symposium on Intra-Articular Treatments) 2013 round table on recommendations about the use of intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (IAHA) in OA, several considerations were elaborated by the ISIAT Technical Expert Panel (TEP) regarding discrepancy between recommendations and clinical practice. The ISIAT TEP gathered the following eight suggestions regarding the drawing of recommendations on the use of IAHA in OA and its comparison with other treatments. It is necessary to merge data coming from both RCTs and registers. Only studies with a strong level of evidence should be taken into account. A common threshold of efficacy should be assessed for comparing treatments. Evaluation of hard outcomes is essential. The effect size of placebo as comparator should be attentively considered in RCTs. Particular attention should be given to different phenotypes of OA that may possibly respond differently to each treatment. Compliance and long-term side effects of different therapeutic approaches should be evaluated. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation should be performed on the long term. PMID:25912569

  19. Current practices in preclinical drug development: gaps in hemostasis testing to assess risk of thromboembolic injury.

    PubMed

    Schultze, A Eric; Walker, Dana B; Turk, James R; Tarrant, Jacqueline M; Brooks, Marjory B; Pettit, Syril D

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Cardiac Biomarkers Working Group surveyed the pharmaceutical development community to investigate practices in assessing hemostasis, including detection of hypocoagulable and hypercoagulable states. Scientists involved in discovery, preclinical, and clinical research were queried on laboratory evaluation of endothelium, platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis during safety assessment studies. Results indicated that laboratory assessment of hemostasis is inconsistent among institutions and not harmonized between preclinical and clinical studies. Hemostasis testing in preclinical drug safety studies primarily focuses on the risk of bleeding, whereas the clinical complication of thrombosis is seldom assessed. Our results reveal the need for broader utilization of biomarkers to detect altered hemostasis (e.g., endothelial and platelet activation) to improve preclinical safety assessments early in the drug development process. Survey respondents indicated a critical lack of validated markers of hypercoagulability and subclinical thrombosis in animal testing. Additional obstacles included limited blood volume, lack of cross-reacting antibodies for hemostasis testing in laboratory species, restricted availability of specialized hemostasis analyzers, and few centers of expertise in animal hemostasis testing. Establishment of translatable biomarkers of prothrombotic states in multiple species and strategic implementation of testing on an industry-wide basis are needed to better avert untoward drug complications in patient populations.

  20. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  1. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance. PMID:27579311

  2. Sampling in ecology and evolution - bridging the gap between theory and practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, C.H.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C.; Graham, C.H.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Thuiller, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sampling is a key issue for answering most ecological and evolutionary questions. The importance of developing a rigorous sampling design tailored to specific questions has already been discussed in the ecological and sampling literature and has provided useful tools and recommendations to sample and analyse ecological data. However, sampling issues are often difficult to overcome in ecological studies due to apparent inconsistencies between theory and practice, often leading to the implementation of simplified sampling designs that suffer from unknown biases. Moreover, we believe that classical sampling principles which are based on estimation of means and variances are insufficient to fully address many ecological questions that rely on estimating relationships between a response and a set of predictor variables over time and space. Our objective is thus to highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate sampling space and an appropriate sampling design. We also emphasize the importance of using prior knowledge of the study system to estimate models or complex parameters and thus better understand ecological patterns and processes generating these patterns. Using a semi-virtual simulation study as an illustration we reveal how the selection of the space (e.g. geographic, climatic), in which the sampling is designed, influences the patterns that can be ultimately detected. We also demonstrate the inefficiency of common sampling designs to reveal response curves between ecological variables and climatic gradients. Further, we show that response-surface methodology, which has rarely been used in ecology, is much more efficient than more traditional methods. Finally, we discuss the use of prior knowledge, simulation studies and model-based designs in defining appropriate sampling designs. We conclude by a call for development of methods to unbiasedly estimate nonlinear ecologically relevant parameters, in order to make inferences while fulfilling requirements of

  3. Three different lenses for social capacity building: Bridging the gap between practice and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supramanaim, M.; Di Masso, M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the CapHaz-Net project's Regional Hazard Workshop on Heat- Related Hazards: Droughts, Forest Fires and Heat Waves (RHW), focusing on Catalonia (Spain). CapHaz-Net deals with social capacity building for natural hazards in a systemised way, at three levels of interaction: individuals, communities, and organisations. This paper looks at the outcomes of the RHW from a three-fold perspective. These different framings come out of a cyclic analytical process of linking practice and theory. The workshop was composed of administrators, community and academics aligned to a particular hazard. Initially grouped according to hazards, participants were asked the simple questions of How does the hazards affect us? What is being done? How to improve? and How do we work together? The first perspective frames the outcomes of the group sessions as expressed by participants in the aforementioned three levels. As a result, the minutes are the first documentation of the workshop. A second perspective is an explicit attempt to link the findings of the minutes to CapHaz-Net's theoretical framework, this is, social capacity, risk governance, social vulnerability, risk perception, risk education, and risk communication. A deliverable on Lessons Learnt and Challenges with Regards to Heat-Related Hazards is the second documentation, representing this perspective. Finally, the workshop is re-analysed relative to a social capacities typology developed within the project: knowledge capacities, motivational capacities, network capacities, financial capacities, and governance capacities. It is a relevant exercise as an effort to assess this typology as a potential tool for communities and organisations. The novelty of the RHW on Heat-Related Hazards was to bring together people who are usually isolated in their work with heat-related natural hazards. Through this new configuration, the necessity of translating across hazards emerged. Bringing together the three

  4. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of agricultural conservation practices on sediment yield in the Colusa Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzke, S. E.; Zhang, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on sediment runoff from almond orchards in the lower Colusa Basin Drain watershed in the Sacramento Valley, California. This study used modeling techniques that include varying hydrologic parameters for both upland areas and small channels to quantify the effects of BMPs water quality. The BMPs simulated in this study are commonly used in almond orchards and include strip cropping, cover cropping, vegetative filter strips, grassed waterways and channel stabilization. The effectiveness of each BMP was simulated for an above average, below average and average rainfall year. Comparison of annual total watershed sediment loads for each BMP simulation showed that overall, channel stabilization and grassed waterways, which target in stream sediment erosion and transport, are the most effective BMPs with an estimated respective reduction in sediment load of 18% and 35% for a below average precipitation year, 13% and 26% for an above average precipitation year, and 17% and 30% for an average precipitation year. Simulations of BMPs designed to reduce sediment transport in upland areas, which include strip cropping and vegetative filter strips, estimated a reduction in total annual sediment load of less than 1% at the watershed outlet. These results indicated that in-stream sediment transport is the dominant sediment transport process in this watershed. Implementation of channel stabilization measures or grassed waterways on almond orchards is estimated to result in an annual reduction of total sediment load of 41,874 kg or 72,753 kg of sediment per square kilometer of almond orchard for an above average precipitation year.

  6. ISO 14 001 at the farm level: analysis of five methods for evaluating the environmental impact of agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Galan, M B; Peschard, D; Boizard, H

    2007-02-01

    Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.

  7. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Agricultural Practices; Kampong Bukit Kapar, Selangor, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesson, Lynn L.

    The focus of this study was to procure data about adoption behavior of Malaysian smallholders (farmers) that would be useful in the instructional program in extension education at the College of Agriculture, Malaysia. Students interviewed 76 persons in a rural village of two hundred families, all engaged in agriculture. The major sources of income…

  8. Practice and Reflection on Interactive Three-Dimensional Teaching System in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the new curriculum was implemented, Sichuan Agricultural University that is characterized by agricultural science has conducted ideological and political teaching reform, explored a basic route to integrate scientific outlook on development into theoretical teaching and initially formed a human-oriented interactive three-dimensional…

  9. Multifunctional Agriculture in Policy and Practice? A Comparative Analysis of Norway and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorkhaug, Hilde; Richards, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Ideals of productivist agriculture in the Western world have faded as the unintended consequences of intensive agriculture and pastoralism have contributed to rural decline and environmental problems. In Norway and Australia, there has been an increasing acceptance of the equal importance of social and environmental sustainability as well as…

  10. Traditional agricultural practices enable sustainable remediation of highly polluted soils in Southern Spain for cultivation of food crops.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Barba-Brioso, C; Lepp, N W; Fernández-Caliani, J C

    2011-07-01

    This study relates elemental content of a range of edible crops grown in soils severely polluted by metals and metalloids as affected by traditional smallholder management practices. Five agricultural plots close to a sulfidic waste dump were monitored. Soil analysis demonstrated elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn that were greatly in excess of maximum statutory limits for agricultural soils in the studied region. The main vegetables (lettuce, chard, onion, potatoes) and lemon, together with their associated soils, were measured for elemental content. Extractable soil element concentrations were very low. There were differences in elemental accumulation between crops, but none exceeded statutory concentrations in edible parts. Soil-plant transfer factors were uniformly low for all elements and crops. It is concluded that traditional soil management practices (annual liming and application of animal manures) have created conditions for sustainable long-term safety use, with potential for multiple end-use, of these highly polluted soils.

  11. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  12. Gaps in college biology students' understanding of photosynthesis: Implications for human constructivist learning theory and college classroom practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin

    1999-11-01

    The main research question of this study was: What gaps in biochemical understanding are revealed by a range of university introductory biology students as they work through a critically acclaimed multimedia program on photosynthesis, and what are the corresponding implications for elaboration of the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin Learning Theory (ANG, now Human Constructivism)? Twelve students, mixed for ability, gender and ethnicity, were recruited from two sections of "Bio 101." Before and after instruction in photosynthesis, in-depth clinical interviews were conducted during which participants completed a range of cognitive tasks such as sorting, concept mapping, explaining and predicting. Some tasks involved interacting with a computer simulation of photosynthesis. This study primarily employed qualitative case study and verbal analysis methods. Verbal analysis of the clinical interviews revealed numerous gaps that were categorized into typologies. The two major categories were propositional gaps and processing gaps. Propositional gaps were evident in development of participants' concepts, links and constructs. Significant among these were conceptual distance gaps and continuity of matter gaps. Gaps such as convention gaps and relative significance gaps seem to be due to naivete in the discipline. Processing gaps included gaps in graphic decoding skills and relevant cognitive habits such as self-monitoring and consulting prior knowledge. Although the gaps were easier to detect and isolate with the above-average participants, all participants showed evidence of at least some of these gaps. Since some gaps are not unexpected at all but the highest literacy levels, not all the gaps identified are to be considered deficiencies. The gaps identified support the attention given by ANG theorists to the role of prior knowledge and metacognition as well as the value of graphic organizers in knowledge construction. In addition, this study revealed numerous gaps in graphic decoding

  13. Landuse and agricultural management practice web-service (LAMPS) for agroecosystem modeling and conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is developing a Land Management and Operation Database (LMOD) which contains potential model input, howe...

  14. Water Quality Response to Changes in Agricultural Land Use Practices at Headwater Streams in Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poorly managed agricultural watersheds may be one of the most important contributors to high levels of bacterial and sediment loadings in surface waters. We investigated two cattle farms with differing management schemes to compare how physicochemical and meteorological parameter...

  15. Addressing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Treatments: Applying an Effectiveness Research Model to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Alissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…

  16. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  17. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G.; Lakind, Davielle

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children’s mental health in response to a longstanding call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools, and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an over-emphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children’s healthy development, and utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation’s mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies. PMID:26155972

  18. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  19. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  20. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  1. Partnering to translate evidence-based programs to community settings: bridging the gap between research and practice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Krusky, Allison M; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2012-07-01

    Implementing evidence-based programming in diverse community settings is an essential translational research step to make effective programs widely accepted and accessible and thereby improve public health. This process is challenging and complex, yet there are few examples to guide the efforts. The authors present their experience as an example of using a university-community partnership approach to aid in translating an evidence-based program (EBP) into a small community setting as a resource for researchers and community partners wishing to implement evidence-based programming in community settings. The authors review the steps of systematic planning and client needs assessment to decide on an EBP: adapting the EBP to appeal to the community while maintaining program fidelity, building staff and organizational capacity, arranging for implementation and family engagement, and carrying out program evaluation. The study focuses on research-to-practice links and highlights each partner's role and activities in facilitating successful translation of an EBP to this community setting. The lessons learned and recommendations are also presented. Using partnerships to prepare community-based organizations to implement EBPs is a vital mechanism for bridging the discovery-delivery gap and moving toward real-world applications of research discoveries. PMID:22684264

  2. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  3. Environmental factors and management practices controlling oxygen dynamics in agricultural irrigation ponds in a semiarid Mediterranean region: implications for pond agricultural functions.

    PubMed

    Bonachela, Santiago; Acuña, Rodrigo A; Casas, Jesús

    2007-03-01

    A water quality study was carried out on 40 irrigation ponds located within the main greenhouse areas on the Almería coast, placing special emphasis on the factors controlling the oxygen dynamics, a relevant aspect with agricultural and environmental implications. Considering chemical, physical and biological water characteristics, agricultural irrigation ponds were satisfactorily classified by cluster analysis in four groups. These were congruently arranged by principal components analysis along four main environmental gradients: trophic status, photosynthetic activity, water mineralisation and presence of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Dissolved oxygen (DO) values differed highly among and within each of the four pond groups. DO dynamics was mainly depended on photosynthetic activity, and the environmental factors and management practices controlling it: seasonal and daily climatic changes, pond management (open vs. covered ponds and presence/absence of aquatic vegetation) and trophic status. Overall, different diurnal DO patterns were found between open and covered ponds. The former usually presented DO values above saturation and increasingly higher from early morning to mid-afternoon due to the photosynthetic activity of algae and macrophytic vegetation. In contrast, covered ponds showed relatively stable DO values during the diurnal period regardless of climatic conditions, with absolute values around or below saturation level. Globally, our results suggest that open ponds, with macrophytes concentrated in the deeper layer, can be an effective and sustainable management method of water oxygen enrichment.

  4. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science. Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2015-06-01

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems. PMID:26029899

  5. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science. Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2015-03-12

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems.

  6. Impact of agricultural practices on runoff and glyphosate peaks in a small vineyard catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Ballouche, Aziz

    2013-04-01

    other presented parameters. Moreover, those coefficients seem not governed by meteorological variability but directly linked with agricultural practices and in particular with tillage, not realised in 2009 as started in 2011 but increased in surface and number in 2012. To conlude, results show that whereas glyphosate concentrations decrease while the percentage of weeded areas increases, erosion increases. In order to confirm those results, the project is now focusing on glyphosate's sorption on unstable soil's particles. Acknowledgments This research has been funded by the BVVITI Regional project of the Contrat Regional Bassin Versant and Contrat Territorial supported by the Region Pays-de-la-Loire and the Water Agency Loire-Bretagne, as by the winegrower profession with FranceAgriMer, InterLoire and by the French Institute of vine and wine. We are grateful to the farmers and we specially acknowledge the municipality of Rochefort-sur-Loire.

  7. Effects of conservation practices on phosphorus loss reduction from an Indiana agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural lands have caused serious eutrophication problems, particularly in Lake Erie. However, techniques that can effectively reduce total and soluble phosphorus losses from croplands and drainage channels can be difficult to implement and gauge. This modeling study was ...

  8. Adult Education Philosophies Practiced by Agricultural Education Teachers in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Wright, Crystal B.; Lawrence, Layle D.; Odell, Kerry S.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 118 of 314 secondary agriculture teachers indicated that three-fourths teach adults; about two-thirds identified with the progressive education philosophy, 21% with behaviorism; nearly half had no formal training in teaching adults. Effect size results suggest they may not have clearly defined adult education philosophies. (Contains…

  9. The Impact of Crop, Pest, and Agricultural Management Practices on Mycotoxin Contamination of Field Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by several fungal genera which occur in a wide variety of agricultural commodities worldwide. Health issues and economic losses due to mycotoxin contamination occur at all stages of the food and feed production process. Mycotoxigenic fungi...

  10. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on N loads in the Mississippi-Atchafalya River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modeling framework consisting of a farm-scale model, Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX); a watershedscale model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); and databases was used in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practi...

  11. SUNY College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville: Selected Financial Management Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This audit report of the State University of New York (SUNY) College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville addresses the question of whether the college management has established an effective system of internal control over its revenue, equipment, and student work-study payroll. The audit makes a number of observations and conclusions.…

  12. Impact of conservation land management practices on soil microbial function in an agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) involves removing agricultural land from production and replanting with native vegetation for the purpose of reducing agriculture’s impact on the environment. In 2002, part of the Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta was enrolled in CRP. In ad...

  13. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Eguchi, S; Fujiwara, H; Hayashi, K; Tsukada, H

    2012-05-15

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer.

  14. Development of the Land-use and Agricultural Management Practice web-Service (LAMPS) for generating crop rotations in space and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The Land-use and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) provides crop rotation and management information for user-specified areas within...

  15. The contribution of arbusclar mycorrhizal fungi to the success or failure of agricultural practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good farming practices are conducted for a variety of reasons. Farmers now include management practices such as over wintering cover crops, reduced tillage, and crop rotation with the goals of reducing soil erosion, managing nutrient availability, building soil organic matter, controlling weeds, an...

  16. Retrieval of Soil Moisture Content from SAR Data to Support Water Resources Management and Agricultural Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filion, Rebecca; Dissanska, Maria; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Gherboudj, Imen; Dong, Lu; Bernier, Monique; Ludwig, Ralf; Soddu, Antonino; Hoang, Kim Huong; Deidda, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong interest in assessing the potential of space-based monitoring of surface characteristics which are critical to hydrological and agricultural applications. Our study consists on the acquisition of ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2 images over an important agricultural region in Sardinia (Italy). Jointly with image acquisition, ground data (surface soil moisture and roughness) was collected from 2005 to 2009. The research investigates soil moisture dynamics and detection at both the watershed scale (multi-temporal analysis for the Campidano region) and the field scale (retrieval algorithms tested on individual plots). This paper will focus mainly on field scale research. Preliminary results on the assessment of a semi-empirical model for surface soil moisture and roughness inversion will be presented, followed by the results of a study on RADARSAT-2 soil moisture retrieval. To conclude, a statistical analysis of the multiyear ground truth soil moisture data will be presented.

  17. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  18. Key to GHG fluxes from organic soils: site characteristics, agricultural practices or water table management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2015-04-01

    Drained peatlands are hotspots of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agriculture is the major land use type for peatlands in Germany and other European countries, but strongly varies in its intensity regarding the groundwater level and the agricultural management. Although the mean annual water table depth is sometimes proposed as an overall predictor for GHG emissions, there is a strong variability of its effects on different peatlands. Furthermore, re-wetting measures generally decrease carbon dioxide emissions, but may strongly increase methane emissions. We synthesized 250 annual GHG budgets for 120 different sites in 13 German peatlands. Carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange and ecosystem respiration), nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were measured with transparent and opaque manual chambers. Land management ranged from very intensive use with arable land or grassland with up to five cuts per year to partially or completely re-wetted peatlands. Besides the GHG fluxes, biomass yield, fertilisation, groundwater level, climatic data, vegetation composition and soil properties were measured. Overall, we found a large variability of the total GHG budget ranging from small uptakes to extremely high emissions (> 70 t CO2-equivalents/(ha yr)). At nearly all sites, carbon dioxide was the major component of the GHG budget. Site conditions, especially the nitrogen content of the unsaturated zone and the intra-annual water level distribution, controlled the GHG emissions of the agricultural sites. Although these factors are influenced by natural conditions (peat type, regional hydrology), they could be modified by an improved water management. Agricultural management such as the number of cuts had only a minor influence on the GHG budgets. At the level of individual peatlands, higher water levels always decreased carbon dioxide emissions. In nearly all cases, the trade-off between reduced carbon dioxide and increased methane emissions turned out in favour of the re

  19. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  20. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    grassland soils; areas where arable production represents a significant landuse; and catchments on productive and unproductive aquifers. The catchments were identified using a GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis with objective criteria that included landuse data (including agricultural and settlement statistics) combined with soils and geology data to evaluate the risk of P and N loss. Shortlisted catchments were then finalised using practical criteria based on the potential for hydrometry and hydrochemistry research. In each catchment, a conceptual model approach is being used to hypothesize the sources, seasonal mobilisation and pathways of nutrients and water through the soil/subsoil system and transfer into surface and ground water systems to stratify each catchment experimental design. Knowledge of the nutrient management of each catchment farm and resulting soil fertility will be used to monitor the sources of agricultural N and P. Environmental soil nutrient tests will provide baselines and checks on the potential for mobilisation. Areas of high soil fertility that are coincident with high surface or sub-surface hydrological connectivity will be monitored for subsequent nutrient transfer. Other potential nutrient source loads within the catchments, such as rural waste-water treatment plants and domestic septic systems, will be factored in as non-agricultural sources. Similarly, the potential for farmyard transfers will also be assessed. The net balance of nutrient transfer at the catchment outlets will be monitored using a high resolution method that is coincident with hydrometric measurements to ensure that there is a full understanding of the inter-dependence between point and diffuse nutrient transfers and hydrodynamics. This source to transfer approach is highly appropriate and a move towards inductive understanding of nutrient use and export in river catchments - the scale at which policies for water resources management will be assessed under the WFD. The

  1. A hydro-sedimentary modeling system for flash flood propagation and hazard estimation under different agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourgialas, N. N.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    A modeling system for the estimation of flash flood flow velocity and sediment transport is developed in this study. The system comprises three components: (a) a modeling framework based on the hydrological model HSPF, (b) the hydrodynamic module of the hydraulic model MIKE 11 (quasi-2-D), and (c) the advection-dispersion module of MIKE 11 as a sediment transport model. An important parameter in hydraulic modeling is the Manning's coefficient, an indicator of the channel resistance which is directly dependent on riparian vegetation changes. Riparian vegetation's effect on flood propagation parameters such as water depth (inundation), discharge, flow velocity, and sediment transport load is investigated in this study. Based on the obtained results, when the weed-cutting percentage is increased, the flood wave depth decreases while flow discharge, velocity and sediment transport load increase. The proposed modeling system is used to evaluate and illustrate the flood hazard for different riparian vegetation cutting scenarios. For the estimation of flood hazard, a combination of the flood propagation characteristics of water depth, flow velocity and sediment load was used. Next, a well-balanced selection of the most appropriate agricultural cutting practices of riparian vegetation was performed. Ultimately, the model results obtained for different agricultural cutting practice scenarios can be employed to create flood protection measures for flood-prone areas. The proposed methodology was applied to the downstream part of a small Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece.

  2. Short-term soil loss by eolian erosion in response to different rain-fed agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Zaady, Eli

    2016-04-01

    Eolian (wind) erosion is a widespread process and a major form of soil degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The present study examined changes in soil properties and eolian soil loss at a field scale in response to different soil treatments in two rain-fed agricultural practices. Field experiments with a boundary-layer wind tunnel and soil analysis were used to obtain the data. Two practices with different soil treatments (after harvest), mechanical tillage and stubble grazing intensities, were applied in the fallow phase of the rotation (dry season). The mechanical tillage and the stubble grazing had an immediate and direct effects on soil aggregation but not on the soil texture, and the contents of soil water, organic matter, and CaCO3. Higher erosion rates, that was measured as fluxes of total eolian sediment and particulate matter <10 μm (PM10), were recorded under mechanical tillage and grazing intensities compared with the undisturbed topsoil of the control plots. The erosion rates were higher in grazing plots than in tillage plots. The calculated soil fluxes in this study indicate potentially rapid soil degradation due to loss of fine particles by wind. The finding may have implications for long-term management of agricultural soils in semi-arid areas.

  3. Simulated crop yield in response to changes in climate and agricultural practices: results from a simple process based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, S.; Smith, M. J.; Purves, D.; Emmott, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture will, in the future, be faced with two main challenges: climate change and an increase in global food demand driven by an increase in population and changes in consumption habits. To be able to predict both the impacts of changes in climate on crop yields and the changes in agricultural practices necessary to respond to such impacts we currently need to improve our understanding of crop responses to climate and the predictive capability of our models. Ideally, what we would have at our disposal is a modelling tool which, given certain climatic conditions and agricultural practices, can predict the growth pattern and final yield of any of the major crops across the globe. We present a simple, process-based crop growth model based on the assumption that plants allocate above- and below-ground biomass to maintain overall carbon optimality and that, to maintain this optimality, the reproductive stage begins at peak nitrogen uptake. The model includes responses to available light, water, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration as well as nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation. The model is data constrained at two sites, the Yaqui Valley, Mexico for wheat and the Southern Great Plains flux site for maize and soybean, using a robust combination of space-based vegetation data (including data from the MODIS and Landsat TM and ETM+ instruments), as well as ground-based biomass and yield measurements. We show a number of climate response scenarios, including increases in temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations as well as responses to irrigation and fertiliser application.

  4. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  5. Use of multispectral Ikonos imagery for discriminating between conventional and conservation agricultural tillage practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vina, Andres; Peters, Albert J.; Ji, Lei

    2003-01-01

    There is a global concern about the increase in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One method being discussed to encourage greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is based on a trading system whereby carbon emitters can buy effective mitigation efforts from farmers implementing conservation tillage practices. These practices sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and such a trading system would require a low-cost and accurate method of verification. Remote sensing technology can offer such a verification technique. This paper is focused on the use of standard image processing procedures applied to a multispectral Ikonos image, to determine whether it is possible to validate that farmers have complied with agreements to implement conservation tillage practices. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed in order to isolate image variance in cropped fields. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) statistical procedures were used to evaluate the capability of each Ikonos band and each principal component to discriminate between conventional and conservation tillage practices. A logistic regression model was implemented on the principal component most effective in discriminating between conventional and conservation tillage, in order to produce a map of the probability of conventional tillage. The Ikonos imagery, in combination with ground-reference information, proved to be a useful tool for verification of conservation tillage practices.

  6. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  7. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size <1 acre) in Asia and Africa. Along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and tens of thousands of farming families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and

  8. Acidification processes and soil leaching influenced by agricultural practices revealed by strontium isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Aquilina, Luc; Weyer, Christina; Molénat, Jérôme; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2009-08-01

    In natural river systems, the chemical and isotopic composition of stream- and ground waters are mainly controlled by the geology and water-rock interactions. The leaching of major cations from soils has been recognized as a possible consequence of acidic deposition from atmosphere for over 30 years. Moreover, in agricultural areas, the application of physiological acid fertilizers and nitrogen fertilizers in the ammonia form may enhance the cation leaching through the soil profile into ground- and surface waters. This origin of leached cations has been studied on two small and adjacent agricultural catchments in Brittany, western France. The study catchments are drained by two first-order streams, and mainly covered with cambisoils, issued from the alteration and weathering of a granodiorite basement. Precipitations, soil water- and NH 4 acetate-leachates, separated minerals, and stream waters have been investigated. Chemical element ratios, such as Ba/Sr, Na/Sr and Ca/Sr ratios, as well as Sr isotopic ratios are used to constrain the relative contribution from potential sources of stream water elements. Based on Sr isotopic ratio and element concentration, soil water- and NH 4 acetate leaching indicates (1) a dominant manure/slurry contribution in the top soil, representing a cation concentrated pool, with low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios; (2) in subsoils, mineral dissolution is enhanced by fertilizer application, becoming the unique source of cations in the saprolite. The relatively high weathering rates encountered implies significant sources of cations which are not accessory minerals, but rather plagioclase and biotite dissolution. Stream water has a very different isotopic and chemical composition compared to soil water leaching suggesting that stream water chemistry is dominated by elements issued from mineral and rock weathering. Agriculture, by applications of chemical and organic fertilizers, can influence the export of major base cations, such as Na +. Plagioclase

  9. The Impact of Micro-Teaching on the Teaching Practice Performance of Undergraduate Agricultural Education Students in College of Education, Azare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa'ad, Tata Umar; Sabo, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aliyu Dahuwa

    2015-01-01

    Micro-teaching and teaching practices are two integral parts of teacher education programme. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of micro-teaching on the teaching practice of the undergraduate Agricultural Education Students admitted in 2012/2013 Academic session in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The 400 level…

  10. Agriculture Teachers' Perception and Practice for Teaching Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Justin Lee

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation mandates that appropriate education be provided for all students in US public schools (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004; No Child Left Behind, 2001). The use of evidence-based instructional practices for special education, such as Direct Instruction and Strategy Instruction, is one example of mandated…

  11. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  12. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to inves...

  13. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.

    2009-04-01

    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  14. Influence of traditional agricultural practices on mobilization of arsenic from sediments to groundwater in Bengal delta.

    PubMed

    Farooq, S H; Chandrasekharam, D; Berner, Z; Norra, S; Stüben, D

    2010-11-01

    In the wake of the idea that surface derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in the mobilization of arsenic (As) from sediments to groundwater and may provide a vital tool in understanding the mechanism of As contamination (mobilization/fixation) in Bengal delta; a study has been carried out. Agricultural fields that mainly cultivate rice (paddy fields) leave significantly large quantities of organic matter/organic carbon on the surface of Bengal delta which during monsoon starts decomposing and produces DOC. The DOC thus produced percolates down with rain water and mobilizes As from the sediments. Investigations on sediment samples collected from a paddy field clearly indicate that As coming on to the surface along with the irrigation water accumulates itself in the top few meters of sediment profile. The column experiments carried out on a 9 m deep sediment profile demonstrates that DOC has a strong potential to mobilize As from the paddy fields and the water recharging the aquifer through such agricultural fields contain As well above the WHO limit thus contaminating the shallow groundwater. Experiment also demonstrates that decay of organic matter induces reducing condition in the sediments. Progressively increasing reducing conditions not only prevent the adsorption of As on mineral surfaces but also cause mobilization of previously sorbed arsenic. There seems to be a cyclic pattern where As from deeper levels comes to the surface with irrigational water, accumulates itself in the sediments, and ultimately moves down to the shallow groundwater. The extensive and continual exploitation of intermediate/deep groundwater accelerates this cyclic process and helps in the movement of shallow contaminated groundwater to the deeper levels. PMID:20655567

  15. Influence of traditional agricultural practices on mobilization of arsenic from sediments to groundwater in Bengal delta.

    PubMed

    Farooq, S H; Chandrasekharam, D; Berner, Z; Norra, S; Stüben, D

    2010-11-01

    In the wake of the idea that surface derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in the mobilization of arsenic (As) from sediments to groundwater and may provide a vital tool in understanding the mechanism of As contamination (mobilization/fixation) in Bengal delta; a study has been carried out. Agricultural fields that mainly cultivate rice (paddy fields) leave significantly large quantities of organic matter/organic carbon on the surface of Bengal delta which during monsoon starts decomposing and produces DOC. The DOC thus produced percolates down with rain water and mobilizes As from the sediments. Investigations on sediment samples collected from a paddy field clearly indicate that As coming on to the surface along with the irrigation water accumulates itself in the top few meters of sediment profile. The column experiments carried out on a 9 m deep sediment profile demonstrates that DOC has a strong potential to mobilize As from the paddy fields and the water recharging the aquifer through such agricultural fields contain As well above the WHO limit thus contaminating the shallow groundwater. Experiment also demonstrates that decay of organic matter induces reducing condition in the sediments. Progressively increasing reducing conditions not only prevent the adsorption of As on mineral surfaces but also cause mobilization of previously sorbed arsenic. There seems to be a cyclic pattern where As from deeper levels comes to the surface with irrigational water, accumulates itself in the sediments, and ultimately moves down to the shallow groundwater. The extensive and continual exploitation of intermediate/deep groundwater accelerates this cyclic process and helps in the movement of shallow contaminated groundwater to the deeper levels.

  16. An Exploration of the Utility of a Knowledge Utilization Framework to Study the Gap between Reading Disabilities Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Katherine; Nowicki, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This pre-pilot study explored the usefulness of a knowledge utilization framework comprised of Knott and Wildavsky's (1980) seven stages of knowledge use and Stone's (2002) three routes to knowledge use to investigate the gap between reading disabilities research and teachers' self-reported use of that research. Semi-structured interviews of ten…

  17. On the Intractability of the Achievement Gap in Urban Schools and the Discursive Practice of Continuing Racial Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Achievement gaps between minority and white students may never be resolved because they are an artifact of a measurement process that uses flawed tests to assess student progress. IQ and achievement testing have always shown that socioeconomic status (SES) is critical in explaining test score variance. SES is part of the concept of cultural…

  18. Spatial multiobjective optimization of agricultural conservation practices using a SWAT model and an evolutionary algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rabotyagov, Sergey; Campbell, Todd; Valcu, Adriana; Gassman, Philip; Jha, Manoj; Schilling, Keith; Wolter, Calvin; Kling, Catherine

    2012-12-09

    Finding the cost-efficient (i.e., lowest-cost) ways of targeting conservation practice investments for the achievement of specific water quality goals across the landscape is of primary importance in watershed management. Traditional economics methods of finding the lowest-cost solution in the watershed context (e.g.,(5,12,20)) assume that off-site impacts can be accurately described as a proportion of on-site pollution generated. Such approaches are unlikely to be representative of the actual pollution process in a watershed, where the impacts of polluting sources are often determined by complex biophysical processes. The use of modern physically-based, spatially distributed hydrologic simulation models allows for a greater degree of realism in terms of process representation but requires a development of a simulation-optimization framework where the model becomes an integral part of optimization. Evolutionary algorithms appear to be a particularly useful optimization tool, able to deal with the combinatorial nature of a watershed simulation-optimization problem and allowing the use of the full water quality model. Evolutionary algorithms treat a particular spatial allocation of conservation practices in a watershed as a candidate solution and utilize sets (populations) of candidate solutions iteratively applying stochastic operators of selection, recombination, and mutation to find improvements with respect to the optimization objectives. The optimization objectives in this case are to minimize nonpoint-source pollution in the watershed, simultaneously minimizing the cost of conservation practices. A recent and expanding set of research is attempting to use similar methods and integrates water quality models with broadly defined evolutionary optimization methods(3,4,9,10,13-15,17-19,22,23,25). In this application, we demonstrate a program which follows Rabotyagov et al.'s approach and integrates a modern and commonly used SWAT water quality model(7) with a

  19. Bridging the gap: Using Veerman and Van Yperen's (2007) framework to conceptualise and develop evidence informed practice in an Irish youth work organisation.

    PubMed

    Brady, Bernadine; Canavan, John; Redmond, Susan

    2016-04-01

    While there is considerable support among the policy, practice and academic communities for the idea that practice in youth work should be based on evidence, Veerman and Van Yperen (2007) highlight the fact that little practice in the area of youth care is actually evidence based due to the paucity of experimental studies in the field and the difficulties associated with evaluation of non-standardised interventions such as youth work. They propose a model consisting of levels of evidence, the aim of which is to 'bridge the gap between evidence based and evidence informed practice' (p. 218). In order to address the dearth of examples in the international literature of how organisations have dealt with these complexities in practice, this article provides a case study of how a large Irish youth organisation, Foróige, has endeavoured to adopt an inclusive approach to evidence, working towards both evidence based and evidence informed practice. Drawing on Veerman and Van Yperen's (2007) framework, the case study shows that Foróige committed itself to gathering different types of evidence, including logic models and theoretical understandings at the foundation level and experimental design studies of key programmes at the advanced level. The case study focuses in detail on the intermediate level, whereby practitioners were trained to evaluate aspects of their own work, with a view to embedding evaluation and reflection in day to day practice. The process is described and key lessons emerging are discussed.

  20. Bridging the gap: Using Veerman and Van Yperen's (2007) framework to conceptualise and develop evidence informed practice in an Irish youth work organisation.

    PubMed

    Brady, Bernadine; Canavan, John; Redmond, Susan

    2016-04-01

    While there is considerable support among the policy, practice and academic communities for the idea that practice in youth work should be based on evidence, Veerman and Van Yperen (2007) highlight the fact that little practice in the area of youth care is actually evidence based due to the paucity of experimental studies in the field and the difficulties associated with evaluation of non-standardised interventions such as youth work. They propose a model consisting of levels of evidence, the aim of which is to 'bridge the gap between evidence based and evidence informed practice' (p. 218). In order to address the dearth of examples in the international literature of how organisations have dealt with these complexities in practice, this article provides a case study of how a large Irish youth organisation, Foróige, has endeavoured to adopt an inclusive approach to evidence, working towards both evidence based and evidence informed practice. Drawing on Veerman and Van Yperen's (2007) framework, the case study shows that Foróige committed itself to gathering different types of evidence, including logic models and theoretical understandings at the foundation level and experimental design studies of key programmes at the advanced level. The case study focuses in detail on the intermediate level, whereby practitioners were trained to evaluate aspects of their own work, with a view to embedding evaluation and reflection in day to day practice. The process is described and key lessons emerging are discussed. PMID:26844427

  1. Conservation agriculture practices to enhance soil organic in Lombardy plain (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, Alessia; Giussani, Andrea; Corsi, Stefano; Tosini, Andrea; Acutis, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that conservation agriculture (CA) determines a long-term increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in cropland. The present study aimed to estimate the amount of SOC stored in soil of Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) following the change from tillage agriculture (TA) to CA by using crop ARMOSA crop over 23 years (1989-2011). The territorial analysis was performed at agrarian region scale (AR) after identification of the representative crops rotation and soil types. The land use information were data available at cadastral scale and referred to 5 years (from 2007 to 2011). The meteorological data (i.e. maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation) were measured at 14 monitoring stations. Solar radiation was estimated using the equation of the Bristow and Campbell model (1994). A spatial interpolation method was used to extend the meteorological data throughout the entire plain of the region by employing Thiessen polygon method; the meteorological data of the polygon were assigned to each AR. ARMOSA was parameterized to simulate the two tillage systems. For TA and CA scenario the depth of tillage was limited to 35 and 10 cm, respectively; crop residual incorporation was not simulated under CA. In TA scenario, we used the parameters calibrated and validated by Perego et al.(2013) on a wide dataset collected at six monitoring sites in Lombardy plain. In CA, the rate of C decomposition of humified organic C was assumed to be smaller by 30% in no-tillage than in TA (Oorts et al., 2007). The model results showed a significant improve of SOC (p<0.01) from TA to CA under all the crop rotations with a potential SOC sequestration ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 t C ha-1 y-1. While soil type did not affect significantly the SOC sequestration, crop residue determined relevant increases in SOC. That was particularly evident in grain maize monoculture with or without cover crop. References: Oorts K., Garnier P., Findeling A., Mary B., Richard G., Nicolardot B

  2. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  3. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  4. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  5. Simulating the effects of climate and agricultural management practices on global crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryng, D.; Sacks, W. J.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.

    2011-06-01

    Climate change is expected to significantly impact global food production, and it is important to understand the potential geographic distribution of yield losses and the means to alleviate them. This study presents a new global crop model, PEGASUS 1.0 (Predicting Ecosystem Goods And Services Using Scenarios) that integrates, in addition to climate, the effect of planting dates and cultivar choices, irrigation, and fertilizer application on crop yield for maize, soybean, and spring wheat. PEGASUS combines carbon dynamics for crops with a surface energy and soil water balance model. It also benefits from the recent development of a suite of global data sets and analyses that serve as model inputs or as calibration data. These include data on crop planting and harvesting dates, crop-specific irrigated areas, a global analysis of yield gaps, and harvested area and yield of major crops. Model results for present-day climate and farm management compare reasonably well with global data. Simulated planting and harvesting dates are within the range of crop calendar observations in more than 75% of the total crop-harvested areas. Correlation of simulated and observed crop yields indicates a weighted coefficient of determination, with the weighting based on crop-harvested area, of 0.81 for maize, 0.66 for soybean, and 0.45 for spring wheat. We found that changes in temperature and precipitation as predicted by global climate models for the 2050s lead to a global yield reduction if planting and harvesting dates remain unchanged. However, adapting planting dates and cultivar choices increases yield in temperate regions and avoids 7-18% of global losses.

  6. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  7. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  8. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  9. Decadal geochemical and isotopic trends for nitrate in a transboundary aquifer and implications for agricultural beneficial management practices.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hendry, M Jim; Harrington, Nikki

    2006-08-01

    Nitrate contamination of aquifers is a global agricultural problem. Agricultural beneficial management practices (BMPs) are often promoted as a means to reduce nitrate contamination in aquifers through producer optimized management of inorganic fertilizer and animal manure inputs. In this study, decadal trends (1991-2004) in nitrate concentrations in conjunction with 3H/3He groundwater ages and nitrate stable isotopes (delta15N, delta18O) were examined to determine whether BMPs aimed at reducing aquifer-scale nitrate contamination in the transboundary Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer were effective. A general trend of increasing nitrate concentrations in young groundwater (< approximately 5 yr) suggested that voluntary BMPs were not having a positive impact in achieving groundwater quality targets. While the stable isotope data showed that animal manure was and still is the prevalent source of nitrate in the aquifer, a recent decrease in delta15N in nitrate suggests a BMP driven shift away from animal wastes toward inorganic fertilizers. The coupling of long-term monitoring of nitrate concentrations, nitrate isotopes, and 3H/3He age dating proved to be invaluable, and they should be considered in future assessments of the impact of BMPs on nutrients in groundwaters. The findings reveal that BMPs should be better linked to groundwater nutrient monitoring programs in order to more quickly identify BMP deficiencies, and to dynamically adjust nutrient loadings to help achieve water quality objectives.

  10. The irrationality of the present use of the osmole gap: applicable physical chemistry principles and recommendations to improve the validity of current practices.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yoshikata; Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D

    2004-01-01

    The present clinical use of serum osmometry is erroneous in two respects. The first, and the most important, is the incorrect assumption that serum behaves as a dilute 'ideal' solution and that the osmotic activity of a substance depends solely on the number of solute particles. The amount of variance from ideal behaviour of serum containing an exogenous substance is expressed by the osmotic coefficient (phi). We have calculated the osmotic coefficient for serum containing ethanol (alcohol) and recommend that the osmotic coefficient for serum containing other low molecular weight substances such as methanol (methyl alcohol), isopropyl alcohol and ethylene glycol also be calculated. This is necessary for the accurate calculation of the contribution of these substances to the serum osmolality.Secondly, the practice of subtracting the calculated serum molarity from measured serum osmolality is not valid since it represents a mathematically improper expression. The units of these two terms are different. The 'osmole gap' (OG) is typically viewed as the difference between serum osmolality determined by an osmometer and the estimated total molarity of solute in serum by directly measuring the concentration of several substances and then substituting them into a published formula. Some authors call this sum the calculated or estimated osmolarity but, because the concentrations are measured directly and not with an osmometer, the calculated term represents molarity. The units of osmolality are mmol/kg of H2O and the units of molarity are mmol/L. Therefore, the practice of subtracting calculated serum molarity from measured serum osmolality is not mathematically sound and is an oversimplification for ease of application. This mathematical transgression necessarily adds an error to the incorrectly calculated OG. Despite this, the OG is commonly used in clinical medicine. Serum osmolality can be converted to molarity provided the weight percentage and the density of the

  11. Effects of agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from corn fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, D.; Wang, J.; Jima, T.; Dennis, S.; Stockert, C.; Smart, D.; Bhattarai, S.; Brown, K.; Sammis, T.; Reddy, C.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is, by far, the largest producer of corn (Zea mays L.) in the world. Recent increases in fertilizer cost and concerns over global climate change have farmers and others interested in more efficient fertilization management and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. To seek the best management practices, we conducted field experiments during the 2012 growing season at Tennessee State University Agricultural Research and Demonstration Center in Nashville, TN. Six treatments were applied including regular URAN application [2 times], multiple URAN applications [4 times], denitrification inhibitor with regular URAN application, and chicken litter plus regular URAN application in no-tilled plots, and URAN application plus bio-char in tilled plots, all compared to regular URAN application in conventional tilled plots. Each treatment was replicated six times (blocks). We measured N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions using a closed chamber method after rainfall events, fertilizer applications or every two weeks whichever was shorter. Corresponding soil NH4+-N and NO3--N, soil temperature and moisture were also measured during the gas sampling. Plant physiology and growth were measured about every two weeks. While preliminary results indicate that N2O and CO2 fluxes were significantly influenced by the agricultural practices on some days, particularly after rainfall events, CH4 flux was not influenced by the treatments during most of the days. Plots with bio-char showed significantly lower N2O emissions. We also measured N2O flux in a commercial corn field using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique to ground verify the chamber based N2O emissions at the field scale. Results obtained with the EC technique seem comparable with the chamber method.

  12. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin. PMID:27243625

  13. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  14. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  15. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  16. Adoption Potential of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from Five Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S.; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system—Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  17. Adoption potential of conservation agriculture practices in sub-Saharan Africa: results from five case studies.

    PubMed

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system-Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  18. Effects of Land Management Practices on Cold Region Hydrological Processes in an Agricultural Prairie Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation tillage including zero and reduced tillage, crop rotation and upstream reservoirs are commonly implemented as beneficial management practices (BMPs) in the Canadian Prairies. However, their effects are strongly dependent on interactions with cold region hydrological processes, such as wind redistribution of snow, snowmelt, infiltration to frozen soils and evaporation, due to strong coupling between land surface characteristics and hydrology. These interactions are poorly understood and few studies have investigated them using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we deploy a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model (CRHM) to investigate the impacts of land management practices in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC) which forms part of the Red River Basin in southern Manitoba, Canada. The STC (~73 km2) is set in a gently rolling landscape of low relief (~200 m). Detailed field data such as crop type, tillage practices, crop residue and planting and harvesting dates are available from 1995 and are used to parameterize the model. While the majority of parameters are specified a priori, we have manually calibrated roughness and initial soil water storage parameters to compare the simulations with runoff observations at multiple scales (upstream catchment, mid-basin gauge and outlet gauge) and snow observations during 2000-2001 water year. The calibrated model based on the 2000-2001 period is further evaluated over the 2001-2011 period, which includes high inter-annual variability. The results suggest good agreement between observations and simulations and provide insight into hydrological controls. Snowmelt runoff is a major contributor to streamflow while the contribution of summer rainfall runoff is highly variable. The evaporative fraction is high during dry years (2002-2004) indicating a vertical flux controlled mass balance while the runoff fraction dominates during wet years (2005-2011), suggesting overland

  19. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    grassland soils; areas where arable production represents a significant landuse; and catchments on productive and unproductive aquifers. The catchments were identified using a GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis with objective criteria that included landuse data (including agricultural and settlement statistics) combined with soils and geology data to evaluate the risk of P and N loss. Shortlisted catchments were then finalised using practical criteria based on the potential for hydrometry and hydrochemistry research. In each catchment, a conceptual model approach is being used to hypothesize the sources, seasonal mobilisation and pathways of nutrients and water through the soil/subsoil system and transfer into surface and ground water systems to stratify each catchment experimental design. Knowledge of the nutrient management of each catchment farm and resulting soil fertility will be used to monitor the sources of agricultural N and P. Environmental soil nutrient tests will provide baselines and checks on the potential for mobilisation. Areas of high soil fertility that are coincident with high surface or sub-surface hydrological connectivity will be monitored for subsequent nutrient transfer. Other potential nutrient source loads within the catchments, such as rural waste-water treatment plants and domestic septic systems, will be factored in as non-agricultural sources. Similarly, the potential for farmyard transfers will also be assessed. The net balance of nutrient transfer at the catchment outlets will be monitored using a high resolution method that is coincident with hydrometric measurements to ensure that there is a full understanding of the inter-dependence between point and diffuse nutrient transfers and hydrodynamics. This source to transfer approach is highly appropriate and a move towards inductive understanding of nutrient use and export in river catchments - the scale at which policies for water resources management will be assessed under the WFD. The

  20. Nitrate removal from agricultural drainage ditch sediments with amendments of organic carbon: Potential for an innovative best management practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, Derek R.; Kröger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.; Rush, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural fertilizer applications have resulted in loading of nutrients to agricultural drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) amendments on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) removal from overlying water, pore water, and sediment of an agricultural drainage ditch. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, control (i.e., no amendment), DOC, and POC treatments were applied in laboratory microcosms for time intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. In experiment 2, control, DOC, and POC treatments were applied in microcosms at C/N ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. There were statistically significant effects of organic carbon amendments in experiment 1 (F2,71 = 27.1, P < 0.001) and experiment 2 (F2,53 = 39.1, P < 0.001), time (F1,71 = 14.5, P < 0.001) in experiment 1, and C/N ratio (F1,53 = 36.5, P < 0.001) in experiment 2. NO3−-N removal varied from 60 to 100 % in overlying water among all treatments. The lowest NO3−-N removals in experiment 1 were observed in the control at 14 and 28 days, which were significantly less than in DOC and POC 14- and 28-day treatments. In experiment 2, significantly less NO3−-N was removed in overlying water of the control compared to DOC and POC treatments at all C/N ratios. Amendments of DOC and POC made to drainage ditch sediment: (1) increased NO3−-N removal, especially over longer time intervals (14 to 28 days); (2) increased NO3−-N removal, regardless of C/N ratio; and (3) NO3−-N removal was best at a 5:1 C/N ratio. This study provides support for continued investigation on the use of organic carbon amendments as a best management practice for NO3−-N removal in agricultural drainage ditches.

  1. Assessment of nitrate leakage and N2O emission from five environmental-friendly agricultural practices using fuzzy logic method and empirical formula.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yongfeng; Wang, Qian; Luo, Liangguo

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China has been the major environmental problem, so environmental-friendly agricultural practices (EAPs) must be promoted to improve environmental quality. However, the most suitable practices for each agricultural region must first be identified. Thus, in the presented study a fuzzy-logic method and a revised empirical formula were used to assess nitrate leakage and N2O emissions, respectively, and to compare five EAPs in Xinxiang, a major grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. The required information was collected in face-to-face interviews with 10 extension service experts from the county, using a questionnaire to explore their opinions of the EAPs currently adopted by smallholder farmers, as well as the amounts, frequencies, varieties and proportions of nitrogen fertilizers applied annually. The results indicate that reduced tillage, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations would be the most appropriate practices to initially promote on a large scale in Xinxiang.

  2. Modeled impacts of farming practices and structural agricultural changes on nitrogen fluxes in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O

    2001-11-16

    In the Netherlands, nutrient emissions from intensive animal husbandry have contributed to decreased species diversity in (semi) natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, pollution of groundwater, and possibly global warming due to N2O emissions. This paper presents the results of a modelling study presenting the impacts of both structural measures and improved farming practices on major nitrogen (N) fluxes, including NH3 and N2O emission, uptake, leaching, and runoff, in the Netherlands, using input data for the year 2000. Average annual fluxes (Gg N year(-1)) for the year 2000 were estimated at 132 for NH3 emission (160 Gg NH 3 year(-1)), 28 for N2O emission, 50 for N inflow to groundwater, and 15 for N inflow to surface water at a total N input of 1046. At this input, nitrate (NO3) concentrations in groundwater often exceeded the target of 50 mg NO3 l(-1), specifically in well-drained sandy soils. The ammonia (NH3) emissions exceeded emission targets that were set to protect the biodiversity of nonagricultural land. Improved farming practices were calculated to lead to a significant reduction in NH3 emissions to the atmosphere and N leaching and runoff to groundwater and surface water, but these improvements were not enough to reach all the targets set for those fluxes. Only strong structural measures clearly improved the situation. The NH3 emission target of 30 Gg NH3 year(-1), suggested for the year 2030, could not be attained, however, unless pig and poultry farming is completely banned in the Netherlands and all cattle stay almost permanently in low emission stables.

  3. Agriculture and nutrition in India: mapping evidence to pathways.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Harris, Jody; Headey, Derek; Yosef, Sivan; Gillespie, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and assesses both the quality and coverage of the existing literature. We present a conceptual framework delineating six key pathways between agriculture and nutrition. Three pathways pertain to the nutritional impacts of farm production, farm incomes, and food prices. The other three pertain to agriculture-gender linkages. After an extensive search, we found 78 research papers that provided evidence to populate these pathways. The literature suggests that Indian agriculture has a range of important influences on nutrition. Agriculture seems to influence diets even when controlling for income, and relative food prices could partly explain observed dietary changes in recent decades. The evidence on agriculture-gender linkages to nutrition is relatively weak. Sizeable knowledge gaps remain. The root causes of these gaps include an interdisciplinary disconnect between nutrition and economics/agriculture, a related problem of inadequate survey data, and limited policy-driven experimentation. Closing these gaps is essential to strengthening the agriculture sector's contribution to reducing undernutrition.

  4. Effects of agricultural practices and vadose zone stratigraphy on nitrate concentration in ground water in Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Townsend, M.A.; Sleezer, R.O.; Macko, S.A.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Differences in nitrate-N concentrations in,around water in Kansas can be explained by variations in agricultural practices and vadose-zone stratigraphy. In northwestern Kansas, past use of a local stream for tailwater runoff from irrigation and high fertilizer applications for sugar-beet farming resulted in high nitrate-N concentrations (12-60 mg L-1; in both soil and ground water. Nitrogen isotope values from the soil and ground water range from +4 to +8? which is typical for a fertilizer source. In parts of south-central Kansas, the use of crop rotation and the presence of both continuous fine-textured layers and a reducing ground-water chemistry resulted in ground-water nitrate-N values of 10 mg L-1; in both soil and grounwater. Nitrogen isotope values of +3 to +7? indicate a fertilizer source. Crop rotation decreased nitrate-N values in the shallow ground water (9 m). However, deeper ground water showed increasing nitrate-N concentrations as a result of past farming practices.

  5. Multivariate analysis of paired watershed data to evaluate agricultural best management practice effects on stream water phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Patricia L; Hively, W Dean; Stedinger, Jery R; Rafferty, Michael R; Lojpersberger, Jeffrey L; Bloomfield, Jay A

    2005-01-01

    Quantification of the effects of management programs on water quality is critical to agencies responsible for water resource protection. This research documents reductions in stream water phosphorus (P) loads resulting from agricultural best management practices (BMPs) implemented as part of an effort to control eutrophication of Cannonsville Reservoir, a drinking water supply for New York City. Dairy farms in the upstate New York reservoir basin were the target of BMPs designed to reduce P losses. A paired watershed study was established on one of these farms in 1993 to evaluate changes in P loading attributable to implementation of BMPs that included manure management, rotational grazing, and improved infrastructure. Intensive stream water monitoring provided data to calculate P loads from the 160-ha farm watershed for all runoff events during a two-year pre-treatment period and a four-year post-treatment period. Statistical control for inter-annual climatic variability was provided by matched P loads from a nearby 86-ha forested watershed, and by several event flow variables measured at the farm. A sophisticated multivariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) provided estimates of both seasonal and overall load reductions. Statistical power and the minimum detectable treatment effect (MDTE) were also calculated. The results demonstrated overall event load reductions of 43% for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and 29% for particulate phosphorus (PP). Changes in farm management practices and physical infrastructure clearly produced decreases in event P losses measurable at the small watershed scale.

  6. Multivariate analysis of paired watershed data to evaluate agricultural best management practice effects on stream water phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Patricia L; Hively, W Dean; Stedinger, Jery R; Rafferty, Michael R; Lojpersberger, Jeffrey L; Bloomfield, Jay A

    2005-01-01

    Quantification of the effects of management programs on water quality is critical to agencies responsible for water resource protection. This research documents reductions in stream water phosphorus (P) loads resulting from agricultural best management practices (BMPs) implemented as part of an effort to control eutrophication of Cannonsville Reservoir, a drinking water supply for New York City. Dairy farms in the upstate New York reservoir basin were the target of BMPs designed to reduce P losses. A paired watershed study was established on one of these farms in 1993 to evaluate changes in P loading attributable to implementation of BMPs that included manure management, rotational grazing, and improved infrastructure. Intensive stream water monitoring provided data to calculate P loads from the 160-ha farm watershed for all runoff events during a two-year pre-treatment period and a four-year post-treatment period. Statistical control for inter-annual climatic variability was provided by matched P loads from a nearby 86-ha forested watershed, and by several event flow variables measured at the farm. A sophisticated multivariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) provided estimates of both seasonal and overall load reductions. Statistical power and the minimum detectable treatment effect (MDTE) were also calculated. The results demonstrated overall event load reductions of 43% for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and 29% for particulate phosphorus (PP). Changes in farm management practices and physical infrastructure clearly produced decreases in event P losses measurable at the small watershed scale. PMID:15888895

  7. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    PubMed

    Ngo Ngwe, Marie Florence Sandrine; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD) approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  8. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices

    PubMed Central

    Ngo Ngwe, Marie Florence Sandrine; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD) approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species. PMID:26691919

  9. Bioinformatics and the allergy assessment of agricultural biotechnology products: industry practices and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Cressman, Robert F; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Herman, Rod A; Privalle, Laura; Song, Ping; Ward, Jason M; McClain, Scott

    2011-06-01

    Bioinformatic tools are being increasingly utilized to evaluate the degree of similarity between a novel protein and known allergens within the context of a larger allergy safety assessment process. Importantly, bioinformatics is not a predictive analysis that can determine if a novel protein will ''become" an allergen, but rather a tool to assess whether the protein is a known allergen or is potentially cross-reactive with an existing allergen. Bioinformatic tools are key components of the 2009 CodexAlimentarius Commission's weight-of-evidence approach, which encompasses a variety of experimental approaches for an overall assessment of the allergenic potential of a novel protein. Bioinformatic search comparisons between novel protein sequences, as well as potential novel fusion sequences derived from the genome and transgene, and known allergens are required by all regulatory agencies that assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) products. The objective of this paper is to identify opportunities for consensus in the methods of applying bioinformatics and to outline differences that impact a consistent and reliable allergy safety assessment. The bioinformatic comparison process has some critical features, which are outlined in this paper. One of them is a curated, publicly available and well-managed database with known allergenic sequences. In this paper, the best practices, scientific value, and food safety implications of bioinformatic analyses, as they are applied to GM food crops are discussed. Recommendations for conducting bioinformatic analysis on novel food proteins for potential cross-reactivity to known allergens are also put forth.

  10. Application of analytical hierarchy process for effective selection of agricultural best management practices.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan

    2014-01-01

    In this study an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for ranking best management practices (BMPs) in the Saginaw River Watershed based on environmental, economic and social factors. Three spatial targeting methods were used for placement of BMPs on critical source areas (CSAs). The environment factors include sediment, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reductions at the subbasin level and the watershed outlet. Economic factors were based on total BMP cost, including installation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. Social factors were divided into three favorability rankings (most favorable, moderately favorable, and least favorable) based on area allocated to each BMP. Equal weights (1/3) were considered for the three main factors while calculating the BMP rank by AHP. In this study three scenarios were compared. A comprehensive approach in which environmental, economic, and social aspects are simultaneously considered (Scenario 1) versus more traditional approaches in which both environmental and economic aspects were considered (Scenario 2) or only environmental aspects (sediment, TN, and TP) were considered (Scenario 3). In Scenario 1, only stripcropping (moderately favorable) was selected on all CSAs at the subbasin level, whereas stripcropping (49-69% of CSAs) and residue management (most favorable, 31-51% of CSAs) were selected by AHP based on the watershed outlet and three spatial targeting methods. In Scenario 2, native grass was eliminated by moderately preferable BMPs (stripcropping) both at the subbasin and watershed outlet levels due the lower BMP implementations cost compared to native grass. Finally, in Scenario 3, at subbasin level, the least socially preferable BMP (native grass) was selected in 100% of CSAs due to greater pollution reduction capacity compared to other BMPs. At watershed level, nearly 50% the CSAs selected stripcropping, and the remaining 50% of CSAs selected native grass and residue management equally. PMID:24309231

  11. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  12. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  13. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different agricultural land- management practices on sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides in surface water, and on nutrients and pesticides in ground water were studied in four small basins in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The basins included two adjacent basins in row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields was farmed using conservation land-management practices, including strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other field was farmed using standard land- management practices, including continuous cropping, straight-row plowing, and ungrassed waterways. The sediment yield for the standard land-management basin was 2.3 times that for the conservation land-management basin, 14.1 times that for the mixed land-use basin, and 19.5 times that for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in surface water from the row-crop and mixed land-use basins were higher than those in surface water for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in soil water and ground water beneath the row-crop basins were lower than those in surface- water runoff for these basins. The lowest nutrient concentrations measured in the row-crop basins generally were in soil-water samples collected just below the root zone (3-foot depth) and in ground water. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were identified between the surface-water runoff from the standard land- management basin and that from the conservation land-management basin. Concentrations of the soil pesticides isopropalin and flumetralin were higher in the standard land-management basin than in the conservation land-management basin.

  14. A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap - developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    The development and application of essential standards for cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people creates a strategic platform on which to systematically close the gap in the health outcomes and life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people in Australia. We outline six developmental stages that can be used to enhance the effective translation of evidence into practice that reduces life expectancy differentials. Focussing efforts where the biggest gain can be made; considering how to make a policy-relevant difference with an emphasis on translation into policy and practice; establishing a foundation for action by engaging with stakeholders throughout the process; developing a framework to guide action; drafting policy-relevant and framework-appropriate essential service standards; and defining standards that help policy decision makers achieve current priority policy targets.

  15. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of selected agricultural land-management practices on water quality were assessed in a comparative study of four small basins in the Piedmont province of North Carolina. Agricultural practices, such as tillage and applications of fertilizer and pesticides, are major sources of sediment, nutrients, and pesticides in surface water, and of nutrients and pesticides in ground water. The four study basins included two adjacent row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields (7.4 acres) was farmed by using conservation land-management (CLM) practices, which included strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other row-crop field (4.8 acres) was farmed by using standard land-management (SLM) practices, which included continuous cropping, straight-row plowing without regard to land topography, and poorly maintained waterways. The mixed land-use basin (665 acres) was monitored to compare water quality in surface water as SLM practices were converted to CLM practices during the project. The forested basin (44 acres) provided background surface-water hydrologic and chemical-quality conditions. Surface-water flow was reduced by 18 percent by CLM practices compared to surface-water flow from the SLM practices basin. The thickness of the unsaturated zone in the row-crop basins ranged from a few feet to 25 feet. Areas with thick unsaturated zones have a greater capacity to intercept and store nutrients and pesticides than do areas with thinner zones. Sediment concentrations and yields for the SLM practices basin were considerably higher than those for the other basins. The median sediment concentration in surface water for the SLM basin was 3.4 times that of the CLM basin, 8.2 times that of the mixed land-use basin, and 38.4 times that of the forested basin. The total sediment yield for the SLM basin was 2.3 times that observed for the CLM basin, 14.1 times that observed for the mixed land

  16. Combining Water Quality and Cost-Benefit Analysis to Examine the Implications of Agricultural Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. S.; Easton, Z. M.; Lee, D. R.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2007-12-01

    Nutrient runoff from agricultural fields threatens water quality and can impair habitats in many watersheds. Agencies consider these potential risks as they determine acceptable levels of nutrient loading. For example, in the New York City (NYC) watershed, the Environmental Protection Agency's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for phosphorus (P) has been set at 15μg P L-1 to protect against eutrophication and bacterial outbreaks. In the NYC watersheds agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the primary means to control nonpoint source P loading. BMPs include riparian buffers, filter strips, manure storage facilities, crop rotation, stripcropping, tree planting and nutrient management plans (NMPs). Water quality research on BMPs to date has included studies on site-specificity of different BMPs, short and long term BMP efficacy, and placement of BMPs with respect to critical source areas. A necessary complement to studies addressing water quality aspects of different BMPs are studies examining the cost-benefit aspects of BMPs. In general, there are installment, maintenance and opportunity costs associated with each BMP, and there are benefits, including cost share agreements between farmers and farm agencies, and increased efficiency of farm production and maintenance. Combining water quality studies and related cost-benefit analyses would help planners and watershed managers determine how best improve water quality. Our research examines the costs-benefit structure associated with BMP scenarios on a one-farm headwater watershed in the Catskill Mountains of NY. The different scenarios include "with and without" BMPs, combinations of BMPs, and different BMP placements across agricultural fields. The costs associated with each BMP scenarios are determined using information from farm agencies and watershed planning agencies. With these data we perform a cost-benefit analysis for the different BMP scenarios and couple the water quality modeling using the

  17. Bridging the gap between dreams and realities related to employment and mental health: implications for policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Purnima, Sundar; Ochocka, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    Access to valued resources, especially to employment and income, is a critical issue in community mental health. Appropriate public policy and services are needed to bridge the gap between dreams and realities related to employment for people with a serious mental health illness. This article reviews current literature in the area of employment and mental health, and describes the findings of a research study focusing on these issues in one community in Southern Ontario. This study used a participatory, action-oriented approach to understand the ideal employment situation for people with a serious mental health illness, and to explore the barriers preventing them from finding, getting, and keeping work. Concrete areas for action (generated by people with a serious mental health illness working with service providers in this field) are suggested in order to respond to employment barriers at various levels and to make employment a reality for people experiencing a serious mental health illness.

  18. Effects of Agricultural and Conservation Practices on Nutrients Losses from the St. Joseph River Watershed, Northeast Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture has been identified as a primary contributor to nutrients that cause algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico and Lake Erie. Since 2002, we have been monitoring water quality from agricultural drainage ditches in the St. Joseph River watershed to assess the impacts of agricultural and conserva...

  19. Simulating Sustainable P Management Practices in Tile-Drained Landscapes of Central Ohio Using the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, W. I., III; King, K.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite extensive application of conservation practices to minimize sediment P delivery to streams, hypoxic conditions and harmful algal blooms persist in receiving water bodies. Tile-drainage networks are a focal point for reducing soluble P in the food-producing Midwestern United States in that they promote higher connectivity between upland soils and stream channels which decreases soil contact time, and biogeochemical alterations. A critical next step to reduce the environmental impact and maintain sustainable agriculture is to implement best management practices (BMPs) under a holistic framework that considers adverse effects to water resources and crop production, while maintaining economic feasibility. The objective of this study was to apply a robust numerical model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX), in a tile-drained landscape in Central Ohio in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of BMPs on soluble and particulate P delivery to stream channels. The model was applied and evaluated at two adjacent edge-of-field sites with similar soil, topographic and management characteristics (except for tillage and tile installation on the south field in 2012, preceded by more than 20 years of no-till operations). Three years of daily discharge, total suspended solids, soluble P, soluble N (NO3 and NH4), total P, total N, and crop yields were utilized to verify the model performance. Prevalent BMPs simulated within the modeling framework included drainage water management, tillage and crop rotations, the 4Rs framework (right fertilizer source, rate, time, and placement), and bioreactors. Results of the study quantify the ability of the numerical model to simulate hydrology and P transport for surface runoff and subsurface tile drainage and highlight modifications that improve model performance. Further, results highlight BMPs that effectively reduce P loads to streams while maintaining crop yields, which can later be used to inform BMPs

  20. Mining Information form a Coupled Air Quality Model to Examine the Impacts of Agricultural Management Practices on Air and Groundwater Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attributing nitrogen (N) in the environment to emissions from agricultural management practices is difficult because of the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with N and its cascading effects across land, air and water. Such analyses are criti...

  1. Mind the Gap: Looking for Evidence-Based Practice of "Science Literacy for All" in Science Teaching Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Susan L.; Yore, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    "Science literacy for all" is the central goal of science education reforms, and there is a growing importance of the language arts in science. Furthermore, there are strong calls for teacher professionalism and self-directed professional learning that involve evidence-based best practices. This raises questions about whether science teaching…

  2. Commentary--Bridging the Research and Practice Gap in Autism: The Importance of Creating Research Partnerships with Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sarah; Charman, Tony; Faulkner, Rachel; Ragan, Jude; Wallace, Simon; Wittemeyer, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    While the last 10 years have seen a significant increase in research published on early intervention and autism, there is a persistent disconnect between educational research and practice. Governments have invested significant funds in autism education, and a range of approaches have been implemented in schools, but there is limited research…

  3. No Child Left Behind and the Research-to-Practice Gap in Dyslexia Intervention: An Exploratory, Retrospective Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheftel, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    In 2001 the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) mandated that U.S. public schools provide evidence-based practice for individuals with learning disabilities. However, it is unclear whether U.S. public schools have consistently adhered to this mandate. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary evidence regarding whether U.S. public schools…

  4. Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap. Conceptual Understanding, Part 1: The Multifaceted Nature of Expert Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Trevor R.; Schonborn, Konrad J.

    2008-01-01

    The term "conceptual understanding" has been used rather loosely over the years in educational practice, with a tendency to focus on a few aspects of an extremely complex phenomenon. In this first article of a two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding, we describe the nature of expert (versus novice) knowledge and show how the conceptual…

  5. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention... Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Recovery for the Iraq and... psychological health and traumatic brain injury (TBI) health concerns for returning service members ]...

  6. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Intervention: An Application of Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingfelder, Hilary E.; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted or successfully implemented in public mental health and education systems. We propose applying diffusion of innovation theory to further our understanding of why this is the case. We pose a practical set of questions that administrators face as they decide about…

  7. Transformed Understanding or Enlightened Ableism? The Gap between Policy and Practice for Children with Disabilities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of inclusion in the New Zealand legislative and policy environment is articulated in a liberal human rights discourse intended to redress past practices of segregation and exclusion. Such discourse has provided the early childhood sector with new ways to speak about disability and inclusion. There is, however, a growing body of…

  8. Knowledge Brokers in Education: How Intermediary Organizations Are Bridging the Gap between Research, Policy and Practice Internationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Amanda; Shewchuk, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Interest in how to better connect research to policy and practice is gaining momentum globally. Also gaining widespread agreement is the view that intermediary organizations have an important role to play in facilitating multi-stakeholder partnerships between researchers, practitioners and policymakers in order to increase the mobilization of…

  9. Bridging the Gap between Evidence and Practice: A Multi-Perspective Examination of Real-World Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Martine; Stradling, Robert; MacNeil, Morag; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Minty, Sarah; McDermott, Laura; Eadie, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The study examined normative school drug-education practice in Scotland and the extent to which it reflected the evidence base for effective drug education. Methods: Current guidance in Scotland was compared with systematic review evidence on drug-education effectiveness; a survey was mailed to primary, secondary and special schools (928…

  10. How Do Preservice Teachers Understand the Use of Research to Inform Practice? Foundational Knowledge for Bridging the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ingen, Sarah; Alvarez McHatton, Patricia; Vomvoridi-Ivanovic, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread discourse about the need for teachers to utilize education research, little is known about how teachers learn to engage in this practice. How do preservice teachers understand the use of research to inform their teaching? Set within the context of a mathematics methods course, this study provides a detailed analysis of the…

  11. Gaps between Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices: The Every Teacher Project on LGBTQ-Inclusive Education in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine G.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Peter, Tracey; Ristock, Janice; Short, Donn; Campbell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Every Teacher Project involved large-scale survey research conducted to identify the beliefs, perspectives, and practices of Kindergarten to Grade 12 educators in Canadian public schools regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-inclusive education. Comparisons are made between LGBTQ and cisgender heterosexual…

  12. Mind the Gap: Looking for Evidence-Based Practice of Science Literacy for All in Science Teaching Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagger, Susan L.; Yore, Larry D.

    2012-10-01

    Science literacy for all is the central goal of science education reforms, and there is a growing importance of the language arts in science. Furthermore, there are strong calls for teacher professionalism and self-directed professional learning that involve evidence-based best practices. This raises questions about whether science teaching journals' recommendations are anchored to high-quality evidence. We found that (a) most National Science Teacher Association journals' science literacy recommendations have weak or no evidence base and (b) those with evidence reference teaching journals, teacher resource books, and literacy education more often than science education research. We concluded that all participants in the knowledge production cycle and transfer process—authors, editors, and reviewers—need to encourage evidence-based practices anchored to ongoing reforms and to literacy and science education research.

  13. Valuing the gap: a dialectic between theory and practice in graduate nursing education from a constructive educational approach.

    PubMed

    Moss, Cheryle; Grealish, Laurie; Lake, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Within nursing education, graduate pedagogies are relatively unexplored, with research commonly focused upon undergraduate and continuing education. In order to address the increasingly complex organisational challenges in the workplace, mid-career nurses and midwives are turning to graduate education. In one graduate course on cultures of learning in the workplace, a constructivist approach to learning was adopted. Post-course analysis of data, from the feedback on the course from students, student choice of assignment topics, and reflections of the course facilitators, revealed three pedagogies unique to graduate education. The pedagogies were labelled 'keeping the space open', 'theoretical concepts as tools', and 'resonance and action as praxis'. The intended outcome of the course is revealed in a fourth theme, 'developing practice in the workplace'. This evaluation suggests that constructivist pedagogies used with graduate students may be different to those pedagogies used with undergraduate and continuing education students. We argue that graduate pedagogies move nursing education beyond strategies that seek integration of theory and practice, towards a dialectic between theory and practice.

  14. Theory and practice of SiC growth on Si and its applications to wide-gap semiconductor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    chemical interaction of CO gas with the monocrystalline silicon matrix. The discovery of this mechanism yields a new kind of template: namely, substrates with buffer transition layers for wide-gap semiconductor growth on silicon. The properties of a variety of heteroepitaxial films of wide-gap semiconductors (SiC, AlN, GaN and AlGaN) grown on a SiC/Si substrate by solid-phase epitaxy will be reported. Grown films contain no cracks and have a quality sufficient to manufacture micro- and opto-electronic devices. Also, the new abilities in the synthesis of large (150 mm diameter) low-defective SiC films on Si substrates will be demonstrated.

  15. Gaps between policy, protocols and practice: a qualitative study of the views and practice of emergency ambulance staff concerning the care of patients with non-urgent needs

    PubMed Central

    Snooks, H; Kearsley, N; Dale, J; Halter, M; Redhead, J; Foster, J

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe emergency ambulance crews' views about (1) how they make decisions on whether to convey patients to hospital; (2) an intervention enabling them to triage patients to non-conveyance; and (3) their experience of using new protocols for undertaking such triage. Methods: Two focus groups were held at the outset of an evaluation of Treat and Refer (T&R) protocols: one with staff based at an ambulance station who were to implement the new service (intervention station), and the other with staff from a neighbouring station who would be continuing their normal practice during the study (control station). A third session was held with staff from the intervention station following training and 3 months' experience of protocol usage. Results: Before the introduction of the T&R protocols, crews reported experience, intuition, training, time of call during shift, patient preference, and home situation as influencing their decisions concerning conveyance. Crews were positive about changing practice but foresaw difficulties with advising patients who wanted to go to hospital, and with referral to other agencies. Following experience of T&R protocol use, crews felt they had needed more training than had been provided. Some felt their practice and job satisfaction had improved. Problems with referral and with persuading some patients that they did not need to go to hospital were discussed. There was consensus that the initiative should be introduced across the service. Conclusions: With crews generally positive about this intervention, an opportunity to tackle this difficult area of emergency care now exists. This study has, however, highlighted the complexity of the change in practice and service delivery, and professional and organisational constraints that need to be considered. PMID:16076788

  16. A National network of schizophrenia expert centres: An innovative tool to bridge the research-practice gap.

    PubMed

    Schürhoff, F; Fond, G; Berna, F; Bulzacka, E; Vilain, J; Capdevielle, D; Misdrahi, D; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is probably the most severe psychiatric disorder with much suffering for the patients and huge costs for the society. Efforts to provide optimal care by general practitioners and psychiatrists are undermined by the complexity of the disorder and difficulties in applying clinical practice guidelines and new research findings to the spectrum of cases seen in day-to-day practice. An innovative model of assessment aimed at improving global care of people with schizophrenia provided by the French national network of schizophrenia expert centres is being described. Each centre has established strong links to local health services and provides support to clinicians in delivering personalized care plans. A common set of assessment tools has been adopted by the ten centres spread over the whole French territory. A web application, e-schizo(©) has been created to record data in a common computerized medical file. This network offers systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multi-dimensional assessments of cases including a medical workup and an exhaustive neuropsychological evaluation. This strategy offers an effective way to transfer knowledge and share expertise. This network is a great opportunity to improve the global patient care and is conceived as being an infrastructure for research from observational cohort to translational research. PMID:26072427

  17. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  18. Vocational Agriculture in Ponape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayrit, Ruben S.

    1975-01-01

    The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

  19. Bridging the educational research-teaching practice gap: Conceptual understanding, part 1: The multifaceted nature of expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Trevor R; Schönborn, Konrad J

    2008-07-01

    The term "conceptual understanding" has been used rather loosely over the years in educational practice, with a tendency to focus on a few aspects of an extremely complex phenomenon. In this first article of a two-part miniseries on conceptual understanding, we describe the nature of expert (versus novice) knowledge and show how the conceptual understanding of experts is multifaceted in nature requiring competence in a wide range of cognitive skills. We then discuss five such facets of conceptual understanding that require competence in the cognitive skills of memorization, integration, transfer, analogical reasoning, and system thinking. We also argue for the importance of explicitly teaching and assessing such facets of understanding as part of all molecular life science curricula so as to better prepare our students to become experts in the field. Examples of the assessment tasks that can be used to promote the development of multifaceted conceptual understanding in students are presented in Part 2 of this series.

  20. The state of the art in organizational cognitive neuroscience: the therapeutic gap and possible implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Senior, Carl; Lee, Nick

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers in the social sciences have increasingly adopted neuroscientific techniques, with the consequent rise of research inspired by neuroscience in disciplines such as economics, marketing, decision sciences, and leadership. In 2007, we introduced the term organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN), in an attempt to clearly demarcate research carried out in these many areas, and provide an overarching paradigm for research utilizing cognitive neuroscientific methods, theories, and concepts, within the organizational and business research fields. Here we will revisit and further refine the OCN paradigm, and define an approach where we feel the marriage of organizational theory and neuroscience will return even greater dividends in the future and that is within the field of clinical practice.

  1. The state of the art in organizational cognitive neuroscience: the therapeutic gap and possible implications for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Carl; Lee, Nick

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers in the social sciences have increasingly adopted neuroscientific techniques, with the consequent rise of research inspired by neuroscience in disciplines such as economics, marketing, decision sciences, and leadership. In 2007, we introduced the term organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN), in an attempt to clearly demarcate research carried out in these many areas, and provide an overarching paradigm for research utilizing cognitive neuroscientific methods, theories, and concepts, within the organizational and business research fields. Here we will revisit and further refine the OCN paradigm, and define an approach where we feel the marriage of organizational theory and neuroscience will return even greater dividends in the future and that is within the field of clinical practice. PMID:24367310

  2. The state of the art in organizational cognitive neuroscience: the therapeutic gap and possible implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Senior, Carl; Lee, Nick

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers in the social sciences have increasingly adopted neuroscientific techniques, with the consequent rise of research inspired by neuroscience in disciplines such as economics, marketing, decision sciences, and leadership. In 2007, we introduced the term organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN), in an attempt to clearly demarcate research carried out in these many areas, and provide an overarching paradigm for research utilizing cognitive neuroscientific methods, theories, and concepts, within the organizational and business research fields. Here we will revisit and further refine the OCN paradigm, and define an approach where we feel the marriage of organizational theory and neuroscience will return even greater dividends in the future and that is within the field of clinical practice. PMID:24367310

  3. The impact of stormwater treatment areas and agricultural best management practices on water quality in the Everglades Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Gottlieb, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Half of the original Everglades system has been lost to drainage and development. What remains is included within the boundaries of the Everglades Protection Area (EPA), comprised of three Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and Everglades National Park (Park). Inflows to the EPA contain elevated nutrient concentrations. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented and six large wetlands called stormwater treatment areas (STAs) were constructed to improve water quality. We analyzed water quality in the WCAs and Park and performed an economic analysis of the STAs to remove nutrients from EPA inflows. In general, nutrient concentrations in all WCAs were higher during the pre-STA period than after the STAs became operational. In WCA2 and the Park, total phosphorus (TP) trends showed more negative slopes prior, as compared to after, the STAs became operational. These results suggest that BMPs lead to large initial decreases in nutrient export resulting in improved downstream water quality. A preliminary economic analysis shows that operation and management of the STAs are complicated and cost intensive. Comparing the cost of phosphorus (P) removal from water entering the EPA using BMPs and STAs may not currently be viable. BMPs prevent P from being applied to, or leaving from agricultural fields while STAs remove P from stormwater. We expect nutrient concentrations in water flowing into and out of the STAs to decline as both BMPs and STAs become more effective. We suggest an economic analysis of BMPs, STAs, and other potential approaches to determine the most cost-effective methods to reduce nutrient concentrations and related stressors affecting the Everglades.

  4. From Best Practice to Best Fit: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Services Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birner, Regina; Davis, Kristin; Pender, John; Nkonya, Ephraim; Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Ekboir, Javier; Mbabu, Adiel; Spielman, David J.; Horna, Daniela; Benin, Samuel; Cohen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The article provides a conceptual framework and discusses research methods for analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services. The framework can also assist policy-makers in identifying reform options. It addresses the following question: Which forms of providing and financing agricultural advisory services work best in which situation? The…

  5. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  6. Bridging the Gap between Evidence and Practice for Adults with Medically Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is a Change in Funding Policy Needed to Stimulate a Shift in Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Alireza; Aldakkan, Abdulrahman; Kosicka, Magda J.; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Surgery for medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in adults has been shown to be effective but underutilized. Comprehensive health economic evaluations of surgery compared with continued medical management are limited. Policy changes may be necessary to influence practice shift. Methods. A critical review of the literature on health economic analyses for adults with MRE was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CRD, and EconLit databases were searched using relevant subject headings and keywords pertaining to adults, epilepsy, and health economic evaluations. The screening was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results. Four studies were identified (1 Canadian, 2 American, and 1 French). Two were cost-utility analyses and 2 were cost-effectiveness evaluations. Only one was conducted after the effectiveness of surgery was established through a randomized trial. All suggested surgery to be favorable in the medium to long term (7-8 years and beyond). The reduction of medication use was the major cost-saving parameter in favor of surgery. Conclusions. Although updated evaluations that are more generalizable across settings are necessary, surgery appears to be a favorable option from a health economic perspective. Given the limited success of knowledge translation endeavours, funder-level policy changes such as quality-based purchasing may be necessary to induce a shift in practice. PMID:26770822

  7. Commentary--Bridging the research and practice gap in autism: the importance of creating research partnerships with schools.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sarah; Charman, Tony; Faulkner, Rachel; Ragan, Jude; Wallace, Simon; Wittemeyer, Kerstin

    2013-05-01

    While the last 10 years have seen a significant increase in research published on early intervention and autism, there is a persistent disconnect between educational research and practice. Governments have invested significant funds in autism education, and a range of approaches have been implemented in schools, but there is limited research exploring whether these educational strategies are effective and a lack of involvement of teaching professionals in the research. Given that the majority of children and young people with autism spend most of their time in school and not in early or specialised intervention programmes, there is a compelling need to conduct better educational research and implement educational interventions in schools. We argue that building collaborative partnerships between researchers and school practitioners is central to achieving improved understanding of, and outcomes for, pupils on the autism spectrum. This commentary offers perspectives from teachers about their experiences of, and priorities for, research, and also presents a model of collaboration between autism school practitioners and researchers, which could support a more integrated approach to research. We reflect on the strengths and challenges of this as well as outcomes achieved so far.

  8. Policy and practice in the use of root cause analysis to investigate clinical adverse events: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Davide; Waring, Justin; Mengis, Jeanne

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines the challenges of investigating clinical incidents through the use of Root Cause Analysis. We conducted an 18-month ethnographic study in two large acute NHS hospitals in the U.K. and documented the process of incident investigation, reporting, and translation of the results into practice. We found that the approach has both strengths and problems. The latter stem, in part, from contradictions between potentially incompatible organizational agendas and social logics that drive the use of this approach. While Root Cause Analysis was originally conceived as an organisational learning technique, it is also used as a governance tool and a way to re-establish organisational legitimacy in the aftermath of incidents. The presence of such diverse and partially contradictory aims creates tensions with the result that efforts are at times diverted from the aim of producing sustainable change and improvement. We suggest that a failure to understand these inner contradictions, together with unreflective policy interventions, may produce counterintuitive negative effects which hamper, instead of further, the cause of patient safety.

  9. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  10. 'Getting things done': an everyday-life perspective towards bridging the gap between intentions and practices in health-related behavior.

    PubMed

    van Woerkum, Cees; Bouwman, Laura

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we aim to add a new perspective to supporting health-related behavior. We use the everyday-life view to point at the need to focus on the social and practical organization of the concerned behavior. Where most current approaches act disjointedly on clients and the social and physical context, we take the clients' own behavior within the dynamics of everyday context as the point of departure. From this point, healthy behavior is not a distinguishable action, but a chain of activities, often embedded in other social practices. Therefore, changing behavior means changing the social system in which one lives, changing a shared lifestyle or changing the dominant values or existing norms. Often, clients experience that this is not that easy. From the everyday-life perspective, the basic strategy is to support the client, who already has a positive intention, to 'get things done'. This strategy might be applied to those cases, where a gap is found between good intentions and bad behavior.

  11. Gastric biopsies: The gap between evidence-based medicine and daily practice in the management of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    El-Zimaity, Hala; Serra, Stefano; Szentgyorgyi, Eva; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Samani, Amir

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many consider histology to be the gold standard for Helicobacter pylori detection. Because the number and distribution of H pylori organisms vary, particularly in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the American Gastroenterological Association recommends discontinuing PPIs two weeks before endoscopy, and taking biopsies from both the body and antrum. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of clinical practice on the histopathological detection of H pylori infection. METHODS: Electronic patient records were evaluated for the sites of gastric sampling and PPI use at endoscopy. One hundred fifty cases with biopsies taken from both antrum and body were randomly selected for pathological re-review with special stains. The gastric regions sampled, H pylori distribution and influence of clinical factors on pathological interpretation were assessed. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2010, 10,268 biopsies were taken to detect H pylori. Only one region was sampled in 60% of patients (antrum 47%, body 13%). Re-review of biopsies taken from both antrum and body indicated that the correct regions were sampled in only 85 (57%) patients. Of these, 54 were H pylori positive and 96 were H pylori negative. H pylori was present in the antrum in only 15% of the patients and body only in 21%. Of 96 H pylori-negative patients, two were reinterpreted as positive. Forty-seven per cent of patients were taking PPIs at endoscopy, contributing to both false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Despite national and international guidelines for managing H pylori infection, the American Gastroenterological Association guidelines are infrequently adhered to, with PPIs frequently contributing to false diagnosis; sampling one region only increases the likelihood of missing active infection by at least 15%. PMID:24106732

  12. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  13. Mind the gap: knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers’ practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Methods Providers’ adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers’ choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. Results There was a gap between providers’ knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers’ decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Conclusions Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two

  14. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  15. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  16. [Changes in the prescription of cardiovascular prevention drugs in France between 1995 and 2003: factors influencing the gap between evidence base medicine and clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Philippe, François; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Danchin, Nicolas; Thomas, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Dramatic progresses have occurred during the past 10 years in the field of cardiovascular secondary prevention. Many randomized trials have established the efficacy of statins, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors for reducing cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with coronary heart disease. Since 2002, American and European guidelines have emphasized the importance of optimal utilization of those four main therapeutic classes. Nevertheless, drugs prescription registries conducted in France since 1995 revealed a persistent gap between evidence based medicine and clinical practice, only a minority of patient received an optimal treatment. Some factors associated with lower rate prescription have been identified: elderly patients, female gender, missing of LDL-cholesterol measurement, history of peripheral artery disease or stroke, and finally the difficulty of observance. At this time, optimization of management of these patients require a systematic measurement of LDL-cholestererol level for all patients with CAD, PAD or history of stroke, a larger prescription of statins in female patients and in elderly particularly for secondary prevention. Increasing observance which is the main challenge could involved the utilization of fixed drugs associations.

  17. Bridging the gap between research and practice: an assessment of external validity of community-based physical activity programs in Bogotá, Colombia, and Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Sarmiento, Olga L; Barros, Mauro; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-03-01

    For more than a decade, physical activity classes have been offered in public places at no cost to the participants in some Latin American cities, however, internal and external validity evidence of these programs is limited. The goals of this study were to assess, report, and compare the external validity of the Recreovia program (RCP) in Colombia, and the Academia da Cidade program (ACP) in Brazil. Interviews to assess external validity of the RCP and ACP were conducted in 2012. The interview guide was developed based on the RE-AIM framework. Seventeen key informants were selected to participate in the study. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative qualitative method and experts validated common themes. RCP and ACP key informants reported that both programs reach underserved population. There is no information available about effectiveness. Both programs take place in public spaces (e.g., parks and plazas), which are selected for adoption mainly based on community demand. RCP and ACP offer free physical activity classes with educational and cultural components, have a strong organizational structure for implementation, and differ on schedule and content of classes. Funding sources were reported to play an important role on long-term maintenance. Facilitators and barriers were identified. Programs are similar in the reach and adoption elements; the main differences were found on implementation and maintenance, whereas information on effectiveness was not found. Reporting external validity of these programs is useful to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  18. A short-term assessment of carbon dioxide fluxes under contrasting agricultural and soil management practices in Zimbabwe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two of the biggest problems facing humankind are feeding an exponentially growing human population and preventing the negative effects of climate change from record concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture could address both of these problems. For example, tillage and cover...

  19. Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

    2012-10-11

    In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management.

  20. Gap Resolution

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges.more » In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.« less

  1. Narrowing the Achievement Gap and Sustaining Success: A Qualitative Study of the Norms, Practices, and Programs of a Successful High School with Urban Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senesac, Donald Raymond

    2010-01-01

    The academic achievement gap is the manifestation of differential learning outcomes for students typified by membership in an ethnic minority sub group or economically disadvantaged sub group. Addressing the achievement gap has become vital for the nation as a whole, and even more critical for the state of California because the majority of…

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Legacy P and Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Loads from the Maumee River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Kalcic, Margaret; Scavia, Donald

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, driven substantially by phosphorus loads from agriculture, have led the United States and Canada to begin developing plans to meet new phosphorus load targets. To provide insight into which agricultural management options could help reach these targets, we tested alternative agricultural-land-use and land-management scenarios on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie. These scenarios highlight certain constraints on phosphorus load reductions from changes in the Maumee River Watershed (MRW), which contributes roughly half of the phosphorus load to the lake's western basin. We evaluate the effects on phosphorus loads under nutrient management strategies, reduction of fertilizer applications, employing vegetative buffers, and implementing widespread cover crops and alternative cropping changes. Results indicate that even if fertilizer application ceased, it may take years to see desired decreases in phosphorus loads, especially if we experience greater spring precipitation or snowmelt. Scenarios also indicate that widespread conversions to perennial crops that may be used for biofuel production are capable of substantially reducing phosphorus loads. This work demonstrates that a combination of legacy phosphorus, land management, land use, and climate should all be considered when seeking phosphorus-loading solutions.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Legacy P and Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Loads from the Maumee River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Kalcic, Margaret; Scavia, Donald

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, driven substantially by phosphorus loads from agriculture, have led the United States and Canada to begin developing plans to meet new phosphorus load targets. To provide insight into which agricultural management options could help reach these targets, we tested alternative agricultural-land-use and land-management scenarios on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie. These scenarios highlight certain constraints on phosphorus load reductions from changes in the Maumee River Watershed (MRW), which contributes roughly half of the phosphorus load to the lake's western basin. We evaluate the effects on phosphorus loads under nutrient management strategies, reduction of fertilizer applications, employing vegetative buffers, and implementing widespread cover crops and alternative cropping changes. Results indicate that even if fertilizer application ceased, it may take years to see desired decreases in phosphorus loads, especially if we experience greater spring precipitation or snowmelt. Scenarios also indicate that widespread conversions to perennial crops that may be used for biofuel production are capable of substantially reducing phosphorus loads. This work demonstrates that a combination of legacy phosphorus, land management, land use, and climate should all be considered when seeking phosphorus-loading solutions. PMID:27322563

  4. Spatial variation of soil salinity in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: application of a practical method for agricultural monitoring.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Gabriel; Myint, Soe

    2012-09-01

    The degradation of irrigated lands through the process of soil salinization, or the buildup of salts in the soil, has hampered recent increases in agricultural productivity and threatens the sustainability of large-scale cultivation in critical agricultural regions of the world. Rapid detection of soil salinity on a regional basis has been identified as key for effective mitigation of such land degradation. The ability to detect regional patterns of soil salinity at an accuracy sufficient for regional-scale resource management is demonstrated using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A case study of the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico was selected due to the region's agricultural significance and concern for future soil salinity increases. Surface soil salinity was mapped using georeferenced field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), collected concurrently with Landsat 5 TM imagery. Correlations between EC measurements and common indices derived from the satellite imagery were used to produce a model of soil salinity through regression analysis. Landsat band 7, TNDVI, PCA 1, Tasseled Cap 3 and Tasseled Cap 5 were found to offer the most promising correlations with surface soil salinity. Generally low levels of soil salinity were detected, however, distinct areas of elevated surface salinity were detected at levels potentially impacting sensitive crops cultivated within the region. The difficulty detecting low levels of salinity and the mid-range spatial resolution of Landsat 5 TM imagery restrict the applicability of this methodology to the study of broad regional patterns of degradation most appropriate for use by regional resource managers.

  5. Effects of agricultural best-management practices on total phosphorus yields in the Johnson Brook and Lovejoy Pond watersheds, Kennebec County, Maine, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, Thomas J.; Sowles, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of daily phosphorus yield and streamflow data collected before and after implementation of agricultural best management practices in the Johnson Brook watershed in south-central Maine indicated statistically significant reductions in phosphorus loading in all flow categories. Reduction of median loadings for five flow categories ranged from 26% to 90%. The annual total phosphorus yield was reduced 17% after implementation of the best management practices. The observed phosphorus yield reduction is considerable because of two streamflow factors. First, the period after implementation of the best management practices had eight more storms. Periods of storm runoff in the post-implementation period had 31 days with greater than average streamflow, and a maximum daily streamflow more than three times greater than those observed in the pre-implementation period. Second, the annual streamflow was 128% greater in the year after the management practices were implemented. Because the potential for phosphorous transport increases with runoff, and greater yields are possible when the volume of water increases, a higher phosphorus yield would be expected in the post-implementation period than during the pre-implementation period, if other factors had remained unchanged. The reductions in phosphorous yield in the study area are not expected to have a significant effect on the eutrophic conditions observed in Lovejoy Pond. Phosphorous concentrations in the pond will continue to be capable of supporting algal blooms. However, the intensity and duration of blooms are expected to be less than those observed before best management practice implementation. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: a qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence should meet the needs of decision-makers. As a first step in bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health, this study aimed to provide insight into the occupational health decision-making process and information needs of decision-makers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with a purposeful sample of occupational health decision-makers in the Ontario healthcare sector. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the process by which occupational health decisions are made and the importance given to the financial implications of OHS interventions. Twenty-five structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore the sources of information used during the decision-making process, and decision-makers’ knowledge on economic evaluation methods. In-depth interview data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. For the structured telephone interviews, summary statistics were prepared. Results The occupational health decision-making process generally consists of three stages: initiation stage, establishing the need for an intervention; pre-implementation stage, developing an intervention and its business case in order to receive senior management approval; and implementation and evaluation stage, implementing and evaluating an intervention. During this process, information on the financial implications of OHS interventions was found to be of great importance, especially the employer’s costs and benefits. However, scientific evidence was rarely consulted, sound ex-post program evaluations were hardly ever performed, and there seemed to be a need to advance the economic

  7. Agricultural chemical utilization and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, E W; Piver, W T

    1992-01-01

    The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466

  8. Complex hydrologic changes in frequency-magnitude response due to shifting agricultural practices in the Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takbiri, Z.; Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change is occurring in many basins throughout the Midwestern U.S. not only in the mean annual streamflow but across a spectrum of magnitudes and frequencies. Disentangling the causative mechanisms responsible for these changes such as anthropogenic factors, e.g., artificial drainage to increase agricultural productivity, and climatic shifts in precipitation patterns is important for planning effective mitigation strategies. We have begun unraveling these changes in a human impacted agricultural landscape in the Midwestern U.S., specifically two subbasins of the Minnesota River Basin in Minnesota: the Redwood and Whetstone River Basins, where there has been a shift in agriculture from small grains to soybeans. This shift occurred at different times for each basin (1976 and 1991, respectively) and when soy covered about 20% of the basin area an apparent shift in the hydrologic regime also occurred as evidence by visual inspection of the hydrographs. Precisely quantifying the nature of this hydrologic regime shift however is a challenge and this work adds in this direction. Using Copulas and the joint probability distribution of daily precipitation and streamflow, we quantified a significantly higher dependence between precipitation and streamflow increments in the mid-quantiles (0.1-0.6; attributed to the artificial drainage to the stream rather than the slower infiltration and subsurface runoff) and no significant change for high quantiles (because for extreme storms the artificially fast drainage does not differ much hydrologically from the naturally fast overland flow). We further performed a multi-scale analysis of streamflow increments via wavelets to quantify the changes in the magnitude and frequency of the rising and falling limbs of hydrographs, confirming the above findings. Since precipitation changes were confirmed not to be significant, it is suggested that streamflow changes are largely driven by a change in land use and not climate in these

  9. Spatial variation of soil salinity in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: application of a practical method for agricultural monitoring.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Gabriel; Myint, Soe

    2012-09-01

    The degradation of irrigated lands through the process of soil salinization, or the buildup of salts in the soil, has hampered recent increases in agricultural productivity and threatens the sustainability of large-scale cultivation in critical agricultural regions of the world. Rapid detection of soil salinity on a regional basis has been identified as key for effective mitigation of such land degradation. The ability to detect regional patterns of soil salinity at an accuracy sufficient for regional-scale resource management is demonstrated using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A case study of the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico was selected due to the region's agricultural significance and concern for future soil salinity increases. Surface soil salinity was mapped using georeferenced field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), collected concurrently with Landsat 5 TM imagery. Correlations between EC measurements and common indices derived from the satellite imagery were used to produce a model of soil salinity through regression analysis. Landsat band 7, TNDVI, PCA 1, Tasseled Cap 3 and Tasseled Cap 5 were found to offer the most promising correlations with surface soil salinity. Generally low levels of soil salinity were detected, however, distinct areas of elevated surface salinity were detected at levels potentially impacting sensitive crops cultivated within the region. The difficulty detecting low levels of salinity and the mid-range spatial resolution of Landsat 5 TM imagery restrict the applicability of this methodology to the study of broad regional patterns of degradation most appropriate for use by regional resource managers. PMID:22744157

  10. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  11. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  12. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  13. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  14. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Eagle Creek, Tributary to Maumee River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  15. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  16. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination. PMID:26279315

  17. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination.

  18. Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied.

  19. Trend reversal of nitrate in Danish groundwater--a reflection of agricultural practices and nitrogen surpluses since 1950.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Laerke; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. First, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends, and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Second, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Third, groundwater recharge CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two data sets. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s, while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. PMID:21138289

  20. Studies on the practical application of producer gas from agricultural residues as supplementary fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gasification of various agricultural residues in down-draft, fixed bed gas producers and the utilization of the gas in small diesel engines converted for dual-fuel operation were studied at the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines. Such agricultural residues as coconut shells, wood waste, rice hulls and corn cobs were readily gasified in gas producers of simple design. Cleaning of the gas before its use in diesel engines presented some problems. Use of charcoal in the gas producers to provide gas to a 5-brake horsepower single cylinder engine and a 65-brake horsepower six cylinder engine proved satisfactory. With charcoal as fuel, the percentage of the total energy from diesel oil replaced by producer gas and utilized in the single cylinder engine was higher (79%) compared to that in the six cylinder engine (73%). The thermal efficiency of the bigger gas producer, however was significantly better (85%) compared to the smaller gas producer (70%). The total gasification rate of the bigger reactor (20 kg/h) was 8 times that (2.5 kg/h) of the smaller reactor.