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Sample records for agricultural products sales

  1. Agricultural Products Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for agricultural products sales and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies,…

  2. PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN THE PETROLEUM PHASE OF AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS ARE (1)…

  3. Agriculture Sales and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Robert

    Designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in agriculture and related areas, this curriculum guide is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives, and is a suggested method of group instruction for students who are employed in an agribusiness program. The material is intended to cover those items which every…

  4. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  5. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  6. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  7. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  8. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  9. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL OR POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SALES AND SERVICE. ONE OF A SERIES OF MODULES FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS, IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. APPLICABLE TO TWO LEVELS OF INSTRUCTION,…

  10. 9 CFR 104.5 - Products for distribution and sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products for distribution and sale. 104.5 Section 104.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS...

  11. 9 CFR 104.5 - Products for distribution and sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products for distribution and sale. 104.5 Section 104.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS...

  12. 9 CFR 104.5 - Products for distribution and sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products for distribution and sale. 104.5 Section 104.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS...

  13. 9 CFR 104.5 - Products for distribution and sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products for distribution and sale. 104.5 Section 104.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS...

  14. 9 CFR 104.5 - Products for distribution and sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products for distribution and sale. 104.5 Section 104.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS...

  15. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  16. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Sales and Marketing Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in agricultural sales and marketing. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State Board of Education, Illinois Community…

  18. FERTILIZERS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICE.…

  19. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products in other than packaged form may use the term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  20. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products in other than packaged form may use the term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  1. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products in other than packaged form may use the term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  2. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products in other than packaged form may use the term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  3. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market... sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products in other than packaged form may use the term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  4. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  5. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  6. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products §...

  7. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  8. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  9. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement. (a) Sales of forest products may be made without advertisement to Indians or non-Indians with...

  10. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  11. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  12. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury....533 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  13. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.533 Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  14. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  15. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury....526 Brokering commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a)...

  16. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  17. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  18. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement. (a) Sales...

  19. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives...

  20. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives...

  1. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives...

  2. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without...

  3. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without...

  4. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives...

  5. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16 Section 163.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without...

  6. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives...

  7. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the...

  8. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the...

  9. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the...

  10. 43 CFR 9265.4 - Sales of forest products, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sales of forest products, general. 9265.4 Section 9265.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Vegetative Resources Management § 9265.4 Sales of forest products, general. Commission of any of the...

  11. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  12. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  13. Effects of Agricultural Sales CDE Modules on Content Knowledge and Argumentation Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Sarah B.; Thoron, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training module on argumentation skill, student content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum completed by secondary school agriculture students. Current research has concluded that most students do not possess the academic or transferable…

  14. Clinicians and product sales representatives: developing a relationship that works.

    PubMed

    Harbit, Maryanne Drake; Driggers, Zola S

    2002-02-01

    In today's healthcare climate, clinicians in any specialty may be required to make product selections for their practice. The skills necessary to negotiate the world of sales include information about how sales relationships are conducted, product evaluations, negotiation management, and time management. Because these skills are not taught in traditional healthcare training programs, clinicians often learn these skills through trial and error. Credible and resourceful clinical experts have current information and a working knowledge about products that are available for patients. An excellent resource for this information is the product sales representative. Literature providing information for clinicians on how to establish and maintain productive relationships with medical product representatives is scarce. This article will explain what issues to address in discussions and negotiations with product representatives. Common pitfalls that often result from not understanding the agenda of the sales representative are identified. By employing the suggested strategies, a mutually beneficial relationship can be fostered.

  15. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third... for transmitting its report to the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third Country Markets....

  16. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section affects prohibitions on the sale or supply of U.S. technology or software used to manufacture agricultural commodities, medicine, or medical devices, such as technology to.... 1, that are intended for ultimate use in Sudan as: (A) Food for humans (including raw,...

  17. Synthetic Organic Chemicals: United States Production and Sales, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Roger; And Others

    This is the sixth annual report of the U.S. Trade Commission on domestic production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals and the raw materials from which they are made. The report consists of 15 sections, each covering a specified group (based primarily on use) of organic chemicals as follows: tar and tar crudes; primary products from…

  18. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  19. Influence of E-Learning on Sales Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, David T.

    2012-01-01

    For companies to stay competitive, they must continually bring new products and services to the marketplace. One strategy organizations can use to support this requirement is to provide their sales force with training that enables revenue generation. The types of instructional methods and media used to deploy the training can have an impact on the…

  20. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  1. 31 CFR 12.3 - Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... machines prohibited. 12.3 Section 12.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.3 Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines located in or around any Federal building...

  2. 31 CFR 12.3 - Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... machines prohibited. 12.3 Section 12.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.3 Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines located in or around any Federal building...

  3. 31 CFR 12.3 - Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... machines prohibited. 12.3 Section 12.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.3 Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines located in or around any Federal building...

  4. 31 CFR 12.3 - Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... machines prohibited. 12.3 Section 12.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.3 Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines located in or around any Federal building...

  5. 31 CFR 12.3 - Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... machines prohibited. 12.3 Section 12.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.3 Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines located in or around any Federal building...

  6. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  7. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  8. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  9. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  10. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial sales of certain agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.525 Section 538.525... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  11. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  12. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  13. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  14. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  15. 21 CFR 20.115 - Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Product codes for manufacturing or sales dates. 20... for manufacturing or sales dates. Data or information in Food and Drug Administration files which provide a means for deciphering or decoding a manufacturing date or sales date or use date contained...

  16. Agricultural Production. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for an agricultural production program is one in a series of such guides for agricultural education. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for a program directed toward helping students to become proficient in animal, plant, and soil sciences and…

  17. 40 CFR 152.167 - Distribution and sale of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.167 Distribution and sale of restricted use products. Unless modified by the Agency,...

  18. 40 CFR 152.167 - Distribution and sale of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.167 Distribution and sale of restricted use products. Unless modified by the Agency,...

  19. 40 CFR 152.167 - Distribution and sale of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.167 Distribution and sale of restricted use products. Unless modified by the Agency,...

  20. 40 CFR 152.167 - Distribution and sale of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.167 Distribution and sale of restricted use products. Unless modified by the Agency,...

  1. 40 CFR 152.167 - Distribution and sale of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.167 Distribution and sale of restricted use products. Unless modified by the Agency,...

  2. CROP, LAWN, AND GARDEN SEEDS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP UNDERSTANDING AND ABILITY NEEDED TO ENTER AND ADVANCE IN…

  3. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In...

  4. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In...

  5. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In...

  6. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In...

  7. 25 CFR 163.19 - Contracts for the sale of forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contracts for the sale of forest products. 163.19 Section 163.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.19 Contracts for the sale of forest products. (a) In...

  8. 29 CFR 780.209 - Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products... Operations § 780.209 Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products. Employees of a grower of nursery stock who work in packing and storage sheds sorting the stock, grading and trimming it, racking...

  9. Teaching Diversified Organic Crop Production Using the Community Supported Agriculture Farming System Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Constance L.; Pao, Pauline; Cramer, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An organic garden operated as a community supported agriculture (CSA) venture on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) main campus was begun in January 2002. Students enroll in an organic vegetable production class during spring and fall semesters to help manage and work on the project. The CSA model of farming involves the sale of shares to…

  10. 7 CFR 1430.104 - Sales from inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales from inventories. 1430.104 Section 1430.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program § 1430.104 Sales from inventories. (a) CCC may sell any dairy product purchased as specified...

  11. PRODUCTION OF XYLITOL FROM AGRICULTURAL HEMICELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of value-added co-products from agricultural biomass is an important economic driver for the success of a biorefinery approach to the production of ethanol and other fuels. During most ethanol production methods, significant amounts of hemicellulose by-products are produced which are...

  12. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor’s law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases. PMID:27310915

  13. 27 CFR 11.23 - Sales conditioned on the acquisition of other products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... buyer, or the agreement, as a condition to present or future sales, to accept other products from the trade buyer is prohibited. (b) Exchange. The exchange of one product for another is prohibited as...

  14. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  15. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  16. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  17. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  18. Agricultural Products: Program Planning Guide: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Richard; Robb, Sam

    The program planning guide for agricultural products was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of meat and meat byproducts, dairy processing, fruit and vegetable…

  19. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. In determining normal value, the Secretary may disregard sales of... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

  20. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. In determining normal value, the Secretary may disregard sales of... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

  1. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. In determining normal value, the Secretary may disregard sales of... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

  2. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. In determining normal value, the Secretary may disregard sales of... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

  3. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. In determining normal value, the Secretary may disregard sales of... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made...

  4. Sellers, shakers, peddlers, and hawkers: rehabilitation of sales workers.

    PubMed

    Smith, T S

    1997-01-01

    Sales workers persuade, influence, inform and cajole customers, resulting in the purchase of a product or service. The selling profession is broken down into three categories: sales technology, general sales, and vending. Each of the categories are broken down and examined according to work tasks performed, preparation needed, and advancement opportunities. A case example of an injured agricultural chemical sales worker is provided to demonstrate an industry-specific injury and development of an appropriate vocational rehabilitation plan.

  5. Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This study discusses major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10% of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10% mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: Growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

  6. Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report discusses the major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; and improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

  7. Remotely Sensed Mapping of Agricultural Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiros, E.; Domenikiotis, C.; Dalezios, N. R.; Danalatos, N. G.

    2009-04-01

    Identifying vulnerable agricultural production areas is essential for any sustainable development/farming plan. Climate is among the most important factors that determine the agricultural potential of a region and the suitability of an area for a specific crop or land management, followed by soil characteristics and geomorphology. Temperature and rainfall in terms of quantity and spatiotemporal variability are the two climatic variables that determine the agricultural potential of an area and the risk involved in any new agronomical use. Also, extreme weather events, such as droughts, have to be taken into account. In this paper, two satellite derived indices are combined in GIS environment with soil maps and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in order to identify the agricultural potential of areas. Namely, these indices are the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) and the Degree Days (DD) (also known as Heat Units). VHI represents overall vegetation health and is used for agricultural drought monitoring and mapping. DD units (oC d) are often used in agriculture in order to estimate or predict the lengths of the different phases of the development in crop plants, since temperature has a primary role in the growth of many organisms (plants and insects). The two indices are computed for 20 hydrological years, from October 1981 to September 2001, from NOAA/AVHRR ten -day composite images with 8x8 Km spatial resolution. DD is examined for crops of great commercial importance. The soil maps are digitized according to fertility (appropriate or not for agricultural use) and desertification vulnerability, whereas altitude based limitations are provided by the DEM. The study area is the water district of Thessaly, the largest lowland formation of Greece and the country's largest agricultural centre, located in Central Greece. The superposition of the two indices along with the soil and elevation data had led to the identification of vulnerable agricultural production areas. The

  8. Estrogenicity of agricultural by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Minnesota farms were found to have reduced conception rates in cattle receiving embryo transfers by a local veterinarian, and dietary components were called into question. Affected farms were feeding agricultural by-products, available in either a “shredded” form or a pelletized form. These by-...

  9. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size. PMID:23144676

  10. Agricultural Education Curriculum Guide. Agricultural Production and Management I. Course No. 6811. Agricultural Production and Management II. Course No. 6812.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This document is designed for use by teachers of Agricultural Production and Management courses in North Carolina. It updates the competencies and content outlines from the previous guide. It lists core and optional competencies for two courses in seven areas as follows: leadership; supervised agricultural experience programs; animal science;…

  11. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  12. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  13. Production of a raw material for energy production in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstroem, G.

    1980-04-01

    The total amount of energy in products produced by Swedish agriculture was estimated to 80 TWH: 30 TWh for cereals, 15 TWh for grass and leguminosae, and 35 TWh for straw and other agricultural wastes. Of this production a large part will be used as food even in the future. New plants that would produce more energy than the ones traditionally grown in Sweden are discussed. Also other types of energy from agriculture are discussed such as methane from manure, methanol from gasification processes, and ethanol from fermentative processes. Costs were estimated from different alternatives.

  14. Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Caylor, K. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a major factor in agricultural productivity, especially in developing regions where the capacity for water resources management is limited and climate variability ensures that drought is recurrent and problematic. Recent events in East Africa are testament to this, where drought conditions that have slowly developed over multiple years have contributed to reduced productivity and ultimately food crises and famine. Prospects for the future are not promising given ongoing problems of dwindling water supplies from non-renewable sources and the potential for increased water scarcity and increased drought with climate change. This is set against the expected increase in population by over 2 billion people by 2050 and rise in food demand, coupled with changes in demographics that affect food choices and increases in non-food agriculture. In this talk we discuss the global variability of drought over the 20th century and recent years, and the projected changes over the 21st century, and how this translates into changes in potential agricultural productivity. Drought is quantified using land surface hydrological models driven by a hybrid reanalysis-observational meteorological forcing dataset. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of hydroclimatic variables, in particular precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture, and we calculate changes in various drought characteristics. Potential agricultural productivity is derived from the balance of precipitation to crop water demand, where demand is based on potential evaporation and crop coefficients for a range of staple crops. Some regional examples are shown of historic variations in drought and potential productivity, and the estimated water deficit for various crops. The multitude of events over the past decade, including heat waves in Europe, fires in Russia, long-term drought in northern China, southeast Australia, the Western US and a series of droughts in the Amazon and Argentina, hint at the influence of

  15. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. It, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. The common sources of monitoring data are as follows: 1) Host Monitoring a) Medical Diagnosis b) Autopsy c) Serology Surveys 2) Environmental Monitoring a) Sentinel b) Pest Surveys/Microbial Counts c) Sanitary Inspections 3) Food Industries Quality Assurance Monitoring a) End Product Inspection b) Complaints c) Continual Use of the Product

  16. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  17. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  18. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  19. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  20. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  1. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  2. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  3. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  4. 9 CFR 381.181 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 381.181 Section 381.181 Animals and... allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. Whenever the consignee... product on the grounds that it is adulterated or misbranded, the consignee shall notify the...

  5. 9 CFR 320.7 - Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adulterated or misbranded products; sale or transportation as violations. 320.7 Section 320.7 Animals and..., REGISTRATION, AND REPORTS § 320.7 Reports by consignees of allegedly adulterated or misbranded products; sale... location of the product and the respects in which it is alleged to be adulterated or misbranded, and...

  6. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  7. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  8. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  9. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  10. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  11. 7 CFR 735.105 - Care of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Care of agricultural products. 735.105 Section 735.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse...

  12. 7 CFR 735.105 - Care of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Care of agricultural products. 735.105 Section 735.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse...

  13. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Piesse, J.; Thirtle, C.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem. PMID:20713401

  14. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity.

    PubMed

    Piesse, J; Thirtle, C

    2010-09-27

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem.

  15. 47 CFR 32.6611 - Product management and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... activities related to marketing products and services. This includes competitive analysis, product and... analysis, pricing analysis, and identification and establishment of distribution channels. (b)...

  16. 47 CFR 32.6611 - Product management and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... activities related to marketing products and services. This includes competitive analysis, product and... analysis, pricing analysis, and identification and establishment of distribution channels. (b)...

  17. 47 CFR 32.6611 - Product management and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... activities related to marketing products and services. This includes competitive analysis, product and... analysis, pricing analysis, and identification and establishment of distribution channels. (b)...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6611 - Product management and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... activities related to marketing products and services. This includes competitive analysis, product and... analysis, pricing analysis, and identification and establishment of distribution channels. (b)...

  19. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for banking purposes or to support its banking business; and (2) Electronic databases... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 9 CFR 2.76 - Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records: Operators of auction sales..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Records § 2.76 Records: Operators of auction sales and brokers. (a) Every operator of an auction sale or broker shall make, keep, and maintain records or...

  4. Agricultural Production: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the agricultural production program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for agricultural production. Tasks are divided into 10 duty areas: orienting the student to agricultural production,…

  5. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  6. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... technology or software used to manufacture agricultural commodities, medicine, or medical devices, such as technology to design or produce biotechnological items or medical devices. (4) Nothing in this section or in..., that are intended for ultimate use in Iran as: (A) Food for humans (including raw, processed,...

  7. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  8. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of the excluded food items specified in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, agricultural commodities that do not fall within the definition of food set forth in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, food (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section) intended for military or law...

  9. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530 Section 560.530 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... purchasers or importers, medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, to any individual or...

  10. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523 Section 538.523 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... purchasers or importers, medicine or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  11. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.523 Section 538.523 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a)(1) One-year specific license requirement. The exportation or... part 538), medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or entity in...

  12. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.530 Section 560.530 Money and..., medicine, and medical devices. (a) One-year license requirement. The exportation or reexportation of...), medicine, or medical devices to the Government of Iran, any entity in Iran, individuals in Iran, or...

  13. Agricultural Business Sales and Marketing. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, intended for junior and senior students of vocational agriculture, contains nine units designed to develop competencies needed in agribusiness. Each unit contains 3 to 11 lessons on topics that include the nature of agribusiness, human relations in agribusiness, verbal and written communication, selling and salesmanship,…

  14. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Cassman, Kenneth G; Matson, Pamela A; Naylor, Rosamond; Polasky, Stephen

    2002-08-08

    A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Agriculturalists are the principal managers of global usable lands and will shape, perhaps irreversibly, the surface of the Earth in the coming decades. New incentives and policies for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be crucial if we are to meet the demands of improving yields without compromising environmental integrity or public health.

  15. After record sales and production, international met markets plummet

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-03-15

    After surging in 2007 and most of 2008, both the demand and the pricing for coal collapsed in 2008's final quarter. The article discusses last year's market and gives some predictions on 2009's production and prices. The National Mining Association predicts that production of coking coal will fall 11% due to plunging demand for steel. 4 photos.

  16. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  17. 7 CFR 46.19 - Sales tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales tickets. 46.19 Section 46.19 Agriculture... Receivers § 46.19 Sales tickets. Sales tickets shall bear printed serial numbers running consecutively and...-day period. The sales tickets shall be prepared and all the details of the sale shall be entered...

  18. Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged?

    PubMed

    John, Robert; Cheney, Marshall K; Azad, M Raihan

    2009-05-01

    With increasing regulation of tobacco industry marketing practices, point-of-sale advertising has become an important channel for promoting tobacco products. One hundred and ten convenience stores in Oklahoma County were surveyed for tobacco-related advertising. There were significantly more point-of-sale tobacco advertisements in low-income and minority neighborhoods than in better educated, higher-income, predominantly White neighborhoods. Storeowners or managers were also interviewed to determine who has decision-making power regarding store signage and placement, and to elicit perceptions of industry tactics. Contracts with tobacco companies leave storeowners with little or no control over promotion of tobacco products within their store, and many are unaware of the implications of the tobacco industry point-of-sale practices. Local ordinances that regulated outdoor signage reduced outdoor tobacco advertisements, as well as tobacco signage and promotions within the store. Policy change, rather than education targeting storeowners, is recommended as the most effective strategy for reducing point-of-sale tobacco advertising.

  19. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  20. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of

  1. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  2. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  3. Tobacco Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mike; And Others

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains forty-one lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in tobacco production. The lessons in this unit cover such topics as the importance of tobacco, selecting land for tobacco, soil analysis and treatment, selecting tobacco…

  4. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auction sales. 46.25 Section 46.25 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales § 46.25 Auction sales. Commission merchants, dealers and brokers who offer produce for sale through...

  5. Resale of recalled children's products online: an examination of the world's largest yard sale

    PubMed Central

    Kirschman, Keri Brown; Smith, Gary A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine an online auction site for the presence and sale of children's products and toys previously recalled because of safety concerns. Methods Targeted items were randomly selected from US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) press releases of recalled children's products dated 1992–2004. Auction listings from eBay were searched for the 150 targeted recalled items for 30 days. Item, seller, and buyer information were recorded from the auction listings. Results 190 auctions contained or were suspected to contain a recalled children's item from the target list. Most of the recalled items were listed for sale from addresses within the United States, with sellers from Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Ireland also represented. On average, six bids were placed on each recalled item, with 70% of auctions eventuating in a sale. Conclusions Recalled children's products were found to be available for sale online and were sold most of the time, presenting a risk of injury to children. Although the CPSC is charged with notifying the public of recalled items, these results suggest that potentially hazardous products are recirculating online. A multi‐front initiative to decrease the presence of hazards in online auctions is needed. This initiative should include increased manufacturer efforts to improve recall return rates, a requirement by online auction sites that sellers verify non‐recall status before item posting, and parental checks of government recall websites before item purchase. Investigation of parental understanding and awareness of recalls and the potential risks associated with recall announcements is needed. PMID:17686931

  6. 36 CFR 223.3 - Sale of seized material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of seized material. 223.3 Section 223.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  7. 36 CFR 223.3 - Sale of seized material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of seized material. 223.3 Section 223.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  8. 36 CFR 223.3 - Sale of seized material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of seized material. 223.3 Section 223.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  9. 36 CFR 223.3 - Sale of seized material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of seized material. 223.3 Section 223.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  10. 7 CFR 735.105 - Care of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.105 Care of agricultural products. Each warehouse operator must at all times, including during...

  11. An EMQ inventory model for defective products involving rework and sales team's initiatives-dependent demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyan, S.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the issue of an economic manufacturing quantity model for defective products involving imperfect production processes and rework. We consider that the demand is sensitive to promotional efforts/sales teams' initiatives as well as the setup cost can be reduced through further investment. It also assumes that fixed quantity multiple installments of the finished batch are delivered to customers at a fixed interval of time. The long-run average cost function is derived and its convexity is proved via differential calculus. An effective iterative solution procedure is developed to achieve optimal replenishment lot-size, setup cost and the initiatives of sales teams so that the total cost of system is minimized. Numerical and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate the outcome of the proposed solution procedure presented in this research.

  12. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  13. Consumer perceptions of the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacy-based tobacco sales are a rapidly increasing segment of the U.S. retail tobacco market. Growing evidence links easy access to tobacco retail outlets such as pharmacies to increased tobacco use. This mixed-mode survey was the first to employ a nationally representative sample of consumers (n = 3057) to explore their opinions on sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores. Results The majority reported that sale of tobacco products should be either ‘allowed if products hidden from view’ (29.9%, 25.6%) or ‘not allowed at all’ (24.0%, 31.3%) in grocery stores and pharmacies, respectively. Significantly fewer smokers, compared to non-smokers, reported agreement on point-of-sale restrictions on sales of tobacco products (grocery stores: 27.1% vs. 59.6%, p < .01; pharmacy: 32.8% vs. 62.0%, p < .01). Opinions also varied significantly by demographic characteristics and factors such as presence of a child in the household and urban/rural location of residence. Conclusions Overall, a majority of consumers surveyed either supported banning sales of tobacco in grocery stores and pharmacies or allowing sales only if the products are hidden from direct view. Both policy changes would represent a departure from the status quo. Consistent with the views of practicing pharmacists and professional pharmacy organizations, consumers are also largely supportive of more restrictive policies. PMID:23837647

  14. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  15. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eggs (unfertilized or fertilized), dried egg albumin, live animals (excluding live cattle), embryos (excluding cattle embryos), Rosary/Jequirity peas, non-food-grade gelatin powder, peptones and their... as live animals, fertilized eggs, embryos, and semen) for the production of food animals....

  16. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  17. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    DOE PAGES

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenuemore » from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.« less

  18. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  19. Finding Sales Promotion and Making Decision for New Product Based on Group Analysis of Edge-Enhanced Product Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Jianbin; Wu, Bin

    A novel method is proposed in this paper to find the promotive relationship of products from a network point of view. Firstly, a product network is built based on the dataset of handsets’ sale information collected from all outlets of a telecom operator of one province of China, with a period from Jan. 2006 to Jul. 2008. Then the edge enhanced model is applied on product network to divide all the products into several groups, according to which each outlet is assigned to class A or class B for a certain handset. Class A is defined as the outlet which sell the certain handset and contains all of handsets of its group, while other situation for class B which sell the certain handset too. It’s shown from the result of analysis on these two kinds of outlets that many handsets are sold better in outlets of class A than that of class B, even though the sales revenue of all these outlets in the time period is close. That is to say the handsets within a group would promote the sale for each other. Furthermore, a method proposed in this paper gives a way to find out the important attributes of the handsets which lead them to br divided into the same group, and it also explains how to add a new handset to an existing group and where would the new handset be sold best.

  20. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying bulk agricultural products that may produce dust explosion hazards: (1) The interior of each cargo... explosion hazards: (1) All areas within 2 meters (6.5 feet) of a Division 1 (Zone 10 or Z) location in all...: Information on the dust explosion hazards associated with the carriage of agricultural products is...

  1. [Chapter 4. Transitions in pharmaceutical market, production and sales in Japan (1980-2010)].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the writers reviewed in detail the pharmaceutical market and the shifts in manufacturing and sales including the trade balance in Japan over a thirty-year period from 1980 to 2010. From the 1980s to the 1990s, many innovative pharmaceutical products were developed and launched in the Japanese market. During the same period, some Japanese companies managed to develop their first internationally marketable drugs, which were antibiotics and effective remedies for the digestive and circulatory organs. During this period, Japanese pharmaceutical companies were also able to launch some of blockbuster drugs. For two decades, the pharmaceutical market grew rapidly. For this reason, it can be called "The Growth Period for Pharmaceutical Products" in Japan. After that period, drug development and sales slowed down due to a lack of expertise in genetic engineering and biotechnologies. This situation caused a large deficit in the trade balance for Japanese pharmaceutical products. However, with regard to the trade balance (including technical royalties) for pharmaceutical product technologies, Japan remains in the black even today.

  2. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  3. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  4. 7 CFR 17.7 - Notice of sale procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of sale procedures. 17.7 Section 17.7 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE UNDER... sale procedures. (a) Telephonic notice of sale. The supplier shall, immediately upon making a firm...

  5. The increasing divergence of raw agricultural production from edible calories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    As we look forward to 2050 and the need to dramatically increase agricultural production, we must first look to our recent past to see how changes in yields and area have helped to grow agricultural resources. However, those changes must not be viewed in a vacuum -- it is insufficient to assess advancements in agricultural productivity without converting resources to usable calories by humans and to put the supply in context of population changes. This study looks at major countries and growing regions to determine the availability of usable calories from agriculture from 1965 to 2005. We examine how rapid increases in agricultural supplies in the past have freed up resources for a growing number of non-food uses. We look at how this new competition and pressures from a changing climate might impact the resiliency of our agricultural system.

  6. Secondary aerosol production from agricultural gas precursors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Increasing evidence from both laboratory and field work suggests that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but some volatile org...

  7. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. In 2012, about 13.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was produced from corn in the USA which makes up 10% of gasoline supply. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic fee...

  8. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  9. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  10. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production

    PubMed Central

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and—more importantly—create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win–lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3–3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future. PMID:20643935

  11. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  12. Conversion of agricultural by-products to methyl cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural residues are attractive raw materials for the production of industrial polymers because they are renewable and biodegradable, involve less toxic materials during manufacturing, add value to agricultural byproducts, and decrease the global dependence on petroleum-based feedstock. In this...

  13. Improving productivity and profitability of a bioanalytical business through sales and operation planning.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafiqul

    2013-07-01

    Today's bioanalytical CROs face increasing global competition, highly variable demand, high fixed costs, pricing pressure, and increasing demand for quality and speed. Most bioanalytical laboratories have responded to these challenges by implementing automation and by implementing process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma). These solutions have not resulted in a significant improvement in productivity and profitability since none of them are able to predict the upturn or downturn in demand. High volatility of demand causes long lead times and high costs during peak demand and poor productivity during trough demand. Most bioanalytical laboratories lack the tools to align supply efficiently to meet changing demand. In this paper, sales and operation planning (S&OP) has been investigated as a tool to balance supply and demand. The S&OP process, when executed effectively, can be the single greatest determinant of profitability for a bioanalytical business.

  14. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  15. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 RIN 0910-AG43 Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  16. 7 CFR 205.671 - Exclusion from organic sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion from organic sale. 205.671 Section 205.671..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Inspection and Testing, Reporting, and Exclusion from...

  17. 7 CFR 205.671 - Exclusion from organic sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exclusion from organic sale. 205.671 Section 205.671..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Inspection and Testing, Reporting, and Exclusion from...

  18. 7 CFR 205.671 - Exclusion from organic sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exclusion from organic sale. 205.671 Section 205.671..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Inspection and Testing, Reporting, and Exclusion from...

  19. 7 CFR 205.671 - Exclusion from organic sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exclusion from organic sale. 205.671 Section 205.671..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Inspection and Testing, Reporting, and Exclusion from...

  20. 7 CFR 205.671 - Exclusion from organic sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exclusion from organic sale. 205.671 Section 205.671..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Inspection and Testing, Reporting, and Exclusion from...

  1. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  2. Techniques for Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectrics and dielectric properties of materials are defined generally, and methods for measuring dielectric properties of agricultural products are described for several frequency ranges from audio frequencies through microwave frequencies. These include measurement with impedance and admittance...

  3. 9 CFR 316.16 - Custom prepared products to be marked “Not for Sale.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custom prepared products to be marked âNot for Sale.â 316.16 Section 316.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... “Not for Sale” in letters at least three-eighths inch in height, except that such products need not...

  4. 36 CFR 223.102 - Procedures when sale is not awarded to highest bidder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND... is accepted by one or refused by all of the qualified bidders. (92 Stat. 1301, Pub. L. 95-465)...

  5. 36 CFR 223.102 - Procedures when sale is not awarded to highest bidder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND... is accepted by one or refused by all of the qualified bidders. (92 Stat. 1301, Pub. L. 95-465)...

  6. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  7. An Application of RFID in Monitoring Agricultural Material Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianhui; Li, Peipei; Gao, Wanlin; Wang, Dezhong; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yilong

    With the development of modern agriculture, more and more agricultural material products are used in it. While how to keep these things safe is a big problem at present, which needs to be paid more attention. This article develops an agricultural material products monitor system based on RFID which gives alarm as soon as possible if there is anything unmoral. Every warehouse exit is equipped with a RFID reader, while each agricultural material product has a tag on them. When passing though, the reader identifies the tag's information and transfer it to the PC, The PC inquiries the database storing all tags' information, and tells which one is not taken out legally by alarming aloud.

  8. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  9. Fuel production potential of several agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Buchanan, W.; Bradford, B.N.

    1984-11-01

    Data collected on starch and sugar crops indicate that sweet potato and sweet sorghum have the best potential for alcohol production in the TVA area. Of the oil crops evaluated in this series of experiments only sunflower and okara appear to offer potential in the Tennessee Valley for oil production for fuel or other uses. 21 tabs.

  10. The sales learning curve.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  11. Health and agricultural productivity: Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Masiye, Felix

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the productivity effects of investment in preventive health technology through a randomized controlled trial in rural Zambia. In the experiment, access to subsidized bed nets was randomly assigned at the community level; 516 farmers were followed over a one-year farming period. We find large positive effects of preventative health investment on productivity: among farmers provided with access to free nets, harvest value increased by US$ 76, corresponding to about 14.7% of the average output value. While only limited information was collected on farming inputs, shifts in the extensive and the intensive margins of labor supply appear to be the most likely mechanism underlying the productivity improvements observed.

  12. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  13. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  14. Outsourcing Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Zhejiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China’s rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers’ decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers’ decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced. PMID:28129362

  15. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  16. Forest production for tropical America. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    This book is concerned primarily with wood production. Without the direct economic returns possible therefrom, the other, less tangible benefits that accrue from forests are in jeopardy in the face of developmental pressures driven by more attractive direct financial incentives. Nevertheless, multiple benefits from forests are inseparable, so the goal should be to make forest productive for all purposes. Forest production, then, as here defined refers to all the values of forests, including those primarily esthetic. The text emphasizes two vital relations. One is that forestry is ecological. Forest managers must be oriented to accept ecological information fundamental to goals and practices. A rift between the two disciplines that exists elsewhere must not intensify in tropical America. Forest production is forestry, not ecology, but intimacy between the two disciplines is mutually vital. The second relation emphasized in the book is that in productive forest management the animal component is as crucial as the plants, The value of animals to forest ecosystems goes far beyond their physical attraction.

  17. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  18. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  19. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  20. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  1. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  2. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  7. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location.

    PubMed

    McKinnish, Terra; Rees, Daniel I; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties.

  8. Food and agricultural waste: Sources of carbon for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, wastes derived from agriculture products have met with limited success in the production of biofuels. Our objective in this report is to showcase a new and meaningful concept (called “avoidance”), to measure the environmental importance of converting these waste streams into energy. Agr...

  9. Co-existence of agricultural production systems.

    PubMed

    Jank, Bernhard; Rath, Johannes; Gaugitsch, Helmut

    2006-05-01

    Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of 'subsidiarity', decisions should be made by the lowest authority possible. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for marketing regional products and services, such as tourism.

  10. Ethanol production and employment. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Petrulis, M.; Sommer, J.; Hines, F.

    1993-07-01

    Increased U.S. production of ethanol could create 28,000-108,000 new jobs by the year 2000. Ethanol, distilled chiefly from corn, can be mixed with gasoline to reduce the level of hydrocarbon pollutants created by fuel combustion in gasoline engines. Job gains will be concentrated in the rural Midwest, where most of the Nation's corn is grown. Small communities elsewhere can benefit through new biomass technologies that can distill ethanol from organic matter other than corn.

  11. Agricultural Production: Task Analysis for Livestock Production. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the agricultural production program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for the livestock production portion of agricultural production IV and V. Tasks are divided into six duty areas:…

  12. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981–2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making. PMID:28265075

  13. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G; Schmoldt, Daniel L; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A

    2017-03-21

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ∼70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981-2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making.

  14. Multiple Knowledges for Agricultural Production: Implications for the Development of Conservation Agriculture in Kenya and Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Keith M.; Lamb, Jennifer N.; Sikuku, Dominic Ngosia; Ashilenje, Dennis S.; Laker-Ojok, Rita; Norton, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent of multiple knowledges among smallholders and connected non-farm agents around Mount Elgon in Kenya and Uganda in order to build the communicative competence needed to scale up conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). Design/methodology/approach: Our methodological approach examines local…

  15. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  16. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  17. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  18. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  19. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  20. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  1. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  2. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  3. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  4. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  5. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  7. 27 CFR 11.22 - Consignment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled...

  8. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Chen, L.; Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

  9. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  10. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  11. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45 Section 111.105-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL... directions except when there is an intervening barrier, such as a bulkhead or deck. Note to §...

  12. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  13. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  14. Materials with Adsorptive Properties from Agricultural By-Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  15. Farm Laboratory Aids Post-Secondary Instruction in Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statler, Larry L.; Juhl, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Reports a farm laboratory of 1500 swine, 40 beef cattle, 52 sheep, a 300-crop acres, and a full line of leased new farm machinery for post-secondary agricultural production students. A student board of directors manages the demonstration farm. (DM)

  16. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  17. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  18. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  19. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in response to ethanol policy incentives in recent years is well documented and may worsen this effect. We develop a spatially distributed dynamic environmental performance index (EPI), accounting for both desirable agricultural outputs and undesirable nonpoint source emissions from farm production, to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance within the UMRB between 2002 and 2007, which is characterized by increasing policy incentives for ethanol production. County-level production data from the USDA agricultural census are aggregated to hydrologic unit code (HUC8) boundaries using a geographic information system (GIS), and a previously developed statistical model, which includes net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) as well as precipitation and land use characteristics as inputs, is used to estimate annual nitrogen loadings delivered to streams from HUC8 watersheds. The EPI allows us to decompose performance of each HUC8 region over time into changes in productive efficiency and emissions efficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance for producers in this region at the watershed scale. The resu

  20. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  1. Chocolate scents and product sales: a randomized controlled trial in a Canadian bookstore and café.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Mary C; Aronow, Peter M; Shotwell, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a 31-day trial on the effects of chocolate scent on purchasing behavior in a bookstore. Our study replicates and extends a 10-day randomized controlled trial in order to examine the generalizability of the original finding. We first introduce the study of store atmospherics and highlight the importance and dearth of replication in this area. In the next section, we describe the original study and discuss the theory of ambient scent effects on product sales, and the role of scent-product congruity. We then describe our design and methods, followed by presentation and discussion of our results. We find no evidence that chocolate scent affects sales. These findings indicate the importance of replication in varied settings. Contextual factors and the choices available to customers may moderate the effects of ambient scent on purchasing behavior. Our study highlights the value of examining the generalizability of experimental findings, both for theory and practice.

  2. [Simple analysis of maleic hydrazide in agricultural products by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tateishi, Yukinari; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kimura, Naoko; Kitayama, Kyoko; Saito, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    A simplified HPLC determination method for maleic hydrazide in agricultural products was developed, and commercial agricultural crops were investigated. The homogenate of agricultural products was extracted with water. The crude extract was purified on an ACCUCAT Bond Elut extraction cartridge using water. Maleic hydrazide was analyzed by HPLC with UV detection (303 nm). The HPLC separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB-Aq column with acetonitrile-water-phosphoric acid(5:95:0.01) as the mobile phase. Recoveries of maleic hydrazide from 15 agricultural products fortified at 1.0 and 10 micrograms/g were in the ranges of 92.6-104.9% and 94.2-101.3%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.5 microgram/g in samples. The proposed method was applied to the determination of 242 commercial vegetables and fruits. Maleic hydrazide was detected in 2 samples of imported onion at the levels of 4.9 and 7.2 micrograms/g.

  3. Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

  4. Implications of climate mitigation for future agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schmid, Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate ∼81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many food insecure

  5. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Liang, Xinqiang; Linquist, Bruce A; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Lee, Juhwan; Lundy, Mark E; van Gestel, Natasja; Six, Johan; Venterea, Rodney T; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-15

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the

  6. Point-of-sale tobacco marketing in rural and urban Ohio: Could the new landscape of Tobacco products widen inequalities?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-12-01

    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities.

  7. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing in Rural and Urban Ohio: Could the New Landscape of Tobacco Products Widen Inequalities?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Berman, Micah L.; Slater, Michael D.; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities. PMID:26363447

  8. ENGINEERING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research focusing on the production of alternative fuels has intensified due to increasing global demand for a limited oil supply. Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. amounted to 5 billion gallons for 2006 and is projected to increase. Most of the ethanol produced is currently from fermentation of...

  9. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  10. 7 CFR 1962.45 - Reporting sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting sales. 1962.45 Section 1962.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... sales. Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-3, “Advice of Property...

  11. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  12. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES...

  13. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES...

  14. 7 CFR 735.106 - Excess storage and transferring of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess storage and transferring of agricultural products. 735.106 Section 735.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED...

  15. 7 CFR 735.106 - Excess storage and transferring of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess storage and transferring of agricultural products. 735.106 Section 735.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED...

  16. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. 735.110 Section 735.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing §...

  17. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  18. University degrees consistent with agricultural production in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; del Cerro, Jesus; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Benedicto, Susana; García, Jose Luis

    2013-04-01

    Degrees clearly oriented to rural and agricultural engineering are distinguished from the rest of the engineering areas by the need to involve the biological phenomena of engineering calculations. These degrees, which include subjects such as crop production, biotechnology and physics, among others, have evolved tremendously over the last ten years, implanting new curricula and introducing new specialties such as those dedicated to the environment or rural development, thereby adapting new social, economic and environmental aspects of each country. Currently being finalized to implement new titles in most Spanish universities, and in rest of Europe, following the guidelines set by Bologna. The process of elaboration of these degrees is complicated precisely because of the great variety of areas and subjects involved in these degrees. In this paper we study, for several countries of the European Union, the core subjects of the university degrees of agricultural engineering and the correlations between the core contents and the importance of the related uses of the soil in the different sectors of crop production (arable crops, horticulture, fruit growing, gardening, etc.) as well as other socio-economic criteria. The objective is to detect if the design of the core content is consistent in each country with the importance of the related socio-economic sector. Key-words: curriculum, crop production, agricultural engineer.

  19. Production and sale of energy and nutrients from a multi-farm digester

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Howard, K.; Orrett, E.

    1986-01-01

    An investor-owned anaerobic digestion system was designed to process the wastes from several dairy farms totalling 900 cows. The resulting biogas will fuel a 97 KW engine-generator producing both electricity for sale to the utility, and waste heat for digester heating and supplemental greenhouse heating. The digested solids and liquids will be marketed as nursery soil and fertilizer, respectively.

  20. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... example of a processed agricultural product is apple juice concentrate. In the past, USDA has issued USWA... agricultural products such as apple juice concentrate and other similar products. This proposal is in response... following questions: Should FSA offer a license for processed agricultural products such as apple...

  1. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Brazilian participation in global export markets for meat, grain, and oilseed products, particularly in the... production, transportation and marketing infrastructure, technology, exchange rates, domestic support, and... multinational agribusiness firms and their effect on global food supply chains; 5. A description of...

  2. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  3. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  4. Mapping Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Rosevelt, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Dwyer, J. L.; Mueller, R.; Zakzeski, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Wallace, C.; Jones, J.; Windell, S.; Urness, J.; Teaby, A.; Hamblin, D.; Post, K. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to requests for local water transfers, county drought disaster designations, and allocation of emergency funds to mitigate drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in idle acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 640 fields from March - September, 2014. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and discuss potential applications to other regions.

  5. 78 FR 16777 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... 7 CFR Part 20 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION... distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements (ESR). Under that proposed rule, all... export sales of pork and DDG to the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). This final rule implements...

  6. 78 FR 16819 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY... (DDG) be added to the Export Sales Reporting program (ESR). A final rule was issued to add pork to the... regarding mandatory export sales reporting for DDG. DATES: Submit comments on the proposed rule on or...

  7. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  8. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.

    PubMed

    Groffman, P M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  9. Implication of climate warming for agricultural production in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Futang

    1996-03-01

    According to the regional climate change scenarios for China estimated by the composite GCM, the potential impacts of climate warming on rice, winter wheat and corn production in eastern agricultural areas and cropping systems in China in future are simulated in this paper, using the weather-yield model and cropping system model. As a result, it is shown that under the current planting systems and agrotechniques the climate warming effect upon the corn production is the most significant, impact upon the winter wheat is the next one and the smallest one is that upon the rice. The regional and seasonal features of impacts on various crops are rather different. And also, there will be a substantial northward shift of the cropping patterns, such as the northern boundary of triple cropping area would shift from its current border at Yangtze River toward Yellow River. However, it is still difficult to draw a specific conclusion that climate warming will be advantageous or disadvantageous for farm in China, because of significant negative balance between precipitation and evapotranspiration increase and a lot of scientific uncertainties in the investigation of climate warming, GCM prediction and complex-various impact of climate warming on agricultural production.

  10. Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Chinese Agricultural Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Possible food supply change is one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering. In China, the high population density and strong summer monsoon influence on agriculture make this region sensitive to climate changes, such as reductions of precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation spurred by stratospheric sulfate injection. We used results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model to predict crop yield changes from rice, maize, and winter wheat. We first evaluated the DSSAT model by forcing it with daily observed weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of the three major crops in China. We then created two 50-year sets of climate anomalies using the results from eight climate models, for 1%/year increase of CO2 and for G2 (1%/year increase of CO2 balanced by insolation reduction), and compared the resulting agricultural responses. Considering that geoengineering could happen in the future, we used two geoengineering starting years, 2020 and 2060. For 2020, we increased the mean temperature by 1°C and started the CO2 concentration at 410 ppm. For 2060, we increased temperature by 2°C and started the CO2 concentration at 550 ppm. Without changing agriculture technology, we find that compared to the control run, geoengineering with the G2 scenario starting in 2020 or 2060 would both moderately increase rice and winter wheat production due to the CO2 fertilization effect, but the increasing rates are different. However, as a C4 crop, without a significant CO2 fertilization effect, maize production would decrease slightly because of regional drought. Compared to the reference run, the three crops all have less heat stress in southern China and their yields increase, but in northern China cooler

  11. Major Statistical Series of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Volume 12: Costs of Production. Agriculture Handbook No. 671.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Robert G.

    This handbook is intended to help government, university, private sector, and other users become better acquainted with the concepts and data underlying the Department of Agriculture's statistical series. The introduction reviews what various pieces of federal legislation say about the computation of agricultural production costs by the U.S.…

  12. 30 CFR 560.123 - How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production for a... Bidding Systems Royalty Suspension (rs) Leases § 560.123 How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000? You must measure natural gas production subject to...

  13. 30 CFR 560.123 - How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production for a... Bidding Systems Royalty Suspension (rs) Leases § 560.123 How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000? You must measure natural gas production subject to...

  14. 30 CFR 260.123 - How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production for a... measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000? You must measure natural gas production subject to the royalty suspension volume for your lease as follows: 5.62...

  15. 30 CFR 260.123 - How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production for a... Systems Royalty Suspension (rs) Leases § 260.123 How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000? You must measure natural gas production subject to the...

  16. 30 CFR 560.123 - How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production for a... Bidding Systems Royalty Suspension (rs) Leases § 560.123 How do I measure natural gas production for a lease issued in a sale held after November 2000? You must measure natural gas production subject to...

  17. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  18. Vocational Training and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Rice Production in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulimwengu, John; Badiane, Ousmane

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of farmers' educational attainment on agricultural productivity. More specifically, it evaluates how farmers with vocational training perform compared to those with traditional educational training. A stochastic production frontier and inefficiency effects model is estimated using nationally representative household…

  19. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  20. 7 CFR 735.106 - Excess storage and transferring of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.106 Excess storage and transferring of agricultural products. (a) If at any time a warehouse operator stores an agricultural product in a warehouse subject to a...

  1. 76 FR 22603 - Geographic Preference Option for the Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... / Friday, April 22, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition... Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child Nutrition Programs AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... Nutrition Programs to purchase unprocessed locally grown and locally raised agricultural products....

  2. 7 CFR 929.149 - Determination of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 7 or more years of sales history, a new...

  3. 7 CFR 929.149 - Determination of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 6 or more years of sales history, a new...

  4. 7 CFR 929.149 - Determination of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 7 or more years of sales history, a new...

  5. 7 CFR 929.149 - Determination of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 7 or more years of sales history, a new...

  6. 7 CFR 929.149 - Determination of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 7 or more years of sales history, a new...

  7. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  8. To prohibit the use, production, sale, importation, or exportation of any pesticide containing atrazine.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ellison, Keith [D-MN-5

    2013-05-17

    06/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 29 CFR 780.209 - Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agricultural activities and are subordinate to his farming operations. Such employees are not employed in... near the place where they were grown may be incidental to his farming operations, the character...

  10. 29 CFR 780.209 - Packing, storage, warehousing, and sale of nursery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agricultural activities and are subordinate to his farming operations. Such employees are not employed in... near the place where they were grown may be incidental to his farming operations, the character...

  11. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    PubMed

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger

  12. Product distribution from pyrolysis of wood and agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Di Russo, C.; Rea, G.

    1999-06-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of agricultural residues (wheat straw, olive husks, grape residues, and rice husks) and wood chips have been investigated on a bench scale. The experimental system establishes the conditions encountered by a thin (4 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} m diameter) packed bed of biomass particles suddenly exposed in a high-temperature environment, simulated by a radiant furnace. Product yields (gases, liquids, and char) and gas composition, measured for surface bed temperatures in the range 650--1000 K, reproduce trends already observed for wood. However, differences are quantitatively large. Pyrolysis of agricultural residues is always associated with much higher solid yields (up to a factor of 2) and lower liquid yields. Differences are lower for the total gas, and approximate relationships exist among the ratios of the main gas species yields, indicating comparable activation energies for the corresponding apparent kinetics of formation. However, while the ratios are about the same for wood chips, rice husks, and straw, much lower values are shown by olive and grape residues. Large differences have also been found in the average values of the specific devolatilization rates. The fastest (up to factors of about 1.5 with respect to wood) have been observed for wheat straw and the slowest (up to factors of 2) for grape residues.

  13. Nuclear technologies and agricultural production sphere (prospects of application, ecological aspects)

    SciTech Connect

    Alexakhin, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Issues involved with the application of ionizing radiation to agricultural products are described in this paper. Many sides of agricultural application are alternative. However, nuclear technology is the most safe ecologically of the food preservation techniques.

  14. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  15. Emerging technologies in ethanol production. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hohmann, N.; Rendleman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel ethanol industry is poised to adopt a wide range of technologies that would reduce costs at every stage of the production process. Improved enzymes and fermenter designs can reduce the time needed to convert corn to ethanol and lower capital costs. Membrane filtration can allow the recovery of high-value coproducts such as lactic acid. Adoption of these and other innovations in the next 5 years is expected in new ethanol plants constructed to cope with new demand resulting from Clean Air Act stipulations for cleaner burning fuel. Biomass (agricultural residues, municipal and yard waste, energy crops like switchgrass) can also be converted to ethanol, although commercial-scale ventures are limited by current technology. While biomass requires more handling and sorting before conversion, those costs may be offset by the abundance of biomass relative to corn.

  16. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non

  17. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  18. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  19. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  20. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  1. Effects of media reports and the subsequent voluntary withdrawal from sale of suicide-related products on the suicide rate in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Akihito; Abe, Takeru

    2012-04-01

    Media reports of suicides have an impact on suicide rates. However, countermeasures to this media effect have not been evaluated. We examined the association between media reports of suicides accomplished with the use of hydrogen sulfide, the voluntary stoppage of sales of suicide-related products, and suicide rates for people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s in Japan. The Box-Jenkins transfer function model was applied to monthly time series data from February 2003 to December 2009 (83 months). In the male suicide time series, media reports of suicide were not related to suicide counts (ω((R)) = 8.988, P = 0.694). Similarly, stopping the sale of bath salts was not related to the number of suicides (ω((S)) = -7.344, P = 0.694). However, in the female suicide time series, media reports of suicide were related to the number of suicides (ω((R)) = 17.225, P = 0.049). Similarly, stopping the sale of bath salts was related to the number of suicides (ω((S)) = -18.545, P = 0.040). The results suggest that stopping the sale of bath salts might be effective in reducing the number of copycat suicides among the women in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. In practice, stopping the sale of suicide-related products might be a potentially effective countermeasure to prevent copycat suicides triggered by media coverage of suicides.

  2. 13 CFR 125.4 - Government property sales assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Government property: (1) Sales of timber and related forest products; (2) Sales of strategic material from national stockpiles; (3) Sales of royalty oil by the Department of Interior's Minerals Management...

  3. 13 CFR 125.4 - Government property sales assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Government property: (1) Sales of timber and related forest products; (2) Sales of strategic material from national stockpiles; (3) Sales of royalty oil by the Department of Interior's Minerals Management...

  4. Value of Available Global Soil Moisture Products for Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenova, Iliana; Bolten, John; Crow, Wade; de Jeu, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The first operationally derived and publicly distributed global soil moil moisture product was initiated with the launch of the Advanced Scanning Microwave Mission on the NASA's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (AMSR-E). AMSR-E failed in late 2011, but its legacy is continued by AMSR2, launched in 2012 on the JAXA Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR is a multi-frequency dual-polarization instrument, where the lowest two frequencies (C- and X-band) were used for soil moisture retrieval. Theoretical research and small-/field-scale airborne campaigns, however, have demonstrated that soil moisture would be best monitored using L-band-based observations. This consequently led to the development and launch of the first L-band-based mission-the ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (2009). In early 2015 NASA launched the second L-band-based mission, the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). These satellite-based soil moisture products have been demonstrated to be invaluable sources of information for mapping water stress areas, crop monitoring and yield forecasting. Thus, a number of agricultural agencies routinely utilize and rely on global soil moisture products for improving their decision making activities, determining global crop production and crop prices, identifying food restricted areas, etc. The basic premise of applying soil moisture observations for vegetation monitoring is that the change in soil moisture conditions will precede the change in vegetation status, suggesting that soil moisture can be used as an early indicator of expected crop condition change. Here this relationship was evaluated across multiple microwave frequencies by examining the lag rank cross-correlation coefficient between the soil moisture observations and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A main goal of our analysis is to evaluate and inter-compare the value of the different soil moisture products derived using L-band (SMOS

  5. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  6. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  7. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  8. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  9. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  10. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  11. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... agricultural products and fertilizer. 1300.5 Section 1300.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... fertilizer. (a) With respect to transportation of agricultural products (including grain, as defined in 7 U.S.C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available,...

  12. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic product or certified organic ingredient to any buyer. (b) An agricultural product organically produced...

  13. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic product or certified organic ingredient to any buyer. (b) An agricultural product organically produced...

  14. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic product or certified organic ingredient to any buyer. (b) An agricultural product organically produced...

  15. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic product or certified organic ingredient to any buyer. (b) An agricultural product organically produced...

  16. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic product or certified organic ingredient to any buyer. (b) An agricultural product organically produced...

  17. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, Jerry L.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Kimball, B. A.; Ziska, Lewis A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Ort, Don; Thomson, Allison M.; Wolfe, David W.

    2011-04-19

    Changes in temperature, CO2, and precipitation under the scenarios of climate change for the next 30 years present a challenge to crop production. This review focuses on the impact of temperature, CO2, and ozone on agronomic crops and the implications for crop production. Understanding these implications for agricultural crops is critical for developing cropping systems resilient to stresses induced by climate change. There is variation among crops in their response to CO2, temperature, and precipitation changes and, with the regional differences in predicted climate, a situation is created in which the responses will be further complicated. For example, the temperature effects on soybean could potentially cause yield reductions of 2.4% in the South but an increase of 1.7% in the Midwest. The frequency of years when temperatures exceed thresholds for damage during critical growth stages is likely to increase for some crops and regions. The increase in CO2 contributes significantly to enhanced plant growth and improved water use efficiency; however, there may be a downscaling of these positive impacts due to higher temperatures plants will experience during their growth cycle. A challenge is to understand the interactions of the changing climatic parameters because of the interactions among temperature, CO2, and precipitation on plant growth and development and also on the biotic stresses of weeds, insects, and diseases. Agronomists will have to consider the variations in temperature and precipitation as part of the production system if they are to ensure the food security required by an ever increasing population.

  18. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  19. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  20. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by...

  1. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  2. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  3. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  4. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  5. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  6. Cross-country disparity in agricultural productivity: quantifying the role of modern seed adoption.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Pandey, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Inequality of agricultural labour productivity across the developing world has increased substantially over the past 40 years. This article asks: to what extent did the diffusion of Green Revolution seed varieties contribute to increasing agricultural labour productivity disparity across the developing countries? We find that 22 per cent of cross-country variation in agricultural labour productivity can be attributed to the diffusion of high-yielding seed varieties across countries, and that the impact of such diffusion differed significantly across regions. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy directed at increasing agricultural labour productivity in the developing world.

  7. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  8. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  9. Methylmercury production in sediment from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Kieu, Le H.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger study of mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation in agricultural (rice growing) and non-agricultural wetlands in California's Central Valley, USA, seasonal and spatial controls on methylmercury (MeHg) production were examined in surface sediment. Three types of shallowly-flooded agricultural wetlands (white rice, wild rice, and fallow fields) and two types of managed (non-agricultural) wetlands (permanently and seasonally flooded) were sampled monthly-to-seasonally. Dynamic seasonal changes in readily reducible ‘reactive’ mercury (Hg(II)R), Hg(II)-methylation rate constants (kmeth), and concentrations of electron acceptors (sulfate and ferric iron) and donors (acetate), were all observed in response to field management hydrology, whereas seasonal changes in these parameters were more muted in non-agricultural managed wetlands. Agricultural wetlands exhibited higher sediment MeHg concentrations than did non-agricultural wetlands, particularly during the fall through late-winter (post-harvest) period. Both sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria have been implicated in MeHg production, and both were demonstrably active in all wetlands studied. Stoichiometric calculations suggest that iron-reducing bacteria dominated carbon flow in agricultural wetlands during the growing season. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not stimulated by the addition of sulfate-based fertilizer to agricultural wetlands during the growing season, suggesting that labile organic matter, rather than sulfate, limited their activity in these wetlands. Along the continuum of sediment geochemical conditions observed, values of kmeth increased approximately 10,000-fold, whereas Hg(II)R decreased 100-fold. This suggests that, with respect to the often opposing trends of Hg(II)-methylating microbial activity and Hg(II) availability for methylation, microbial activity dominated the Hg(II)-methylation process, and that along this biogeochemical continuum, conditions that favored

  10. Methylmercury production in sediment from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Agee, Jennifer L; Kakouros, Evangelos; Kieu, Le H; Fleck, Jacob A; Alpers, Charles N; Stricker, Craig A

    2014-06-15

    As part of a larger study of mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation in agricultural (rice growing) and non-agricultural wetlands in California's Central Valley, USA, seasonal and spatial controls on methylmercury (MeHg) production were examined in surface sediment. Three types of shallowly-flooded agricultural wetlands (white rice, wild rice, and fallow fields) and two types of managed (non-agricultural) wetlands (permanently and seasonally flooded) were sampled monthly-to-seasonally. Dynamic seasonal changes in readily reducible 'reactive' mercury (Hg(II)R), Hg(II)-methylation rate constants (kmeth), and concentrations of electron acceptors (sulfate and ferric iron) and donors (acetate), were all observed in response to field management hydrology, whereas seasonal changes in these parameters were more muted in non-agricultural managed wetlands. Agricultural wetlands exhibited higher sediment MeHg concentrations than did non-agricultural wetlands, particularly during the fall through late-winter (post-harvest) period. Both sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria have been implicated in MeHg production, and both were demonstrably active in all wetlands studied. Stoichiometric calculations suggest that iron-reducing bacteria dominated carbon flow in agricultural wetlands during the growing season. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not stimulated by the addition of sulfate-based fertilizer to agricultural wetlands during the growing season, suggesting that labile organic matter, rather than sulfate, limited their activity in these wetlands. Along the continuum of sediment geochemical conditions observed, values of kmeth increased approximately 10,000-fold, whereas Hg(II)R decreased 100-fold. This suggests that, with respect to the often opposing trends of Hg(II)-methylating microbial activity and Hg(II) availability for methylation, microbial activity dominated the Hg(II)-methylation process, and that along this biogeochemical continuum, conditions that favored

  11. Optimal production lot size and reorder point of a two-stage supply chain while random demand is sensitive with sales teams' initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar Sana, Shib

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a production-inventory model of a two-stage supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer to study production lot size/order quantity, reorder point sales teams' initiatives where demand of the end customers is dependent on random variable and sales teams' initiatives simultaneously. The manufacturer produces the order quantity of the retailer at one lot in which the procurement cost per unit quantity follows a realistic convex function of production lot size. In the chain, the cost of sales team's initiatives/promotion efforts and wholesale price of the manufacturer are negotiated at the points such that their optimum profits reached nearer to their target profits. This study suggests to the management of firms to determine the optimal order quantity/production quantity, reorder point and sales teams' initiatives/promotional effort in order to achieve their maximum profits. An analytical method is applied to determine the optimal values of the decision variables. Finally, numerical examples with its graphical presentation and sensitivity analysis of the key parameters are presented to illustrate more insights of the model.

  12. Assessing the transfer of risk due to transportation of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Chiun; Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Health risk assessment (HRA) is the process used to estimate adverse health effects on humans. The importance and sensitivity of food chains to HRA have been observed, but the impact of the transportation of food has generally been ignored. This study developed an exposure assessment to demonstrate the significance of the transportation of agricultural products in HRA. The associated case study estimated the health risks derived from various sources of arsenic emissions in Taiwan. Two assessment scenarios, self-sufficiency and transportation of agricultural products, were compared to calculate risk transfer ratios that show the impact of agriculture transportation. The risk transfer ratios found by the study range from 0.22 to 42.10, indicating that the quantity of transportation of agricultural products is the critical factor. High air deposition and high agricultural production are the two main contributors to the effect of the transportation of agricultural products on HRA. Risk reduction measures could be applied to high-pollution areas as well as to areas with high agricultural productivity to reduce ingestion risks to residents. Certain areas that are sensitive to the transportation of agricultural products may incur more risks if emissions increase in agriculturally productive counties.

  13. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  14. 16 CFR 303.13 - Sale of remnants and products made of remnants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.13... “remnants of undetermined fiber content.” (3) Where textile fiber products are made of such remnants,...

  15. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  16. Ethanol production, corn gluten feed, and EC trade. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.

    1993-07-01

    The profitability of ethanol depends not only on sales of ethanol, but on sales of several coproducts of corn wet-milling such as corn gluten feed (CGF). CGF demand and supply are affected by several European Community (EC) and US policies, such as EC grain price supports and US energy policies. Changes in existing policies and programs could have a significant effect on the CGF market and, consequently, on the profitability of ethanol production. The report examines the implications of several policy options on demand, supply, and price of CGF and on the profitability of ethanol production. The policy changes examined include: (1) the effect of proposed changes in EC farm and trade policies, and (2) the effect of increased ethanol production due to proposed US environmental policies, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Air Act.

  17. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Agriculture Production (Program CIP: 01.0301--Agricultural Prod. Workers & Mgrs.). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for agriculture production I and II. Presented first are a program…

  18. The Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production on U.S. Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Daniel De La Torre Ugarte

    2000-07-01

    The oil embargoes of the 1970s raised concerns about energy security. Large scale production of bioenergy crops could have significant impacts on the US agricultural sector in terms of quantities, prices and production location of traditional crops as well as farm income. USDA, UT and ORNL modified an agricultural sector model to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow.

  19. Exploring agricultural production systems and their fundamental components with system dynamics modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex wa...

  20. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  1. Livestock Judging. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on livestock judging contains materials based on five competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The following competencies are covered: general preparation for livestock judging, selection, and evaluation; judging, selection, and evaluation of…

  2. Dairy Housing and Equipment. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colliver, Jewell B.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on dairy housing and equipment contains four lessons based upon competencies needed to be a dairy farmer. The lessons in this unit cover the maintenance of milking systems, the provision of adequate and economical housing for dairy animals, and the…

  3. Feeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Boyd C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on feeding livestock contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The lessons in this unit cover the importance of good feeding practices, the identification of nutritional needs and the composition of feeds for…

  4. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  5. Pectic oligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: production, characterization and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Dejonghe, Winnie; Gatti, Monica; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Pectin containing agricultural by-products are potential sources of a new class of prebiotics known as pectic oligosaccharides (POS). In general, pectin is made up of homogalacturonan (HG, α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid monomers) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG, alternate galacturonic acid and rhamnose backbone with neutral side chains). Controlled hydrolysis of pectin containing agricultural by-products like sugar beet, apple, olive and citrus by chemical, enzymatic and hydrothermal can be used to produce oligo-galacturonides (GalpOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS), rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides (RGOS), etc. However, extensive research is needed to establish the role of POS, both as a prebiotic as well as therapeutic agent. This review comprehensively covers different facets of POS, including the nature and chemistry of pectin and POS, potential agricultural residual sources of pectin, pre-treatment methods for facilitating selective extraction of pectin, identification and characterization of POS, health benefits and important applications of POS in food and feed. This review has been compiled to establish a platform for future research in the purification and characterization of POS and for in vivo and in vitro studies of important POS, so that they could be commercially exploited.

  6. A Systematic Review of Store Audit Methods for Assessing Tobacco Marketing and Products at the Point of Sale

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Henriksen, Lisa; Myers, Allison E.; Dauphinee, Amanda L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Over four-fifths of reported expenditures for marketing tobacco products occur at the retail point of sale (POS). To date, no systematic review has synthesized the methods used for surveillance of POS marketing. This review sought to describe the audit objectives, methods, and measures used to study retail tobacco environments. Methods We systematically searched 11 academic databases for papers indexed on or before March 14, 2012, identifying 2,906 papers. Two coders independently reviewed each abstract or fulltext to identify papers with the following criteria: (1) data collectors visited and assessed (2) retail environments using (3) a data collection instrument for (4) tobacco products or marketing. We excluded papers where limited measures of products and/or marketing were incidental. Two abstractors independently coded included papers for research aims, locale, methods, measures used, and measurement properties. We calculated descriptive statistics regarding the use of 4 P’s of marketing (product, price, placement, promotion) and for measures of study design, sampling strategy, and sample size. Results We identified 88 store audit studies. Most studies focus on enumerating the number of signs or other promotions. Several strengths, particularly in sampling, are noted, but substantial improvements are indicated in the reporting of reliability, validity, and audit procedures. Conclusions Audits of POS tobacco marketing have made important contributions to understanding industry behaviour, the uses of marketing, and resulting health behaviours. Increased emphasis on standardization and the use of theory are needed in the field. We propose key components of audit methodology that should be routinely reported. PMID:23322313

  7. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Philip Robertson, G.; Gross, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Landis, Douglas A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers—especially those with large farms—appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant. PMID:26955069

  8. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Philip Robertson, G; Gross, Katherine L; Hamilton, Stephen K; Landis, Douglas A; Schmidt, Thomas M; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Swinton, Scott M

    2014-05-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers-especially those with large farms-appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant.

  9. 9 CFR 590.240 - Detaining product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....240 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... have been processed, bought, sold, possessed, used, transported, or offered or received for sale or... Inspection or Decision...

  10. Production inventory policies for defective items with inspection errors, sales return, imperfect rework process and backorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, Chandra K.; Khanna, Aditi; Kishore, Aakanksha

    2016-03-01

    In order to sustain the challenges of maintaining good quality and perfect screening process, rework process becomes a rescue to compensate for the imperfections present in the production system. The proposed model attempts to explore the existing real-life situation with a more practical approach by incorporating the concept of imperfect rework as this occurs as an unavoidable problem to the firm due to irreparable disorders even in the reworked items. Hence, a production inventory model is formulated here to study the combined effect of imperfect quality items, faulty inspection process and imperfect rework process on the optimal production quantity and optimal backorder level. An analytical method is employed to maximize the expected total profit per unit time. Moreover, the results of several previous research articles namely Chiu et al (2006), Chiu et al (2005), Salameh and Hayek (2001), and classical EPQ with shortages are deduced as special cases. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, and to observe the effects of key parameters on the optimal replenishment policy, a numerical example along with a comprehensive sensitivity analysis has been presented. The pertinence of the model can be found in most of the manufacturing industries like textile, electronics, furniture, footwear, plastics etc. A production lot size model has been explored for defectives items with inspection errors and an imperfect rework process.

  11. High Technology Product Training for Sales Representatives of Spectrum Healthcare Solutions and International Business Machines Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, Enid

    This report describes an application of the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) process to a product knowledge training project for Spectrum Healthcare Solutions, Inc., including the steps and substeps in the phases of analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The training project was designed to address the need for increased…

  12. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the bank for its banking business. (b) With respect to acquired equipment or facilities... efficiency of the banking operations using that capacity. (c) Types of electronic capacity in equipment or... business. Examples of electronic by-products that banks may have legitimately acquired that may be sold...

  13. 7 CFR 1488.4 - Submission of requests for sale registrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of requests for sale registrations. 1488.4 Section 1488.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Financing Export Sales § 1488.4 Submission of requests for...

  14. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  15. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  16. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  17. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  18. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  19. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  20. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  1. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  2. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  3. Agricultural Production and Business Management: Volume 1 (Crops).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    The curriculum guide is the first part of a two-year program developed as part of revision of the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina. The project was designed to implement the following changes: (1) provide a more comprehensive vocational offering; (2) place a greater emphasis on behavioral objectives; (3) place a greater…

  4. Introduction to Agricultural Products and Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document consists of the teacher's guide to a module designed to teach high school students entry-level job competencies in the new areas of agriculture that are now emerging. The module, one of a series of publications designed to identify these new competencies, contains 11 instructional units that cover the following topics: trends in…

  5. Production or Perish: Changing the Inequities of Agricultural Research Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.; Kappel, Tim

    Because of the decline of farm population and family farms, the increase in energy-intensivity, and concentration process in agriculture, a rising tide of criticism has focused on the land grant system and its role in encouraging scientific applications supporting these trends. A study was conducted to develop a strategy that would change…

  6. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions of the future. Conservation agriculture (CA) represents a set of three crop manage...

  7. Agricultural Production and Business Management: Volume 2 (Livestock).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    The curriculum guide is the second part of a two-year program developed as part of a revision of the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina. The project was designed to implement the following changes: (1) provide a more comprehensive vocational offering; (2) place a greater emphasis on behavioral objectives; (3) place a greater…

  8. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products... programs shall be products of United States origin. A product shall not be considered to be a product of... ingredient is: (1) Produced in the United States; and (2) Commercially available in the United States at...

  9. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products... programs shall be products of United States origin. A product shall not be considered to be a product of... ingredient is: (1) Produced in the United States; and (2) Commercially available in the United States at...

  10. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products... programs shall be products of United States origin. A product shall not be considered to be a product of... ingredient is: (1) Produced in the United States; and (2) Commercially available in the United States at...

  11. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.103 United States origin of agricultural products... programs shall be products of United States origin. A product shall not be considered to be a product of... ingredient is: (1) Produced in the United States; and (2) Commercially available in the United States at...

  12. [Planning of monitoring points for agricultural products security based on integrated weighted clustering method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui-Chao; Chen, Lian-Cheng; Wang, Lu; Li, Qing; Xue, Yue-Ju; Du, Guo-Ming

    2009-08-01

    Integrated weighted clustering method was applied to plan the monitoring points for agricultural products security. Definite amounts of key monitoring sampling points were mined out from enormous monitoring objects to make the fewer monitoring sampling points cover the product categories, yields, and regions as more as possible. Among the 10172 agricultural products security enterprises all over the China, 2.46% of them were selected. The tested categories, yields, and regions of agricultural safety products covered 32.71%, 44.29%, and 75% of the total, and their coverage increased by 2.80%, 10.85%, 5.56%, respectively, compared with that by using conventional monitoring and management methods, which suggested that it could be more effective to apply integrated weighted clustering method in setting the monitoring points for agricultural products security.

  13. 36 CFR 223.3 - Sale of seized material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of seized material. 223.3 Section 223.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.3 Sale of seized...

  14. Study of Factors Influencing Research Productivity of Agriculture Faculty Members in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedjazi, Yousef; Behravan, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between individual, institutional and demographic characteristics on one hand and the research productivity of agriculture faculty members on the other. The statistical population of the research comprises 280 academic staff in agricultural faculties all over Tehran Province. The data…

  15. The need for more uniform terms and measures of nitrogen use efficiency in agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is recognized as the most important nutrient required for productive agriculture, yet its widespread and luxurious use can impair water and air quality at local, regional and global scales. To address the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural N use, various terms and calcul...

  16. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  17. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  18. Livestock Skills Performance Levels Reported by Agricultural Production Teachers in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Edward W.; Miller, Larry E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the livestock skills possessed by agricultural production teachers in Ohio and to examine the extent to which livestock skills were taught in high school vocational agriculture classes. Questions concerned teacher knowledge of livestock skills, teacher confidence, teaching methods, and relationship between…

  19. Long-term impact of a precision agriculture system on grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is lacking on the long-term impacts of field-scale precision agriculture practices on grain production. Following more than a decade (1993-2003) of yield and soil mapping and water quality assessment, a multi-faceted, ‘precision agriculture system’ (PAS) was implemented from 2004 to 2014 on...

  20. Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world for food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce agriculture’s negative environmental impacts. We suggest that a cause of this dichotomy is loss of diversity within agricultural systems at field, farm and landscape scales....

  1. 7 CFR 735.110 - Conditions for delivery of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.110 Conditions for delivery of agricultural products. (a) In the absence of a lawful excuse, a warehouse operator will, without unnecessary delay, deliver the...

  2. Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers Regarding Education about Biomass Production in Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Guang; Martin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of biorenewable energy, biomass production has become an important segment in the agriculture industry (Iowa Energy Center, 2013). A great workforce will be needed for this burgeoning biomass energy industry (Iowa Workforce Development, n. d.). Instructional topics in agricultural education should take the form of problems and…

  3. Production and conservation results from a decade-long field-scale precision agriculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is needed that simultaneously evaluates production and conservation outcomes of precision agriculture practices. From over a decade (1993-2003) of yield and soil mapping and water quality assessment, a multi-faceted, “precision agriculture system” (PAS) was developed and initiated in 2004 o...

  4. Grassland-cropping rotations: An avenue for agricultural diversification to reconcile high production with environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to increase agricultural production across the world to ensure continued food security appears to be at odds with the urgency to reduce the negative environmental impacts of intensive agriculture. Around the world, intensification has been associated with massive simplification and uniformity...

  5. Assessing Change in Agricultural Productivity Caused by Drought and Conflict in Northern Syria using Landsat Imagery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, T.; Ozdogan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, agricultural production in Syria has been an important source of revenue and food security for the country. At its peak, agriculture in Syria accounted for 25 percent of the country's GDP. In 2014, Syrian agriculture accounted for less than 5 percent of the GDP. This decline in agricultural productivity is the cause of a 3-year long drought that started in 2007, followed by a still-ongoing conflict that started in mid-2011. Using remote sensing tools, this paper focuses on the impact that the 2007-2010 drought had on agricultural production, as well as the impact that the ongoing conflict had on the agricultural production in northern Syria. Remote sensing is a powerful and great solution to study regions of the world that are hard-to-reach due to conflict and/or other limitations. It is particularly useful when studying a region that inaccessible due to an ongoing conflict, such as in northern Syria. Using multi-temporal Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images from August 2006, 2010 and 2014 and utilizing the neural networks algorithm, we assessed for agricultural output change in northern Syria. We conclude that the ongoing Syrian conflict has had a bigger impact on the agricultural output in northern Syria than the 3-year long drought.

  6. RAPIDS remote sensing receiving station: key of agriculture production machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Bob; Wouters, Frank

    2001-02-01

    12 The Netherlands based National Aerospace laboratory NLR and the co-located Geomatics Business Park use the output of RAPIDS, a small 2.7m dish satellite data receiver system, on a daily basis. The satellite Earth observation data are real time downlinked from the three Spot satellites and the ERS-2 radar satellite and subsequently processed into images. After georeferencing and cutting into mapsheets, the data are sent to a value adding company, which is an expert in image interpretation and classification for e.g. agricultural purposes. The so extracted agricultural information is collected in a database that can be accessed by the subscribers day after day. A semi-automatic georeferencing system has been integrated so the output data of the RAPIDS station can be implemented in, for example, a GIS directly. The database/GIS is a valuable tool for decision making with respect to land use, crop monitoring, flood monitoring, etc.

  7. Sustainable agriculture: how to sustain a production system in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, W C

    1999-01-01

    During the past 10-15 years, sustainable agriculture has progressed from a focus primarily on a low-input, organic farming approach with a major emphasis on small fruit or vegetable production farms, often described as Low Input Sustainable Agriculture, to the current situation where sustainability is an important part of mainstream animal and plant production units. The US Department of Agriculture programmes cover a broad range of activities, including conserving the natural resource base, enhancing environmental quality, and sustaining productivity of the nation's farms. The use of Geographic Information Systems technology to direct application of fertilisers, pesticides, and herbicides is one example of a rapidly emerging technology that can reduce use of external inputs, protect the agricultural environment, and improve economic returns. This Geographic Information Systems technology also is being used to localise animal pest and disease problems, assist in regulatory or control measures, and identify high risk areas that might need different management systems or should be avoided as sites for animal production. Use of intensive grazing systems also has increased markedly over the past 5-6 years. These systems will allow longer grazing seasons in southern parts of the USA, provide more efficient use of the forages being produced and reduce labour costs in the typical dairy operation. Major animal and plant production agriculture-oriented programmes at the US Department of Agriculture focus on integrated production systems, use of Integrated Pest Management techniques, and development of alternative methods to manage pests and diseases that reduce or avoid the use of drugs and chemicals. The US Department of Agriculture has a programme for sustainable agriculture, the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education programme, which emphasises alternative approaches for animal and plant production systems.

  8. Advances in research on structural characterisation of agricultural products using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Cheng, Fang

    2011-03-30

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has many unique features compared with other conventional microscopies, such as high magnification with high resolution, minimal sample preparation, acquiring 2D and 3D images at the same time, observing ongoing processes directly, the possibility of manipulating macromolecules, etc. As a nanotechnology tool, AFM has been used to investigate the nanostructure of materials in many fields. This mini-review focuses mainly on its latest application to characterise the macromolecular nanostructure and surface topography of agricultural products. First the fundamentals of AFM are briefly explained. Then the macromolecular nanostructure information on agricultural products from AFM images is introduced by exploring the structure-function relationship in three aspects: agricultural product processing, agricultural product ripening and storage, and genetic and environmental factors. The surface topography characterisation of agricultural products using AFM is also discussed. The results reveal that AFM could be a powerful nanotechnology tool to acquire a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of structure and quality variations of agricultural products, which could be instructive in improving processing and storage technologies, and AFM is also helpful to reveal the essential nature of a product at nanoscale.

  9. 7 CFR 2.43 - Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Development, the European Union, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the... programs to promote the export of dairy products, as authorized under section 153 of the Food Security Act... export sales of dairy products, as authorized by section 1163 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (7...

  10. Environmental Hazard and General Labeling for Pyrethroid and Synergized Pyrethrins Non-Agricultural Outdoor Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA approved certain optional modifications to the “Environmental Hazard Statements” and general “Directions for Use” for pyrethroid and pyrethrins non-agricultural outdoor products. Find out about these changes.

  11. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually.

  12. 7 CFR 735.202 - Standards of grades for other agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WAREHOUSE ACT Inspectors, Samplers, Classifiers, and Weighers § 735.202 Standards of grades for other... and grade of the agricultural product must be stated, subject to the approval of DACO. If...

  13. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Ban, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-farm sources of income for some or all of their…

  14. A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products by 2040.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-03-14

    The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use.

  15. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture

  16. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  17. Quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products by hyperspectral fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoyu; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin; Li, Jiangbo

    2012-09-01

    Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HSFI) is potentially useful for assessing food and agricultural products, because it combines the merits of both hyperspectral imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy. This paper provides an introduction to HSFI: the principle and components of HSFI, calibration and image processing are described. In addition, recent advances in the application of HSFI to food and agricultural product assessment are reviewed, such as contaminant detection, constituent analysis and quality evaluation. Finally, current limitations and likely future development trends are discussed.

  18. Research Productivity in the "Journal of Agricultural Education" from 1996 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Goff, Sam; Roberts, T. Grady

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine research productivity in the Journal of Agricultural Education from 1996 to 2005 and explain factors that contributed to that productivity. In Volumes 37 to 46, 333 articles were published. The most productive institutions were determined by frequency of the institutional affiliation of article authors. The…

  19. Optimization based trade-off analysis of biodiesel crop production for managing a German agricultural catchment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural production, the existence of multiple trade-offs among several conflicting objectives, such as food production, water quantity, water quality, biodiversity and ecosystem services, is well known. However, quantification of the trade-offs among objectives in bioenergy crop production i...

  20. Peering into the Secrets of Food and Agricultural Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for directing product development and is equally important for developing products from food crops and co-products from the agricultural waste after harvest. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to ...

  1. World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1977-86. Statistical Bulletin Number 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    World food production reached a record high in 1986, exceeding 1985's record by about 1 percent, despite declining food output in Latin America, the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania. World food production generally increased faster than population from 1977 to 1986. Production of agricultural commodities increased at an annual compound…

  2. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  3. Ethanol and agriculture: Effect of increased production on crop and livestock sectors. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.; Peters, M.; Baumes, H.; Disney, W.T.

    1993-05-01

    Expanded ethanol production could increase US farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The US balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline.

  4. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  5. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  6. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  7. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  8. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  9. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  10. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  11. Weather based risks and insurances for agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as frost, drought, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The principle of return periods or frequencies of natural hazards is adopted in many countries as the basis of eligibility for the compensation of associated losses. For adequate risk management and eligibility, hazard maps for events with a 20-year return period are often used. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar therefore requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event in the farming calendar. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage. Subsequent examination of the frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and soil moisture stress in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages allows for risk profiles to be confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims. The methodology is demonstrated for arable food crops, bio-energy crops and fruit. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. Though average yields have risen continuously due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather events has improved. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

  12. 76 FR 76096 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 RIN 0910-AG43 Non-Face-to-Face Sale and... Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is extending the comment...

  13. 7 CFR 929.50 - Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments... Regulations § 929.50 Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments. (a) Leases and sales of cranberry... occurs, sales history attributable to the acreage being leased shall remain with the lessor. (2)...

  14. 7 CFR 929.50 - Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments... Regulations § 929.50 Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments. (a) Leases and sales of cranberry... occurs, sales history attributable to the acreage being leased shall remain with the lessor. (2)...

  15. 7 CFR 929.150 - Transfer or assignment of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer or assignment of sales history. 929.150... Transfer or assignment of sales history. (a) If indebtedness is incurred with regard to the acreage to which the cranberries are attributed, and on which a sales history is established, the sales...

  16. 7 CFR 929.150 - Transfer or assignment of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer or assignment of sales history. 929.150... Transfer or assignment of sales history. (a) If indebtedness is incurred with regard to the acreage to which the cranberries are attributed, and on which a sales history is established, the sales...

  17. 7 CFR 929.150 - Transfer or assignment of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer or assignment of sales history. 929.150... Transfer or assignment of sales history. (a) If indebtedness is incurred with regard to the acreage to which the cranberries are attributed, and on which a sales history is established, the sales...

  18. 7 CFR 929.50 - Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments... Regulations § 929.50 Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments. (a) Leases and sales of cranberry... occurs, sales history attributable to the acreage being leased shall remain with the lessor. (2)...

  19. 7 CFR 929.150 - Transfer or assignment of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer or assignment of sales history. 929.150... Transfer or assignment of sales history. (a) If indebtedness is incurred with regard to the acreage to which the cranberries are attributed, and on which a sales history is established, the sales...

  20. 7 CFR 929.50 - Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments... Regulations § 929.50 Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments. (a) Leases and sales of cranberry... occurs, sales history attributable to the acreage being leased shall remain with the lessor. (2)...

  1. 7 CFR 929.50 - Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments... Regulations § 929.50 Transfers of Sales Histories and Annual Allotments. (a) Leases and sales of cranberry... occurs, sales history attributable to the acreage being leased shall remain with the lessor. (2)...

  2. 7 CFR 929.150 - Transfer or assignment of sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer or assignment of sales history. 929.150... Transfer or assignment of sales history. (a) If indebtedness is incurred with regard to the acreage to which the cranberries are attributed, and on which a sales history is established, the sales...

  3. Agricultural production and water use scenarios in Cyprus under global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Zoumides, Christos; Camera, Corrado; Pashiardis, Stelios; Zomeni, Zomenia

    2014-05-01

    In many countries of the world, food demand exceeds the total agricultural production. In semi-arid countries, agricultural water demand often also exceeds the sustainable supply of water resources. These water-stressed countries are expected to become even drier, as a result of global climate change. This will have a significant impact on the future of the agricultural sector and on food security. The aim of the AGWATER project consortium is to provide recommendations for climate change adaptation for the agricultural sector in Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean region. Gridded climate data sets, with 1-km horizontal resolution were prepared for Cyprus for 1980-2010. Regional Climate Model results were statistically downscaled, with the help of spatial weather generators. A new soil map was prepared using a predictive modelling and mapping technique and a large spatial database with soil and environmental parameters. Stakeholder meetings with agriculture and water stakeholders were held to develop future water prices, based on energy scenarios and to identify climate resilient production systems. Green houses, including also hydroponic systems, grapes, potatoes, cactus pears and carob trees were the more frequently identified production systems. The green-blue-water model, based on the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach, has been set up to compute agricultural water demand and yields for all crop fields in Cyprus under selected future scenarios. A set of agricultural production and water use performance indicators are computed by the model, including green and blue water use, crop yield, crop water productivity, net value of crop production and economic water productivity. This work is part of the AGWATER project - AEIFORIA/GEOGRO/0311(BIE)/06 - co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation.

  4. Should pollution reductions count as productivity gains for agriculture?

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.

    1998-08-01

    Productivity changes have been used to gauge economic performance for at least fifty years. Because productivity measures have been so closely linked to changes in living standards, it is natural to ask whether net increases in marketed outputs are the only things that should count as gains to the standard of living. The articles by Faere and Grosskopf (FG) and Gollop and Swinand (GS) consider several different technical aspects of addressing this question. The purpose of this article is to comment on their proposals. Both articles implicitly accept the notion that changes in commodities that are not available in markets should be considered in evaluating performance. Faere and Grosskopf focus on how they should be valued in the productivity indexes, while Gollop and Swinand define conditions when pollution reductions can be allowed to count. The best overall summary of this comment on both papers repeat an overworked phrase--the devil is in the details.

  5. Energy production from forages (or American agriculture-back to the future)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, K.P.

    1996-03-01

    At the turn of the century, except for trains and water transport, the transportation and agriculture industries of the US were powered largely by herbaceous biomass, converted into usable energy by draft animals. The haylands and pasturelands now released from herbaceous biomass production were converted to grain production in many cases. This article makes the case for reconverting some of such lands to pasture/grasslands for both land and soil conservation and for use as a sustainable agricultural systems for fuel production from biomass. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  7. Agricultural water requirements for commercial production of cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundant water resources are essential for the commercial production of cranberries, which use irrigated water for frost protection, soil moisture management, and harvest and winter floods. Given water resource demands in southeastern Massachusetts, we sought to quantify the annual water requirement...

  8. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products use on agricultural land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over half of the electricity used in the U.S. is presently produced by burning coal. Currently 114 m mt/year of coal combustion by products (CCP) are produced when coal is burned for generation of electricity. Only about 43% of CCPs currently produced in the U.S. are utilized. Opportunities should b...

  9. Production and Modification of Sophorolipids from Agricultural Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As petroleum prices and environmental concerns continue to raise, interest in bio-based materials, that may act as substitutes for or additives to currently used products, is becoming increasingly popular. Biosurfactants, particularly glycolipids, are one class of molecule that is receiving added a...

  10. Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

  11. Nitrogen balance as an indicator of the environmental impact: towards sustainable agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economics is a principle driver impacting management decisions in agricultural production systems. While increasing concern has focused on preserving the natural resource base to ensure continued support for future production, little emphasis has been placed on examining how drivers alter management...

  12. Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

  13. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  14. Toward agricultural sustainability through integrated crop–livestock systems. II. Production responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of cropping and animal production as two separately specialized agricultural systems has led to unacceptable deterioration of the environment due to (i) excessive concentration of nutrients and pathogens in livestock production systems and (ii) loss of natural biodiversity and excess...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  16. Principles of Dynamic Integrated Agricultural Systems: Lessons learned from an examination of Southeast Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, American agriculture was focused solely on its ability to produce sufficient food, fuel and fiber to meet national and global demands. While productivity will continue to be a major factor in food production systems, increased societal demands for environmentally sound management, the n...

  17. Sod Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Vocational Agriculture Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed for use by vocational agriculture teachers in Iowa, this instructional unit provides information about the growing and marketing of sod for lawns. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The manual includes an…

  18. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  19. Rethinking Food: How United States Agriculture Production Affects Security Policy and Global Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    2010 U.S. global export shares for some key products: corn (53 percent), soybean (44 percent), cotton (42 percent), and wheat (28 percent) (United... soybean (44 percent), cotton (42 percent), and wheat (28 percent) (Department of Agriculture 2014c). In this regard, two authors, Le Cuyer and Paarlberg...certain cash crops that were important to many countries’ agriculture sectors such as West African cotton and Latin American soybeans . Changes in

  20. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 10(10) and 1.22 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1), respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1). Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1). The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil.

  1. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis.

  2. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  3. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  4. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  5. The historical impact of climate extremes on global agricultural production and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T. J.; Pal, I.; Block, P. J.; Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    How does climate variability at interannual time scales impact the volume and prices of key agricultural products on the global market? Do concurrent climate shocks in major breadbaskets of the world have serious impacts on global stocks and food prices? To what extent may irrigated agriculture or food storage buffer such impacts? Is there evidence of such impacts and/or buffering in the publicly available historical data? This talk explores these questions through empirical data analysis. During the past two years, we have seen drought in China, Europe, and Russia and floods in the United States and Australia. In this study, we examine the relationship between climate and crop yields, focusing on three main grain staples: wheat, rice, and maize. To do this, we use global production, trade, and stock data from the Food and Agricultural Organization and the United States Department of Agriculture for agriculture information and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation from 1960 through 2008. We focus on the impact of climate shocks (extreme temperatures, drought, and floods) on the agricultural production for the top exporting countries and quantify how these shocks propagate through the country's exports, imports, and grain stocks in order to understand the effect climate variability and extremes have on global food security. The ability to forecast these climate shocks at seasonal to longer lead times would significantly improve our ability to cope with perturbations in the global food supply, and we evaluate the ability of current models to produce skillful seasonal forecasts over the major grain producing regions.

  6. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870-2000.

    PubMed

    Parton, William J; Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily R; Hartman, Melannie D; Adler, Paul R; McNeal, Frederick M; Lutz, Susan M

    2015-08-25

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices.

  7. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000

    PubMed Central

    Parton, William J.; Gutmann, Myron P.; Merchant, Emily R.; Hartman, Melannie D.; Adler, Paul R.; McNeal, Frederick M.; Lutz, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices. PMID:26240366

  8. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  9. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  10. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos

    2017-03-14

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. Latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the current review, we summarized most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role.

  11. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    PubMed

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  12. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  13. 7 CFR 58.525 - Storage of finished product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... distribution and storage prior to sale the product should be maintained at a temperature of 45 °F. or lower... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage of finished product. 58.525 Section...

  14. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  15. Iodized salt sales in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-03-10

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  16. Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  17. Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  18. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  19. Methane production from agricultural residues - A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methanogenesis process, the environmental requirement, kinetics, energy requirements, and methane production cost of methane fermentation systems. Available data of biodegradability of the residue and kinetic equations can be used to predict the methane production under different operating conditions. The optimum condition for fermenting beef cattle residue is operating at a thermophilic temperature (55 C) with an influent concentration of 80 g of VS/L. This produces yields of 3.96 L of CH4/L fermenter-day at 5 days retention time. It is apparent that the anaerobic fermentation process is technically feasible. However, only at plant sizes larger than 300 Mg TS/day will the anerobic fermentation system produce methane gas comparable to the current natural gas price. If the effluent can be used as a feed supplement for livestock, the anaerobic fermentation system for livestock residue will be economically feasible at a plant size between 3 and 6 Mg TS/day. This corresponds to beef cattle feedlots between 1000 and 2000 head.

  20. Methane production from agricultural residues - A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methanogenesis process, the environmental requirement, kinetics, energy requirements, and methane production cost of methane fermentation systems. Available data of biodegradability of the residue and kinetic equations can be used to predict the methane production under different operating conditions. The optimum condition for fermenting beef cattle residue is operating at a thermophilic temperature (55/sup 0/C) with an influent concentration of 80 g of VS/L. This produces yields of 3.96 L of CH4/L fermenter-day at 5 days retention time. It is apparent that the anaerobic fermentation process is technically feasible. However, only at plant sizes larger than 300 Mg TS/day will the anerobic fermentation system produce methane gas comparable to the current natural gas price. If the effluent can be used as a feed supplement for livestock, the anaerobic fermentation system for livestock residue will be economically feasible at a plant size between 3 and 6 Mg TS/day. This corresponds to beef cattle feedlots between 1000 and 2000 head.

  1. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China. Farming performance and environmental impact indicators were screened and indicator values were defined based on an intensive literature review and were validated by national statistics. The economic (monetary) values of farming inputs, crop production and individual environmental benefits were then quantified and integrated to compare the overall performances of organic vs. conventional agriculture. In 2013, organically managed farmland accounted for approximately 0.97% of national arable land, covering 1.158 million ha. If organic crop yields were assumed to be 10%-15% lower than conventional yields, the environmental benefits of organic agriculture (i.e., a decrease in nitrate leaching, an increase in farmland biodiversity, an increase in carbon sequestration and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions) were valued at 1921 million RMB (320.2 million USD), or 1659 RMB (276.5 USD) per ha. By reducing the farming inputs, the costs saved was 3110 million RMB (518.3 million USD), or 2686 RMB (447.7 USD) per ha. The economic loss associated with the decrease in crop yields from organic agriculture was valued at 6115 million RMB (1019.2 million USD), or 5280 RMB (880 USD) per ha. Although they were likely underestimated because of the complex relationships among farming operations, ecosystems and humans, the production costs saved and environmental benefits of organic agriculture that were quantified in our study compensated substantially for the

  2. [Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Minae; Ueno, Eiji; Inoue, Tomomi; Ohno, Haruka; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Morishita, Toshio; Oshima, Harumi; Hayashi, Rumiko

    2013-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of multiple pesticide residues in agricultural products was developed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile. Co-extractives were removed by GPC/graphitized carbon column SPE, and silica gel/PSA cartridge column SPE. Pesticides in the test solution were determined by LC-MS/MS using scheduled MRM. Recoveries of 124 pesticides from spinach, brown rice, soybean, orange and tomato were tested at the level of 0.1 µg/g, and those of 121 pesticides ranged from 70 to 120% (RSD≤15%). Pesticide residues in 239 agricultural products were investigated by this method, and residues of 49 pesticides were detected in 98 agricultural products.

  3. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  4. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products

    SciTech Connect

    Staven, Lissa H.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rhoads, Kathleen; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2003-06-02

    Transfer factors are used in radiological risk assessments to estimate the amount of radioactivity that could be present in a food crop or organism based on the calculated concentration in the source medium (i.e., soil or animal feed). By calculating the concentration in the food, the total intake can be estimated and a dose calculated as a result of the annual intake. This report compiles transfer factors for radiological risk assessments, using common food products, including meats, eggs, and plants. Transfer factors used were most often selected from recommended values listed by national or international organizations for use in radiological food chain transport calculations. Several methods of estimation and extrapolation were used for radionuclides not listed in the primary information sources. Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables.

  5. X-ray agricultural product inspection: segmentation and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.; Talukder, Ashit; Lee, Ha-Woon

    1997-09-01

    Processing of real-time x-ray images of randomly oriented and touching pistachio nuts for product inspection is considered. We describe the image processing used to isolate individual nuts (segmentation). This involves a new watershed transform algorithm. Segmentation results on approximately 3000 x-ray (film) and real time x-ray (linescan) nut images were excellent (greater than 99.9% correct). Initial classification results on film images are presented that indicate that the percentage of infested nuts can be reduced to 1.6% of the crop with only 2% of the good nuts rejected; this performance is much better than present manual methods and other automated classifiers have achieved.

  6. Poverty, Income distribution and the analysis of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G J

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the World Bank's well intentioned objective of eliminating rural povery, an application of the most recent social cost-benefit methodology explained in a World Bank research publication will not weed out projects that lead to an increased poverty problem. The project that is examined is the introduction of tractors into Pakistan in the late 1960s. The project appeared to be successful on economic efficiency grounds, increased aggregate output and productivity, but had negative side effects on employment and the incomes of the poorer sections of the population. Projects that are economically efficient, increase the incomes of the poor, and do not significantly increase the incomes of the richer groups are ideal but difficult to achieve. The implication of those projects is a redistribution of internal wealth.

  7. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2011-04-19

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N

  8. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  9. Sampling: the weak link in the sanitary quality control system of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Michel

    2006-05-01

    To ensure a high level of consumer protection, the European Union has in the past years published several regulations setting very low limits for a given number of food contaminants (pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals) in many agricultural products (cereals, oilseeds, dry fruits, coffee, spices, etc). These new regulations regarding the sanitary quality of agricultural products, compel both economic operators and officials of different EU member states to set up sampling plans and rigorous analyses aimed at checking whether a product lot complies with the required standards prior to its release on the market. While the laboratory analysis management today is outstanding thanks to the validated and efficient detection methods and procedures available for quality assurance in laboratories (accreditation), this is not necessarily true of the sampling operation, which seems to be the weak link in the sanitary control system for agricultural products. The sampling operation is often the main source of error when assessing the sanitary quality of a lot of agricultural commodities, with both commercial (downgrading of the product) and sanitary (marketing of a product which poses a health risk for the consumer) consequences. Therefore, it is essential for the operators involved to be aware of the significance and difficulties of the sampling operation, which requires important equipment and human resources. Furthermore, drawing up specific standards and guidelines, as well as setting up quality assurance procedures, at the level in charge of carrying out this delicate and important operation, are necessary.

  10. Design and Construction Multi Output Power Transmition with Single Prime Mover on Agricultural Products Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, V. K.; Tanamal, C. E.

    2017-03-01

    Manufacturing agricultural products by the farmers, people or person who involve in medium industry, small industry, and households industry still be done in separately. Although the power on primemover is enough, in operations, primemover was only to move one of several agricultural products machine. This study attempts to design and construct power transmition multi output with single primemover; a single construction that allows primemover move some agricultur products machine in the same or not. This study begins with the determination of production capacity and the power to destroy products, the determination of resources and rotation, normalization of resources and rotation, the determination of the type material used, the size determination of each machine elements, construction machine elements, and assemble machine elements into a construction multi output power transmition with single primemover on agricultural products machine. The results show that with a input normalization 4 PK (2984 Watt), rotation 2000 rpm, the strength of material 60 kg/mm2, and several operating consideration, thus obtained size of machine elements through calculation. Based on the size, the machine elements is made through the use of some machine tools and assembled to form a multi output power transmition with single primemover.

  11. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  12. 7 CFR 1955.140 - Sale in parcels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale in parcels. 1955.140 Section 1955.140 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 7 CFR 1955.145 - Land acquisition to effect sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land acquisition to effect sale. 1955.145 Section 1955.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory...

  14. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    PubMed

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  15. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  16. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Sacchromyces cervisae

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratualain

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae. PMID:25242928

  17. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratualain

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  18. Ergonomic risks and musculoskeletal disorders in production agriculture: recommendations for effective research to practice.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R; Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Banks, R J

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are increasingly recognized as a significant hazard of agricultural occupation. In agricultural jobs with significant physical labor, MSDs are typically the most frequently reported injury. Although not as lethal as tractor roll-overs, MSDs can result in disability, lost work time, and increased production costs. MSDs increase production costs as a result of worker absence, medical and insurance costs, decreased work capacity, and loss of employees to turnover and competition from other less physically demanding industries. This paper will provide an overview of what is currently known about MSDs in agriculture, including high-risk commodities, tasks and work practices, and the related regulatory factors and workers' compensation costs. As agricultural production practices evolve, the types of MSDs also change, as do ergonomic risk factors. One example is the previous higher rates of knee and hip arthritis identified in farmers in stanchion dairies evolving into upper extremity tendonitis, arthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome now found in milking technicians in dairy milking parlors. This paper summarizes the presentation, "Musculoskeletal Disorders in Labor-Intensive Operations," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The primary focus of the paper is to address current research on ergonomic solutions for MSDs in agriculture. These include improved tools, carts or equipment, as well as work practices. One of the key challenges in this area pertains to measurement, due to the fact that musculoskeletal strain is a chronic condition that can come and go, with self-reported pain as its only indicator. Alternative measurement methods will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of research into practice is reviewed, with an emphasis on best

  19. Agricultural Manpower Project Update. Preliminary [Report]. (A Review of Existing and Projected Job Titles in Montana Agricultural Production, Agricultural Supplies and Services, Ag Mechanics, Ornamental Horticulture, Ag Resources, Ag Products, and Forestry Businesses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.; And Others

    To determine the nature and extent of rural youth and adult educational and employment opportunities, this study assessed existing and projected job titles in agricultural production and the agribusiness sector of Montana's economy. Using job position taxonomies identified by the United States Office of Education, two survey instruments were…

  20. Drivers Impacting the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Management Practices and Production Systems of the Northeast and Southeast U.S

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production responds to economic, social, environmental, and technological drivers operating both internal and external to the production system. These drivers influence producers’ decision making processes, and act to shape the individual production systems through modification of produ...