Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural remote sensing

  1. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  2. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  3. Application of Remote Sensing in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarczyk, Jan

    2014-12-01

    With increasing intensity of agricultural crop production increases the need to obtain information about environmental conditions in which this production takes place. Remote sensing methods, including satellite images, airborne photographs and ground-based spectral measurements can greatly simplify the monitoring of crop development and decision-making to optimize inputs on agricultural production and reduce its harmful effects on the environment. One of the earliest uses of remote sensing in agriculture is crop identification and their acreage estimation. Satellite data acquired for this purpose are necessary to ensure food security and the proper functioning of agricultural markets at national and global scales. Due to strong relationship between plant bio-physical parameters and the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected (in certain ranges of the spectrum) from plants and then registered by sensors it is possible to predict crop yields. Other applications of remote sensing are intensively developed in the framework of so-called precision agriculture, in small spatial scales including individual fields. Data from ground-based measurements as well as from airborne or satellite images are used to develop yield and soil maps which can be used to determine the doses of irrigation and fertilization and to take decisions on the use of pesticides.

  4. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.

  5. Practical application of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing program imagery from several types of platforms, from light aircraft to the LANDSAT (ERTS) satellites, have been utilized during the past few years, with preference for inexpensive imagery over expensive magnetic tapes. Emphasis has been on practical application of remote sensing data to increase crop yield by decreasing plant stress, disease, weeds and undesirable insects and by improving irrigation. Imagery obtained from low altitudes via aircraft provides the necessary resolution and complements but does not replace data from high altitude aircraft, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, Skylab space station and LANDSAT satellites. Federal government centers are now able to supply imagery within about thirty days from data of order. Nevertheless, if the full potential of space imagery in practical agricultural operations is to be realized, the time span from date of imaging to user application needs to be shortened from the current several months to not more than two weeks.

  6. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  7. Basic principles, methodology, and applications of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreira, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principles of remote sensing applied to agriculture and the methods used in data analysis are described. Emphasis is placed on the importance of developing a methodology that may help crop forecast, basic concepts of spectral signatures of vegetation, the methodology of the LANDSAT data utilization in agriculture, and the remote sensing program application of INPE (Institute for Space Research) in agriculture.

  8. Applications of Remote Sensing to Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Laguette, S.; Seelan, S.; Lawrence, R.; Henry, M.; Maynard, C.; Dalsted, K.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has changed agricultural practices in the following ways: (1) farmers and ranchers have become partners with, not clients of, researchers; (2) experiments are carried out in the field rather than on small experimental plots; (3) the field is considered an agro-ecosystem, with all the complexities of multiple interactions, rather than attempting to isolate certain parameters and vary only a few; (4) both economic benefit to the producer and sound environmental stewardship for society are achievable. This approach has revealed that information is as significant an input to farm or ranch management as seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage. Accurate, timely information equips producers with the ability to make decisions during a growing season that optimize the yield at harvest time. An invaluable source of in-season information is imagery acquired from sensors on satellites or aircraft. In addition to sensing reflected sunlight in wavebands outside the visible, remote sensing's overview also reveals anomalous patterns in the vegetation cover that are difficult to spot on the ground. Anomalies can be caused by weeds, disease, water stress, inadequate nutrients, or other causes. Often, anomalies must be detected early or they spread too quickly to be addressed. The paper will demonstrate how remote sensing has been applied to (1) define management zones in farm fields, (2) prescribe variable rate applications of fertilizer, (3) detect pest infestations, and (4) manage cattle grazing according to forage available. The applications were possible because data were processed within 4-5 days of acquisition by the satellite, and then delivered by high-bandwidth satellite links to farmers, ranchers, and tribal government officials in minimal transit time. The applications research described was part of NASA's Synergy Program.

  9. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  10. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  11. Remote sensing advances in agricultural inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragg, J. L.; Bizzell, R. M.; Trichel, M. C.; Hatch, R. E.; Phinney, D. E.; Baker, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    As the complexity of the world's agricultural industry increases, more timely and more accurate world-wide agricultural information is required to support production and marketing decisions, policy formulation, and technology development. The Inventory Technology Development Project of the AgRISTARS Program has developed new automated technology that uses data sets acquired by spaceborne remote sensors. Research has emphasized the development of multistage, multisensor sampling and estimation techniques for use in global environments where reliable ground observations are not available. This paper presents research results obtained from data sets acquired by four different sensors: Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Shuttle-Imaging Radar and environmental satellite (AVHRR).

  12. Commercial use of remote sensing in agriculture: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnauck, Gary E.

    1999-12-01

    Over 25 years of research have clearly shown that an analysis of remote sensing imagery can provide information on agricultural crops. Most of this research has been funded by and directed toward the needs of government agencies. Commercial use of agricultural remote sensing has been limited to very small-scale operations supplying remote sensing services to a few selected customers. Datron/Transco Inc. undertook an internally funded remote sensing program directed toward the California cash crop industry (strawberries, lettuce, tomatoes, other fresh vegetables and cotton). The objectives of this program were twofold: (1) to assess the need and readiness of agricultural land managers to adopt remote sensing as a management tool, and (2) determine what technical barriers exist to large-scale implementation of this technology on a commercial basis. The program was divided into three phases: Planning, Engineering Test and Evaluation, and Commercial Operations. Findings: Remote sensing technology can deliver high resolution multispectral imagery with rapid turnaround, that can provide information on crop stress insects, disease and various soil parameters. The limiting factors to the use of remote sensing in agriculture are a lack of familiarization by the land managers, difficulty in translating 'information' into increased revenue or reduced cost for the land manager, and the large economies of scale needed to make the venture commercially viable.

  13. POTENTIAL FOR REMOTE SENSING FROM AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT USING DIGITAL VIDEO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An imaging system for remote sensing was developed for agricultural aircraft. The system uses a digital video camera, GPS, and a video mapping system (VMS) as the GPS interface to video. Remote control and monitoring was implemented to allow the pilot to image only field areas of interest, facilitat...

  14. Agricultural applications of remote sensing: A true life adventure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaller, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of agricultural applications of remote sensing with a major US agricultural firm was undertaken in mid-1973. The study continued for eighteen months, and covered the areas of crop monitoring and management as well as large scale crop inventories. Pilot programs in the application of aircraft remote sensing and LANDSAT data were conducted. An operational aircraft survey program for ranch management has subsequently been implemented by the agricultural firm. LANDSAT data was successfully used to produce a ninety-seven percent accurate inventory of cotton over 4.8 million acres of California's San Joaquin Valley.

  15. Landsat-simulating radiometer for agricultural remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemme, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    The reliability of a Landsat-simulating ground-based spectral radiometer for use in agricultural remote sensing was investigated. Significant correlation coefficients in all wavebands except Band 7 were found to exist between Landsat computer compatible tape (CCT) and ground-based radiometric data from several corn fields. No significant correlations were found within data from small grain fields. Combined data from several common agricultural crops yielded significant correlation coefficients in the wavebands most commonly employed in agricultural remote sensing. It was also found that sun angle within certain limits of a given day had minimal effect on ground-based radiometric measurements taken from a fallow and barley field.

  16. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draeger, William C.; McClelland, David T.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains nearly 300 citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of remote-sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of agricultural information. Most of the items included were published between January 1968 and December 1975, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  17. UAS remote sensing for precision agriculture: An independent assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. However, research is required to determine which sensors and data processing methods are required to use sUAS in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Oregon State U...

  18. Advances in remote sensing for vegetation dynamics and agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Puma, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  19. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  20. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  1. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  2. Remote sensing applied to agriculture: Basic principles, methodology, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general principles of remote sensing techniques as applied to agriculture and the methods of data analysis are described. the theoretical spectral responses of crops; reflectance, transmittance, and absorbtance of plants; interactions of plants and soils with reflectance energy; leaf morphology; and factors which affect the reflectance of vegetation cover are dicussed. The methodologies of visual and computer-aided analyses of LANDSAT data are presented. Finally, a case study wherein infrared film was used to detect crop anomalies and other data applications are described.

  3. Agricultural practices in grasslands detected by spatial remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dusseux, Pauline; Vertès, Françoise; Corpetti, Thomas; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    The major decrease in grassland surfaces associated with changes in their management that has been observed in many regions of the earth during the last half century has major impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems. This study focuses on the identification of grassland management practices in an intensive agricultural watershed located in Brittany, France, by analyzing the intra-annual dynamics of the surface condition of vegetation using remotely sensed and field data. We studied the relationship between one vegetation index (NDVI) and two biophysical variables (LAI and fCOVER) derived from a series of three SPOT images on one hand and measurements collected during field campaigns achieved on 120 grasslands on the other. The results show that the LAI appears as the best predictor for monitoring grassland mowing and grazing. Indeed, because of its ability to characterize vegetation status, LAI estimated from remote sensing data is a relevant variable to identify these practices. LAI values derived from the SPOT images were then classified based on the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) supervised algorithm. The results points out that the distribution of grassland management practices such as grazing and mowing can be mapped very accurately (Kappa index = 0.82) at a field scale over large agricultural areas using a series of satellite images. PMID:25182683

  4. Remote sensing and GIS in support of sustainable agricultural development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Dennis Correa

    Over the coming decades it is expected that the vast amounts of area currently in agricultural production will face growing pressure to intensify as world populations continue to grow, and the demand for a more Western-based diet increases. Coupled with the potential consequences of climate change, and the increasing costs involved with current energy-intensive agricultural production methods, meeting goals of environmental and socioeconomic sustainability will become ever more challenging. At a minimum, meeting such goals will require a greater understanding of rates of change, both over time and space, to properly assess how present demand may affect the needs of future generations. As agriculture represents a fundamental component of modern society, and the most ubiquitous form of human induced landscape change on the planet, it follows that mapping and tracking changes in such environments represents a crucial first step towards meeting the goal of sustainability. In anticipation of the mounting need for consistent and timely information related to agricultural development, this thesis proposes several advances in the field of geomatics, with specific contributions in the areas of remote sensing and spatial analysis: First, the relative strengths of several supervised machine learning algorithms used to classify remotely sensed imagery were assessed using two image analysis approaches: pixel-based and object-based. Second, a feature selection process, based on a Random Forest classifier, was applied to a large data set to reduce the overall number of object-based predictor variables used by a classification model without sacrificing overall classification accuracy. Third, a hybrid object-based change detection method was introduced with the ability to handle disparate image sources, generate per-class change thresholds, and minimize map updating errors. Fourth, a spatial disaggregation procedure was performed on coarse scale agricultural census data to render

  5. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  6. Application of Terrestrial Microwave Remote Sensing to Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Bolten, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture information is a valuable diagnostic for detecting the onset and severity of agricultural drought. Current attempts to globally monitor root-zone soil moisture are generally based on the application of soil water balance models driven by observed meteorological variables. Such systems, however, are prone to random error associated with: incorrect process model physics, poor parameter choices and noisy meteorological inputs. The presentation will describe attempts to remediate these sources of error via the assimilation of remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals from satellite-based passive microwave sensors into a global soil water balance model. Results demonstrate the ability of satellite-based soil moisture retrieval products to significantly improve the global characterization of root-zone soil moisture - particularly in data-poor regions lacking adequate ground-based rain gage instrumentation. This success has lead to an on-going effort to implement an operational land data assimilation system at the United States Department of Agriculture's Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to globally monitor variations in root-zone soil moisture availability via the integration of satellite-based precipitation and soil moisture information. Prospects for improving the performance of the USDA FAS system via the simultaneous assimilation of both passive and active-based soil moisture retrievals derived from the upcoming NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission will also be discussed.

  7. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The AR research mission in remote sensing is to develop the basic understanding of the soil plant animal atmosphere continuum in agricultural ecosystems and to determine when remotely sensed data can be used to provide information about these agricultural ecosystems. A brief statement of the significant results of each project is given. A list of 1980 publication and location contacts is also given.

  8. Agricultural biomass monitoring on watersheds based on remotely sensed data.

    PubMed

    Tamás, János; Nagy, Attila; Fehér, János

    2015-01-01

    There is a close quality relationship between the harmful levels of all three drought indicator groups (meteorological, hydrological and agricultural). However, the numerical scale of the relationships between them is unclear and the conversion of indicators is unsolved. Different areas or an area with different forms of drought cannot be compared. For example, from the evaluation of meteorological drought using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) values of a river basin, it cannot be stated how many tonnes of maize will be lost during a given drought period. A reliable estimated rate of yield loss would be very important information for the planned interventions (i.e. by farmers or river basin management organisations) in terms of time and cost. The aim of our research project was to develop a process which could provide information for estimating relevant drought indexes and drought related yield losses more effectively from remotely sensed spectral data and to determine the congruency of data derived from spectral data and from field measurements. The paper discusses a new calculation method, which provides early information on physical implementation of drought risk levels. The elaborated method provides improvement in setting up a complex drought monitoring system, which could assist hydrologists, meteorologists and farmers to predict and more precisely quantify the yield loss and the role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. The results also allow the conversion of different-purpose drought indices, such as meteorological, agricultural and hydrological ones, as well as allow more water-saving agricultural land use alternatives to be planned in the river basins. PMID:26676009

  9. INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL FEEDLOT POLLUTION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Huron to Redfield, South Dak...

  10. Bushland evapotranspiration and agricultural remote sensing system (BEARS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution daily evapotranspiration (ET) maps would greatly assist irrigation scheduling and hydrologic modeling. Numerous remote sensing-based ET algorithms that vary in complexity are available for estimating spatially and temporally variable daily ET at a regional scale. However, implementat...

  11. USER REQUIREMENTS FOR SATELLITE AND OTHER REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report presents the current remote sensing technology that is applicable to the field of agricultural meteorology. The information presented is applicable for monitoring and assessment of agricultural crops and grasslands and their impact on agricultural production at regional and national lev...

  12. Remote sensing in agriculture. [using Earth Resources Technology Satellite photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Some examples are presented of the use of remote sensing in cultivated crops, forestry, and range management. Areas of concern include: the determination of crop areas and types, prediction of yield, and detection of disease; the determination of forest areas and types, timber volume estimation, detection of insect and disease attack, and forest fires; and the determination of range conditions and inventory, and livestock inventory. Articles in the literature are summarized and specific examples of work being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center are given. Primarily, aerial photographs and photo-like ERTS images are considered.

  13. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  14. Leaf wetness: implications for agriculture and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, Tracy Lynne

    2011-12-01

    sites due to changes in the distillation contribution to the overall dew amount. The study found that there was high leaf--to--leaf variability regarding dew amount, and no variability between sites was seen. It was found that there was no significant difference in dew duration at the three locations. The Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite provides the first global estimates of soil moisture using microwave radiometry. This satellite makes passes at 6 pm and 6 am local solar time. The remote--sensing community have indicated that data from the 6 am pass time should be preferred over the 6 pm pass time for a variety of reasons, however land--based studies of soil moisture using microwave radiometry have indicated that the presence of free water on canopy can cause errors in the estimations of soil moisture. Evaluation of the influence of dew on vegetative canopies for satellite measurements has not previously been possible. Our study examined a region in north--central Iowa, where the land--cover is uniform consisting of row crops. We hypothesized that there would be no significant difference in brightness temperature or soil moisture between evening and morning SMOS passes. We examined the soil moisture product and found that there was a significant difference in soil moisture between evening and morning SMOS passes for days when precipitation had not occurred after noon prior to the evening pass, nor during the time period between the evening and morning pass time. The soil moisture product is obtained from measurements of brightness temperature, however no significant difference in brightness temperature was seen between evening and morning passes. We indicate that there may be issues with retrieved values of optical depth during the SMOS processing phase that is resulting in errors in soil moisture measurements. We also highlight the possibility that decreases in the polarization index (a normalization of brightness temperature) could falsely indicate a

  15. Evaluation of impact of earthquake on agriculture in Nepal based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiyama, Ayako; Shimada, Sawahiko; Okazawa, Hiromu; Mihara, Machito; Kuo, Kuang Ting

    2016-07-01

    The big earthquake happening on April, 2015 killed over than 8000 people in Nepal. The effect of earthquake not only affected safety of local people but also agricultural field. Agricultural economy dominates income of local people. Therefore, restoration of agricultural areas are required for improving life of local people. However, lack of information about agricultural areas is main problem for local government to assess and restore damaged agricultural areas. Remote sensing was applied for accessing damaged agricultural field due to its advantages in observing responds of environment without temporal and spatial restriction. Accordingly, the objective of the study is to evaluate impact of earthquake on agriculture in Nepal based on remote sensing. The experimental procedure includes conducting the impact of earthquake on changes of total agricultural area, and analysis of response of greenness affected by earthquake in agricultural land. For conducting agricultural land changes, land use map was first created and classified into four categories: road, city, forest, and agricultural land. Changes before and after earthquake in total area of agricultural land were analyzed by GIS. Moreover, vegetation index was used as indicator for evaluating greenness responds in agricultural land and computed based on high-resolution satellite imagery such as World view-3. Finally, the conclusion of the study and suggestions will be made and provided for helping local government in Nepal restore agricultural areas.

  16. Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems and Hydrology III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1999-01-01

    The science need for remotely sensed soil moisture has been well established in the hydrologic, climate change and weather forecasting communities. In spite of this well documented science need there are currently no satellite missions flying or funded to make this very important geophysical measurement. There have been a number of experimental aircraft programs that have demonstrated the feasibility of using long wave microwave sensors for estimating soil moisture. Unfortunately, this science driver, soil moisture, imposes very difficult technical requirements for a satellite sensor system. Global soil moisture is driven by a spatial resolution on the order of 20 to 30 km and measurements need to be taken every two to three days to be useful to the science community. The principal sensor to accomplish the soil moisture measurements is an L- band passive microwave radiometer and achieving the spatial and temporal requirements requires a very large antenna. This paper describes the several alternatives to solve the very large antenna challenge and still meet the radiometer sensitivity requirement. The paper also discusses the alternatives considered to obtain the necessary ancillary data for characterizing the surface roughness, the surface temperature and the attenuation affects of vegetation needed to derive the geophysical parameter. Finally, the paper discusses proposed missions and how well they will meet the science requirements.

  17. Advances in the development of remote sensing technology for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, J. E.; Erb, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Macdonald, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of remote sensing technology to crop forecasting is discussed. The importance of crop forecasts to the world economy and agricultural management is explained, and the development of aerial and spaceborne remote sensing for global crop forecasting by the United States is outlined. The structure, goals and technical aspects of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) are presented, and main findings on the accuracy, efficiency, applicability and areas for further study of the LACIE procedure are reviewed. The current status of NASA crop forecasting activities in the United States and worldwide is discussed, and the objectives and organization of the newly created Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS) program are presented.

  18. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  19. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Site-Specific Agricultural Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been avail...

  20. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  1. Multispectral Imaging Systems for Airborne Remote Sensing to Support Agricultural Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing has shown promise as a tool for managing agricultural application and production. Earth-observing satellite systems have an advantage for large-scale analysis at regional levels but are limited in spatial resolution. High-resolution satellite systems have been available in recent year...

  2. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare pixel sampling with plot-scale metrics for the remo...

  3. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  4. Application of terrestrial microwave remote sensing to agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-zone soil moisture information is a valuable diagnostic for detecting the onset and severity of agricultural drought. Current attempts to globally monitor root-zone soil moisture are generally based on the application of soil water balance models driven by observed meteorological variables. Suc...

  5. Remote sensing of soil properties in precision agriculture: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of precision agriculture depends strongly upon an efficient and accurate method for in-field soil property determination. This information is critical for farmers to calculate the proper amount of inputs for best crop performance and least environment contamination. Grid sampling, as a t...

  6. A summary of the history of the development of automated remote sensing for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    An historical account is given of the development of technology for the processing of satellite-acquired multispectral data aimed at the identification of the type, condition, and ontogenic stages of agricultural areas. During 1972 and 1973, research established the feasibility of automating digital classification for the processing of large volumes of Landsat MSS data. This capability was successfully demonstrated during the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment, which estimated wheat crop production on a global basis. This achievement in turn led to the Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing, which investigated other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and expanded the study of key commercial crops in important agricultural areas.

  7. Priorities for worldwide remote sensing of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The world's crops are ranked according to total harvested area, and comparisons are made among major world regions of differences in crops produced. The eight leading world crops are wheat, rice, corn, barley, millet, soybeans, sorghum, and cotton. Regionally, millet and sorghum are most important in Africa, wheat is the most extensively grown crop in north-central America, Europe, USSR, and Oceania; corn is the dominant crop in South America; and rice is the most extensively grown crop in Asia. Agriculture in the USA is considered in more detail to show the national economic impact of variations in value per hectare among crops. On the world scene, the cereals are the most important crops, but locally, such crops as tobacco can play a dominant role.

  8. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  9. Mapping agricultural phenology using repetitive optical remote sensing over a peri-urban region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, Nicolas; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Dragoi, Mihaela; Maignan, Fabienne; Ottlé, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the potential of multi-temporal optical remote sensing, with high revisit frequency, to derive missing information on agricultural practices necessary to model soil organic carbon content, over the agricultural lands in the Versailles plain in the western Paris suburbs. This study comes besides past and ongoing studies on the use of radar and high spatial resolution optical remote sensing to monitor agricultural practices in this study area (e.g. Vaudour et al. 2014). Agricultural statistics, such as the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) for France, permit to know the nature of annual crops for each digitized declared field of this land parcel registry. However, within each declared field, several cropped plots and a diversity of practices may exist, being marked by agricultural rotations which vary both spatially and temporally within it and differ from one year to the other. Very high spatial resolution Pléiades satellite data has allowed delineating crops plots, and identifying crops within declared fields, revealing this fine spatial crop pattern. Here we evaluate the potential of high observation frequency remote sensing to differentiate seasonal crops (e.g. winter barley from spring barley) and to evaluate key phenological moments. In particular, in addition to a dataset of field observations, we use three datasets at three complementary spatial resolutions: the CNES SPOT4-TAKE5 at ten meters in the 2013 winter and spring, the Landsat data at 30m, and the large-swath PROBA-V central camera data at 100m available since May 2013. The analysis of each dataset is done first on a pixel-based approach and second on a within-plot approach on the basis of the above described crop map. This work is carried out in the framework of the CNES TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO of the French Space Agency.

  10. Spatial Scaling Assessment of Surface Soil Moisture Estimations Using Remotely Sensed Data for Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne and Landsat remote sensing are promising technologies for measuring the response of agricultural crops to variations in several agricultural inputs and environmental conditions. Of particular significance to precision agriculture is surface soil moisture, a key component of the soil water balance, which addresses water and energy exchanges at the surface/atmosphere interface and affects vegetation health. Its estimation using the spectral reflectance of agricultural fields could be of value to agricultural management decisions. While top soil moisture can be estimated using radiometric information from aircraft or satellites and data mining techniques, comparison of results from two different aerial platforms might be complicated because of the differences in spatial scales (high resolution of approximately 0.15m versus coarser resolutions of 30m). This paper presents a combined modeling and scale-based approach to evaluate the impact of spatial scaling in the estimation of surface soil moisture content derived from remote sensing data. Data from Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI and AggieAirTM aerial imagery are utilized. AggieAirTM is an airborne remote sensing platform developed by Utah State University that includes an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which captures radiometric information at visual, near-infrared, and thermal wavebands at spatial resolutions of 0.15 m or smaller for the optical cameras and about 0.6 m or smaller for the thermal infrared camera. Top soil moisture maps for AggieAir and Landsat are developed and statistically compared at different scales to determine the impact in terms of quantitative predictive capability and feasibility of applicability of results in improving in field management.

  11. Remote Sensing and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, C. A.; Gervin, J. C.; Ragusa, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A text book on remote sensing, as part of the earth resources Skylab programs, is presented. The fundamentals of remote sensing and its application to agriculture, land use, geology, water and marine resources, and environmental monitoring are summarized.

  12. Potential for remote sensing of agriculture from the international space station

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader

    1999-01-22

    Today's spatial resolution of orbital sensing systems is too coarse to economically serve the yield-improvement/contamination-reduction needs of the small to mid-size farm enterprise. Remote sensing from aircraft is being pressed into service. However, satellite remote sensing constellations with greater resolution and more spectral bands, i.e., with resolutions of 1 m in the panchromatic, 4 m in the multi-spectral, and 8 m in the hyper-spectral are expected to be in orbit by the year 2000. Such systems coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) capability will make 'precision agriculture', i.e., the identification of specific and timely fertilizer, irrigation, herbicide, and insecticide needs on an acre-by-acre basis and the ability to meet these needs with precision delivery systems at affordable costs, is what is needed and can be achieved. Current plans for remote sensing systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include externally attached payloads and a window observation platform. The planned orbit of the Space Station will result in overflight of a specific latitude and longitude at the same clock time every 3 months. However, a pass over a specific latitude and longitude during 'daylight hours' could occur much more frequently. The ISS might thus be a space platform for experimental and developmental testing of future commercial space remote sensing precision agriculture systems. There is also a need for agricultural 'truth' sites so that predictive crop yield and pollution models can be devised and corrective suggestions delivered to farmers at affordable costs. In Summer 1998, the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) at Howard University, under NASA Goddard Space Flight Center funding, established an agricultural 'truth' site in eastern Colorado. The 'truth' site was highly instrumented for measuring trace gas concentrations (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, O

  13. Potential for remote sensing of agriculture from the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader

    1999-01-01

    Today's spatial resolution of orbital sensing systems is too coarse to economically serve the yield-improvement/contamination-reduction needs of the small to mid-size farm enterprise. Remote sensing from aircraft is being pressed into service. However, satellite remote sensing constellations with greater resolution and more spectral bands, i.e., with resolutions of 1 m in the panchromatic, 4 m in the multi-spectral, and 8 m in the hyper-spectral are expected to be in orbit by the year 2000. Such systems coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) capability will make ``precision agriculture,'' i.e., the identification of specific and timely fertilizer, irrigation, herbicide, and insecticide needs on an acre-by-acre basis and the ability to meet these needs with precision delivery systems at affordable costs, is what is needed and can be achieved. Current plans for remote sensing systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include externally attached payloads and a window observation platform. The planned orbit of the Space Station will result in overflight of a specific latitude and longitude at the same clock time every 3 months. However, a pass over a specific latitude and longitude during ``daylight hours'' could occur much more frequently. The ISS might thus be a space platform for experimental and developmental testing of future commercial space remote sensing precision agriculture systems. There is also a need for agricultural ``truth'' sites so that predictive crop yield and pollution models can be devised and corrective suggestions delivered to farmers at affordable costs. In Summer 1998, the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) at Howard University, under NASA Goddard Space Flight Center funding, established an agricultural ``truth'' site in eastern Colorado. The ``truth'' site was highly instrumented for measuring trace gas concentrations (NOx, SOx, CO2, O3, organics

  14. Estimating the Agricultural Water Consumption of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River Basin. This research uses NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image classification and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and their water demand in the Yellow River Basin. The validation of the estimate method is performed by comparing the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate water demand, the study used and compared two methods of calculating the total water demand. The first one is to make the crop water requirement per unit area multiply by estimated crops total area of the basin. The second one is to sum the calculated water demand of each province. The research found that the remote sensing data can be used to estimate the crop area, while it overestimates the water consumption by both of the two methods.

  15. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  16. An Interoperable, Agricultural Information System Based on Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Chiu, Long; Doraiswamy, Paul; Kempler, Steven; Liu, Zhong; Pham, Long; Rui, Hualan

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of US. agricultural products and for global food security. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide satellite remote sensing data products (e.g., rainfall) and services. The data products will include crop condition and yield prediction maps, generated from a crop growth model with satellite data inputs, in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The AIS will enable the remote, interoperable access to distributed data, by using the GrADS-DODS Server (GDS) and by being compliant with Open GIS Consortium standards. Users will be able to download individual files, perform interactive online analysis, as well as receive operational data flows. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as those of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service and the U.N. World Food Program.

  17. [An improved method and its application for agricultural drought monitoring based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Zheng, You-Fei; Cheng, Jin-Xin; Wu, Rong-Jun; Guan, Fu-Lai; Yao, Shu-Ran

    2013-09-01

    From the viewpoint of land surface evapotranspiration, and by using the semi-empirical evapotranspiration model based on the Priestley-Taylor equation and the land surface temperature-vegetation index (LST-VI) triangle algorithm, the current monitoring technology of agricultural drought based on remote sensing was improved, and a simplified Evapotranspiration Stress Index (SESI) was derived. With the application of the MODIS land products from March to November in 2008 and 2009, the triangle algorithm modeling with three different schemes was constructed to calculate the SESI to monitor the agricultural drought in the plain areas of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, in comparison with the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI). The results showed that SESI could effectively simplify the remote sensing drought monitoring method, and there was a good agreement between SESI and surface soil (10 and 20 cm depth) moisture content. Moreover, the performance of SESI was better in spring and autumn than in summer, and the SESI during different periods was more comparable than TVDI. It was feasible to apply the SESI to the continuous monitoring of a large area of agricultural drought. PMID:24417121

  18. A Remote Sensing-based Global Agricultural Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System for Supporting GEOSS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yu, G.; Han, W.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations. GEO is coordinating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a worldwide effort to make Earth observation resources more useful to the society. As one of the important technical contributors to GEOSS, the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (CSISS), George Mason University, is implementing a remote sensing-based global agricultural drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) as a GEOSS societal benefit areas (agriculture and water) prototype. The goals of the project are 1) to establish a system as a component of GEOSS for providing global on-demand and systematic agriculture drought information to users worldwide, and 2) to support decision-making with improved monitoring, forecasting, and analyses of agriculture drought. GADMFS has adopted the service-oriented architecture and is based on standard-compliant interoperable geospatial Web services to provide online on-demand drought conditions and forecasting at ~1 km spatial and daily and weekly temporal resolutions for any part of the world to world-wide users through the Internet. Applicable GEOSS recommended open standards are followed in the system implementation. The system’s drought monitoring relies on drought-related parameters, such as surface and root-zone soil moisture and NDVI time series derived from remote sensing data, to provide the current conditions of agricultural drought. The system links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA for the monitoring purpose. For drought forecasting, the system utilizes a neural-network based modeling algorithm. The algorithm is trained with inputs of current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm will establish per-pixel model for

  19. Biodiversity and agriculture in dynamic landscapes: Integrating ground and remotely-sensed baseline surveys.

    PubMed

    Gillison, Andrew N; Asner, Gregory P; Fernandes, Erick C M; Mafalacusser, Jacinto; Banze, Aurélio; Izidine, Samira; da Fonseca, Ambrósio R; Pacate, Hermenegildo

    2016-07-15

    Sustainable biodiversity and land management require a cost-effective means of forecasting landscape response to environmental change. Conventional species-based, regional biodiversity assessments are rarely adequate for policy planning and decision making. We show how new ground and remotely-sensed survey methods can be coordinated to help elucidate and predict relationships between biodiversity, land use and soil properties along complex biophysical gradients that typify many similar landscapes worldwide. In the lower Zambezi valley, Mozambique we used environmental, gradient-directed transects (gradsects) to sample vascular plant species, plant functional types, vegetation structure, soil properties and land-use characteristics. Soil fertility indices were derived using novel multidimensional scaling of soil properties. To facilitate spatial analysis, we applied a probabilistic remote sensing approach, analyzing Landsat 7 satellite imagery to map photosynthetically active and inactive vegetation and bare soil along each gradsect. Despite the relatively low sample number, we found highly significant correlations between single and combined sets of specific plant, soil and remotely sensed variables that permitted testable spatial projections of biodiversity and soil fertility across the regional land-use mosaic. This integrative and rapid approach provides a low-cost, high-return and readily transferable methodology that permits the ready identification of testable biodiversity indicators for adaptive management of biodiversity and potential agricultural productivity. PMID:27064732

  20. A summary of the history of the development of automated remote sensing for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The research conducted in the United States for the past 20 years with the objective of developing automated satellite remote sensing for monitoring the earth's major food crops is reviewed. The highlights of this research include a National Academy of Science study on the applicability of remote sensing monitoring given impetus by the introduction in the mid-1960's of the first airborne multispectral scanner (MSS); design simulations for the first earth resource satellite in 1969; and the use of the airborne MSS in the Corn Blight Watch, the first large application of remote sensing in agriculture, in 1970. Other programs discussed include the CITAR research project in 1972 which established the feasibility of automating digital classification to process high volumes of Landsat MSS data; the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) in 1974-78, which demonstrated automated processing of Landsat MSS data in estimating wheat crop production on a global basis; and AgRISTARS, a program designed to address the technical issues defined by LACIE.

  1. Incorporating a constrained optimization algorithm into remote sensing/precision agriculture methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    2003-08-01

    For two decades now, the use of Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture to improve farm yields while reducing the use of polluting chemicals and the limited water supply has been a major goal. With world population growing exponentially, arable land being consumed by urbanization, and an unfavorable farm economy, farm efficiency must increase to meet future food requirements and to make farming a sustainable, profitable occupation. "Precision Agriculture" refers to a farming methodology that applies nutrients and moisture only where and when they are needed in the field. The real goal is to increase farm profitability by identifying the additional treatments of chemicals and water that increase revenues more than they increase costs and do no exceed pollution standards (constrained optimization). Even though the economic and environmental benefits appear to be great, Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture has not grown as rapidly as early advocates envisioned. Technology for a successful Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture system is now in place, but other needed factors have been missing. Commercial satellite systems can now image the Earth (multi-spectrally) with a resolution as fine as 2.5 m. Precision variable dispensing systems using GPS are now available and affordable. Crop models that predict yield as a function of soil, chemical, and irrigation parameter levels have been developed. Personal computers and internet access are now in place in most farm homes and can provide a mechanism for periodically disseminating advice on what quantities of water and chemicals are needed in specific regions of each field. Several processes have been selected that fuse the disparate sources of information on the current and historic states of the crop and soil, and the remaining resource levels available, with the critical decisions that farmers are required to make. These are done in a way that is easy for the farmer to understand and profitable to implement. A "Constrained

  2. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing system for site-specific management in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. In agriculture, UAVs have been used for pest control and remote sensing. The objective of this research was to develop a UAV system to en...

  3. Utilization of remotely sensed data for agricultural insurance as adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, C.; Ogasawara, C.; Sigit, G.; Tamura, E.

    2015-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security, socio-economics of the poor and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change, meaning that the agricultural insurance can contribute to promotion of the stability in food security as one of 4 pillars defined by FOA of the United Nations. Having the above as background, we conducted research on utilization of remote sensing data including satellite data to assess damage ratio of rice production which could be used for calculation of indemnity in the agricultural insurance. Our study site was in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT5 satellite data taken in 2014, and the 10-fold cross-validation result was 0.7t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data on the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. According to the Indonesian agricultural insurance, if the damage of rice reaches 75% or above, the indemnity shall be paid to farmers. In our study site, the result showed that about 80 paddy fields located in lower irrigation region were the area to be paid by the insurance. Our study results suggest that the utilization of remote sensing data is much useful and promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production with precise, quick and quantitative, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  4. DYNAMIC TESTING OF GPS RECEIVERS ON AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT FOR REMOTE SENSING AND VARIABLE-RATE AERIAL APPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and GPS-based swath guidance systems are used on agricultural aircraft for remote sensing, airplane guidance, and to support variable-rate aerial application of crop inputs such as insecticides, cotton growth regulators, and defoliants. Agricultural aircraf...

  5. Agricultural and urban land use change analysis in Changping County, Beijing, using remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meng; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga; Li, Xia; Ming, An

    Urban growth is regarded as a necessary transitional stage for a sustainable economy, but uncontrolled or arbitrary urban growth rapidly consumes rural resources and causes environmental pollution, ecological deterioration. In this paper, we developed a remote sensing and GIS-based integrated approach to monitor and analyze agricultural and urban spatial land use and ecological landscape change characteristics. In the proposed approach, multi-temporal satellite images from 1995 to 2010 were selected and classified to obtain land cover and use spatial changes. And GIS was used to analyze variation tendency for land use and ecological landscape indices. Experiments were performed in the Changping County, north of Beijing to analyze rapid urbanization effects in the past two decades, especially during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The results indicate that there has been a notable urban growth and a visible loss about 38.8% in cropland, meanwhile dominated landscape structures and patterns have greatly changed from agriculture to urban in the study area.

  6. Investigate the Capabilities of Remotely Sensed Crop Indicators for Agricultural Drought Monitoring in Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural production has been rising in the past years, drought remains the primary cause of crop failure, leading to food price instability and threatening food security. The recent 'Global Food Crisis' in 2008, 2011 and 2012 has put drought and its impact on crop production at the forefront, highlighting the need for effective agricultural drought monitoring. Satellite observations have proven a practical, cost-effective and dynamic tool for drought monitoring. However, most satellite based methods are not specially developed for agriculture and their performances for agricultural drought monitoring still need further development. Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world, and the recent droughts highlight the importance of drought monitoring in major wheat producing areas. As the largest wheat producing state in the US, Kansas plays an important role in both global and domestic wheat markets. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the capabilities of remotely sensed crop indicators for effective agricultural drought monitoring in Kansas wheat-grown regions using MODIS data and crop yield statistics. First, crop indicators such as NDVI, anomaly and cumulative metrics were calculated. Second, the varying impacts of agricultural drought at different stages were explored by examining the relationship between the derived indicators and yields. Also, the starting date of effective agricultural drought early detection and the key agricultural drought alert period were identified. Finally, the thresholds of these indicators for agricultural drought early warning were derived and the implications of these indicators for agricultural drought monitoring were discussed. The preliminary results indicate that drought shows significant impacts from the mid-growing-season (after Mid-April); NDVI anomaly shows effective drought early detection from Late-April, and Late-April to Early-June can be used as the key alert period for agricultural

  7. The Design of a Remote Sensing Data Acquisition Campaign for Precision Agriculture and Some Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickmanl, D.; Luvall, J. C.; Wersinger, J. M.; Mask, P.; Kissel, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In the 1970s NASA and the Department of Agriculture attempted to use the new Landsat MSS system for agricultural purposes. The program had relatively little success. With the advent of differential GPS, yield monitors on harvest equipment and higher spatial resolution remote sensing systems it seemed likely the situation should be reexamined. Therefore, a campaign of data acquisition involving remote sensing and other modalities with dependent research was assembled and funded by the Space Grant Consortia in Alabama and Georgia. The design of the remote sensing data acquisition was driven by the biology and physics of the crop system and limited by the available sensor platforms. Major parameters included crop stage, spatial resolution, seasonal and daily weather conditions, and which portion of the EM spectrum would actually capture the most discriminating information. Joint visible and Near IR with Thermal IR would permit use of existing indices, such as greenness, as well as phenomena driven by the plant' s evapotranspiration. Spatial resolution in the 2-5 meter range was chosen, avoiding many complexities caused by aliasing crop row spacing at, higher resolutions yet finer than the harvester's tightest recording rate. This dictates use of an airborne system. Use of an airborne system also makes scheduling around weather much simpler than use of satellite data. Active video calibration was recognized as essential if quantitative measures were ever to be obtained or reproduced. The system would also have to have onboard geoOF1 Based on these elements 3 data acquisitions have been flown. Seven flight lines were flown twice in 1998 and 16 lines flown in 1999. Total raw data is several GBytes. All of the data has now been geometrically corrected and some preliminary analysis accomplished. The thermal bands have an extremely high correlation with yield. For one@test case with corn, correlation in excess of 0.86 was obtained from a data acquisition two months prior to

  8. Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; Nuckols, J.R.; Weigel, S. J.; Cantor, K.P.; Miller, Roger S.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study.

  9. An insight into space and remote sensing technologies concerning agriculture and landscape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi; Brumana, Raffaella; Previtali, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing and space technologies are increasingly called to offer innovative solutions for current challenges induced by climatic and global change. One of the main priorities of the European Space Policy regards the economic independence of the old continent in this sector. In terms of research and innovation this inevitably leads to numerous attempts in having independent market of services that would tackle specific needs of the citizens. Agriculture, for example, is one of the sectors majorly subsidized by European funds on national, regional and local level, with the aim to foster a more productive and sustainable development. Due to a large territorial scale at which agricultural phenomena are observed, and thus the spatial resolution required, it is also one of the main sectors that has been monitored from space over the past 30 years. In fact, one of the main missions of USA Landsat satellites was to provide a continuous and systematic overview of the globe for the purposes of an effective monitoring of the environment. This paper represents an overview of the ongoing initiatives in Space research done for the field of agriculture and landscape monitoring. In particular, the paper looks into the future possibilities that will be offered by full, open and free-of-charge data arriving from ongoing Copernicus missions and the contribution of Sentinel satellites to the agricultural sector.

  10. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Selected examples of research accomplishments related to remote sensing are compiled. A brief statement is given to highlight the significant results of each research project. A list of 1981 publication and location contacts is given also. The projects cover emission and reflectance analysis, identification of crop and soil parameters, and the utilization of remote sensing data.

  11. Assessing the Remotely Sensed Drought Severity Index for Agricultural Drought Monitoring in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Mu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With a warming climate, the world has experienced frequent droughts during the past few decades. A remotely sensed Drought Severity Index (DSI), which integrates both vegetation growth condition and evapotranspiration, has been recently proposed for drought monitoring at the global scale. However, there has been little research on its utility for regional application, especially on agricultural drought. As an important winter wheat producing region, the North China has suffered from frequent droughts in recent years. In this study, the capability of the DSI for drought monitoring and impact analysis in five wheat producing provinces of North China was investigated. First, the DSI was compared with precipitation and soil moisture to show its ability for characterizing moisture status. Then specifically for agricultural drought, the DSI was evaluated against agricultural drought severity and the impacts of drought on crop yield during the growing season were also explored using the 8-day DSI data. The main conclusions are: (1) The DSI shows generally good ability for characterizing moisture conditions at the province level with varying ability during winter wheat main growing season (March-June), and the best relationship was found in April. (2) Despite varying capability, the DSI is quite effective in characterizing agricultural drought severity at the province level. (3) Drought shows generally increasing agricultural impacts during winter wheat main growing season (March-June), with little impacts in March (green-up stage), emerging impacts in April (jointing and booting stages) and significant drought impacts in May (heading and filling stages). (4) Based on the spatial pattern of agricultural drought impacts, densely winter wheat planted areas such as South Hebei, Central/West Shandong and North/East Henan are identified as drought vulnerable regions and comprehensive monitoring in these hotspots is highly recommended.

  12. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  13. Remotely Sensed Hydrometeorological and Agrometeorological Drought Risk Identification for Sustainable Agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Blanta, Anna; Spyropoulos, Nicos

    2013-04-01

    Drought is considered as one of the major environmental hazards with significant impacts to agriculture, environment, economy and society. This paper addresses drought as a hazard within the risk management framework. Indeed, hazards may be defined as a potential threat to humans and their welfare and risk (or consequence) as the probability of a hazard occurring and creating loss. Besides, risk management consists of risk assessment and feedback of the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. In order to ensure sustainability in agricultural production a better understanding of the natural disasters, in particular droughts, that impact agriculture is essential. Droughts may result in environmental degradation of an area, which is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of agriculture, because it directly magnifies the risk of natural disasters. This paper deals with drought risk identification, which involves hazard quantification, event monitoring including early warning systems and statistical inference. For drought quantification the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) combined with Vegetation Health Index (VHI) is employed. RDI is a new index based on hydrometeorological parameters, and in particular precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, which has been recently modified to incorporate monthly satellite (NOAA/AVHAA) data for a period of 20 years (1981-2001). VHI is based on NDVI. The study area is Thessaly in central Greece, which is one of the major agricultural areas of the country occasionally facing droughts. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed RID and VHI images and several drought features are extracted such as severity, duration, areal extent, onset and end time. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of the above mentioned features. In particular, two second-order polynomials

  14. Capacity Building in NASA Remote Sensing Data for Meteorological and Agricultural Communities in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N. N.; Macharia, D.

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are hampered by a lack of historic data and scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. Data is often sorely lacking in poorly developed regions such as East Africa where people are vulnerable to a changing climate, extreme weather events, and economies and food security are tied directly to rain fed agriculture or pastoral cultures. NASA global remote sensing observations and research are promising in this regard, as they have great potential to inform policy- and decision-making at global, regional and even local scales the world over, However that potential is not realized as often as it should for a variety of reasons: the data stores are often impenetrable requiring special expertise to "crack the code", sustainability of observations remains a concern, and research and data are not focused on applications, thus results don't "fit" in existing tools or are developed for a short-term science objective without long-term use in mind. Although there are good examples of the use of NASA Earth Science research and observations for applications, capacity is lacking and must be built to advance the use of remote sensing for applications and to ease transition of research to the stakeholder. Capacity building is a critical component to transition Earth science research results to stakeholder communities, and is more than traditional training,, it has been described as…."the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world. Best practices and lessons learned from recent capacity building efforts for Agricultural and Environmental Ministires in East African in support of a NASA-SERVIR Applied Science Project to provide estimates of hydrologic extremes tied to crop yield are described.

  15. Impacts of soil sealing on potential agriculture in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Elsayed Said; Belal, Abdelaziz; Shalaby, Adel

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights the impacts of soil sealing on the agricultural soils in Nile Delta using remote sensing and GIS. The current work focuses on two aims. The first aim is to evaluate soil productivity lost to urban sprawl, which is a significant cause of soil sealing in Nile Delta. The second aim is to evaluate the Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LU LC) from 2001 to 2013 in El-Gharbia governorate as a case study. Three temporal data sets of images from two different sensors: Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with 30 m resolution acquired in 2001 and Landsat 8 acquired in 2013 with 30 m resolution, and Egypt sat acquired in 2010 with 7.8 m resolution, consequently were used. Four different supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood (ML), Minimum Distance, Neural Networks (NN); and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were applied to monitor the changes of LULC in the investigated area. The results showed that the agricultural soils of the investigated area are characterized by high soil productivity depending on its chemical and physical properties. During 2010-2013, soil sealing took place on 1397 ha from the study area which characterized by soil productivity classes ranging between I and II. It is expected that the urban sprawl will be increased to 12.4% by 2020 from the study area, which means that additional 3400 ha of productive soils will be lost from agriculture. However, population growth is the most significant factor effecting urban sprawl in Nile Delta.

  16. Characterizing soil salinity in irrigated agriculture using a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Akhtar; Khan, Shahbaz; Hussain, Nisar; Hanjra, Munir A.; Akbar, Saud

    Managing salinity in irrigated agriculture is crucial for minimising its negative environmental impacts and for ensuring the long-term sustainability of irrigated agriculture. It demands establishing rapid monitoring systems that help develop sustainable management plans. Remote sensing offers several advantages over the conventional proximal methods to map and predict areas at salinity risk. This paper presents an integrated approach to characterize soil salinity using remotely-sensed data in the District Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The IRS-1B LISS-II digital data was acquired and analysed in combination with field data and topographical maps. Remotely-sensed data based salinity indices or band combinations were developed to monitor the occurrence pattern of salt-affected soils. Using supervised maximum likelihood classification, the images were classified into eight land use classes with an overall accuracy of around 90%. The classified images showed that 22.2% of the total area was under salt-affected soils in 1992. The occurrence pattern of salt-affected soils varied with positive and negative trends during 1992-1995 to a minimum of 10.6%. The delineation analysis into levels of saline soils revealed three types based on USDA classification (USDA, 1954). The slightly saline, moderately saline and strongly saline soils during 1992 were in the order of 15%, 3%, and 1% respectively. The interactive behaviour of salinity and sodicity and their combinations showed that saline-sodic soils occurred predominantly ranging from 6.9% to 17.3% of the salt-affected soils. The shallow watertable was found to be of hazardous quality in 28% of the study area. The relationship between salt-affected soils, waterlogged soils and groundwater quality revealed that 60-70% of the salt-affected soils occurred in shallow watertable areas during 1992-1995. The reuse of poor quality groundwater for irrigation and the failure of tile drainage system in the area are likely to further

  17. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  18. Incorporating a Constrained Optimization Algorithm into Remote- Sensing/Precision Agriculture Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    with information to improve their crop's vigor has been a major topic of interest. With world population growing exponentially, arable land being consumed by urbanization, and an unfavorable farm economy, the efficiency of farming must increase to meet future food requirements and to make farming a sustainable occupation for the farmer. "Precision Agriculture" refers to a farming methodology that applies nutrients and moisture only where and when they are needed in the field. The goal is to increase farm revenue by increasing crop yield and decreasing applications of costly chemical and water treatments. In addition, this methodology will decrease the environmental costs of farming, i.e., reduce air, soil, and water pollution. Sensing/Precision Agriculture has not grown as rapidly as early advocates envisioned. Technology for a successful Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture system is now available. Commercial satellite systems can image (multi-spectral) the Earth with a resolution of approximately 2.5 m. Variable precision dispensing systems using GPS are available and affordable. Crop models that predict yield as a function of soil, chemical, and irrigation parameter levels have been formulated. Personal computers and internet access are in place in most farm homes and can provide a mechanism to periodically disseminate, e.g. bi-weekly, advice on what quantities of water and chemicals are needed in individual regions of the field. What is missing is a model that fuses the disparate sources of information on the current states of the crop and soil, and the remaining resource levels available with the decisions farmers are required to make. This must be a product that is easy for the farmer to understand and to implement. A "Constrained Optimization Feed-back Control Model" to fill this void will be presented. The objective function of the model will be used to maximize the farmer's profit by increasing yields while decreasing environmental costs and decreasing

  19. Agricultural drought risk monitoring and yield loss forecast with remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Attila; Tamás, János; Fehér, János

    2015-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Global Water Partnership (GWP) have launched a joint Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP) to improve monitoring and prevention of droughts. In the frame of this project this study focuses on identification of agricultural drought characteristics and elaborates a monitoring method (with application of remote sensing data), which could result in appropriate early warning of droughts before irreversible yield loss and/or quality degradation occur. The spatial decision supporting system to be developed will help the farmers in reducing drought risk of the different regions by plant specific calibrated drought indexes. The study area was the Tisza River Basin, which is located in Central Europe within the Carpathian Basin. For the investigations normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used calculated from 16 day moving average chlorophyll intensity and biomass quantity data. The results offer concrete identification of remote sensing and GIS data tools for agricultural drought monitoring and forecast, which eventually provides information on physical implementation of drought risk levels. In the first step, we statistically normalized the crop yield maps and the MODIS satellite data. Then the drought-induced crop yield loss values were classified. The crop yield loss data were validated against the regional meteorological drought index values (SPI), the water management and soil physical data. The objective of this method was to determine the congruency of data derived from spectral data and from field measurements. As a result, five drought risk levels were developed to identify the effect of drought on yields: Watch, Early Warning, Warning, Alert and Catastrophe. In the frame of this innovation such a data link and integration, missing from decision process of IDMP, are established, which can facilitate the rapid spatial and temporal monitoring of meteorological, agricultural drought phenomena and its

  20. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  1. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  2. Evaluating the Utility of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals for Operational Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Crow, Wade T.; Zhan, Xiwu; Jackson, Thomas J.; Reynolds,Curt

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) to monitor crop growth stage and condition and subsequently, globally forecast agricultural yields. Currently, the USDA IPAD estimates surface and root-zone soil moisture using a two-layer modified Palmer soil moisture model forced by global precipitation and temperature measurements. However, this approach suffers from well-known errors arising from uncertainty in model forcing data and highly simplified model physics. Here we attempt to correct for these errors by designing and applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA modified Palmer soil moisture model. An assessment of soil moisture analysis products produced from this assimilation has been completed for a five-year (2002 to 2007) period over the North American continent between 23degN - 50degN and 128degW - 65degW. In particular, a data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing EnKF soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline Palmer model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model simulation suggests that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals can add significant value to USDA root-zone predictions derived from real-time satellite precipitation products.

  3. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Daughtry, Craig S.T.; Mirsky, Steven B.; Hively, W. Dean

    2014-01-01

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare information obtained from two different pixel sizes, one about a meter (the size of a small vegetation plot) and one about a millimeter. Cereal rye (Secale cereale) was planted at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center for a winter cover crop with fall and spring fertilizer applications, which produced differences in biomass and leaf chlorophyll content. UAS imagery was simulated by placing a Fuji IS-Pro UVIR digital camera at 3-m height looking nadir. An external UV-IR cut filter was used to acquire true-color images; an external red cut filter was used to obtain color-infrared-like images with bands at near-infrared, green, and blue wavelengths. Plot-scale Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was correlated with dry aboveground biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.58$ ), whereas the Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) was not correlated with chlorophyll content. We used the SamplePoint program to select 100 pixels systematically; we visually identified the cover type and acquired the digital numbers. The number of rye pixels in each image was better correlated with biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.73$ ), and the average TGI from only leaf pixels was negatively correlated with chlorophyll content ( ${mbi {r}} = -0.72$ ). Thus, better information for crop requirements may be obtained using very small pixel sizes, but new algorithms based on computer vision are needed for analysis. It may not be necessary to geospatially register large numbers of photographs with very small pixel sizes. Instead, images could be analyzed as single plots along field transects.

  4. Product amount and quality monitoring in agricultural fields with remote sensing satellite and radio-control helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei

    Product amount and quality monitoring in agricultural fields with remote sensing satellite and radio-control helicopter is proposed. In particular, tealeaves and rice crop quality and amoujnt monitorings are peoposed as examples. Nitrogen rich tealeaves tasts good. Therefore, quality of tealeaves can be estimated with nitrogen content which is related with near infrared reflectance of the tealeves in concern. Also, rice crop quality depends on protein content in rice grain which is related to near infrared reflectance of rice leaves. Therefore, product quality can be estimated with observation of near infrared reflectance of the leaves in concern. Near infared reflectance is provided by near infrared radiometers onboard remote sensing satellites and by near infrared cameras onboard radio-control helicopter. This monitoring system is applicable to the other agricultural plant products. Through monitoring near ingfrared reflectance, it is possible to estimate quality as well as product amount.

  5. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  6. Research in remote sensing of agriculture, earth resources, and man's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported for several projects involving the utilization of LANDSAT remote sensing capabilities. Areas under study include crop inventory, crop identification, crop yield prediction, forest resources evaluation, land resources evaluation and soil classification. Numerical methods for image processing are discussed, particularly those for image enhancement and analysis.

  7. REMOTE SENSING, VISUALIZATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of satellite and airborne remote sensing, scientific visualization and decision support tools is discussed within the context of management techniques for minimizing the non-point source pollution load of inland waterways and the sustainability of food crop produc...

  8. Remote sensing of an agricultural soil moisture network in Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Usually soil moisture sensors are added to existing precipitation networks which have as a singular requiremen...

  9. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  10. Comparison/Validation of Remote Sensing-Based Surface Energy Balance Models Over the Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate characterization of surface energy fluxes over a range of spatial and temporal scales is critical for many applications in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology, and climatology. Over the past several years, there has been a major effort devoted to the development and refinement of remote sen...

  11. Linking Remote Sensing Data and Energy Balance Models for a Scalable Agriculture Insurance System for sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; McCarty, J. L.; Husak, G. J.; Hain, C.; Neigh, C. S. R.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most immediate and obvious impacts of climate change is on the weather-sensitive agriculture sector. Both local and global impacts on production of food will have a negative effect on the ability of humanity to meet its growing food demands. Agriculture has become more risky, particularly for farmers in the most vulnerable and food insecure regions of the world such as East Africa. Smallholders and low-income farmers need better financial tools to reduce the risk to food security while enabling productivity increases to meet the needs of a growing population. This paper will describe a recently funded project that brings together climate science, economics, and remote sensing expertise to focus on providing a scalable and sensor-independent remote sensing based product that can be used in developing regional rainfed agriculture insurance programs around the world. We will focus our efforts in Ethiopia and Kenya in East Africa and in Senegal and Burkina Faso in West Africa, where there are active index insurance pilots that can test the effectiveness of our remote sensing-based approach for use in the agriculture insurance industry. The paper will present the overall program, explain links to the insurance industry, and present comparisons of the four remote sensing datasets used to identify drought: the CHIRPS 30-year rainfall data product, the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, the ESA soil moisture ECV-30 year soil moisture data product, and a MODIS Evapotranspiration (ET) 15-year dataset. A summary of next year's plans for this project will be presented at the close of the presentation.

  12. Remotely sensed spatio-temporal trends of irrigation agriculture in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela Diaz, F.; Siegfried, T. U.; Vasquez, V.; Pollard, B. S.; Temimi, M.; Narula, K. K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agricultural production plays a key role in covering the world’s food demand. Its importance will grow in the future given increasing population numbers and uncertain climate. Irrigation, however, has also a major impact on water resources, esp. in the drylands on the planet. For example, most of the large-scale problems of aquifer mining can be linked to groundwater-irrigated agriculture. South Asia is one of these regions of concern where roughly 40 percent of the total global groundwater irrigated area is located. In India, almost half of the total agricultural area is irrigated and it is estimated that groundwater irrigation in the country sustains 27 million ha. Esp. in the northwestern part of the country, water tables are falling at increasing rates that give rise to concern about the future viability of irrigation there. Since the majority of food grains in India are produced in that region, this development is a direct threat to the national food security with potentially global implications. We present a novel remote sensing approach to map the temporal development of irrigated agriculture at large spatial scales with high accuracy. We use time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NDVI and surface temperature as well as high-resolution precipitation data from the Indian Meteorological Department from 2000 - 2008 and ancillary data for our supervised classification approach. A cascade of classifiers was chosen to deal with the problem of obtaining labeled examples. A first stage classifier uses large regions of known irrigated and non-irrigated areas to learn a rough estimate of the multi-dimensional time series signature on variables of interest in non-irrigated areas. An estimate of the probability of non-irrigation is generated and passed to a second stage classifier along with the variables used to derive it. The second stage classifier is trained with a small dataset of very high quality estimates

  13. The Sophia-Antipolis Conference: General presentation and basic documents. [remote sensing for agriculture, forestry, water resources, and environment management in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in NASA's aerospace technology transfer program are reviewed for consideration in establishing priorities and bases for joint action by technicians and users of remotely sensed data in France. Particular emphasis is given to remote sensing in agriculture, forestry, water resources, environment management, and urban research.

  14. Agriculture In Uruguay: New Methods For Drought Monitoring and Crop Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessel, J.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a vital resource in the country of Uruguay. Here we propose new methods using remotely sensed data for assisting ranchers, land managers, and policy makers in the country to better manage their crops. Firstly, we created a drought severity index based on the climatological anomalies of land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM), and normalized difference water index (NDWI) data also using MODIS. The use of the climatological anomalies on the variables has improved the ability of the index to correlate with known drought indices versus previously published indices, which had not used them. We applied various coefficient schemes and vegetation indices in order to choose the model which best correlated with the drought indices across 10 sites throughout Uruguay's rangelands. The model was tested over summer months from 2009-2013. In years where drought had indeed been a problem in the country (such as 2009) the model showed intense signals of drought. Secondly, we used Landsat images to identify winter and summer crops in Uruguay. We first classified them using ENVI and then used the classifications in an ArcMap model to identify specific crop areas. We first created a polygon of the classifications for soils and vegetation for each month (omitting cloud covered images). We then used the crop growing cycle to identify the times during the year for which specific polygons should be soil and which should be vegetation. By intersecting the soil polygons with the vegetation polygons during their respective time periods during the crop growing cycle we were able to create an accurately identify crops. When compared to a shapefile of proposed crops for the year the model obtained a kappa value of 0.60 with a probability of detection of 0.79 and a false alarm ratio of 0.31 for the south-western study area over the 2013-2014 summer.

  15. A preliminary study of the statistical analyses and sampling strategies associated with the integration of remote sensing capabilities into the current agricultural crop forecasting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sand, F.; Christie, R.

    1975-01-01

    Extending the crop survey application of remote sensing from small experimental regions to state and national levels requires that a sample of agricultural fields be chosen for remote sensing of crop acreage, and that a statistical estimate be formulated with measurable characteristics. The critical requirements for the success of the application are reviewed in this report. The problem of sampling in the presence of cloud cover is discussed. Integration of remotely sensed information about crops into current agricultural crop forecasting systems is treated on the basis of the USDA multiple frame survey concepts, with an assumed addition of a new frame derived from remote sensing. Evolution of a crop forecasting system which utilizes LANDSAT and future remote sensing systems is projected for the 1975-1990 time frame.

  16. Evaluating the Potential Use of Remotely-Sensed and Model-Simulated Soil Moisture for Agricultural Drought Risk Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongxiang; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Current two datasets provide spatial and temporal resolution of soil moisture at large-scale: the remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals and the model-simulated soil moisture products. Drought monitoring using remotely-sensed soil moisture is emerging, and the soil moisture simulated using land surface models (LSMs) have been used operationally to monitor agriculture drought in United States. Although these two datasets yield important drought information, their drought monitoring skill still needs further quantification. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential of remotely-sensed and model-simulated soil moisture data in monitoring agricultural drought over the Columbia River Basin (CRB), Pacific Northwest. Two satellite soil moisture datasets were evaluated, the LPRM-AMSR-E (unscaled, 2002-2011) and ESA-CCI (scaled, 1979-2013). The USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used to simulate the soil moisture from 1979-2011. The drought monitoring skill is quantified with two indices: drought area coverage (the ability of drought detection) and drought severity (according to USDM categories). The effects of satellite sensors (active, passive), multi-satellite combined, length of climatology, climate change effect, and statistical methods are also examined in this study.

  17. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  18. SUPERFUND REMOTE SENSING SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...

  19. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    PubMed

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-error<30%. In terms of magnitude, the results were as accurate as or better than those of more traditional (i.e., using areas that fluctuate based on water resource availability and prescribed crop factors) irrigation modelling. The RS

  20. REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies applications research supports the ORD Landscape Sciences Program (LSP) in two separate areas: operational remote sensing, and remote sensing research and development. Operational remote sensing is provided to the LSP through the use of current and t...

  1. Lightweight Vertical Take-Off & Landing Unmanned Aerial Systems For Local-Scale Forestry and Agriculture Remote Sensing Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, E.; Sheridan, R.; Popescu, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of lightweight Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensor technologies have provided researchers with the ability to integrate compact remote sensing systems with UAVs to create Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) capable of collecting high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. UASs offer a myriad of benefits. Some of the most notable include: (1) reduced operational cost; (2) reduced lead-time for mission planning; (3) high-resolution and high-density data collection; and (4) customization of data collection intervals to fit the needs of a specific project (i.e. acquiring data at hourly, daily, or weekly intervals). Such benefits allow researchers and natural resource managers to acquire airborne remote sensing data on local-scale phenomenon in ways that were previously cost-prohibitive. VTOL UASs also offer a stable platform capable of low speed low altitude flight over small spatial scales that do not require a dedicated runway. Such flight characteristics allow VTOL UASs to collect high-resolution data at very high densities, enabling the use of structure from motion (SFM) techniques to generate three-dimensional datasets from photographs. When combined, these characteristics make VTOL UASs ideal for collecting data over agricultural or forested research areas. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of several lightweight eight-rotor VTOL UASs designed for small-scale forest remote sensing data collection. Specific objectives include: (1) the independent integration of a lightweight multispectral camera, a lightweight scanning lidar sensor, with required components (i.e. IMU, GPS, data logger) and the UAV; (2) comparison of UAS-collected data to terrestrial lidar data and airborne multispectral and lidar data; (3) comparison of UAS SFM techniques to terrestrial lidar data; and (4) multi-temporal assessment of tree decay using terrestrial lidar and UAS SfM techniques.

  2. On the determination of agricultural prospects using remote sensing and field technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses Eterigho; Omotosho, T. V.; Olusola, Kayode

    2016-02-01

    The food budget is gradually depleting due to climatic change. The research problem is to see the extent of climate change via catalytic factor e.g. soil compaction. The field work has been reported and the remote sensing technique was used to compliment salient findings established. The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) was used to obtain five years satellite imagery between 2008 and 2012. The results were used to propound a simple model which shows that the effects of either H >ɛ σ Tr4 or H <ɛ σ Tr4 may be detrimental to crop survival in the nearest future.

  3. Research in remote sensing of agriculture, earth resources, and man's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Research performed on NASA and USDA remote sensing projects are reviewed and include: (1) the 1971 Corn Blight Watch Experiment; (2) crop identification; (3) soil mapping; (4) land use inventories; (5) geologic mapping; and (6) forest and water resources data collection. The extent to which ERTS images and airborne data were used is indicated along with computer implementation. A field and laboratory spectroradiometer system is described together with the LARSYS software system, both of which were widely used during the research. Abstracts are included of 160 technical reports published as a result of the work.

  4. AgRISTARS: Agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The major objectives and FY 1980 accomplishments are described of a long term program designed to determine the usefulness, cost, and extent to which aerospace remote sensing data can be integrated into existing or future USDA systems to improve the objectivity, reliability, timeliness, and adequacy of information. A general overview, the primary and participating agencies, and the technical highlights of each of the following projects are presented: early warning/crop condition assessment; foreign commodity production forecasting; yield model development; supporting research; soil moisture; domestic crops and land cover; renewable resources inventory; and conservation and pollution.

  5. Electrooptical remote sensing methods as nondestructive testing and measuring techniques in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, V I; Allen, W A

    1968-09-01

    Characteristics of plants that influence reflectance and emission of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Four main spectral regions are influenced by plants. These wavelength bands include the visible region of chlorophyll absorption, very near ir wavelengths, where plant structure is of major importance, the near and middle ir wavelengths, where water and CO(2) absorption predominate, and the far ir region of thermal ir emission. Soil characteristics that influence reflectance and emission of energy are discussed. Nondestructive testing techniques described include laboratory spectrophotometry, field spectrometry, color photography, radiometry, and generation of line scan imagery. Spectrophotometer and spectrometer reflectance data obtained in the laboratory and field are related to interpretation of remote sensing imagery. Model studies that permit predictions of reflectance from plant canopies are described. The principle of multispectral sensing which permits utilization of multiple wavelength channels for establishing unique plant and soil signature is reviewed. PMID:20068888

  6. Autonomous agricultural remote sensing systems with high spatial and temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Haitao

    In this research, two novel agricultural remote sensing (RS) systems, a Stand-alone Infield Crop Monitor RS System (SICMRS) and an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based RS system have been studied. A high-resolution digital color and multi-spectral camera was used as the image sensor for the SICMRS system. An artificially intelligent (AI) controller based on artificial neural network (ANN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was developed. Morrow Plots corn field RS images in the 2004 and 2006 growing seasons were collected by the SICMRS system. The field site contained 8 subplots (9.14 m x 9.14 m) that were planted with corn and three different fertilizer treatments were used among those subplots. The raw RS images were geometrically corrected, resampled to 10cm resolution, removed soil background and calibrated to real reflectance. The RS images from two growing seasons were studied and 10 different vegetation indices were derived from each day's image. The result from the image processing demonstrated that the vegetation indices have temporal effects. To achieve high quality RS data, one has to utilize the right indices and capture the images at the right time in the growing season. Maximum variations among the image data set are within the V6-V10 stages, which indicated that these stages are the best period to identify the spatial variability caused by the nutrient stress in the corn field. The derived vegetation indices were also used to build yield prediction models via the linear regression method. At that point, all of the yield prediction models were evaluated by comparing the R2-value and the best index model from each day's image was picked based on the highest R 2-value. It was shown that the green normalized difference vegetation (GNDVI) based model is more sensitive to yield prediction than other indices-based models. During the VT-R4 stages, the GNDVI based models were able to explain more than 95% potential corn yield

  7. Joint use of soil moisture and vegetation growth condition by remote sensing on the agricultural drought monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Yang, Siquan; Huang, He; He, Haixia; Li, Suju; Cui, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of important methods on the agricultural drought monitoring for its long-term and wide-area observations. The detection of soil moisture and vegetation growth condition are two widely used remote sensing methods on that. However, because of the time lag in the impact of water deficit on the crop growth, it is difficulty to indicate the severity of drought by once monitoring. It also cannot distinguish other negative impact on crop growth such as low temperature or solar radiation. In this paper, the joint use of soil moisture and vegetation growth condition detections was applied on the drought management during the summer of 2013 in Liaoning province, China, in which 84 counties were affected by agricultural drought. MODIS vegetation indices and land surface temperature (LST) were used to extract the drought index. Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), which only contain the change in vegetation index, and Vegetation Supply Water Index (VSWI), which combined the information of vegetation index and land surface temperature, were selected to compare the monitoring ability on drought during the drought period in Liaoning, China in 2014. It was found that VCI could be a good method on the loss assessment. VSWI has the information on the change in LST, which can indicate the spatial pattern of drought and can also be used as the early warning method in the study.

  8. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  9. Delineating the Erosion-Potential of Agricultural Lands Within the Le Sueur Watershed Using Remotely Sensed Data and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalim, F. K.; Melesse, A. M.; Thomas, A. R.; Belmont, P.; Azmera, L.; Jennings, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    lend credence to the classification criteria used and indicate the usefulness of remote sensing as well as GIS as tools in the extrapolation, integration and interpretation of the data collected. Key words: Le Sueur River, erosion, agriculture, remote sensing, GIS, Minnesota

  10. Use of radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) to map winter wetland habitat for shorebirds in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Taft, Oriane W; Haig, Susan M; Kiilsgaard, Chris

    2004-05-01

    Many of today's agricultural landscapes once held vast amounts of wetland habitat for waterbirds and other wildlife. Successful restoration of these landscapes relies on access to accurate maps of the wetlands that remain. We used C-band (5.6-cm-wavelength), HH-polarized radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) at a 38 degrees incidence angle (8-m resolution) to map the distribution of winter shorebird (Charadriiformes) habitat on agricultural lands in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. We acquired imagery on three dates (10 December 1999, 27 January 2000, and 15 March 2000) and simultaneously collected ground reference data to classify radar signatures and evaluate map accuracy of four habitat classes: (1) wet with < or = 50% vegetation (considered optimal shorebird habitat), (2) wet with > 50% vegetation, (3) dry with < or = 50% vegetation, and (4) dry with > 50% vegetation. Overall accuracy varied from 45 to 60% among the three images, but the accuracy of focal class 1 was greater, ranging from 72 to 80%. Class 4 coverage was stable and dominated maps (40% of mapped study area) for all three dates, while coverage of class 3 decreased slightly throughout the study period. Among wet classes, class 1 was most abundant (about 30% coverage) in December and January, decreasing in March to approximately 15%. Conversely, class 2 increased dramatically from January to March, likely due to transition from class 1 as vegetation grew. This approach was successful in detecting optimal habitat for shorebirds on agricultural lands. For modest classification schemes, radar remote sensing is a valuable option for wetland mapping in areas where cloud cover is persistent. PMID:15503392

  11. Use of radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) to map winter wetland habitat for shorebirds in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Taft, Oriane W; Haig, Susan M; Kiilsgaard, Chris

    2003-08-01

    Many of today's agricultural landscapes once held vast amounts of wetland habitat for waterbirds and other wildlife. Successful restoration of these landscapes relies on access to accurate maps of the wetlands that remain. We used C-band (5.6-cm-wavelength), HH-polarized radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) at a 38 degree incidence angle (8-m resolution) to map the distribution of winter shorebird (Charadriiformes) habitat on agricultural lands in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. We acquired imagery on three dates (10 December 1999, 27 January 2000, and 15 March 2000) and simultaneously collected ground reference data to classify radar signatures and evaluate map accuracy of four habitat classes: (1) wet with < or = 50% vegetation (considered optimal shorebird habitat), (2) wet with > 50% vegetation, (3) dry with < or = 50% vegetation, and (4) dry with > 50% vegetation. Overall accuracy varied from 45 to 60% among the three images, but the accuracy of focal class 1 was greater, ranging from 72 to 80%. Class 4 coverage was stable and dominated maps (40% of mapped study area) for all three dates, while class 3 coverage decreased slightly throughout the study period. Among wet classes, class 1 was most abundant (30% coverage) in December and January, decreasing in March by 15%. Conversely, class 2 increased dramatically from January to March, likely due to transition from class 1 as vegetation grew. This approach was successful in detecting optimal habitat for shorebirds on agricultural lands. For modest classification schemes, radar remote sensing is a valuable option for wetland mapping in areas where cloud cover is persistent. PMID:14753651

  12. Use of radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) to map winter wetland habitat for shorebirds in an agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, O.W.; Haig, S.M.; Kiilsgaard, C.

    2003-01-01

    Many of today's agricultural landscapes once held vast amounts of wetland habitat for waterbirds and other wildlife. Successful restoration of these landscapes relies on access to accurate maps of the wetlands that remain. We used C-band (5.6-cm-wavelength), HH-polarized radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) at a 38?? incidence angle (8-m resolution) to map the distribution of winter shorebird (Charadriiformes) habitat on agricultural lands in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. We acquired imagery on three dates (10 December 1999, 27 January 2000, and 15 March 2000) and simultaneously collected ground reference data to classify radar signatures and evaluate map accuracy of four habitat classes: (1) wet with ??? 50% vegetation (considered optimal shorebird habitat), (2) wet with > 50% vegetation, (3) dry with ??? 50% vegetation, and (4) dry with > 50% vegetation. Overall accuracy varied from 45 to 60% among the three images, but the accuracy of focal class 1 was greater, ranging from 72 to 80%. Class 4 coverage was stable and dominated maps (40% of mapped study area) for all three dates, while class 3 coverage decreased slightly throughout the study period. Among wet classes, class 1 was most abundant (30% coverage) in December and January, decreasing in March by 15%. Conversely, class 2 increased dramatically from January to March, likely due to transition from class 1 as vegetation grew. This approach was successful in detecting optimal habitat for shorebirds on agricultural lands. For modest classification schemes, radar remote sensing is a valuable option for wetland mapping in areas where cloud cover is persistent. ?? 2003 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Use of radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) to map winter wetland habitat for shorebirds in an agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Many of todays agricultural landscapes once held vast amounts of wetland habitat for waterbirds and other wildlife. Successful restoration of these landscapes relies on access to accurate maps of the wetlands that remain. We used C-band (5.6-cm-wavelength), HH-polarized radar remote sensing (RADARSAT) at a 38A? incidence angle (8-m resolution) to map the distribution of winter shorebird (Charadriiformes) habitat on agricultural lands in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. We acquired imagery on three dates (10 December 1999, 27 January 2000, and 15 March 2000) and simultaneously collected ground reference data to classify radar signatures and evaluate map accuracy of four habitat classes: (1) wet with 50% vegetation (considered optimal shorebird habitat), (2) wet with > 50% vegetation, (3) dry with 50% vegetation, and (4) dry with > 50% vegetation. Overall accuracy varied from 45 to 60% among the three images, but the accuracy of focal class 1 was greater, ranging from 72 to 80%. Class 4 coverage was stable and dominated maps (40% of mapped study area) for all three dates, while coverage of class 3 decreased slightly throughout the study period. Among wet classes, class 1 was most abundant (about 30% coverage) in December and January, decreasing in March to approximately 15%. Conversely, class 2 increased dramatically from January to March, likely due to transition from class 1 as vegetation grew. This approach was successful in detecting optimal habitat for shorebirds on agricultural lands. For modest classification schemes, radar remote sensing is a valuable option for wetland mapping in areas where cloud cover is persistent.

  14. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  15. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  16. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  17. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  18. Remote sensing for precision agriculture: Within-field spatial variability analysis and mapping with aerial digital multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalapillai, Sreekala

    2000-10-01

    Advances in remote sensing technology and biological sensors provided the motivation for this study on the applications of aerial multispectral remote sensing in precision agriculture. The feasibility of using high-resolution multispectral remote sensing for precision farming applications such as soil type delineation, identification of crop nitrogen levels, and modeling and mapping of weed density distribution and yield potential within a crop field was explored in this study. Some of the issues such as image calibration for variable lighting conditions and soil background influence were also addressed. Intensity normalization and band ratio methods were found to be adequate image calibration methods to compensate for variable illumination and soil background influence. Several within-field variability factors such as growth stage, field conditions, nutrient availability, crop cultivar, and plant population were found to be dominant in different periods. Unsupervised clustering of color infrared (CIR) image of a field soil was able to identify soil mapping units with an average accuracy of 76%. Spectral reflectance from a crop field was highly correlated to the chlorophyll reading. A regression model developed to predict nitrogen stress in corn identified nitrogen-stressed areas from nitrogen-sufficient areas with a high accuracy (R2 = 0.93). Weed density was highly correlated to the spectral reflectance from a field. One month after planting was found to be a good time to map spatial weed density. The optimum range of resolution for weed mapping was 4 m to 4.5 m for the remote sensing system and the experimental field used in this study. Analysis of spatial yield with respect to spectral reflectance showed that the visible and NIR reflectance were negatively correlated to yield and crop population in heavily weed-infested areas. The yield potential was highly correlated to image indices, especially to normalized brightness. The ANN model developed for one of the

  19. Application of integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental issues in far west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongjie

    This study focuses on applying integrated remote sensing and GIS technologies to geological, agricultural, water and environmental studies in the far west Texas area. The primary technical topics that have been investigated and employed include radar image processing, speckle removal, destriping, data fusion, seamless image mosaicking technology, mask and ROI techniques, DEM processing and 3D visualization, image classification techniques, gravity and magnetic data processing, algorithm implementation for automatic image registration, ArcView/ArcInfo GIS techniques, and GIS database building. JPL/NASA's AIRSAR/TOPSAR is a multipolarimetric, multiwavelength, and interferometric airborne synthetic aperture radar capable of imaging in C-, L-, and P-bands (5.7, 24.5, and 68 cm). The study mainly focuses on its preprocessing, despeckling, and destriping. Among statistical adaptive speckle removal algorithms, G-MAP (Gamma Maximum A Posteriori) had the best performance. For banding removal, we derived a new method that we call combined principal components analysis (CPCA) that was very effective with our data. Signature differences were studied and compared at different radar wavelengths and between radar and optical (ETM+) images. Some subsurface objects (like water pipelines) were clearly visible in the radar images, especially for the P-band. Data fusion based on the color transform technique was employed to integrate Landsat 7 (30 m ETM+ data fused with the accompanying 15 m panchromatic data) and TOPSAR data after speckle and banding removal. The resulting fused image brought out new features that were not evident in the original images and helped identify many features whose origin was not clear in the original images. AIRSAR/TOPSAR and TM/ETM+ images have been successfully used for mapping the East Franklin Mountains fault scarp and related small faults within the Hueco bolson as well as the Mayfield fault scarp. Remote sensing analysis of nuclear waste disposal

  20. AgRISTARS - Plans and first-year achievements. [Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Hogg, R. C.; Caudill, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing (AgRISTARS) program managed by the USDA for exploring the use of satellite data for domestic and global commodity information needs are discussed. The program was intended to gather early warning of changes affecting production and quality of commodities and renewable resources, for predicting commodity production, land use classification and quantification, for inventories and assessments of renewable resources, land productivity measurements, assessment of conservation practices, and for pollution detection and impact evaluation. Up to 20 crop/region combinations in 7 countries were covered by the experiments, which comprised NOAA 6 and Landsat data analyses. Attempts to reduce variances through improved machine classification techniques are reported, together with soil moisture profiling, and the use of airborne sensors for providing comparative data.

  1. Agricultural drought assessment at spatial and temporal scales using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yongchul; Park, Kyungwon; Rhee, Jinyoung; Yoon, Sunkwon

    2016-04-01

    We estimated soil moisture dynamics in the root zone based on a soil moisture data assimilation scheme using remotely sensed (RS) data. The data assimilation scheme estimated the soil hydraulic and root parameters from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Then, root zone soil moisture was estimated at spatio-temporal scales based on the estimated soil/root parameters and weather forcings. We validated our approach at the Little Washita(LW13) in Oklahoma and Chungmi-cheon/Seolma-cheon sites. The estimated water retention curves identified well with the measurements at the LW 13 site. Also, the estimated root zone soil moisture dynamics showed an agreement with the Time Domain Reflectrometry(TDR)-based measured data. Furthermore, we tested this approach at ungauged regions (Seolma Cheon-SC and Chungmi Cheon-CC) South Korea indicating that the soil/root parameters at the pixel where the SC site is located were derived from the calibrated MODIS-based(the CC site) soil moisture values. Then, the estimated root zone soil moisture values were validated with the measured data at the SC site. Although the model outputs were slightly overestimated compared to the measured data, these results showed the applicability of this proposed approach in application to ungauged regions. Thus, our proposed approach can be helpful to evaluate root zone soil moisture at spatio-temporal scales across South Korea. Acknowledgement This research was partially supported by Kyungpook National University Research Fund (2015) and a grant (14AWMP-B079364-01) from Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  2. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, N. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using remote sensing to inventory wetlands and the related topics of proper inventory design and data collection are discussed. The material presented shows that aerial photography is the form of remote sensing from which the greatest amount of wetlands information can be derived. For extensive, general-purpose wetlands inventories, however, the use of LANDSAT data may be more cost-effective. Airborne multispectral scanners and radar are, in the main, too expensive to use - unless the information that these sensors alone can gather remotely is absolutely required. Multistage sampling employing space and high altitude remote sensing data in the initial stages appears to be an efficient survey strategy for gathering non-point specific wetlands inventory data over large areas. The operational role of remote sensing insupplying inventory data for application to several typical wetlands management problems is illustrated by summary descriptions of past ERIM projects.

  3. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  4. Polarization In Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Walter G.

    1988-06-01

    Various aspects of polarization in remote sensing are presented including mathematical treatments and selected experimental observations. The observations are of the percent polarization from Haleakala volcanic ash, basalt powder, rhyolytic oumice. rose quartz, niccolite, ilmenite, black oak leaves. dried red pine needles, a New Haven red pine stand, moist soil, the sky above Mauna Loa Observatory, the sky above Long Island in summer and winter, and cirrus clouds. Also, space based shuttle photographic observations of polarization are described. Instrumental polarization from a Cassegrainian telescope is described as well as the design of an imaging soectropolarimeter for remote sensing. A list is presented of twelve polarimetric properties associated with remote sensing.

  5. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Built on Cornell's thirty years of experience in aerial photographic studies, the NASA-sponsored remote sensing program strengthened instruction and research in remote sensing, established communication links within and beyond the university community, and conducted research projects for or with town, county, state, federal, and private organizations in New York State. The 43 completed applied research projects are listed as well as 13 spinoff grants/contracts. The curriculum offered, consultations provided, and data processing facilities available are described. Publications engendered are listed including the thesis of graduates in the remote sensing program.

  6. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  7. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  8. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  9. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  10. APPLIED REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote Sensing is a scientific discipline of non-contact monitoring. It includes a range of technologies that span from aerial photography to advanced spectral imaging and analytical methods. This Session is designed to demonstrate contemporary practical applications of remote se...

  11. Advanced multispectral sensor requirements for remote sensing of agriculture and land cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern agricultural and land cover monitoring programs require frequent data acquisitions and increased spectral resolution to acquire a greater number of parameters in a more accurate manner. Whereas hyperspectral sensors could provide the required information, agriculture's biggest need is for fr...

  12. Remote Sensing of Wetland Hydrology: Implications for Water Quality Management in Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. In order for the USDA to allocate funds to best manage wetlands, a better understanding of wetland functioning is ...

  13. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sites using open-path optical remote sensing method.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved characterization of distributed emission sources of greenhouse gases such as methane from concentrated animal feeding operations require more accurate methods. One promising method is recently used by the USEPA. It employs a vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) algorithm using optical remot...

  14. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  15. Towards a Quantitative Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Crop Growth Models for Large Scale Agricultural Production Estimate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defourny, P.

    2013-12-01

    The development of better agricultural monitoring capabilities is clearly considered as a critical step for strengthening food production information and market transparency thanks to timely information about crop status, crop area and yield forecasts. The documentation of global production will contribute to tackle price volatility by allowing local, national and international operators to make decisions and anticipate market trends with reduced uncertainty. Several operational agricultural monitoring systems are currently operating at national and international scales. Most are based on the methods derived from the pioneering experiences completed some decades ago, and use remote sensing to qualitatively compare one year to the others to estimate the risks of deviation from a normal year. The GEO Agricultural Monitoring Community of Practice described the current monitoring capabilities at the national and global levels. An overall diagram summarized the diverse relationships between satellite EO and agriculture information. There is now a large gap between the current operational large scale systems and the scientific state of the art in crop remote sensing, probably because the latter mainly focused on local studies. The poor availability of suitable in-situ and satellite data over extended areas hampers large scale demonstrations preventing the much needed up scaling research effort. For the cropland extent, this paper reports a recent research achievement using the full ENVISAT MERIS 300 m archive in the context of the ESA Climate Change Initiative. A flexible combination of classification methods depending to the region of the world allows mapping the land cover as well as the global croplands at 300 m for the period 2008 2012. This wall to wall product is then compared with regards to the FP 7-Geoland 2 results obtained using as Landsat-based sampling strategy over the IGADD countries. On the other hand, the vegetation indices and the biophysical variables

  16. Vertical Chlorophyll Canopy Structure Affects the Remote Sensing Based Predictability of LAI, Chlorophyll and Leaf Nitrogen in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boegh, E.; Houborg, R.; Bienkowski, J.; Braban, C. F.; Dalgaard, T.; van Dijk, N.; Dragosits, U.; Holmes, E.; Magliulo, V.; Schelde, K.; Di Tommasi, P.; Vitale, L.; Theobald, M.; Cellier, P.; Sutton, M.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (CHL) and leaf nitrogen (N), but methods are often developed using plot-scale data and not verified over extended regions characterized by variations in environmental boundary conditions (soil, atmosphere) and canopy structures. Estimation of N can be indirect due to its association with CHL, however N is also included in pigments such as carotenoids and anthocyanin which have different spectral signatures than CHL. Photosynthesis optimization theory suggests that plants will distribute their N resources in proportion to the light gradient within the canopy. Such vertical variation in CHL and N complicates the evaluation of remote sensing-based methods. Typically remote sensing studies measure CHL of the upper leaf, which is then multiplied by the green LAI to represent canopy chlorophyll content, or random sampling is used. In this study, field measurements and high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHL and N in five European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, The Netherlands and Italy . All satellite images were atmospherically using the 6SV1 model with atmospheric inputs estimated by MODIS and AIRS data. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were calculated (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index), and an image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) was applied to each of the five European landscapes. While the

  17. New and Improved Remotely Sensed Products and Tools for Agricultural Monitoring Applications in Support of Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Pedreros, D.; Husak, G. J.; Bohms, S.

    2011-12-01

    The high global food prices in 2008 led to the acknowledgement that there is a need to monitor the inter-connectivity of global and regional markets and their potential impacts on food security in many more regions than previously considered. The crisis prompted an expansion of monitoring by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to include additional countries, beyond those where food security has long been of concern. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of this increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present a new product for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on the implementation of a surface energy balance model and site improvements of two standard FEWS NET monitoring products: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and satellite-based rainfall estimates. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a simplified surface energy balance model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with a much improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a vastly improved spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for monitoring agricultural food production. By combining high resolution (0.05 deg) rainfall mean fields with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall estimates and infrared temperature data, we provide pentadal (5-day) rainfall fields suitable for crop

  18. MODELING AND REMOTE SENSING APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE (U.S. AND MEXICO)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The simulation of hydrologic and agricultural processes began over 30 years ago as independent endeavors. Early hydrologic process models focused on the distribution and movement of water across the earth's surface and through the soil mantel with little attention to plants, the primary user of wat...

  19. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  20. Remotely Sensed Estimates of Evapotranspiration in Agricultural Areas of Northwestern Nevada: Drought, Reliance, and Water Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Matthew

    The arid landscape of northwestern Nevada is punctuated by agricultural communities that rely on water primarily supplied by the diversion of surface waters and secondarily by groundwater resources. Annual precipitation in the form of winter snowfall largely determines the amount of surface water that is available for irrigation for the following agricultural growing season. During years of insufficient surface water supplies, particular basins can use groundwater in order to meet irrigation needs. The amount of water used to irrigate agricultural land is influenced by land use changes, such as fallowing, and water right transfers from irrigation to municipal use. To evaluate agricultural water consumption with respect to variations in weather, water supply, and land use changes, monthly estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) were derived from Landsat multispectral optical and thermal imagery over a eleven-year period (2001 to 2011) and compared to variations in weather, water supply, and land use across four hydrographic areas in northwestern Nevada. Monthly ET was estimated using a land surface energy balance model, Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), using Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 imagery combined with local atmospheric water demand estimates. Estimates of net ET were created by subtracting monthly precipitation from METRIC-derived ET, and seasonal estimates were generated by combining monthly ET for April-October (the regional agricultural growing season). Results highlight that a range of geographic, climatic, hydrographic, and anthropogenic factors influence ET. Hydrographic areas such as Mason Valley have the ability to mitigate deficiencies in surface water supplies by pumping supplemental groundwater, thereby resulting in low annual variability in ET. Conversely, the community of Lovelock has access to limited upstream surface water storage and is restricted by groundwater that is saline and unsuitable for

  1. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering. PMID:26982438

  2. A center for commercial development of space: Real-time satellite mapping. Remote sensing-based agricultural information expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; Diaz, Carlos F.; Merritt, Earl S.

    1989-01-01

    The research project results in a powerful yet user friendly CROPCAST expert system for use by a client to determine the crop yield production of a certain crop field. The study is based on the facts that heuristic assessment and decision making in agriculture are significant and dominate much of agribusiness. Transfer of the expert knowledge concerning remote sensing based crop yield production into a specific expert system is the key program in this study. A knowledge base consisting of a root frame, CROP-YIELD-FORECAST, and four subframes, namely, SATELLITE, PLANT-PHYSIOLOGY, GROUND, and MODEL were developed to accommodate the production rules obtained from the domain expert. The expert system shell Personal Consultant Plus version 4.0. was used for this purpose. An external geographic program was integrated to the system. This project is the first part of a completely built expert system. The study reveals that much effort was given to the development of the rules. Such effort is inevitable if workable, efficient, and accurate rules are desired. Furthermore, abundant help statements and graphics were included. Internal and external display routines add to the visual capability of the system. The work results in a useful tool for the client for making decisions on crop yield production.

  3. Applications of Low Altitude Remote Sensing in Agriculture upon Farmers' Requests– A Case Study in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M.

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams. PMID:25386696

  4. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams. PMID:25386696

  5. An empirical standardized soil moisture index for agricultural drought assessment from remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrão, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre-Canto, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Empirical Standardized Soil Moisture Index (ESSMI) that is designed to classify soil moisture anomalies from harmonized multi-satellite surface data into categories of agricultural drought intensity. The ESSMI is computed by fitting a nonparametric empirical probability density function (ePDF) to historical time-series of soil moisture observations and then transforming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry soil conditions, whereas positive values indicate wet soil conditions. Drought intensity is defined as the number of negative standard deviations between the observed soil moisture value and the respective normal climatological conditions. To evaluate the performance of the ESSMI, we fitted the ePDF to the Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV SM) v02.0 data values collected in the period between January 1981 and December 2010 at South-Central America, and compared the root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of residuals with those of beta and normal probability density functions (bPDF and nPDF, respectively). Goodness-of-fit results attained with time-series of ECV SM values averaged at monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and yearly timescales suggest that the ePDF provides triggers of agricultural drought onset and intensity that are more accurate and precise than the bPDF and nPDF. Furthermore, by accurately mapping the occurrence of major drought events over the last three decades, the ESSMI proved to be spatio-temporal consistent and the ECV SM data to provide a well calibrated and homogenized soil moisture climatology for the region. Maize, soybean and wheat crop yields in the region are highly correlated (r > 0.82) with cumulative ESSMI values computed during the months of critical crop growing, indicating that the nonparametric index of soil moisture anomalies can be used for agricultural drought

  6. Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

    Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

  7. Applications of remote sensing to precision agriculture with dual economic and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, George; Laguette, Soizik; Seelan, Santhosh K.; Lawrence, Rick; Nielsen, Gerald A.; Clay, David; Dalsted, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S. Northern Great Plains, growing seasons are short but extremely productive. Farms and ranches are large, so many of precision agriculture's early adopters reside in the region. Crop yield maps at season's end reveal sizable variations across fields. Farm management relying upon uniform chemical applications is ineffective and wasteful. We provided information about crop and range status in near- real-time, so that in-season decisions could be made to optimize final yields and minimize environmental degradation. We created learning communities, in which information is shared among scientists, farmers, ranchers, and data providers. The new information for agricultural producers was satellite and aerial imagery. Value-added information was derived from ETM+, AVHRR, IKONOS, and MIDOS sensors. The emphasis was on reducing the time between acquisition of data by a satellite and delivery of value-added products to farmers and ranchers. To distribute large spatial data sets in short times to rural users we relied upon satellite transmission (Direct PC). Results include: (1) management zone delineation, (2) variable-rate fertilizer applications, (3) weed detection, (4) irrigation efficiency determination, (5) detection of insect infestation, (6) specification of crop damage due to inadvertent chemical application, and (7) determination of livestock carrying capabilities on rangelands.

  8. Aerosol Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenoble, Jacqueline (Editor); Remer, Lorraine (Editor); Tanre, Didier (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radia5tive transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. For the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms is available in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing. In addition, the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical methods are explained and clarified.

  9. Applied remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents selected case studies to demonstrate theories and practices of remote sensing and its value to the study of the terrestrial environment. Begins with an overview of sensor types and electromagnetic remote sensing, continuing with an examination of photographic and non-photographic systems in the study of the radiation budget, temperature structure and weather conditions of the atmosphere. Includes thorough coverage of the lithosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, as well as the cartographic problems involved in land use/land cover and topographic mapping. Concludes with a discussion of the impact of electromagnetic computers in the development of geographic information systems.

  10. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  11. Remote sensing experiment in West Africa. [drought effects on desert agriculture and vegetation in Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    There are substantial needs of the Sahelien Zone to detail the state of regional agricultural resources in the face of a sixth year of serious drought conditions. While most of the work has been done in the Republic of Niger, the principles which have emerged from the analysis seem to be applicable to much of the Sahel. The discussion relates to quite specific rehabilitation and development initiations under consideration in Niger which are based in part upon direct analysis of ERTS imagery of the country, in part on field surveys and on discussions with Nigerian officials and technicians. Again, because the entire Sahelien Zone (including Niger) has large zones of similar ecologic characteristics, modificiations of the approaches suggested for Niger are applicable to the solution of rehabilitation of the desert, the savannah and the woodlands of West Africa in general.

  12. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    of changing dietary consumption patterns, a changing climate and the growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington, 2010). The impact from these changes wi ll affect the viability of both dryland subsistence and irrigated commodity food production (Knox, et al., 2010a). Since climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity, any changes will influence not only crop yields, but also the hydrologic balances, and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems as well as potentially shifting the geographic location for specific crops . Unless concerted and collective action is taken, society risks worldwide food shortages, scarcity of water resources and insufficient energy. This has the potential to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and migration as people flee the worst-affected regions to seck refuge in "safe havens", a situation that Beddington described as the "perfect storm" (2010).

  13. An analysis of aircraft requirements to meet United States Department of Agriculture remote sensing goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The survey needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are immense, ranging from individual crop coverage at specific intervals to general land use classification. The aggregate of all desirable resolutions and sensor types applicable to airborne platforms yields an annual survey coverage rate equivalent to about 6 times the U.S. land area. An intermediate annual survey level equal to the U.S. area can meet all currently perceived crop survey needs and provide sample imagery over many other resource areas. This decreased survey level can be accomplished with one or two high altitude aircraft or medium altitude aircraft. Survey costs range from about 25 cents to several dollars per square nautical mile depending primarily on resolution requirements and the aircraft used.

  14. Prime agricultural land monitoring and assessment component of the California Integrated Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Tinney, L. R. (Principal Investigator); Streich, T.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital LANDSAT techniques for monitoring agricultural land use conversions was studied. Two study areas were investigated: one in Ventura County and the other in Fresno County (California). Ventura test site investigations included the use of three dates of LANDSAT data to improve classification performance beyond that previously obtained using single data techniques. The 9% improvement is considered highly significant. Also developed and demonstrated using Ventura County data is an automated cluster labeling procedure, considered a useful example of vertical data integration. Fresno County results for a single data LANDSAT classification paralleled those found in Ventura, demonstrating that the urban/rural fringe zone of most interest is a difficult environment to classify using LANDSAT data. A general raster to vector conversion program was developed to allow LANDSAT classification products to be transferred to an operational county level geographic information system in Fresno.

  15. An Analysis of Aircraft Requirements to Meet United States Department of Agriculture Remote Sensing Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The survey needs of the U.S. De pa rtment of Agriculture are immense, ranging from individual crop coverage at specific intervals to general land use classification. The aggregate of all desirable resolutions and sensor types applicable to airborne platforms yields an annual survey coverage rate eqivalent to about 6 times the U.S. land area. An intermediate annual survey level equal to the U. S. area can meet all currently perceived crop survey needs and provide sample imagery over many other resource areas. This decreased survey level can be accomplished with one or two high altitude aircraft (e.g., U-2 or WB-57) or medium altitude aircraft ( such as the Learjet or Jetstar). Survey costs range from about 25 cents to several dollars per square nautical mile depending primarily on resolution requirements and the aircraft used.

  16. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  17. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is believed that the increased spatial resolution will provide solutions to proportion estimation error due to mixed pixels, and the increased spectral resolution will provide for the identification of important agricultural features such as crop stage, and condition. The results of analyses conducted relative to these hypothesis from sample segments extracted from the 4-band Detroit scene and the 7-band Mississippi County, Arkansas engineering test scene are described. Several studies were conducted to evaluate the geometric and radiometric performance of the TM to determine data viability for the more pertinent investigations of TM utility. In most cases this requirement was more than sufficiently satisfied. This allowed the opportunity to take advantage of detailed ground observations for several of the sample segments to assess class separability and detection of other important features with TM. The results presented regarding these TM characteristics show that not only is the increased definition of the within scene variance captured by the increased spatial and spectral resolution, but that the mid-IR bands (5 and 7) are necessary for optimum crop type classification. Both qualitative and quantitative results are presented that describe the improvements gained with the TM both relative to the MSS and on its own merit.

  18. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  19. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  20. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  1. Solar System Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  2. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  3. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field scales over rainfed and irrigated agricultural areas using remote sensing data fusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) at field scale can be achieved by combining thermal infrared remote sensing data information from multiple satellite platforms. Here, an integrated approach to field scale ET mapping is described, combining multi-scale surface energy balance e...

  4. Earth surface remote sensing 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi, G.; Zilioli, E.

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of EOS/SPIE Remote Sensing Symposium which was held September 21--24, 1998 in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: geological applications, cultural heritage, and geological hazards; land management; passive remote sensing of the ocean and sea ice; and active remote sensing of the ocean and sea ice.

  5. THE EPA REMOTE SENSING ARCHIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What would you do if you were faced with organizing 30 years of remote sensing projects that had been haphazardly stored at two separate locations for years then combined? The EPA Remote Sensing Archive, currently located in Las Vegas, Nevada. contains the remote sensing data and...

  6. Evapotranspiration and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Gurney, R.

    1982-01-01

    There are three things required for evapotranspiration to occur: (1) energy (580 cal/gm) for the change of phase of the water; (2) a source of the water, i.e., adequate soil moisture in the surface layer or in the root zone of the plant; and (3) a sink for the water, i.e., a moisture deficit in the air above the ground. Remote sensing can contribute information to the first two of these conditions by providing estimates of solar insolation, surface albedo, surface temperature, vegetation cover, and soil moisture content. In addition there have been attempts to estimate precipitation and shelter air temperature from remotely sensed data. The problem remains to develop methods for effectively using these sources of information to make large area estimates of evapotranspiration.

  7. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  8. Remote Sensing Laboratory - RSL

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    One of the primary resources supporting homeland security is the Remote Sensing Laboratory, or RSL. The Laboratory creates advanced technologies for emergency response operations, radiological incident response, and other remote sensing activities. RSL emergency response teams are on call 24-hours a day, and maintain the capability to deploy domestically and internationally in response to threats involving the loss, theft, or release of nuclear or radioactive material. Such incidents might include Nuclear Power Plant accidents, terrorist incidents involving nuclear or radiological materials, NASA launches, and transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. Working with the US Department of Homeland Security, RSL personnel equip, maintain, and conduct training on the mobile detection deployment unit, to provide nuclear radiological security at major national events such as the super bowl, the Indianapolis 500, New Year's Eve celebrations, presidential inaugurations, international meetings and conferences, just about any event where large numbers of people will gather.

  9. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  10. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference on Practical Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers dealing with the principles of remote sensing are summarized. Summaries cover problem solving capabilities within the realms of urbanism, agriculture, forestry, and environmental impact assessment.

  12. WATERSHED SCALE REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH IN HYDROMETEOROLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper provides an overview of watershed scale remote sensing research in hydrometeorology with an emphasis on the major contributions that have been made by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). The major contributions are separated into deriving fr...

  13. Remote sensing applications in agriculture and forestry. Applications of aerial photography and ERTS data to agricultural, forest and water resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being used in Minnesota to study: (1) forest disease detection and control; (2) water quality indicators; (3) forest vegetation classification and management; (4) detection of saline soils in the Red River Valley; (5) corn defoliation; and (6) alfalfa crop productivity. Results of progress, and plans for future work in these areas, are discussed.

  14. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Progress report on remote sensing of Earth terrain covering the period from Jan. to June 1993 is presented. Areas of research include: radiative transfer model for active and passive remote sensing of vegetation canopy; polarimetric thermal emission from rough ocean surfaces; polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors; polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces; layer model with tandom spheriodal scatterers for remote sensing of vegetation canopy; application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated mie scatterers with size distributions and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  15. Mapping changes in agricultural cropping frequency across Zimbabwe using cross-scale time-series remote sensing data and a novel signal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, A.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Sedano, F.; Kumar, V.; Tucker, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    A central challenge in agricultural remote sensing is the detection of changes in intra-annual cropping frequency, often necessary in monitoring crop productivity, agricultural management practices, or policy implementation. Though remote sensing imagery offers synoptic and systematic measurements relevant to monitoring crop phenology across spatial scales, broad-scale (i.e., country-wide) changes in cropping frequency have seldom been quantified due to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in phenological and climatic cycles, signal noise, and missing data resulting from cloud cover. For example, in Zimbabwe, once the breadbasket of southern Africa, large-scale changes to agricultural production followed land distribution policies introduced in the early 2000s. The diverse impacts of land reform on the agricultural economy continue to be debated yet the underlying changes in cropping frequency and pattern have never been systematically assessed. Using Zimbabwean agriculture as a case study and MODIS 16-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and complementary Landsat imagery collected since 2000 across Zimbabwe, this presentation introduces a novel time-series signal decomposition and spatiotemporal clustering approach to map intra-annual cropping frequency and changes therein. MODIS-derived results indicate a massive decline in double-cropped acreage since 2000, a complete overhaul of cropping pattern with the disaggregation of large-scale commercial farms into multiple smallholder plots, and a spatial contraction of double-cropped fields to peri-urban lands, while Landsat trends capture the recent emergence of small-scale double-cropping systems unseen in MODIS data. These findings provide an independent and objective assessment of field-level changes in agricultural productivity, spatiotemporally explicit land reform effects on large-scale as well as smallholder agriculture and potential for food production, and have importance for regional water

  16. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  17. Remote Sensing: A Film Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

  18. Remote Sensing and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Suggests using remote sensing technology to help students make sense of the natural world. Explains that satellite information allows observation of environmental changes over time. Identifies possible student projects based on remotely sensed data. Recommends obtaining the assistance of experts and seeking funding through effective project…

  19. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  20. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R. A., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A syllabus and training materials prepared and used in a series of one-day workshops to introduce modern remote sensing technology to selected groups of professional personnel in Vermont are described. Success in using computer compatible tapes, LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs is reported for the following applications: (1) mapping defoliation of hardwood forests by tent caterpillar and gypsy moth; (2) differentiating conifer species; (3) mapping ground cover of major lake and pond watersheds; (4) inventorying and locating artificially regenerated conifer forest stands; (5) mapping water quality; (6) ascertaining the boat population to quantify recreational activity on lakes and waterways; and (7) identifying potential aquaculture sites.

  1. Applications of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  2. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Results are given for three separate investigations of remote sensing over wetlands, including the delineations of roseau cane and mangrove from both Landsat and aircraft MSS data, and the delineation of wetland communities for potential waste assimilation in a coastal river floodplain from Landsat MSS data only. Attention is also given to data processing and analysis techniques of varying levels of sophistication, which must increase with surface cover diversity. All computer processing in these studies was performed on a minicomputer configured with the adequate memory, image display capability, and associated peripherals, using state-of-the-art digital MSS data analysis software.

  3. AgRISTARS: Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing. Enumerator's manual, 1981 ground data survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    General information and administrative instructions are provided for individuals gathering ground truth data to support research and development techniques for estimating crop acreage and production by remote sensing by satellite. Procedures are given for personal safety with regards to organophosphorus insecticides, for conducting interviews for periodic observations, for coding the crops identified and their growth stages, and for selecting sites for placing rain gages. Forms are included for those citizens agreeing to monitor the gages and record the rainfall. Segment selection is also considered.

  4. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  5. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change Modeling Using Remote Sensing and Soft Computing Approach to Assess Sugarcane Expansion Impacts in Tropical Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, L. E.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.; Victoria, D.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Gomes, D.; Bayma-Silva, G.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is related with land-use/cover changes (LUCC) over large areas and, in recent years, increase in demand of ethanol fuel has been influence in expansion of areas occupied with corn and sugar cane, raw material for ethanol production. Nevertheless, there´s a concern regarding the impacts on food security, such as, decrease in areas planted with food crops. Considering that the LUCC is highly dynamic, the use of Remote Sensing is a tool for monitoring changes quickly and precisely in order to provide information for agricultural planning. In this work, Remote Sensing techniques were used to monitor the LUCC occurred in municipalities of São Paulo state- Brazil related with sugarcane crops expansion in order to (i) evaluate and quantify the previous land cover in areas of sugarcane crop expansion, and (ii) provide information to elaborate a future land cover scenario based on Self Organizing Map (SOM) approach. The land cover classification procedure was based on Landsat 5 TM images, obtained from the Global Land Survey. The Landsat images were then segmented into homogeneous objects, with represent areas on the ground with similar spatial and spectral characteristics. These objects are related to the distinct land cover types that occur in each municipality. The segmentation procedure resulted in polygons over the three time periods along twenty years (1990-2010). The land cover for each object was visually identified, based on its shape, texture and spectral characteristics. Land cover types considered were: sugarcane plantations, pasture lands, natural cover, forest plantation, permanent crop, short cycle crop, water bodies and urban areas. SOM technique was used to estimate the values for the future land cover scenarios for the selected municipalities, using the information of land change provided by the remote sensing and data from official sources.

  7. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  8. Method and apparatus for spatially variable rate application of agricultural chemicals based on remotely sensed vegetation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Kenneth Brown (Inventor); Seal, Michael R. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark David (Inventor); Johnson, James William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Remotely sensed spectral image data are used to develop a Vegetation Index file which represents spatial variations of actual crop vigor throughout a field that is under cultivation. The latter information is processed to place it in a format that can be used by farm personnel to correlate and calibrate it with actually observed crop conditions existing at control points within the field. Based on the results, farm personnel formulate a prescription request, which is forwarded via email or FTP to a central processing site, where the prescription is prepared. The latter is returned via email or FTP to on-side farm personnel, who can load it into a controller on a spray rig that directly applies inputs to the field at a spatially variable rate.

  9. Method and system for spatially variable rate application of agricultural chemicals based on remotely sensed vegetation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Kenneth Brown (Inventor); Seal, Michael R. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark David (Inventor); Johnson, James William (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Remotely sensed spectral image data are used to develop a Vegetation Index file which represents spatial variations of actual crop vigor throughout a field that is under cultivation. The latter information is processed to place it in a format that can be used by farm personnel to correlate and calibrate it with actually observed crop conditions existing at control points within the field. Based on the results, farm personnel formulate a prescription request, which is forwarded via email or FTP to a central processing site, where the prescription is prepared. The latter is returned via email or FTP to on-side farm personnel, who can load it into a controller on a spray rig that directly applies inputs to the field at a spatially variable rate.

  10. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  11. THE REMOTE SENSING DATA GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Remote Sensing Data Gateway (RSDG) is a pilot project in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) to develop a comprehensive data search, acquisition, delivery and archive mechanism for internal, national and international sources of remote sensing data for the co...

  12. Remote sensing research for agricultural applications. [San Joaquin County, California and Snake River Plain and Twin Falls area, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Wall, S. L.; Beck, L. H.; Degloria, S. D.; Ritter, P. R.; Thomas, R. W.; Travlos, A. J.; Fakhoury, E.

    1984-01-01

    Materials and methods used to characterize selected soil properties and agricultural crops in San Joaquin County, California are described. Results show that: (1) the location and widths of TM bands are suitable for detecting differences in selected soil properties; (2) the number of TM spectral bands allows the quantification of soil spectral curve form and magnitude; and (3) the spatial and geometric quality of TM data allows for the discrimination and quantification of within field variability of soil properties. The design of the LANDSAT based multiple crop acreage estimation experiment for the Idaho Department of Water Resources is described including the use of U.C. Berkeley's Survey Modeling Planning Model. Progress made on Peditor software development on MIDAS, and cooperative computing using local and remote systems is reported as well as development of MIDAS microcomputer systems.

  13. A critical analysis of three remote sensing-based actual evapotranspiration assessment methods over sparse crops agricultural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammalleri, Carmelo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Minacapilli, Mario

    2010-10-01

    During last two decades the increasing availability of remotely sensed acquisitions in the thermal infrared part of the spectrum has encouraged hydrologist community to develop models and methodologies based on these kind of data. The aim of this paper is to compare three methods developed to assess the actual evapotranspiration spatial distribution by means of remote sensing data. The comparison was focused on the differences between the "single" (SEBAL) and "two" source (TSEB) surface energy balance approaches and the S-SEBI semi-empirical method. The first assumes a semiempirical internal calibration for the sensible heat flux assessment; the second uses a physically based approach in order to assess separately the soil and vegetation fluxes. Finally, the last one is based on the correlation between albedo and surface temperature for evaporative fraction estimations. The models were applied using 7 high resolution images, collected by an airborne platform between June and October 2008, approximately every 3 weeks. The acquired data include multi-spectral images (red, green and near infrared) and thermal infrared images for surface temperature estimation. The study area, located in the south-west cost of Sicily, Italy), is characterised by the presence of typical Mediterranean cultivations: olive, vineyard and citrus. Due to irrigation supplies and rainfall events, the water availability for the crops varies in time and this allowed to perform the comparison in a wide range of the modelled variables. Additionally, the availability of high spatial resolution images allowed the testing of the models performances at field scale despite the high vegetation fragmentation of the study area. The comparison of models performance highlights a good agreements of model estimations, analyzed by means of MAD (Mean Absolute Differences) and MAPD (Mean Absolute Percent Differences) indices, especially in terms of study area averaged fluxes. The analysis in correspondence of

  14. Utilization of remote sensing data on meteorological and vegetation characteristics for modeling water and heat regimes of large agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Presently, physical-mathematical models such as SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) developed with varying degrees of detail are one of the most effective tools to evaluate the characteristics of the water and heat regimes of vegetation covered territories. The produced SVAT model is designed to calculate the soil water content, evapotranspiration (evaporation from bare soil and transpiration), infiltration of water into the soil, vertical latent and sensible heat fluxes and other water and heat regime characteristics as well as vegetation and soil surface temperatures and the temperature and soil moisture distributions in depth. The model is adapted to satellite-derived estimates of precipitation, land surface temperatures and vegetation cover characteristics. The case study has been carried out for the located in the forest-steppe zone territory of part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region of Russia with coordinates 49° 30'-54° N and 31° -43° E and area of 227 300 km2 for years 2011-2014 vegetation seasons. The soil and vegetation characteristics are used as the model parameters and the meteorological characteristics are considered to be input variables. These values have been obtained from ground-based observations and satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/MSG-2,-3 (Meteosat-9, -10). To provide the retrieval of meteorological and vegetation cover characteristics the new and pre-existing methods and technologies of above radiometer thematic processing data have been developed or refined. From AVHRR data there have been derived estimates of precipitation P, efficient land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, surface-air temperature at a level of vegetation cover Ta, normalized difference vegetation index NDVI, leaf area index LAI and vegetation cover fraction B. The remote sensing products LST Tls, E, NDVI, LAI derived from MODIS data and covering the study area have been

  15. Commerical Remote Sensing Data Contract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Commercial Remote Sensing Data Contracts (CRSDCs) provide government agencies with access to a broad range of commercially available remotely sensed airborne and satellite data. These contracts were established to support The National Map partners, other Federal Civilian agency programs, and Department of Defense programs that require data for the United States and its territories. Experience shows that centralized procurement of remotely sensed data leads to considerable cost savings to the Federal government through volume discounts, reduction of redundant contract administrative costs, and avoidance of duplicate purchases. These contracts directly support the President's Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, signed in 2003, by providing a centralized mechanism for civil agencies to acquire commercial remote sensing products to support their mission needs in an efficient and coordinated way. CRSDC administration is provided by the USGS Mid-Continent Mapping Center in Rolla, Missouri.

  16. Technology transfer of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic philosophy and some current activities of MSFC Technology Transfer with regard to remote sensing technology are briefly reviewed. Among the problems that may be alleviated through such technology transfer are the scarcity of energy and mineral resources, the alteration of the environment by man, unpredictable natural disasters, and the effect of unanticipated climatic change on agricultural productivity.

  17. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  18. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  19. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  20. Second Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L. (Editor); Witt, R. G. (Editor); Kugelmann, D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Participants from state and local governments share experiences in remote sensing applications with one another and with users in the Federal government, universities, and the private sector during technical sessions and forums covering agriculture and forestry; land cover analysis and planning; surface mining and energy; data processing; water quality and the coastal zone; geographic information systems; and user development programs.

  1. Utilization of remote sensing data on meteorological and vegetation characteristics for modeling water and heat regimes of large agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Presently, physical-mathematical models such as SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) developed with varying degrees of detail are one of the most effective tools to evaluate the characteristics of the water and heat regimes of vegetation covered territories. The produced SVAT model is designed to calculate the soil water content, evapotranspiration (evaporation from bare soil and transpiration), infiltration of water into the soil, vertical latent and sensible heat fluxes and other water and heat regime characteristics as well as vegetation and soil surface temperatures and the temperature and soil moisture distributions in depth. The model is adapted to satellite-derived estimates of precipitation, land surface temperatures and vegetation cover characteristics. The case study has been carried out for the located in the forest-steppe zone territory of part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region of Russia with coordinates 49° 30'-54° N and 31° -43° E and area of 227 300 km2 for years 2011-2014 vegetation seasons. The soil and vegetation characteristics are used as the model parameters and the meteorological characteristics are considered to be input variables. These values have been obtained from ground-based observations and satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/MSG-2,-3 (Meteosat-9, -10). To provide the retrieval of meteorological and vegetation cover characteristics the new and pre-existing methods and technologies of above radiometer thematic processing data have been developed or refined. From AVHRR data there have been derived estimates of precipitation P, efficient land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, surface-air temperature at a level of vegetation cover Ta, normalized difference vegetation index NDVI, leaf area index LAI and vegetation cover fraction B. The remote sensing products LST Tls, E, NDVI, LAI derived from MODIS data and covering the study area have been

  2. Instantaneous and daily values of the surface energy balance over agricultural fields using remote sensing and a reference field in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Duell, L.F.W.; Kunkel, K.E.; Matthias, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature and reflectance in the visible and near infrared wavebands along with ancilliary meteorological data provide the capability of computing three of the four surface energy balance components (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux) at different spatial and temporal scales. As a result, under nonadvective conditions, this enables the estimation of the remaining term (i.e., the latent heat flux). One of the practical applications with this approach is to produce evapotranspiration (ET) maps for agricultural regions which consist of an array of fields containing different crops at varying stages of growth and soil moisture conditions. Such a situation exists in the semiarid southwest at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix. For one day (14 June 1987), surface temperature and reflectance measurements from an aircraft 150 m above ground level (agl) were acquired over fields from zero to nearly full cover at four times between 1000 MST and 1130 MST. The diurnal pattern of the surface energy balance was measured over four fields, which included alfalfa at 60% cover, furrowed cotton at 20% and 30% cover, and partially plowed what stubble. Instantaneous and daily values of ET were estimated for a representative area around each flux site with an energy balance model that relies on a reference ET. This reference value was determined with remotely sensed data and several meteorological inputs. The reference ET was adjusted to account for the different surface conditions in the other fields using only remotely sensed variables. A comparison with the flux measurements suggests the model has difficulties with partial canopy conditions, especially related to the estimation of the sensible heat flux. The resulting errors for instantaneous ET were on the order of 100 W m-2 and for daily values of order 2 mm day-1. These findings suggest future research should involve development of methods to

  3. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evett, Steven R.; Kustas, William P.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Anderson, Martha C.; Prueger, John H.; Howell, Terry A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. This Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08) involved determination of micrometeorological fluxes (surface energy balance) in four weighing lysimeter fields (each 4.7 ha) containing irrigated and dryland cotton and in nearby bare soil, wheat stubble and rangeland fields using nine eddy covariance stations, three large aperture scintillometers, and three Bowen ratio systems. In coordination with satellite overpasses, flux and remote sensing aircraft flew transects over the surrounding fields and region encompassing an area contributing fluxes from 10 to 30 km upwind of the USDA-ARS lysimeter site. Tethered balloon soundings were conducted over the irrigated fields to investigate the effect of advection on local boundary layer development. Local ET was measured using four large weighing lysimeters, while field scale estimates were made by soil water balance with a network of neutron probe profile water sites and from the stationary flux systems. Aircraft and satellite imagery were obtained at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Plot-scale experiments dealt with row orientation and crop height effects on spatial and temporal patterns of soil surface temperature, soil water content, soil heat flux, evaporation from soil in the interrow, plant transpiration and canopy and soil radiation fluxes. The BEAREX08 field experiment was unique in its assessment of ET fluxes over a broad range in spatial scales; comparing direct and indirect methods at local scales with remote sensing based methods and models using aircraft and satellite imagery at local to regional scales, and comparing mass balance-based ET ground truth with eddy covariance

  4. Using satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to improve understanding of crop management and agricultural water use at regional to global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Jessica Meghan

    Croplands are essential to human welfare. In the coming decades, croplands will experience substantial stress from climate change, population growth, changing diets, urban expansion, and increased demand for biofuels. Food security in many parts of the world therefore requires informed crop management and adaptation strategies. In this dissertation, I explore two key dimensions of crop management with significant potential to improve adaptation pathways: irrigation and crop calendars. Irrigation, which is widely used to boost crop yields, is a key strategy for adapting to changes in drought frequency and duration. However, irrigation competes with household, industrial, and environmental needs for freshwater resources. Accurate information regarding irrigation patterns is therefore required to develop strategies that reduce unsustainable water use. To address this need, I fused information from remote sensing, climate datasets, and crop inventories to develop a new global database of rain-fed, irrigated, and paddy croplands. This database describes global agricultural water management with good realism and at higher spatial resolution than existing maps. Crop calendar management helps farmers to limit crop damage from heat and moisture stress. However, global crop calendar information currently lacks spatial and temporal detail. In the second part of my dissertation I used remote sensing to characterize global cropping patterns annually, from 2001-2010, at 0.08 degree spatial resolution. Comparison of this new dataset with existing sources of crop calendar data indicates that remote sensing is able to correct substantial deficiencies in available data sources. More importantly, the database provides previously unavailable information related to year-to-year variability in cropping patterns. Asia, home to roughly one half of the Earth's population, is expected to experience significant food insecurity in coming decades. In the final part of my dissertation, I used a

  5. Integrating effective drought index (EDI) and remote sensing derived parameters for agricultural drought assessment and prediction in Bundelkhand region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhee, S. K.; Nikam, B. R.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Garg, V.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is an extreme condition due to moisture deficiency and has adverse effect on society. Agricultural drought occurs when restraining soil moisture produces serious crop stress and affects the crop productivity. The soil moisture regime of rain-fed agriculture and irrigated agriculture behaves differently on both temporal and spatial scale, which means the impact of meteorologically and/or hydrological induced agriculture drought will be different in rain-fed and irrigated areas. However, there is a lack of agricultural drought assessment system in Indian conditions, which considers irrigated and rain-fed agriculture spheres as separate entities. On the other hand recent advancements in the field of earth observation through different satellite based remote sensing have provided researchers a continuous monitoring of soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation indices at global scale, which can aid in agricultural drought assessment/monitoring. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been envisaged with the objective to develop agricultural drought assessment and prediction technique by spatially and temporally assimilating effective drought index (EDI) with remote sensing derived parameters. The proposed technique takes in to account the difference in response of rain-fed and irrigated agricultural system towards agricultural drought in the Bundelkhand region (The study area). The key idea was to achieve the goal by utilizing the integrated scenarios from meteorological observations and soil moisture distribution. EDI condition maps were prepared from daily precipitation data recorded by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), distributed within the study area. With the aid of frequent MODIS products viz. vegetation indices (VIs), and land surface temperature (LST), the coarse resolution soil moisture product from European Space Agency (ESA) were downscaled using linking model based on Triangle method to a finer resolution soil moisture product

  6. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Herng-Aung; Kong, Jin AU

    1991-01-01

    In remote sensing, the encountered geophysical media such as agricultural canopy, forest, snow, or ice are inhomogeneous and contain scatters in a random manner. Furthermore, weather conditions such as fog, mist, or snow cover can intervene the electromagnetic observation of the remotely sensed media. In the modelling of such media accounting for the weather effects, a multi-layer random medium model has been developed. The scattering effects of the random media are described by three-dimensional correlation functions with variances and correlation lengths corresponding to the fluctuation strengths and the physical geometry of the inhomogeneities, respectively. With proper consideration of the dyadic Green's function and its singularities, the strong fluctuation theory is used to calculate the effective permittivities which account for the modification of the wave speed and attenuation in the presence of the scatters. The distorted Born approximation is then applied to obtain the correlations of the scattered fields. From the correlation of the scattered field, calculated is the complete set of scattering coefficients for polarimetric radar observation or brightness temperature in passive radiometer applications. In the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems, the development of microwave remote sensing technology and the potential of SAR to measure vegetation structure and biomass have increased effort to conduct experimental and theoretical researches on the interactions between microwave and vegetation canopies. The overall objective is to develop inversion algorithms to retrieve biophysical parameters from radar data. In this perspective, theoretical models and experimental data are methodically interconnected in the following manner: Due to the complexity of the interactions involved, all theoretical models have limited domains of validity; the proposed solution is to use theoretical models, which is validated by experiments, to establish the region in which

  7. Remote sensing in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gert A.

    1988-07-01

    The "Electronic Age" offers new and attractive opportunities to hydrologists for remote sensing (RS) of hydrological data. A discussion of hydrologically relevant platforms and sensors and the type of electromagnetic signals used by such sensors is followed by an analysis of the structure of mathematical hydrologic models which use RS information either as input or to provide a basis for model parameter estimation. Three examples of RS application in hydrological modeling are given: (1) model parameter estimation with the aid of multispectral Landsat satellite data; (2) computation of historic monthly runoff for design purposes with the aid of a lumped system model using NOAA infrared satellite data as input; and (3) real-time flood forecasting applying a distributed system model using radar rainfall measurements as input. Further applications of RS information in hydrology are discussed in the field of evapotranspiration, soil moisture, rainfall, surface water, snow and ice, sediments and water quality. A brief discussion of RS data availability and the hardware and software required is followed by an assessment of future opportunities. The potential of passive and active microwave sensors for hydrological applications is emphasized.

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  9. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  10. Remote sensing at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses remote sensing systems used at the Savannah River Plant. They include three ground-based systems: ground penetrating radar, sniffers, and lasers; and four airborne systems: multispectral photography, lasers, thermal imaging, and radar systems. (ACR)

  11. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Research findings are summarized for projects dealing with the following: application of theoretical models to active and passive remote sensing of saline ice; radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a dense medium consisting of correlated Mie scatterers with size distribution and applications to dry snow; variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium; theoretical modeling for passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrain; polarimetric signatures of a canopy of dielectric cylinders based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory; branching model for vegetation; polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces; composite volume and surface scattering model; and radar image classification.

  12. Remote sensing for vineyard management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R.; Erb, T. L.; Fernandez, D.; Mcleester, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Cornell's Remote Sensing Program has been involved in a continuing investigation to assess the value of remote sensing for vineyard management. Program staff members have conducted a series of site and crop analysis studies. These include: (1) panchromatic aerial photography for planning artificial drainage in a new vineyard; (2) color infrared aerial photography for assessing crop vigor/health; and (3) color infrared aerial photography and aircraft multispectral scanner data for evaluating yield related factors. These studies and their findings are reviewed.

  13. A critique of field spectroscopy and the challenges and opportunities it presents for remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Arthur, A.; Robinson, I.

    2015-10-01

    From the early scanning spectrometers, the utility field spectroscopy has been constrained: by detector sensitivity, leading to high integration times; portability; and the measurements having very limited support (possibly an Earth surface area in the order of 0.25m2 to 2m2). However, over the last twenty years or so detector sensitivities and electronics have in improved leading to practical Earth surface sampling time increasing their utility to support Earth observation science and as optical remote sensing teaching and training tools. Now the uncertainties associated with field spectral measurements are being more widely recognised and field sampling methods and instrument continue to be developed to enable these uncertainties to be quantified and minimised. There are a number of key challenges which still need to be more widely addressed if field spectroscopy is to provide evermore reliable and replicable measurements. An understanding of the systematic biases introduced by this sampling method has begun to be recognised. In addition, the mismatch in scale between near-ground spectroscopy measurement and observations from space-borne sensor has begun to be addressed with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles as platforms and lightweight and miniaturised stateof- the-art spectrometer systems. It is now possible to non-invasively sample terrestrial and hydrological ecosystems in a statistically robust manner and do so with supports similar in scale to those of air- and space-borne sensors. These developments will revolutionise the use of field spectroscopy to support empirical science and model development and the calibration and validation of space-based observations.

  14. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  15. Controls with remote sensing of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) arable- and forage- area-based subsidies: a yearly more than 700-image and 3-M euro affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrand, Par-Johan; Wirnhardt, Csaba; Biagini, Bruno; Weber, Michaela; Hellerman, Rani

    2004-11-01

    Since 1993, the EC DG Agriculture has promoted the use of "Controls with Remote Sensing" (CwRS) as appropriate control system within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). CwRS is considered suitable to check if agricultural area-based subsidies (yearly > 25 billion euro EC expenditure) are correctly granted. On the basis of the Council Regulation (EC) 165/94 and of the Commission Regulation (EC) 601/94, the Commission Services are required to centralize the satellite images acquisition. This task has been managed by the MARS Project at the JRC since 1999, where the whole controls activity is coordinated. The activity also includes the setting up of specifications, recommendations, performing Quality Controls (QC) and auditing of the selected contractors, and evaluation of new methods. Satellite image acquisition involves the control site definition within each Member State, and the subsequent chain of image acquisition over the defined sites including feasibility with image providers, acquisition, validation, ordering, delivery and final archiving of the imagery. In summary the 2004 years campaign involved a budget of approximately 3.2 M euro to cover some 150 High Resolution (HR) sites and 71 Very High Resolution (VHR) sites. The objective of this paper is to describe the CwRS image acquisition with emphasis on the Ikonos, Quickbird, and EROS A satellites for the 2004 years CwRS Campaign, to give preliminary results, recommendations and future trends.

  16. Remote Sensing May Provide Unprecedented Hydrological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.

    1999-01-01

    , field experiments must be designed that combine relevant satellite measurements with traditional in situ measurements in regions that are al- ready well understood hydrologically. Such field experiments can lead to the development of hydrological models that are driven with remotely sensed data. Once the performance of these models is deemed acceptable in the heavily monitored basins, they can be "transported" for use in regions having little or no in situ measurement system. Author,5: Randal D. Koster, Paul R. Houser and Edwin T. Engman, Hydrological Sciences Branch, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Process, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; William P. Kustas, Hydrology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

  17. Feasibility study ASCS remote sensing/compliance determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggan, I. E.; Minter, T. C., Jr.; Moore, B. H.; Nosworthy, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A short-term technical study was performed by the MSC Earth Observations Division to determine the feasibility of the proposed Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Automatic Remote Sensing/Compliance Determination System. For the study, the term automatic was interpreted as applying to an automated remote-sensing system that includes data acquisition, processing, and management.

  18. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  19. Remote Sensing of Rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Ziad S.

    1999-01-01

    The first problem addressed concerns passive-microwave rain retrievals. Most current approaches start by building off-line a cloud-model-derived database. Given data, the retrieval algorithms search the database for the microwave temperatures "closest" to the observed data, then after some fine-tuning (performed in different ways by different implementations) the rain is estimated to be that which corresponds to the selected (and fine-tuned) set of database temperatures. These approaches have three drawbacks: they cannot properly take into account the ambiguities which arise from the fact that several rain scenarios can produce the same observed temperatures; they are quite inefficient since they require manipulating a large database along with often complex "fine-tuning" procedures; and they cannot refine their estimates if additional data is available. This past year we have derived closed formulae relating observed microwave brightness temperatures, T(sub b), and the underlying rain rates, R: average T(sub b) =f (rain) and average rain = g (T(sub b)), along with the corresponding covariance matrices. These results are sufficient to describe the conditional probabilities p(R/T(sub b)) and p(T(sub b)/R) to second order. Progress has also been made towards deriving a robust description of the rain drop size distribution (DSD). The widespread approach consisting in parameterizing the DSD as a gamma-distribution in terms of the drop diameter D suffers from the facts that, in reality, the DSD is not a smooth function of D and that the largely arbitrary Gamma model imposes unintended behavior, which has implications on any quantities derived from the DSD model. We have therefore developed a non-parametric yet practical description of the DSD, which is particularly well-suited for use in remote-sensing applications. The diagram on the left shows a comparison between an actual DSD sample and the truncated non-parametric representation. One figure shows the relation

  20. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  1. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  2. Evaluation of optical remote sensing parameters to improve modeling of gross primary productivity in a heterogeneous agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schickling, A.; Damm, A.; Schween, J.; Rascher, U.; Crewell, S.; Wahner, A.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial photosynthesis greatly determines plant mediated exchange processes in the vegetation atmosphere system and substantially influences patterns in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and water vapor. Therefore, an accurate quantification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake, commonly referred to as gross primary productivity (GPP), is a key parameter to distinguish those atmospheric patterns on various spatio-temporal scales. Remote sensing (RS) offers the unique possibility to determine GPP at different spatial scales ranging from the local to the global scale. Attempts to estimate GPP from RS data focus on the light use efficiency (LUE) concept of Monteith which relates GPP to the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and the efficiency of plant canopies to utilize the absorbed radiation for photosynthesis. To reliably predict GPP on different spatio-temporal scales LUE has to be linked to optical RS parameters which detect changes in photosynthetic efficiency due to environmental conditions. In this study we evaluated two optical RS parameters, namely the sun-induced fluorescence (Fs) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), for their potential to serve as a proxy for LUE. The parameters were derived from two ASD FieldSpec spectrometers which were operated in parallel. During several days one instrument was installed on the ground above the vegetation canopy of either a winter wheat or a sugar beet field. The second instrument was operated from a small research aircraft continuously crossing the observation sites at low altitude (< 300 m). GPP was calculated on a diurnal basis including optical parameters in Monteith's LUE concept. The calculated GPP was compared to simultaneously acquired GPP data from eddy covariance measurements. The diurnal behavior of calculated and measured GPP corresponded well indicating that optical RS parameters are able to track the diurnal response of physiological regulation of photosynthesis to changing

  3. Remote sensing as a tool in assessing soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of soil moisture as it relates to agriculture is briefly discussed. The use of remote sensing to predict scheduling of irrigation, runoff and soil erosion which contributes to the prediction of crop yield is also discussed.

  4. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  5. Remote Sensing of Earth Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models that are useful and practical in relating remote sensing data to the important physical parameters characterizing Earth terrain are developed. The development of models that are useful in data analysis and interpretation, scene simulation, and developing new remote sensing approaches and techniques is discussed. Numerous theoretical models that are applicable to the active and passive remote sensing of plowed fields, atmospheric precipitation, vegetation, and snow fields were developed. The radiative transfer theory is used to interpret the active and passive data as a function of rain rate. Both the random medium model and the discrete scatterer model is used to study the remote sensing of vegetation fields. Due to the non-spherical geometry of the scatterers there is strong azimuthal dependence in the observed data. Thus, the anisotropic random medium model and the discrete scatterer model with nonspherical particles was developed. In order to relate the remote sensing data to the actual physical parameters, the scattering of electromagnetic waves from randomly distributed dielectric scatterers was studied. Both the rigorous random discrete scatterer theory and the strong fluctuation theory are used to derive the backscattering cross section in terms of the actual physical parameters and the results agree well with the data obtained from the snow fields.

  6. Study on the Agricultural Residues Burning and PM2.5 Change in China by Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural residues are materials left over from the production of crops. The total amount of agricultural residues in China is about 660 million tons every year, while a large proportion of that is burnt directly on the croplands. Agricultural residues burning is a significant source of air pollution in developing countries including China. In this study, the MODIS MOD14A1 products were used to derive the daily fire spots of China. Then, the agricultural residues burning spots were obtained by extracting with the area of croplands which is from MODIS MCD12Q1 products. After vectorization of agricultural residues burning pixels and with the help of fishnet, the burning density distribution maps were eventually completed. According to the statistics, there were 71,237 pixels of agricultural residues burning in 2014. The pixels mainly focused on April, June and October, the number of which were 11,628, 10,912 and 20,965 respectively. The results show that the distribution of agricultural residues burning is closely connected with ploughing and harvesting activities and it is more severe in north China. The air quality data of 150 cities in China were also used to obtain the daily and monthly distribution maps of PM2.5 by Kriging interpolation method. The maps indicate that the PM2.5 is always higher in north China than that in south China. Comparing the results of agricultural residues burning points with the results of PM2.5, we found the agricultural residues burning can cause the PM2.5 increase, especially in June, the agricultural residues burning region was spatially and temporally consistent with the PM2.5 increase region in this month.

  7. [Use of Remote Sensing for Crop and Soil Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.

  8. Crop traceability and remote sensing in tree fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Eileen M.; Rupp, Richard; Davenport, Joan; Leal, Juliano; Pierce, Francis J.; Schulthess, Urs

    2004-01-01

    Fresh market fruit crops such as apples have not employed precision agriculture tools, partially due to the labor intensive nature of the cropping systems. In this paper we describe new research in the development of precision agriculture tools for tree fruit, including the ability to track spatially variable orchard data before harvest through to the packing plant. Remote sensing is a key component of this system, and remote sensing products are being evaluated for their usefulness in guiding orchard management.

  9. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  10. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  11. Remote sensing procurement package: Remote Sensing Industry Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A directory of over 140 firms and organizations which contains detailed information in the types of products, services and equipment which they offer is presented. Also included for each firm or organization are addresses, phone numbers, contact person(s), and experience in the remote sensing field.

  12. Use of field and airborne advanced remote sensing data for the characterisation of surface erosional stages in agricultural semi-arid soils (central Spain) at various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Schmid, Thomas; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schuett, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    The interest in the use of non-invasive remote sensing methods such as visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the remote determination of mineralogical composition in soils and planetary surfaces has been demonstrated since the 1970s with the development of databases in the laboratory of minerals spectra. Nowadays, quantitative soil spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful tool for the identification and prediction of soil properties, and has been used in many soil science applications. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellite systems such as the German EnMAP (Environmental Mapping) satellite in 2017, new potential toward the quantitative analyses of chemical and physical soil attributes of the Earth's soil surface composition based on reflectance spectroscopy will be opened. In particular, in arid and semi-arid agricultural regions sensitive to soil erosion processes, the analyses of the spatial distribution of combined varying surface soil properties based on advanced hyperspectral methodology could be used to infer erosion and deposition stages in selected areas, although it was never thoroughly demonstrated. To fully utilize the potential of this technology for the assessment of surface soil erosional stages, new adapted approaches have to be developed, providing the context for this study. This research focuses on a semi-arid, agricultural area in Central Spain near Toledo and Madrid, in which airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data have been obtained. The study area is under the influence of a Mediterranean climate with extended agricultural rainfed uses on mostly evolved soils. There, soil erosion features can be observed that are representative for areas throughout Southern Europe. Such erosion features are associated with different soil horizons and rock outcrops with contrasted physical and chemical characteristic. They are exposed at the surface as a consequence of human induced soil erosion which is

  13. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.

  14. Remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects concerning the development and application of remote sensors are discussed. Some of the research projects conducted are as follows: (1) aerial photographic inventory of natural resources, (2) detection of buried river channels, (3) delineation of interconnected waterways, (4) plant indicators of atmospheric pollution, and (5) techniques for data transfer from photographs to base maps. On-going projects involving earth resources analyses are described.

  15. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  16. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  17. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  18. Improving Crop Classification Techniques Using Optical Remote Sensing Imagery, High-Resolution Agriculture Resource Inventory Shapefiles and Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, A. L.; Berg, A. A.; Sweeney, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of anthropogenic effects of land use management practices on bodies of water is important for remediating and preventing eutrophication. In the case of Lake Simcoe, Ontario the main surrounding landuse is agriculture. To better manage the nutrient flow into the lake, knowledge of the management of the agricultural land is important. For this basin, a comprehensive agricultural resource inventory is required for assessment of policy and for input into water quality management and assessment tools. Supervised decision tree classification schemes, used in many previous applications, have yielded reliable classifications in agricultural land-use systems. However, when using these classification techniques the user is confronted with numerous data sources. In this study we use a large inventory of optical satellite image products (Landsat, AWiFS, SPOT and MODIS) and ancillary data sources (temporal MODIS-NDVI product signatures, digital elevation models and soil maps) at various spatial and temporal resolutions in a decision tree classification scheme. The sensitivity of the classification accuracy to various products is assessed to identify optimal data sources for classifying crop systems.

  19. Remote sensing for site characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, Friedrich, (Edited By); King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  20. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  1. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  2. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  3. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  4. Remote sensing of environmental disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Color, color infrared, and minus-blue films obtained by RB-57 remote sensing aircraft at an altitude of 60,000 feet over Boca Raton and Southeast Florida Earth Resources Test Site were analyzed for nine different types of photographic images of the geographic patterns of the surface. Results of these analyses are briefly described.

  5. Mississippi Sound remote sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.; Thomann, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are being developed to study near shore marine waters in the Mississippi Sound. Specific elements of the investigation include: (1) evaluation of existing techniques and instrument capabilities for remote measurement of parameters which characterize near shore water; (2) integration of these parameters into a system which will make possible the definition of circulation characteristics; (3) conduct of applications experiments; and (4) definition of hardware development requirements and/or system specifications. Efforts have emphasized: (1) development of a satisfactory system of gathering ground truth over the entire area of Mississippi Sound to aid in evaluating remotely sensed data; (2) conduct of two data acquisition experiments; (3) analysis of individual sensor data from completed flights; and (4) pursuit of methods which will allow interrelations between data from individual sensors in order to add another dimension to the study.

  6. Remote sensing data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A digest of information on remote sensor data systems is given. It includes characteristics of spaceborne sensors and the supportive systems immediately associated therewith. It also includes end-to-end systems information that will assist the user in appraising total data system impact produced by a sensor. The objective is to provide a tool for anticipating the complexity of systems and potential data system problems as new user needs are generated. Materials in this handbook span sensor systems from the present to those planned for use in the 1990's. Sensor systems on all planned missions are presented in digest form, condensed from data as available at the time of compilation. Projections are made of anticipated systems.

  7. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture for Agricultural Decision Support: An Integration of National-Scale Hydroclimatic Classification and Ground-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural managers employ soil moisture estimates to inform irrigation and drainage planning as well as the timing of entry for heavier equipment, but ground-based soil moisture sensors are often unavailable for the location in question. Data-driven models of soil moisture often require an array of inputs that are difficult to obtain beyond the scope of a research study and/or recalibration at each location for which predictions are needed. A hydroclimatic classification system was previously constructed from over 400 well-gauged catchments in the MOPEX database using four simple hydrologic and climatic indicators. These catchments are subsequently grouped in twenty-four clusters. A simple, lumped soil moisture model, receiving only public precipitation data as an input, is calibrated at the fifteen sites with ground-based soil moisture sensors, producing correlations 0.9 with respect to observed soil moisture values. The fifteen sites are also assessed in terms of textural and taxonomic properties. The model is then shown to be valid at other locations that are hydroclimatically and edaphically similar to the calibration site. By integrating this simple soil moisture algorithm with an existing system for hydroclimatic classification and publicly-available edaphic information (USDA's soil web, e.g.), a single set of calibrated parameters can facilitate remotely-sensed soil moisture estimates for agronomic decision-support at any site with similar edaphic and hydroclimatic properties.

  9. The California Cooperative Remote Sensing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.

    1988-01-01

    The USDA, the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), the Remote Sensing Research Program of the University of California (UCB) and NASA have completed a 4-yr cooperative project on the use of remote sensing in monitoring California agriculture. This report is a summary of the project and the final report of NASA's contribution to it. The cooperators developed procedures that combined the use of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery and digital data with good ground survey data for area estimation and mapping of the major crops in California. An inventory of the Central Valley was conducted as an operational test of the procedures. The satellite and survey data were acquired by USDA and UCB and processed by CDWR and NASA. The inventory was completed on schedule, thus demonstrating the plausibility of the approach, although further development of the data processing system is necessary before it can be used efficiently in an operational environment.

  10. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  11. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  12. Ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing for weed management in crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural remote sensing has been developed and applied in monitoring soil, crop growth, weed infestation, insects, diseases, and water status in farm fields to provide data and information to guide agricultural management practices. Precision agriculture has been implemented through prescription...

  13. Making the Use of Remote Sensing for Agricultural Subsidy Control More Effective: Automatizing Photo Interpretation of Satellite Imagery over Southern Portugal in the Context of the European Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedtmann, J.; Campagnolo, M.

    2014-12-01

    Control with Remote Sensing (CwRS) is a standardized control method that has been developed by the Monitoring Agriculture Resources (MARS Unit) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). It relies on remote sensing time series data and is officially recognized by the EU as equivalent to actual farm visits. Member states agencies use CwRS to carry out part or all of their on-the-spot controls of EU farms to monitor Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) subsidies. The main component of CwRS is Computer-Aided Photo-Interpretation (CAPI), whose goal is determining the crop occupation of agricultural parcels listed in farmers' subsidies applications. In 2012, the CAP CwRS program enabled the oversight of 349,000 farmers for their area-aid applications, representing 89% of the total EU27 required controls. The goal of this study was to develop a simple and reproducible method to automatize the CAPI process. The main feature of this method is that it allows choosing a confidence level on the automatic classification of farmer's parcels. While higher confidence levels reduce the risk of misclassifications, lower levels increase the number of automatic control decisions that do not require the intervention of a photo interpreter, reducing the overall CwRS costs. We used extensive 2005 validated control data from the Portuguese Control and Paying Agency for Agriculture (IFAP) and a multi-temporal Landsat 7 time series to train and test our methodology. Our overall results indicate that for 95% confidence level, approximately 20% of decisions can be taken automatically and for 80% confidence level the percentage of automatic decisions increases to 55%. For each studied land cover class, the adjacent figure shows the effect of the confidence level on the percentage of parcels that can be classified automatically. Since our approach holds for multiple sensors, we believe that the current results will be further improved with additional data. Our results compare

  14. A Summary of NASA Related Contributions for the Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration in Support of Water Management and Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Brad; Lawford, Rick; Anderson, Martha; Allen, Rick; Martin, Timothy; Wood, Eric; Ferguson, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The amount of evapotranspiration (ET) to the atmosphere can account for 60% or more of the water loss in many semi-arid locations, and can critically affect local economies tied to agriculture, recreation, hydroelectric power, ecosystems, and numerous other water-related areas. NASA supports many activities using satellite and Earth science data to more accurately and cost effectively estimate ET. NASA ET related work includes the research, development and application of techniques. The free and open access of NASA satellite data and products now permits a much wider application of ET mapping. Typically the NASA supported approaches ranges from large regional and continental ET mapping using MODIS (also with AIRS and CERES), GRACE (gravimetric water balance), geostationary (e.g., GOES and Meteosat for near continental sca|e), land surface modeling (i.e, Land Data Assimilation Systems) to fine scale mapping such as provided bvLandsatdata(<100 m). Usually satellite or airborne thermal imagery are used as input to an ET estimated surface energy balance based approach. There are currently several of these ET approaches under development and implementation including 'METRIC', 'SEBS', 'ALEXI/DisALEXI', etc.. One exception is an approach using GRACE satellite data that estimates the terrestrial water storage using gravimetric data over large areas and estimates ET indirectly. Also land surface modeling within the context of data assimilation and integration schemes provides the capability to integrate in situ, ancillary and satellite together to provide a spatially and synoptic estimates of ET also for use to provide for short-term ET predictions. We will summarize NASA related activities contributing to the improved estimation of ET for water management and agriculture with an emphasis on the Western U3.. This summary includes a description of ET projects in the Middle Rio Grande, Yakima, North Platte and other selected basins in the western US. We will also discuss

  15. Parameter trade-offs for imaging spectroscopy systems. [application of HIRIS instrument model to agricultural remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekes, John P.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the EOS era and of configurable sensors, users of these instruments are faced with the twin problems of specifying data acquisition parameters and extracting desired information from the voluminous data. An application of a system model is made to explore system parameter trade-offs for a model sensor based on the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. Radiometric performance was studied, along with the effect on classification accuracy of several system parameters. Using a model scene based on typical agricultural reflectance and atmospheric conditions, the atmosphere and sensor are seen to have significant effects on the mean received signal and noise performance. The effect of random uncorrelated errors in the radiometric calibration of the detector array is seen to degrade system performance, especially in the spectral bands below 1 micron. Accurate pixel-to-pixel relative radiometric calibration and the use of the Image Motion Compensation option are seen to improve classification accuracy, especially at high solar zenith angles. Feature sets chosen from characteristics of the scene performed best overall, but ones chosen based on signal-to-noise ratios were seen to be more robust.

  16. Remote sensing of foliar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are being used to estimate foliar chemical content. This paper reviews how stepwise multiple regression and deconvolution have been used to extract chemical information from foliar spectra, and concludes that both methods are useful, but neither is ideal. It is recommended that the focus of research be modeling in the long term and experimentation in the short term. Long-term research should increase our understanding of the interaction between radiation and foliar chemistry so that the focus of research can move from leaf model to canopy model to field experiment. Short-term research should aim to design experiments in which remotely sensed data are used to generate unambiguous and accurate estimates of foliar chemical content.

  17. Geophysical aspects of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Results obtained through the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Program at Mill Creek, Oklahoma, provide a case history example of the application of remote sensing to the identification of geologic rock units. Thermal infrared images are interpreted by means of a sequence of models of increasing complexity. The roles of various parameters are examined: rock properties (thermal inertia, albedo, emissivity), site location (latitude), season (sun's declination), atmospheric effects (cloud cover, transmission, air temperature), and topographic orientation (slope, azimuth). The results obtained at this site also illustrate the development of an important application of remote sensing in geologic identification. Relatively pure limestones and dolomites of the Mill Creek test area can be differentiated in nighttime infrared images, and facies changes between them can be detected along and across strike. The predominance on the earth's surface of sedimentary rocks, of which limestone and dolomite are major members, indicates the importance of this discrimination.

  18. A combined remote sensing and modeling based approach to identify sustainable pathways for urban and peri-urban agriculture in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenbach, M.; Delgado, J. M.; Roessner, S.; Bochow, M.; Güntner, A.; Kropp, J.; Cantu Ros, A. G.; Hattermann, F.; Kolbe, T.; Sodoudi, S.; Cubasch, U. Ulrich; Zeitz, J.; Ross, L.; Böckel, K.; Fang, C.; Bo, L.; Pan, G.

    2012-04-01

    As the world's biggest economy, China is becoming the biggest consumer of resources globally. Given this trend, the over-proportional fast increase in urbanization presents China with fundamental problems. Among the most urgent ones is the increasing loss of agricultural land as urbanization takes place in the most productive regions along the coast. The latter is being responsible for a shift in agriculture production towards climatically less favorable areas. At the same time, the loss of green areas in and around growing cities is increasing the effect of the urban heat island. The perception of the potential risks related to this phenomenon, in the context of climate change, has led the Shanghai city administration to increase its urban-greening efforts, expanding the per capita area of green from 1m2 in 1990 to 12.5m2 in 2008. In this context, this paper aims at identifying the influence of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) on the sustainability of the urban regions of Shanghai and Nanjing. In particular, it focuses on the effects of UPA on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil nutrients and water balances, local climate and the structure and functions of the urbanized areas. We propose an interdisciplinary framework combining remote sensing, model simulations and GHG field observations and targeted at identifying "win-win" strategies for sustainable planning pathways showing high potentials for UPA. The framework is based on spatial scenario modeling, automatic classification of urban structure types and on a prototype of a high-quality spatial database consisting of a 3D city model. Dynamic boundary conditions for climate and urban development are provided by state of the art models. These approaches meet the needs of stakeholders and planners in China. A special emphasis is put on interdependencies between small holder farming in the urban and peri-urban zone and climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies focusing on improved management of

  19. Remote sensing in biological oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The main attribute of remote sensing is seen as its ability to measure distributions over large areas on a synoptic basis and to repeat this coverage at required time periods. The way in which the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, by showing the distribution of chlorophyll a, can locate areas productive in both phytoplankton and fishes is described. Lidar techniques are discussed, and it is pointed out that lidar will increase the depth range for observations.

  20. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  1. Remote sensing for oceanography, hydrology and agriculture; Proceedings of Symposia A5, A3 and A9 of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting, Washington, Aug. 28-Sept. 5, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, J. F. R. (Editor); Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Engman, E. T. (Editor); Ormsby, J. P. (Editor); Gupta, R. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    New results from satellite studies of the ocean and radar mapping of the earth are presented. Atttention is given to data from the ERS-1 satellite. Synthetic aperture radar mapping of land surface features and sea ice, radar backscatter measurements, and orbit altitude measurements are discussed. The use of remote sensing in hydrology, soil moisture determination, precipitation measurement, agricultural meteorology, and crop growth estimation is reviewed.

  2. Remote sensing of Earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Jin AU; Shin, Robert T.; Nghiem, Son V.; Yueh, Herng-Aung; Han, Hsiu C.; Lim, Harold H.; Arnold, David V.

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing of earth terrain is examined. The layered random medium model is used to investigate the fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from vegetation. The model is used to interpret the measured data for vegetation fields such as rice, wheat, or soybean over water or soil. Accurate calibration of polarimetric radar systems is essential for the polarimetric remote sensing of earth terrain. A polarimetric calibration algorithm using three arbitrary in-scene reflectors is developed. In the interpretation of active and passive microwave remote sensing data from the earth terrain, the random medium model was shown to be quite successful. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric radar returns from earth terrain. In the terrain cover classification using the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, the applications of the K-distribution model will provide better performance than the conventional Gaussian classifiers. The layered random medium model is used to study the polarimetric response of sea ice. Supervised and unsupervised classification procedures are also developed and applied to synthetic aperture radar polarimetric images in order to identify their various earth terrain components for more than two classes. These classification procedures were applied to San Francisco Bay and Traverse City SAR images.

  3. Satellite remote sensing. An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, which is the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of the resources and features of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere from satellites, is an exciting, fast-growing technique used by environmental scientists to improve their knowledge of our planet. The non-military and non-communications satellites launched by the US, USSR, and the European Community produce digital images of the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. These images are used to search for undiscovered mineral resources, to conduct population, land use and resource censuses, to control pests and pollution, to illustrate weather movements on television and much more. This introductory book examines the physical basis of remote sensing-the sensors and satellites used to collect data, and the methods used to process these data as well as the application of satellite remote sensing in the study of vegetation, land use, geology, soils, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The last chapter looks at the future: space stations, international coordination, etc.

  4. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  5. Capabilities of remote sensing in control of good agricultural and environmental conditions. (Polish Title: Możliwości teledetekcyjnej kontroli utrzymania gruntów rolnych w dobrej kulturze rolnej (GAEC))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osińska-Skotak, K.; Pluto-Kossakowska, J.; Fijałkowska, A.

    2013-12-01

    Within the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union applicants farmers receive subsidies for agricultural production. From 1 January 2009 all farmers receiving payments are required to fulfill the standards adopted by Poland in the framework of cross-compliance. Each member state sets minimum standards for good agricultural and environmental condition (GAEC) on the basis of Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. Compliance with these standards is monitored during the annual control campaigns conducted by ARMA in the selected areas. Control campaign mainly includes verification of applications in terms of agricultural area declared by the farmer as eligible for subsidies, as well as control of GAEC requirements. One method of control is a remote sensing method, which is based on interpretation of agricultural parcels on satellite or aerial images and it is mainly used to measure the areas to be subsidies. During this process one may also verify compliance with GAEC. The paper presents an analysis of which of the standards to maintain land in good agricultural condition can be controlled with remote sensing and provides examples of processing supporting the interpretation of satellite images for selected GAEC standards.

  6. Remote Sensing for Farmers and Flood Watching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Sciences Directorate, part of NASA s Science Mission Directorate, makes use of the Agency s remote-sensing capabilities to acquire detailed information about our home planet. It uses this information for a variety of purposes, ranging from increasing agricultural efficiency to protecting homeland security. Sensors fly over areas of interest to detect and record information that sometimes is not even visible from the ground with the human eye. Scientists analyze these data for a variety of purposes and make maps of the areas. These maps are often used to answer questions about the environment, weather, natural resources, community growth, and natural disasters.

  7. UAS remote sensing missions for rangeland applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands cover about 50% of the earth’s land surface, are in remote areas and have low population densities, all of which provide an ideal opportunity for remote sensing applications from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). In this paper, we describe a proven workflow for UAS-based remote sensing, an...

  8. Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenyo, V. A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

  9. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  10. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  11. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  12. Airborne Remote Sensing for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Passive Remote Sensing Methods, Imaging Spectroscopy Approach, Remote Measurement via Spectral Fitting, Imaging Spectroscopy Mapping Wetland Dominants 2010 LA (AVIRIS), Deepwater Horizon Response I, Deepwater Horizon Response II, AVIRIS Ocean Color Studies.

  13. Analysis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-08-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  14. Analysis of Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiness, E. A.; Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief assessment of remote sensing applied to geological studies is given. An analysis of thematic mapping data on oak-hickory forests in southern Missouri is discussed. It was found that there is a control on the infrared reflectance (bands 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) of the forests that correlates with rock and soil types. During the growing season, soils with low water retention capacities correlate with high infrared (band 4, lesser with band 5 and 7) signatures. A metamorphic core complex called the Meatiq located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt was studied. The dome provides exposure of most of the rock units of the Arabian-Nubian Precambrian Shield. The dome bears many resemblances to Cordilleran metamorphic complexes. LANDSAT TM data was used to improve on reconnaissance maps of the dome. The remote sensing data was interpreted in the context of field observations, petrographic, and chemical analysis of rock units in the dome, in order to map similar domes in the Eastern Desert from TM data. Mapping projects such as the one just described will help constrain the geologic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Two particular hypotheses that researchers hope to test for the development of the shield are: (1) closure of a proto-Red Sea; and (2) accretion of a primitive island arc system onto the shield.

  15. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  16. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  17. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  18. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  19. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Robert A; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara

    2015-04-01

    monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of conservation efforts? How does the expansion and intensification of agriculture and aquaculture alter ecosystems and the services they provide? How can remote sensing be used to determine the degree to which ecosystems are being disturbed or degraded and the effects of these changes on species and ecosystem functions? PMID:25319024

  20. Archeological methodology and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Gumerman, G J; Lyons, T R

    1971-04-01

    We have shown that the different spectral surveying techniques and the resultant imagery vary in their applicability to archeological prediction and exploration, but their applications are far broader than we have indicated. Their full potential, to a considerable extent, still remains unexplored. Table 1 is a chart of the more common sensor systems useful to archeological investigators. Several kinds of photography, thermal infrared imagery, and radar imagery are listed. Checks in various categories of direct and indirect utility in archeological research indicate that the different systems do provide varying degrees of input for studies in these areas. Photography and multispectral photography have the broadest applications in this field. Standard black-and-white aerial photography generally serves the purposes of archeological exploration and site analysis better than infrared scanner imagery, radar, or color photography. However, the real value of remotesensing experimentation lies in the utilization of different instruments and in the comparison and correlation of their data output. It can be stated without doubt that there is no one all-purpose remotesensing device on which the archeologist can rely that will reveal all evidence of human occupations. Remote-sensing data will not replace the traditional ground-based site survey, but, used judiciously, data gathered from aerial reconnaissance can reveal many cultural features unsuspected from the ground. The spectral properties of sites distinguishable by various types of remote sensors may perhaps be one of their most characteristic features, and yet the meaning of the differential discrimnination of features has not been determined for the most part, since such spectral properties are poorly understood at this date. The difficulty in isolating the causes of acceptable definition in certain portion of the spectrum and the lack of acceptable definition in others suggests that the evaluation of remote-sensing

  1. Symmetry in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among polarimetric backscattering coefficients are derived from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. For both reciprocal and non-reciprocal media, symmetry encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered. The derived properties are general and valid to all scattering mechanisms, including volume and surface scatterings and their interactions, in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is also discussed. Orientations of spheroidal scatterers described by spherical, uniform, planophile, plagiothile, erectophile, and extremophile distributions are considered to derive their polarimetric backscattering characteristics. These distributions can be identified from the observed scattering coefficients by comparison with theoretical symmetry calculations. A new parameter is then defined to study scattering structures in geophysical media. Observations from polarimetric data acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne synthetic aperture radar over forests, sea ice, and sea surface are presented. Experimental evidences of the symmetry relationships are shown and their use in polarimetric remote sensing is illustrated. For forests, the coniferous forest in Mt. Shasta area (California) and mixed forest near Presque Isle (Maine) exhibit characteristics of the centrical symmetry at C-band. For sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, multi-year sea ice has a cross-polarized ratio e close to e(sub 0), calculated from symmetry, due to the randomness in the scattering structure. First-year sea ice has e much smaller than e(sub 0) due to the preferential alignment of the columnar structure of the ice. From polarimetric data of a sea surface in the Bering Sea, it is

  2. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for assessment of the soil water content in order to improve agricultural practice and reduce the negative impact on groundwater: case study, agricultural area Ştefan cel Mare, Călăraşi County.

    PubMed

    Tevi, Giuliano; Tevi, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agricultural practices based on non-customized irrigation and soil fertilization are harmful for the environment, and may pose a risk for human health. By continuing the use of these practices, it is not possible to ensure effective land management, which might be acquired by using advanced satellite technology configured for modern agricultural development. The paper presents a methodology based on the correlation between remote sensing data and field observations, aiming to identify the key features and to establish an interpretation pattern for the inhomogeneity highlighted by the remote sensing data. Instead of using classical methods for the evaluation of land features (field analysis, measurements and mapping), the approach is to use high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral methods, in correlation with data processing and geographic information systems (GIS), in order to improve the agricultural practices and mitigate their environmental impact (soil and shallow aquifer). PMID:22744689

  3. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  4. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  5. Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts have been focused on understanding the physical properties of planetary surfaces using remote sensing techniques. Specific application has been to the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Our approach has been to use thermal-infrared emission and radar reflectance and scattering as a way of exploring the decimeter-scale structure of these surfaces. At this scale, the techniques are sensitive to physical parameters such as the average or effective particle size of surface materials, the degree of induration or physical bonding between individual regolith grains, and the abundance of rocks of different sizes resting on or admixed in to the surface. The results are relevant to understanding the geological processes that have affected the surface and, in the case of Mars, determining site safety and scientific relevance for planning upcoming lander, rover, and sample-return spacecraft missions. Specific results are discussed below, and publications that have resulted are listed at the end.

  6. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  7. Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground control is required to georeferenced airborne and spaceborne images. The production of ortho-photogrammetric data requires ground control that is traditionally provided as Ground Control Points (GCPs) by GNSS measurements in the field. However, it can be difficult to acquire accurate ground control points due to required turn-around time, high costs or impossible access. CompassData, Inc. a specialist in ground control, has expanded its service to deliver Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points (RSGCPs®). TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X are two satellites with such high accuracy of their orbital positions and SAR data that RSGCPs® can be produced to a sub-meter quality depending on certain parameters and circumstances. The technology and required parameters are discussed in this paper as well as the resulting accuracies.

  8. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  9. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  10. Survey of remote sensing applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1974-01-01

    Data from the first earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as well as from NASA and other aircraft, contain much of the information indicative of the distribution of groundwater and the extent of its utilization. Thermal infrared imagery from aircraft is particularly valuable in studying groundwater discharge to the sea and other surface water bodies. Color infrared photography from aircraft and space is also used to locate areas of potential groundwater development. Anomalies in vegetation, soils, moisture, and their pattern of distribution may be indicative of underlying groundwater conditions. Remote sensing may be used directly or indirectly to identify stream reaches for test holes or production wells. Similarly, location of submarine springs increase effectiveness of groundwater exploration in the coastal zone.

  11. Energy and remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  12. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  13. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Gross, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Various aircraft and satellite sensors for detecting and mapping wetlands properties are examined. The uses of color IR photography to map coastal vegetation, and of Landsat MSS and TM and SPOT data to quantify biomass and productivity for large wetland areas are discussed. For spectral estimation of biomass and productivity, the relation between radiance and biomass needs to be studied; the quantity and orientation of dead biomass and the amount of soil reflectance in comparison with vegetation reflectance in a given target area affect the spectral estimation of biomass. The radiometric evaluation of brackish wetland, and remote sensing in mangroves are described. The collection of images in narrow, contiguous spectral band using imaging spectrometry is considered.

  14. NASA remote sensing programs: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    In the Earth remote sensing area, NASA's three functions are to understand the basic mechanics and behavior of the Earth, evaluate what resources are available (in the way of minerals, and hydrocarbons on a general scale), and to arrange a scheme for managing our national assets. The capabilities offered by LANDSAT D and technology improvements needed are discussed. The French SPOT system, its orbits, possibilities for stereo imagery, and levels of preprocessing and processing with several degrees of radiometric and geometric corrections are examined. Progress in the AgRISTARS project is mentioned as well as future R & D programs in the use of fluorescence, microwave measurements, and synthetic aperture radar. Other areas of endeaver include studying man environment interactions and Earth radiation budgets, and the establishment of data systems programs.

  15. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  16. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  17. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  18. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Diverse applications of LANDSAT data, problem solutions, and operational goals are described by remote sensing users from 14 western states. The proposed FY82 federal budget reductions for technology transfer activities and the planned transition of the operational remote sensing system to NOAA's supervision are also considered.

  19. Remote sensing and reflectance profiling in entomology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is about characterizing the status of objects and/or classifies their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be ground-based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolutio...

  20. Emerging Issues in Land Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes the key questions and issues discussed in three review panels in the 9th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing (ISPMSRS) held in Oct. 2005 at Beijing. These three panels focused on remote sensing systems and sensors, modeling and inve...

  1. What does remote sensing do for ecology?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roughgarden, J.; Running, S. W.; Matson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to ecological investigations is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the recruitment problem in marine population dynamics, the regional analysis of terrestrial ecosystems, and the monitoring of ecological changes. Impediments to the use of remote sensing data in ecology are addressed.

  2. Conference of Remote Sensing Educators (CORSE-78)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Ways of improving the teaching of remote sensing students at colleges and universities are discussed. Formal papers and workshops on various Earth resources disciplines, image interpretation, and data processing concepts are presented. An inventory of existing remote sensing and related subject courses being given in western regional universities is included.

  3. Some guidelines for remote sensing in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing in the field of hydrology is beginning to be applied to significant problems, such as thermal pollution, in many programs of the Federal and State Governments as well as in operation of many private organizations. The purpose of this paper is to guide the hydrologist to a better understanding of how he may collect, synthesize, and interpret remote sensing data.

  4. Holographic enhanced remote sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iavecchia, Helene P.; Gaynor, Edwin S.; Huff, Lloyd; Rhodes, William T.; Rothenheber, Edward H.

    1990-01-01

    The Holographic Enhanced Remote Sensing System (HERSS) consists of three primary subsystems: (1) an Image Acquisition System (IAS); (2) a Digital Image Processing System (DIPS); and (3) a Holographic Generation System (HGS) which multiply exposes a thermoplastic recording medium with sequential 2-D depth slices that are displayed on a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). Full-parallax holograms were successfully generated by superimposing SLM images onto the thermoplastic and photopolymer. An improved HGS configuration utilizes the phase conjugate recording configuration, the 3-SLM-stacking technique, and the photopolymer. The holographic volume size is currently limited to the physical size of the SLM. A larger-format SLM is necessary to meet the desired 6 inch holographic volume. A photopolymer with an increased photospeed is required to ultimately meet a display update rate of less than 30 seconds. It is projected that the latter two technology developments will occur in the near future. While the IAS and DIPS subsystems were unable to meet NASA goals, an alternative technology is now available to perform the IAS/DIPS functions. Specifically, a laser range scanner can be utilized to build the HGS numerical database of the objects at the remote work site.

  5. Literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 596 documents related to remote sensors or the remote sensing of natural resources by satellite, aircraft, or ground-based stations are presented. Topics covered include general theory, geology and hydrology, agriculture and forestry, marine sciences, urban land use, and instrumentation. Recent documents not yet cited in any of the seven information sources used for the compilation are summarized. An author/key word index is provided.

  6. REMOTE SENSING OF COVER CROP PERFORMANCE ON MARYLAND'S EASTERN SHORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cover crops on agricultural land has been identified as a desirable management practice with potential to positively impact Chesapeake Bay water quality. Accordingly, state cost share programs have been developed to promote cover crops. This project uses a combination of remote sensing an...

  7. Remote Sensing of Cover Crop Production on Maryland's Eastern Shore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of winter cover crops is being promoted throughout Maryland as an effective agricultural best management practice with great promise for reducing nutrient inputs to the Chesapeake Bay. Remote sensing provides a tool for real-time estimation of cover crop productivity and nutrient uptake effi...

  8. Can hyperspectral remote sensing detect species specific biochemicals?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discrimination of a few plants scattered among many plants is a goal common to detection of agricultural weeds and invasive species. Detection of clandestinely grown Cannabis sativa L. is in many ways a special case of weed detection. Remote sensing technology provides an automated, computer based,...

  9. An improved ASTER index for remote sensing of crop residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important variable affecting carbon cycling in agricultural soils is the method of tillage, which can be estimated from the amount of crop residue (nonphotosynthetic vegetation) remaining in the field after harvest. Remote sensing allows for the rapid estimation of tillage method by determining ...

  10. Remote sensing of contrasting tillage practices in the Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage information is crucial in environmental modeling as it has a direct impact on water holding capacity, evapotranspiration, carbon sequestration, and soil and nutrient losses due to wind and water erosion of agricultural soils. A remote sensing approach is promising for the rapid collection of...

  11. Irrigation scheduling using remote sensing data assimilation approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linked remote sensing and crop growth models have enhanced our ability to understand soil water balance in irrigated agriculture. However, limited efforts have been made to adopt data assimilation methodologies in these linked models that use stochastic parameter estimation with genetic algorithm (G...

  12. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  13. Analysis of time-series of total and plant water stress levels using a dual-source energy balance model over agricultural crops and medium to low resolution thermal infra red remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulet, Gilles; Mougenot, Bernard; Bahir, Malik; Fanise, Pascal; Saadi, Sameh; Simonneaux, Vincent; Chebbi, Wafa; Kassouk, Zeineb; Oualid, Toufik; Olioso, Albert; Lagouarde, Jean-Pierre; Le Dantec, Valérie; Rivalland, Vincent; Zribi, Mehrez; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra

    2015-04-01

    Detecting, monitoring and mapping plant water stress with remote sensing data is a crucial component of modern agricultural water management, especially in areas with scarce water resources such as the south and the eastern parts of the Mediterranean region. Developing efficient operational methods dedicated to those three actions is thus necessary to design observing systems for areas with a mixture of irrigated, rainfed and deficit irrigation agriculture. Those systems can assist managers in tasks such as early warning of drought, real time irrigated area mapping etc. A way to quantify plant and total water stress levels is to exploit the available surface temperature data from remote sensing as a signature of the surface energy balance, including the latent heat flux. Remotely sensed energy balance models enable to estimate evapotranspiration and the water status of continental surfaces. Two-source models, such as TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) allow deriving a rough estimate of the water stress of the vegetation instead of that of a soil-vegetation composite. For the latter, a realistic underlying assumption enables to invert two unknowns (evaporation and transpiration) from a single piece of information. This assumption states that, in most cases, vegetation is unstressed, and that if vegetation is stressed, evaporation is negligible. In the latter case, if vegetation stress is not properly accounted for, the resulting evaporation will decrease to unrealistic levels (negative fluxes) in order to maintain the same total surface temperature. Actual and potential transpiration rates are combined to derive an index of plant water stress applicable to low resolution data. Here, we evaluate time series of plant water stress indices in the Kairouan area in Central Tunisia in the last few years by comparing them with 1- maps of the irrigation sectors as well as rainfall data and 2- turbulent heat flux measurements obtained at low resolution (scintillometer, eddy

  14. Paleovalleys mapping using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibatsha, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    For work materials used multispectral satellite imagery Landsat (7 channels), medium spatial resolution (14,25-90 m) and a digital elevation model (data SRTM). For interpretation of satellite images and especially their infrared and thermal channels allocated buried paleovalleys pre-paleogene age. Their total length is 228 km. By manifestation of the content of remote sensing paleovalleys distinctly divided into two types, long ribbon-like read in materials and space survey highlights a network of small lakes. By the nature of the relationship established that the second type of river paleovalleys flogs first. On this basis, proposed to allocate two uneven river paleosystem. The most ancient paleovalleys first type can presumably be attributed to karst erosion, blurry chalk and carbon deposits foundation. Paleovalleys may include significant groundwater resources as drinking and industrial purposes. Also we can control the position paleovalleys zinc and bauxite mineralization area and alluvial deposits include uranium mineralization valleys infiltration type and placer gold. Direction paleovalleys choppy, but in general they have a north-east orientation, which is controlled by tectonic zones of the foundation. These zones are defined as the burial place themselves paleovalleys and position of karst cavities in areas interfacing with other structures orientation. The association of mineralization to the caverns in the beds paleovalleys could generally present conditions of formation of mineralization and carry it to the "Niagara" type. The term is obviously best reflects the mechanism of formation of these ores.

  15. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahr, Tobias; Peper, Eva; Schubert, Alexander; Warnach, Simon; Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Beirle, Steffen; Mies, Kornelia; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) allows to determine the concentration of trace gases based on their specific absorptions cross-sections along a light path. Since 1995, this principle is employed successfully on satellite-based instruments like GOME, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY for the global measurement of stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like ozone and nitrogen oxides. Usually, spectral signatures from the ground, where a big part of the sunlight is reflected, are neglected in the evaluation. This can lead to errors in the trace gas determination. However, these structures offer the opportunity to identify surface properties of the earth and different types of vegetation. To analyse spectral reflectance properties, high resolved reflection spectra (FWHM 0.29 nm) from 95 plants were measured between 350 and 1050 nm. They can serve as a basis for the analysis of satellite data. Including different vegetation reference spectra, it is possible to determine groups of plants with similar optical properties. This allows to derive global maps of the spatio-temporal variation of plant distribution by satellite remote sensing. We present first results of this technique based on SCIAMACHY observations.

  16. Remote sensing of earth terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two monographs and 85 journal and conference papers on remote sensing of earth terrain have been published, sponsored by NASA Contract NAG5-270. A multivariate K-distribution is proposed to model the statistics of fully polarimetric data from earth terrain with polarizations HH, HV, VH, and VV. In this approach, correlated polarizations of radar signals, as characterized by a covariance matrix, are treated as the sum of N n-dimensional random vectors; N obeys the negative binomial distribution with a parameter alpha and mean bar N. Subsequently, and n-dimensional K-distribution, with either zero or non-zero mean, is developed in the limit of infinite bar N or illuminated area. The probability density function (PDF) of the K-distributed vector normalized by its Euclidean norm is independent of the parameter alpha and is the same as that derived from a zero-mean Gaussian-distributed random vector. The above model is well supported by experimental data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the form of polarimetric measurements.

  17. Prediction of health levels by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of the environment derived from remote sensing were compared to census population/housing measures in their ability to discriminate among health status areas in two urban communities. Three hypotheses were developed to explore the relationships between environmental and health data. Univariate and multiple step-wise linear regression analyses were performed on data from two sample areas in Houston and Galveston, Texas. Environmental data gathered by remote sensing were found to equal or surpass census data in predicting rates of health outcomes. Remote sensing offers the advantages of data collection for any chosen area or time interval, flexibilities not allowed by the decennial census.

  18. Parallelized Dilate Algorithm for Remote Sensing Image

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suli; Hu, Haoran; Pan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    As an important algorithm, dilate algorithm can give us more connective view of a remote sensing image which has broken lines or objects. However, with the technological progress of satellite sensor, the resolution of remote sensing image has been increasing and its data quantities become very large. This would lead to the decrease of algorithm running speed or cannot obtain a result in limited memory or time. To solve this problem, our research proposed a parallelized dilate algorithm for remote sensing Image based on MPI and MP. Experiments show that our method runs faster than traditional single-process algorithm. PMID:24955392

  19. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  20. Remote sensing and urban public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  1. An international organization for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.

    1991-01-01

    A recommendation is presented for the formation of a new commercially oriented international organization to acquire or develop, coordinate or manage, the space and ground segments for a global operational satellite system to furnish the basic data for remote sensing and meteorological, land, and sea resource applications. The growing numbers of remote sensing programs are examined and possible ways of reducing redundant efforts and improving the coordination and distribution of these global efforts are discussed. This proposed remote sensing organization could play an important role in international cooperation and the distribution of scientific, commercial, and public good data.

  2. Resource analysis applications in Michigan. [NASA remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schar, S. W.; Enslin, W. R.; Sattinger, I. J.; Robinson, J. G.; Hosford, K. R.; Fellows, R. S.; Raad, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    During the past two years, available NASA imagery has been applied to a broad spectrum of problems of concern to Michigan-based agencies. These demonstrations include the testing of remote sensing for the purposes of (1) highway corridor planning and impact assessments, (2) game management-area information bases, (3) multi-agency river basin planning, (4) timber resource management information systems, (5) agricultural land reservation policies, and (6) shoreline flooding damage assessment. In addition, cost accounting procedures have been developed for evaluating the relative costs of utilizing remote sensing in land cover and land use analysis data collection procedures.

  3. Needs and emerging trends of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNair, Michael

    2014-06-01

    From the earliest need to be able to see an enemy over a hill to sending semi-autonomous platforms with advanced sensor packages out into space, humans have wanted to know more about what is around them. Issues of distance are being minimized through advances in technology to the point where remote control of a sensor is useful but sensing by way of a non-collocated sensor is better. We are not content to just sense what is physically nearby. However, it is not always practical or possible to move sensors to an area of interest; we must be able to sense at a distance. This requires not only new technologies but new approaches; our need to sense at a distance is ever changing with newer challenges. As a result, remote sensing is not limited to relocating a sensor but is expanded into possibly deducing or inferring from available information. Sensing at a distance is the heart of remote sensing. Much of the sensing technology today is focused on analysis of electromagnetic radiation and sound. While these are important and the most mature areas of sensing, this paper seeks to identify future sensing possibilities by looking beyond light and sound. By drawing a parallel to the five human senses, we can then identify the existing and some of the future possibilities. A further narrowing of the field of sensing causes us to look specifically at robotic sensing. It is here that this paper will be directed.

  4. Application of remote sensing for planning purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Types of remotely sensed data are many and varied but, all are primarily dependent on the sensor platform and the kind of sensing system used. A sensor platform is the type of aircraft or satellite to which a sensing system is attached; each platform has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Selected attributes of several current or recently used platforms are outlined. Though sensing systems are highly varied, they may be divided into various operational categories such as cameras, electromechanical scanners, and radars.

  5. EPA Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, H. K.; Szykman, J. J.; Plessel, T.; Freeman, M.; Dimmick, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Information Gateway was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist researchers in easily obtaining and combining a variety of environmental datasets related to air quality research. Current datasets available include, but are not limited to surface PM2.5 and O3 data, satellite derived aerosol optical depth , and 3-dimensional output from U.S. EPA's Models 3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The presentation will include a demonstration that illustrates several scenarios of how researchers use the tool to help them visualize and obtain data for their work; with a particular focus on episode analysis related to biomass burning impacts on air quality. The presentation will provide an overview on how RSIG works and how the code has been—and can be—adapted for other projects. One example is the Virtual Estuary, which focuses on automating the retrieval and pre-processing of a variety of data needed for estuarine research. RSIG’s source codes are freely available to researchers with permission from the EPA principal investigator, Dr. Jim Szykman. RSIG is available to the community and can be accessed online at http://www.epa.gov/rsig. Once the JAVA policy file is configured on your computer you can run the RSIG applet on your computer and connect to the RSIG server to visualize and retrieve available data sets. The applet allows the user to specify the temporal/spatial areas of interest, and the types of data to retrieve. The applet then communicates with RSIG subsetter codes located on the data owners’ remote servers; the subsetter codes assemble and transfer via ordinary Internet protocols only the specified data to the researcher’s computer. This is much faster than the usual method of transferring large files via FTP and greatly reduces network traffic. The RSIG applet then visualizes the transferred data on a latitude-longitude map, automatically locating the data in the correct

  6. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    The International Symposium on Geotechnical Applications of Remote Sensing and Remote Data Transmission was held January 31, 1986, at Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was organized by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and the International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (ICRSDT) of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Cochairs for the symposium were Ivan Johnson of A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Arvada, Colo., and Bernt Pettersson of Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Tex. Johnson is President of ICRSDT and Pettersson is Chairman of ASTM D18 Subcommittee on Surface and Subsurface Reconnaissance.

  7. Applications of remote sensing surveys in Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The grant project continues to introduce remote sensing technology to users in Texas and other regions in the South through presentation of papers and briefings at technical and professional meetings.

  8. Remote Sensing of the Arctic Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, W. F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines remote sensing of the arctic seas by discussing: (1) passive microwave sensors; (2) active microwave sensors; (3) other types of sensors; (4) the future deployment of sensors; (5) data buoys; and (6) future endeavors. (JN)

  9. Information Processing of Remote-Sensing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, P. A. M.; Meadows, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the current status of satellite remote sensing data, including problems with efficient storage and rapid retrieval of the data, and appropriate computer graphics to process images. Areas of research concerned with overcoming these problems are described. (16 references) (CLB)

  10. A Teacher's Introduction to Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines remote sensing as the examination of something without touching it. Generally, this refers to satellite and aerial photographic images. Discusses how this technology and resulting knowledge can be integrated into geography classes. Includes a sample unit using images. (MJP)

  11. Remote sensing: An inventory of earth's resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N.

    1974-01-01

    The remote sensing capabilities of Landsat are reviewed along with the broad areas of application of the Landsat imagery. The importance of Landsat imagery in urban planning and resources management is stressed.

  12. Using GPS Reflections for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickler, David

    2000-01-01

    GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.

  13. State remote sensing (LANDSAT) programs catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This directory lists the technical capabilities, personnel, and program structure for remote sensing activities as they existed in each state in late 1980. The institutional framework, participating agencies, applications, status, equipment, software, and funding sources are also indicated.

  14. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  15. Indicators of international remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The extent of worldwide remote sensing activities, including the use of satellite and high/medium altitude aircraft data was studied. Data were obtained from numerous individuals and organizations with international remote sensing responsibilities. Indicators were selected to evaluate the nature and scope of remote sensing activities in each country. These indicators ranged from attendance at remote sensing workshops and training courses to the establishment of earth resources satellite ground stations and plans for the launch of earth resources satellites. Results indicate that this technology constitutes a rapidly increasing component of environmental, land use, and natural resources investigations in many countries, and most of these countries rely on the LANDSAT satellites for a major portion of their data.

  16. Land remote sensing in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, P. G.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented concerning U.S. governmental funding policy for the Land Remote Sensing programs, in which the Landsat spacecraft and the research and development activities associated with them are essential elements. Even if present program management practices were to be changed in the next 1-2 years, the investment of significant amounts of private capital in land remote sensing may be 3-5 years away, due to the immaturity of the prospective markets for the services rendered and the present state of technological development. It is judged that even if NASA is successful in bringing significant private investment into remote sensing activities by the mid-1980s, government must continue to support basic research and expensive technology development in long term and high risk, but potentially high payoff, areas which the still-developing remote sensing industry cannot afford.

  17. Sources of support for remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past financial support for educational programs in remote sensing came largely in the form of short courses funded by the National Science Foundation. Later NASA began to fund such courses for local and state government and for some university participants in its regional programs. The greater impact came from the funding by a variety of federal agencies for remote sensing research projects at educational institutions throughout the country. Probably the best and most significant example of these programs, from the university standpoint is, and should continue to be, the NASA university affairs programs, which with its long term step funding of a number of institutions has probably done more for remote sensing education than any other federal program in this country. An incomplete listing of federal agencies that support remote sensing research at the university level is presented.

  18. Remote-sensing applications to geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of two day workshop on applications of remote sensing to geology are summarized in report. Topics discussed are environmental analysis, crop classification, plant epidemics and diseases, irrigation reform, and soil surveys.

  19. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided consist of the following: (1) large format aerial photography; (2) video from aerial platforms; (3) multispectral scanning; and (4) airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in the summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis. 2 figures.

  20. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  1. Basic principles of remote sensing. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Forty eight selected bibliographic references dealing with the remote sensing of the environment are given. Emphasis was placed on data that deal with fundamental aspects and principles of the technique.

  2. Remote Sensing of Snow and Evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The use of snowmelt runoff models from both the U.S. and Japan for simulating discharge on basins in both countries is discussed as well as research in snowpack properties and evapotranspiration using remotely sensed data.

  3. Tasseled cap transformation for HJ multispectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling; Han, Xiaoyong

    2015-12-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in environment, agriculture, forest and ecology. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ multi-spectrum data has been established through Givens rotation matrix to rotate principal component transform vector to whiteness, greenness and blueness direction of ground object basing on 24 scenes year-round HJ multispectral remote sensing data. The whiteness component enhances the brightness difference of ground object, and the greenness component preserves more detailed information of vegetation change while enhances the vegetation characteristic, and the blueness component significantly enhances factory with blue plastic house roof around the town and also can enhance brightness of water. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ will enhance the application effect of HJ multispectral remote sensing data in their application fields.

  4. Role of remote sensing in desert locust early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressman, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forskål) plagues have historically had devastating consequences on food security in Africa and Asia. The current strategy to reduce the frequency of plagues and manage desert locust infestations is early warning and preventive control. To achieve this, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations operates one of the oldest, largest, and best-known migratory pest monitoring systems in the world. Within this system, remote sensing plays an important role in detecting rainfall and green vegetation. Despite recent technological advances in data management and analysis, communications, and remote sensing, monitoring desert locusts and preventing plagues in the years ahead will continue to be a challenge from a geopolitical and financial standpoint for affected countries and the international donor community. We present an overview of the use of remote sensing in desert locust early warning.

  5. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  6. Survey of instructional material for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The contents of 17 major textbooks and reference guides on remote sensing technology are listed and compared. As a group, these books concentrate more on principles of the electromagnetic spectrum, sensors and data processing, than on applications. Secondly, it appears that basic photointerpretation receives considerable attention, but that photogrammetry does not. Four texts which provide well-rounded treatments of the systematics of remote sensing are suggested.

  7. Pilot interministerial operation for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamare, J. M.; Bied-Charreton, M.; Couzy, A.; Jahan, A.; Ledder, J.; Pasquet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of obtaining required information for land and resources management and the possibilities of remote sensing are discussed. The services available, organization and objectives of the pilot operation are presented. Emphasis is placed on multidisciplinary dialog among designers, builders, operators, interpreters and users in all phases. The principles, operation and practical applications of remote sensing systems and processing systems under the pilot operation are presented.

  8. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  9. Western Regional Remote Sensing Conference Proceedings, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing users from the 14 western states explained their diverse applications of LANDSAT data, discussed operational goals, and exchanged problems and solutions. In addition, conference participants stressed the need for increased cooperation among state and local governments, private industry, and universities to aid NASA's objective of transferring to user agencies the ability to operationally use remote sensing technology for resource and environmental quality management.

  10. Satellite remote sensing of water turbidity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments obtain an optical measure of water colour and turbidity. Colour increases the absorption of light in water and decreases the remotely sensed signal; turbidity increases the backscatter of light. For low concentrations of suspended materials, spectral reflectance is determined mostly by the absorptance characteristics of water; for higher concentrations, the absorptance characteristics of suspended particles are the most important factors. -from Authorwater colour suspended materials

  11. Hyperspectral Imagery Data for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry; Gualtney, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    In order for remotely sensed data to be useful in a practical application for agriculture, an information product must be made available to the land management decision maker within 24 to 48 hours of data acquisition. Hyperspectral imagery data is proving useful in differentiation of plant species potentially allowing identification of non-healthy areas and pest infestations within crop fields that may require the farm managers attention. Currently however, extracting the needed site-specific feature information from the vast spectral content of large hyperspectral image files is a labor intensive and time consuming task prohibiting the necessary fast turnaround from raw data to final product. We illustrate the methods, techniques and technologies necessary to produce field-level information products from imagery and other related spatial data that are useful to the farm manager for specific decisions that must be made throughout the growing season. We also propose to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of an integrated system, from acquisition to final product distribution, to utilize imagery for decisions on a working farm in conjunction with a commercial agricultural services company and their crop scouts. The demonstration farm is Chesapeake Farms, a 3000 acre research farm in Chestertown, Maryland on the Eastern Shore and is owned by the DuPont Corporation.

  12. Remote sensing of coastal processes and resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the coastal zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of coastal vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.

  13. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    I. Remote Sensing Basics
    A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors.
    B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often.
    1. Sp...

  14. Remote sensing data products: types and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and define remote sending data products available for analysis of wildlife management problems. To ascribe characteristics and formats as they relate to a choice of the data product to select for a particular analysis. To identify the various remote sensing data products discussed, displayed, and presented at the symposium.

  15. Laser Remote Sensing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing active remote sensors to monitor the health of Planet Earth and for exploration of other planets. Development and deployment of these remote sensors can have a huge economic impact. Lasers for these active remote sensors span the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the mid infrared spectral regions. Development activities range from quantum mechanical modeling and prediction of new laser materials to the design, development, and demonstration be deployed in the field.

  16. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources, third quarter 1976. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts related to remote sensing instrumentation and techniques, and to the remote sensing of natural resources are presented by the Technology Application Center at the University of New Mexico. Areas of interest included theory, general surveys, and miscellaneous studies; geology and hydrology; agriculture and forestry; marine sciences; and urban and land use. An alphabetically arranged Author/Key Word index is provided.

  17. Remote sensing of species invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Nicholas Etienne

    The invasion of the Western United States of America by Bromus tectorum, also known as "cheatgrass" is mapped using techniques of remote sensing. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance using the MODTRAN4 atmospheric simulation model. The results of the radiometric processing were checked against ground reflectances with a portable ASD spectrometer. Landsat TM imagery covering portions of Utah State, USA were obtained at two times for each scene, one in the spring and one in the summer. The imagery was radiometrically processed to ground reflectance. Field data on cheatgrass abundance were collected at the same time period of the Landsat imagery. A variety of regression models were tested for predicting cheatgrass abundance. Prediction variables included the extracted ground reflectance from the multi-temporal imagery and ancillary topographic data. A meta-prediction framework was devised for compositing the results of an ensemble of regression models. Using cross-validation, the method was found to predict cheatgrass abundance (as percent) with approximately 15% Root Mean Square Error. The Landsat based prediction maps were used to scale reference data to 250 meter resolution, for prediction over larger spatial areas using the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps, at 250 meter spatial resolution and bi-monthly data frequency, were assembled over a five year time period spanning 2001-2005. PRISM monthly total precipitation data, a spatially interpolated (4 kilometer) resolution data product, were compiled over the same time period and the same spatial coverage as the MODIS data. Thin plate (Duchon) splines were fit to the time series of precipitation data and MODIS NDVI in order to generate time series of precipitation and NDVI (with an arbitrary number of data points) over the study area. Metrics designed to quantify ecosystem response to

  18. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; Van de water, Peter K.; Levetin, Estelle; Crimmins, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  19. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesev, V.

    2012-07-01

    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  20. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  1. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  2. Remote sensing images fusion based on block compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen-lin; Wan, Guo-bin; Zhang, Bian-lian; Chong, Xin

    2013-08-01

    A novel strategy for remote sensing images fusion is presented based on the block compressed sensing (BCS). Firstly, the multiwavelet transform (MWT) are employed for better sparse representation of remote sensing images. The sparse representations of block images are then compressive sampling by the BCS with an identical scrambled block hadamard operator. Further, the measurements are fused by a linear weighting rule in the compressive domain. And finally, the fused image is reconstructed by the gradient projection sparse reconstruction (GPSR) algorithm. Experiments result analyzes the selection of block dimension and sampling rating, as well as the convergence performance of the proposed method. The field test of remote sensing images fusion shows the validity of the proposed method.

  3. Geological characteristics in buried coalfields synthetically using remote sensing and non-remote sensing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Silong; Liu, Yurong

    1998-08-01

    With the rapid development of coal industry in China, the emphasis of the geological exploration has been changed from the exposed area to the buried area. Because of the limitation of the geological condition and the exploration methods, it is very difficult to study the geological phenomena in buried coalfield. To the coal geologists in China, to search an effective and practical method has been the important tackle key problem for recent years. In this paper, the authors discussed the characteristics of remote sensing technology in the geological study, and the forming mechanism of remote sensing information in the buried area from the view of agrology and physics, so the important academic evidences were offered for the geological study using remote sensing image in the buried coalfield. The characteristics of the non-remote sensing information, the geophysics information and the basal geological information, were also introduced in the study of buried geological bodies. The authors expounded the general processing method in the investigation of buried geological bodies using remote sensing and non-remote sensing information. At last, the probable distribution area of buried igneous rocks, in Huaibei coalfield in China, were successfully forecasted synthetically using the remote sensing, and non-remote sensing information.

  4. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432

  5. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosol Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine; Kaufman, Yoram; Ramaprasad, Jaya; Procopio, Aline; Levin, Zev

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud impacts on the earth's climate become a recent hot topic in climate studies. Having near future earth observing satellites, EOS-AM1 (Earth Observing System-AM1), ENVISAT (Environmental Satellites) and ADEOS-2 (Advanced Earth Observation Satellite-2), it will be a good timing to discuss how to obtain and use the microphysical parameters of aerosols and clouds for studying their climate impacts. Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) of the University of Tokyo invites you to 'Symposium on synergy between satellite-remote sensing and climate modeling in aerosol and cloud issues.' Here, we like to discuss the current and future issues in the remote sensing of aerosol and cloud microphysical parameters and their climate modeling studies. This workshop is also one of workshop series on aerosol remote sensing held in 1996, Washington D. C., and Meribel, France in 1999. It should be reminded that NASDA/ADEOS-1 & -2 (National Space Development Agency of Japan/Advanced Earth Observation Satellite-1 & -2) Workshop will be held in the following week (Dec. 6-10, 1999), so that this opportunity will be a perfect period for you to attend two meetings for satellite remote sensing in Japan. A weekend in Kyoto, the old capital of Japan, will add a nice memory to your visiting Japan. *Issues in the symposium: 1) most recent topics in aerosol and cloud remot sensing, and 2) utility of satellite products on climate modeling of cloud-aerosol effects.

  7. Practical applications of remote sensing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Roy A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Land managers increasingly are becoming dependent upon remote sensing and automated analysis techniques for information gathering and synthesis. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques provide quick and economical information gathering for large areas. The outputs of remote sensing classification and analysis are most effective when combined with a total natural resources data base within the capabilities of a computerized GIS. Some examples are presented of the successes, as well as the problems, in integrating remote sensing and geographic information systems. The need to exploit remotely sensed data and the potential that geographic information systems offer for managing and analyzing such data continues to grow. New microcomputers with vastly enlarged memory, multi-fold increases in operating speed and storage capacity that was previously available only on mainframe computers are a reality. Improved raster GIS software systems have been developed for these high performance microcomputers. Vector GIS systems previously reserved for mini and mainframe systems are available to operate on these enhanced microcomputers. One of the more exciting areas that is beginning to emerge is the integration of both raster and vector formats on a single computer screen. This technology will allow satellite imagery or digital aerial photography to be presented as a background to a vector display.

  8. Integration of Multisensor Remote Sensing Data for the Retrieval of Consistent Times Series of High-Resolution NDVI Images for Crop Monitoring in Landscapes Dominated By Small-Scale Farming Agricultural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedano, F.; Kempeneers, P.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for timely and accurate information of food supply and early warnings of production shortfalls. Crop growth models commonly rely on information on vegetation dynamics from low and moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. While the short revisit period of these sensors captures the temporal dynamics of crops, they are not able to monitor small-scale farming areas where environmental factors, crop type and management practices often vary at subpixel level. Although better suited to retrieve fine spatial structure, time series of higher resolution imagery (circa 30 m) are often incomplete due to larger revisit periods and persistent cloud coverage. However, as the Landsat archive expands and more fine resolution Earth observation sensors become available, the possibilities of multisensor integration to monitor crop dynamics with higher level of spatial detail are expanding. We have integrated remote sensing imagery from two moderate resolution sensors (MODIS and PROBA-V) and three medium resolution platforms (Landsat 7- 8; and DMC) to improve the characterization of vegetation dynamics in agricultural landscapes dominated by small-scale farms. We applied a data assimilation method to produce complete temporal sequences of synthetic medium-resolution NDVI images. The method implements a Kalman filter recursive algorithm that incorporates models, observations and their respective uncertainties to generate medium-resolution images at time steps for which only moderate-resolution imagery is available. The results for the study sites show that the time series of synthetic NDVI images captured seasonal vegetation dynamics and maintained the spatial structure of the landscape at higher spatial resolution. A more detailed characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation in agricultural systems has the potential to improve the estimates of crop growth models and allow a more precise monitoring and forecasting of crop productivity.

  9. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  10. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.

  11. Roundtable Explores Remote Sensing for Disaster Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-07-01

    Against a backdrop of recent natural disasters—including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the 2010 Haiti earthquake—an 8 July roundtable at the U.S. National Academies explored ways to improve the use of remote sensing data before, during, and after disasters. At the “From Reality 2010 to Vision 2020” roundtable in Washington, D. C., speakers from U.S. federal government agencies and the private sector generally agreed that there would likely be continued improvements in remote sensing instrumentation, including reduced size and weight and the capability for more rapid dissemination of remote sensing data. However, they also stressed the need for closer collaboration among agencies and settling political and turf battles, overcoming security and other restrictions such as with sharing high-resolution data, and responding better to user needs.

  12. Support for global science - Remote sensing's challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing techniques are discussed. The benefits possible to remote sensing with the new Earth Observing System, which is composed of the Space Station and coorbiting and polar satellite platforms, are examined. Current changes in the remote sensing field, which involve a change from an industrial society to an informational society, force technology to high technology with high touch, short term to long term, centralized to decentralized, hierarchies to networks, and either/or to multiple option systems are studied. The explanatory and objective types of analyses for investigating biophysical, geochemical, and socioeconomic processes are described; the procedures include: morphometric, cause and effect, temporal and functional and ecological system analyses, inventory, mapping, monitoring, and modeling.

  13. Laboratory exercises, remote sensing of the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintzer, O.; Ray, J.

    1981-01-01

    The exercises are designed to convey principles and theory of remote sensing, and methodologies of its application to civil engineering and environmental concerns, including agronomy, geography, geology, wildlife, forestry, hydrology, and other related fields. During the exercises the student is introduced to several types of remote sensing represented by imagery from conventional format: panchromatic, black-and-white infrared, color, and infrared, 35mm aerial photography, thermal infrared, radar, multispectral scanner, and LANDSAT. Upon completion of the exercises the student is expected to know: (1) the electromagnetic spectrum, its various wavelength sub-sections and their uses as sensors, (2) the limitations of each sensor, (3) the interpretation techniques used for extracting data from the various types of imagery, and (4) the cost effectiveness of remote sensing procedures for acquiring and evaluating data of the natural environment.

  14. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  15. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  16. Remote sensing of water vapor features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1991-01-01

    The three major objectives of the project are outlined: (1) to describe atmospheric water vapor features as functions of space and time; (2) to evaluate remotely sensed measurements of water vapor content; and (3) to study relations between fine-scale water vapor fields and convective activity. Data from several remote sensors were used. The studies used the GOES/VAS, HIS, and MAMS instruments have provided a progressively finer scale view of water vapor features.

  17. Current remote sensing in natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    2003-08-01

    Natural resource management agencies continue to be one of the heavy users of remote sensing data. From the earliest days of aerial photography, managers have depended upon broad area coverage in various levels of resolution for information needed to conserve and preserve the Earth's resource base. The USDA Forest Service is one agency that has been an active user of remote sensing data since the days when foresters began using aerial photographs to analyze timber crops. To this day, the use of data acquired by aerial reconnaissance is an important part of the tools used to gather information. Last year, in April of 2002, the Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applications Cener with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, sponsored The Ninth Biennial Remote Sensing Applications Conference in San Diego, California. Presentations at that conference demonstrate that airborne reconnaissance techniques continue to be of importance to managers of our natural resources. This paper is an overview of papers presented at the conference with emphasis upon applications that either use or have the potential to use airborne reconnaissance in data collection. Primary areas of interest include data collection for natural resource management and for law enforcement purposes on public lands an other remote, inaccessible back country areas.

  18. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  19. Irrigated lands: Monitoring by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Vitorelli, I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.

  20. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  1. Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W L; Kasameyer, P W; Martini, B A; Potts, D C; Silver, E A

    2001-05-22

    This paper presents a plan for increasing the mapped resource base for geothermal exploration in the Western US. We plan to image large areas in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults, surface effluents, historical signatures, and discover subtle hidden faults and hidden thermal systems. Large regions can be imaged at reasonable costs. The technique of geobotanical remote sensing for geothermal signatures is based on recent successes in mapping faults and effluents the Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain in California.

  2. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  3. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  4. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  5. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  6. Remote sensing image fusion via quaternion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serief, Chahira

    Due to the design constraints of optical satellite sensors, there is an inverse relationship between their spectral and spatial resolution. Consequently, remote sensing spaceborne imagery is usually offered to the community as two separate products: a high spatial resolution panchromatic (PAN) image and low spatial resolution multispectral (MS) image. However, multispectral (MS) images having both high spectral and spatial resolution are generally desired for various remote sensing applications such as land use, precision agriculture, pollution monitoring and mapping urban areas. This tradeoff of spectral and spatial resolutions can be resolved by injecting fine spatial information extracted from the PAN image into the MS images. This process is known as pansharpening and it has become a powerful and economical solution to take advantage of the high spatial information of the PAN image and the essential spectral information of MS images. The problem of pansharpening has been studied for approximately three decades and the literature on the subject is both rich and diverse. The existing pansharpening methods differ in the way the spatial details are extracted from the PAN image and injected into the MS bands. The main challenge in pansharpening techniques is to preserve as much as possible, the original spectral information while improving the spatial resolution. However, state-of-the-art pansharpening methods are based on a marginal scheme which relies on color separation (RGB decomposition for example) of the spectral images resulting in significant loss of spectral information. This is due to the fact that marginal schemes cannot capture the correlation among spectral channels. A mathematically elegant solution to this problem can be found in the hypercomplex numbers, in particular quaternion model. The quaternion model allows handling color images as a single entity and allows consequently capturing the correlations among spectral channels. The goal of this

  7. Recent progresses in atmospheric remote sensing research in China —Chinese national report on atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Chen, Hongbin

    2004-06-01

    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999 2003 are summarily introduced. This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3) remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing, including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  8. Natural Resource Monitoring of Rheum tanguticum by Multilevel Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Caixiang; Song, Jingyuan; Suo, Fengmei; Li, Xiwen; Li, Ying; Yu, Hua; Xu, Xiaolan; Luo, Kun; Li, Qiushi; Xin, Tianyi; Guan, Meng; Xu, Xiuhai; Miki, Eiji; Takeda, Osami; Chen, Shilin

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has been extensively applied in agriculture for its objectiveness and promptness. However, few applications are available for monitoring natural medicinal plants. In the paper, a multilevel monitoring system, which includes satellite and aerial remote sensing, as well as ground investigation, was initially proposed to monitor natural Rheum tanguticum resource in Baihe Pasture, Zoige County, Sichuan Province. The amount of R. tanguticum from images is M = S*ρ and S is vegetation coverage obtained by satellite imaging, whereas ρ is R. tanguticum density obtained by low-altitude imaging. Only the R. tanguticum which coverages exceeded 1 m2 could be recognized from the remote sensing image because of the 0.1 m resolution of the remote sensing image (called effective resource at that moment), and the results of ground investigation represented the amounts of R. tanguticum resource in all sizes (called the future resource). The data in paper showed that the present available amount of R. tanguticum accounted for 4% to 5% of the total quantity. The quantity information and the population structure of R. tanguticum in the Baihe Pasture were initially confirmed by this system. It is feasible to monitor the quantitative distribution for natural medicinal plants with scattered distribution. PMID:25101134

  9. REMOTE SENSING FOR BIOENGINEERED CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met through the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such ana...

  10. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  11. Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irby, Jon Trenton

    Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific

  12. Remote Sensing - A Future Technology in Precision Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühbauch, W.; Hawlitschka, S.

    2003-04-01

    The paper briefly reports the opportunities of remote sensing for precision farming, a coming main focus in agriculture. MW-remote sensig may play an important role because of its weather independence. In particular polarimetric information with SAR- systems will be a powerful tool to enhance the accuracy of the determination of biophysical parameters of agricultural crops. In the former SIR-C/X-SAR missions the cross-polarized C-band backscatter value Chv as well as the coefficient Lhh/Lvv could be shown to detect the amount of biomass of cereals very well. In another study conducted earlier in the vegetation period with the airborne E-SAR during the Pro Smart project "Vitalität" the ratio Lhh/Xvv correlated well with the biomass of winter barley. From these data a map of the variability of the biomass within barley fields could be generated. Foreseeable advantages in precision farming that can be achieved by remote sensing are: • tracing target areas with abnormal appearance; early recording of hidden faults in field crops and on site identification of their causes • improved partitioning of fields into zones of uniform crop management • mapping of the spatial expansion of diseases and pests in field crops throughout the growing season; revision and enhancement of measures of pest control • continuous or stage dependent mapping of the crop nutrient demand, e.g. nitrogen; revision and enhancement of measures of fertilizer application • successive control of the effectiveness of crop management actions. Successful application of remote sensing in precision farming depends on the availability of ready to use products for the farmers. In order to transform remote sensing data in practicable site specific applications close cooperation between the operators of satellite systems and agro-consultants will be necessary.

  13. Future Radiometer Systems for Earth Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Njoku, Eni G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe a new exciting concept for using microwave systems for Earth remote sensing. This concept will use a 6-m diameter mesh deployable antenna with active and passive systems to provide moderate spatial resolution images at L and S-band microwave frequencies.

  14. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  15. Remote Sensing Simulation Activities for Earthlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Odden, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are activities using a Polaroid camera to illustrate the capabilities of remote sensing. Reading materials from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are suggested. Methods for (1) finding a camera's focal length, (2) calculating ground dimension photograph simulation, and (3) limiting size using film resolution are…

  16. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  17. Remote Sensing of Shelf Sea Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Otis B.

    This volume, edited by Nihoul, is a collection of papers by participants in the 15th Liege Colloquium, held in 1983. Although the title is somewhat daunting, the premise is a good one, i.e., “What can one learn about the basic theory of shelf-sea hydrodynamics by using remote sensing?” As with any such collection, some papers hit the mark (e.g., T. Nishimura et al., S. Onishi, and J. Witling), others give focus to the work (e.g., J. Nihoul, R. Pingree), while other work seems but distantly related to the subject at hand (e.g., the contributions of J. Gower and of S. Lin et al.). In the following review, I will try to give the reader a flavor for the volume's 18 sections. The book can be split into four themes: introduction to remote sensing, use of remote sensing and models, use of remote sensing to study oceanic variability, and optical oceanography.

  18. Remote Sensing of Arsenic Toxicity in Spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As) contamination of soil is a critical human health issue. Traditional methods of determining the presence and extent of As contamination focus largely on tedious and expensive soil sampling. Remote sensing of plant tissue may provide a practical alternative to detect arsenic contaminati...

  19. Remote sensing of volcanos and volcanic terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Francis, Peter W.; Wilson, Lionel; Pieri, David C.; Self, Stephen; Rose, William I.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using remote sensing to monitor potentially dangerous volcanoes is discussed. Thermal studies of active volcanoes are considered along with using weather satellites to track eruption plumes and radar measurements to study lava flow morphology and topography. The planned use of orbiting platforms to study emissions from volcanoes and the rate of change of volcanic landforms is considered.

  20. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  1. Remote sensing of plant functional types.

    PubMed

    Ustin, Susan L; Gamon, John A

    2010-06-01

    Conceptually, plant functional types represent a classification scheme between species and broad vegetation types. Historically, these were based on physiological, structural and/or phenological properties, whereas recently, they have reflected plant responses to resources or environmental conditions. Often, an underlying assumption, based on an economic analogy, is that the functional role of vegetation can be identified by linked sets of morphological and physiological traits constrained by resources, based on the hypothesis of functional convergence. Using these concepts, ecologists have defined a variety of functional traits that are often context dependent, and the diversity of proposed traits demonstrates the lack of agreement on universal categories. Historically, remotely sensed data have been interpreted in ways that parallel these observations, often focused on the categorization of vegetation into discrete types, often dependent on the sampling scale. At the same time, current thinking in both ecology and remote sensing has moved towards viewing vegetation as a continuum rather than as discrete classes. The capabilities of new remote sensing instruments have led us to propose a new concept of optically distinguishable functional types ('optical types') as a unique way to address the scale dependence of this problem. This would ensure more direct relationships between ecological information and remote sensing observations. PMID:20569415

  2. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  3. Application of remote sensing in forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in forestry studies is investigated. In particular, inventory, monitoring, detection, and management are discussed. Data show that infrared imagery appears to be the best technique for forestry studies. Data also show that color photographs are more easily interpreted than black and white ones.

  4. Thermal remote sensing: theory, sensors, and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of thermal infrared remote sensing for Earth science research are both varied and wide in scope. They range from understanding thermal energy responses that drive land-atmosphere energy exchanges in the hydrologic cycle, to measurement of dielectric surface properties for snow, ice, an...

  5. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Michael A.; Groffman, Peter M.

    1992-11-01

    The effects of topography and the level of soil moisture on the variability of soil moisture within remote sensing pixels were assessed during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) during 1987 and 1989. Soil moisture data from flat, sloped, and valley-shaped pixels were obtained over a wide range of moisture conditions. Relative elevation data were obtained for each study area to create digital elevation models with which to quantify topographic variability. Within-pixel soil moisture variability was shown to increase with increased topographic heterogeneity. The flat pixel had significantly lower standard deviations and fewer outlier points than the slope and valley pixels. Most pixel means had a positive skewness, indicating that most pixels will have areas of markedly higher than average soil moisture. Soil moisture variability (as indicated by the coefficient of variation) decreased as soil moisture levels increased. However, the absolute value of the standard deviation of soil moisture was independent of wetness. The data suggest that remote sensing will reflect soil moisture conditions less accurately on pixels with increased topographic variability and less precisely when the soil is dry. These differences in the inherent accuracy and precision of remote sensing soil moisture data should be considered when evaluating error sources in analyses of energy balance or biogeochemical processes that utilize soil moisture data produced by remote sensing.

  6. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  7. Remote Sensing for Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is being used more and more for decision-making and policy development. Specific examples are: (1) Providing constraints on climate models used in IPCC assessments (2) Framing discussions about greenhouse gas monitoring (3) Providing support for hazard assessment and recovery.

  8. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  9. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  10. Semiconductor laser technology for remote sensing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor injection lasers are required for implementing virtually all spaceborne remote sensing systems. Their main advantages are high reliability and efficiency, and their main roles are envisioned in pumping and injection locking of solid state lasers. In some shorter range applications they may even be utilized directly as the sources.

  11. Remotely sensing homochirality, a powerful generic biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Hough, J. H.; Kolokolova, L.; Germer, T.; Robb, F.

    2014-03-01

    A high quality biosignature arises uniquely from biological processes. If a biosignature can additionally be used in remote sensing, then it can be useful for future telescopic studies of extrasolar planets where remote sensing is a necessity. The remarkable phenomenon of homochirality may be such a biosignature. The optical activity of biological molecules, together with their handedness, can yield a unique signature in circular polarization. Photosynthesis, a surface phenomenon relying on strong polarization-sensitive transitions in the visible, where light from the host star is abundant, is a natural remote sensing target for this approach. Both microbial photosynthesis, which has dominated terrestrial life for much of the history of Earth, and macroscopic vegetation, may in principle be observed. Precision polarimetry from space is likely to be needed, and we describe a promising, innovative approach to acquire sensitive full Stokes polarimetry with a compact, robust configuration well-suited to space application. The homochirality phenomenon is likely to be generic to all biochemical life, and pure in that abiotic processes do not result in homochirality nor do abiotic processes produce circular polarization features with similar character to the biological ones. This uniquely powerful biosignature is amenable to remote sensing, in principle, through circular polarization spectroscopy.

  12. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  13. Remote sensing of geobotanical relations in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arden, D. D., Jr.; Westra, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to geological investigations, with special attention to geobotanical factors, was evaluated. The general areas of investigation included: (1) recognition of mineral deposits; (2) geological mapping; (3) delineation of geological structure, including areas of complex tectonics; and (4) limestone areas where ground withdrawal had intensified surface collapse.

  14. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Latorre Carmona, Pedro; Kaufmann, Robert K; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B; Baret, Frédéric; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-01-15

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact--it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N. PMID:23213258

  16. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  17. Remote sensing of ocean currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Zebker, H. A.; Barnett, T. P.

    1989-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring near-surface ocean currents with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The apparatus consists of a single SAR transmitter and two receiving antennas. The phase difference between SAR image scenes obtained from the antennas forms an interferogram that is directly proportional to the surface current. The first field test of this technique against conventional measurements gives estimates of mean currents accurate to order 20 percent, that is, root-mean-square errors of 5 to 10 centimeters per second in mean flows of 27 to 56 centimeters per second. If the full potential of the method could be realized with spacecraft, then it might be possible to routinely monitor the surface currents of the world's oceans.

  18. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-12

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Webinar Series ... Quality Applications Webinar Series Beginning in July, NASA’s Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET) will host a 5-part ...

  19. Remote Sensing of changes in terrestrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigina, O.

    2003-04-01

    For long-term monitoring of terrestrial ecosystems it is necessary to have compatible remote sensed data from different years acquired on close dates (to minimize phenological influence), supported by properly timed in-situ information. Low-resolution multispectral data from NOAA AVHRR, obtained since 1982 with high temporal resolution with ground resolution of 1 and 8 km are widely used for vegetation/forest monitoring at global and regional scale. Then, for meaningful monitoring it is necessary to use data from close dates and with close atmospheric conditions (this difference should be accounted for during pre-processing through absolute or relative radiometric correction). For local scales, where coarse resolution is not sufficient, the choice of sensors is big. In some areas, because of dense cloudiness, there can be very few images of acceptable quality. Then it is necessary to use a series of satellite observations from different sensors. Thus, apart from difference in phenology and atmosphere between the acquisitions, there will be a sensor-induced difference, which should be also accounted for. In case studies from Russian Kola Penisula and Senegal, a long-term monitoring was based on images from recently declassified pan Corona from 1960's and modern IRS 1C (pan) and Landsat-TM. In both cases it was possible to radiometrically correct distortions in the Corona strips and create a mosaic, after that Corona was successfully used in automated change-detection. A modelled panchromatic band from Landsat-TM was proved to be a good alternative for change-detection studies in absence of other high-resolution images. The change images, based on the pairs Corona, Landsat-TM-pan and Corona, IRS 1C are similar (r=0.98). However, in the case studies, the pan imagery was capable of detecting only dramatic changes, resulted in landcover change, e.g. deforestation due to industrial emissions or agricultural expansion.

  20. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  1. Superflux I, II, and III experiment design: Remote sensing aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Esaias, W. E.; Hypes, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay plume study called Superflux is described. The study was initiated to incorporate the disciplines of both resources management and remote sensing in accomplishing the following objectives: (1) process oriented research to understand the impact of estuarine outflows on continental shelf ecosystems; (2) monitoring and assessment to delineate the role of remote sensing in future monitoring and assessment programs; and (3) remote sensing research: to advance the state of the art in remote sensing systems as applied to sensing of the marine environment, thereby hastening the day when remote sensing can be used operationally for monitoring and assessment and for process oriented research.

  2. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  3. Characterization of Vegetation using the UC Davis Remote Sensing Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Hart, Q. J.; Bowen, K. S.; Ustin, S. L.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing provides information about the dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere with continuous spatial and temporal coverage on many different scales. We present the design and construction of a suite of instrument modules and network infrastructure with size, weight and power constraints suitable for small scale vehicles, anticipating vigorous growth in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and other mobile platforms. Our approach provides the rapid deployment and low cost acquisition of high aerial imagery for applications requiring high spatial resolution and revisits. The testbed supports a wide range of applications, encourages remote sensing solutions in new disciplines and demonstrates the complete range of engineering knowledge required for the successful deployment of remote sensing instruments. The initial testbed is deployed on a Sig Kadet Senior remote controlled plane. It includes an onboard computer with wireless radio, GPS, inertia measurement unit, 3-axis electronic compass and digital cameras. The onboard camera is either a RGB digital camera or a modified digital camera with red and NIR channels. Cameras were calibrated using selective light sources, an integrating spheres and a spectrometer, allowing for the computation of vegetation indices such as the NDVI. Field tests to date have investigated technical challenges in wireless communication bandwidth limits, automated image geolocation, and user interfaces; as well as image applications such as environmental landscape mapping focusing on Sudden Oak Death and invasive species detection, studies on the impact of bird colonies on tree canopies, and precision agriculture.

  4. Remote sensing using MIMO systems

    DOEpatents

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-04-28

    A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.

  5. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  6. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  7. Regional Drought Monitoring Based on Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jinyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung

    2014-05-01

    Drought originates from the deficit of precipitation and impacts environment including agriculture and hydrological resources as it persists. The assessment and monitoring of drought has traditionally been performed using a variety of drought indices based on meteorological data, and recently the use of remote sensing data is gaining much attention due to its vast spatial coverage and cost-effectiveness. Drought information has been successfully derived from remotely sensed data related to some biophysical and meteorological variables and drought monitoring is advancing with the development of remote sensing-based indices such as the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to name a few. The Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) has also been proposed to be used for humid regions proving the performance of multi-sensor data for agricultural drought monitoring. In this study, remote sensing-based hydro-meteorological variables related to drought including precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture were examined and the SDCI was improved by providing multiple blends of the multi-sensor indices for different types of drought. Multiple indices were examined together since the coupling and feedback between variables are intertwined and it is not appropriate to investigate only limited variables to monitor each type of drought. The purpose of this study is to verify the significance of each variable to monitor each type of drought and to examine the combination of multi-sensor indices for more accurate and timely drought monitoring. The weights for the blends of multiple indicators were obtained from the importance of variables calculated by non-linear optimization using a Machine Learning technique called Random Forest. The case study was performed in the Republic of Korea, which has four distinct seasons over the course of the year and contains complex topography with a variety

  8. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  9. Reflections on Earth--Remote-Sensing Research from Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the uses of remote sensing in different areas, and introduces the program "Reflections on Earth" which provides access to basic and instructional information on remote sensing to students and teachers. Introduces students to concepts related to remote sensing and measuring distances. (YDS)

  10. History and future of remote sensing technology and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  11. Application of remote sensing to arthropod vector surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Washino, R K; Wood, B L

    1994-01-01

    A need exists to further develop new technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems analysis, for estimating arthropod vector abundance in aquatic habitats and predicting adult vector population outbreaks. A brief overview of remote sensing technology in vector surveillance and control is presented, and suggestions are made on future research opportunities in light of current and proposed remote sensing systems. PMID:8024079

  12. An introduction to quantitative remote sensing. [data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Russell, J.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative approach to remote sensing is discussed along with the analysis of remote sensing data. Emphasis is placed on the application of pattern recognition in numerically oriented remote sensing systems. A common background and orientation for users of the LARS computer software system is provided.

  13. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  14. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  15. Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

  16. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  17. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing experiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of the surface energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. Microme...

  18. Anatomy of a local-scale drought: Application of assimilated remote sensing products, crop model, and statistical methods to an agricultural drought study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Das, Narendra N.; Prakash Khedun, C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Hansen, James W.

    2015-07-01

    Drought is of global concern for society but it originates as a local problem. It has a significant impact on water quantity and quality and influences food, water, and energy security. The consequences of drought vary in space and time, from the local scale (e.g. county level) to regional scale (e.g. state or country level) to global scale. Within the regional scale, there are multiple socio-economic impacts (i.e., agriculture, drinking water supply, and stream health) occurring individually or in combination at local scales, either in clusters or scattered. Even though the application of aggregated drought information at the regional level has been useful in drought management, the latter can be further improved by evaluating the structure and evolution of a drought at the local scale. This study addresses a local-scale agricultural drought anatomy in Story County in Iowa, USA. This complex problem was evaluated using assimilated AMSR-E soil moisture and MODIS-LAI data into a crop model to generate surface and sub-surface drought indices to explore the anatomy of an agricultural drought. Quantification of moisture supply in the root zone remains a gray area in research community, this challenge can be partly overcome by incorporating assimilation of soil moisture and leaf area index into crop modeling framework for agricultural drought quantification, as it performs better in simulating crop yield. It was noted that the persistence of subsurface droughts is in general higher than surface droughts, which can potentially improve forecast accuracy. It was found that both surface and subsurface droughts have an impact on crop yields, albeit with different magnitudes, however, the total water available in the soil profile seemed to have a greater impact on the yield. Further, agricultural drought should not be treated equal for all crops, and it should be calculated based on the root zone depth rather than a fixed soil layer depth. We envisaged that the results of

  19. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  20. Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.

    PubMed

    Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2010-01-01

    A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics. PMID:21096379

  1. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  2. Remote sensing for disaster mitigation of Sinabung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, T.; Yanti, J.

    2016-05-01

    Indonesia, a country with many active volcanoes, potentially occur natural disaster due to eruptions. One of volcanoes at Indonesia was Sinabung mountain, that located on Karo Regency, North Sumatera 3°10'12″ N 98°23'31" E, 2,460 masl. A fasile and new observation method for mapping the erupted areas was remote sensing. the remote sensing consisted of Landsat 8 OLI that was published on February 8th 2015 as input data ENVI 4.7 and ArcGIS 10 as mapping tools. The Land surface temperature (LST) was applied on mapping this resulted. The highest LST was 90.929657 °C. In addition, the LST distribution indicated that the flowing lava through south east. Therefore, the south east areas should be considered as mitigated areas.

  3. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. PMID:24759508

  4. Remote sensing analysis instrumentation for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    Detailed analysis of remotely sensed imagery is an important first step in determining the viability of an area for geothermal interest. Advances in quality and quantity of imagery require that the analysis process be improved. Where gross information is required, computer programs scan imagery, measure gray scale levels, and correlate density information to previously defined subjects. In areas of geothermal interest, detailed analysis of small information elements is required. Instrumentation consists of imagery support, transport and illumination, stereoscopic viewer, and graphic information transfer device. Instrumentation must support the human operator from one of the geothermal disciplines. New and fully capable analysis exploitation and equipment is available and should be used if the total economies of remote sensing are to be realized in geothermal studies.

  5. Operational LANDSAT remote sensing system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of $121.6 million dollars from NOAA's LANDSAT development program for FY 1982, and the shortened time period for transferring remote sensing technology to the private sector resulted in changes in the Agency's plans for managing the operational system. Proposed legislation for congressional consideration or enactment to establish conditions under which this private sector transfer will occur, and the expected gradual rise in the price of data products are discussed. No money exists for capital investment and none is projected for investing in an operational data handling system for the LANDSAT D satellite. Candidates knowledgeable of various aspects of the needs and uses of remote sensing are urged to consider participation in NOAA's advisory committee.

  6. Other remote sensing systems: Retrospect and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The history of remote sensing is reviewed and the scope and versatility of the several remote sensing systems already in orbit are discussed, especially those with sensors operating in other EM spectral modes. The multisensor approach is examined by interrelating LANDSAT observations with data from other satellite systems. The basic principles and practices underlying the use of thermal infrared and radar sensors are explored and the types of observations and interpretations emanating from the Nimbus, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, and SEASAT programs are examined. Approved or proposed Earth resources oriented missions for the 1980's previewed include LANDSAT D, Stereosat, Gravsat, the French satellite SPOT-1, and multimission modular spacecraft launched from space shuttle. The pushbroom imager, the linear array pushbroom radiometer, the multispectral linear array, and the operational LANDSAT observing system, to be designed the LANDSAT-E series are also envisioned for this decade.

  7. NORSEX 1979 microwave remote sensing data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigar, H. F.; Schaffner, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne microwave remote sensing measurements obtained by NASA Langley Research Center in support of the 1979 Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment (NORSEX) are summarized. The objectives of NORSEX were to investigate the capabilities of an active/passive microwave system to measure ice concentration and type in the vicinity of the marginal ice zone near Svalbard, Norway and to apply microwave techniques to the investigation of a thermal oceanic front near Bear Island, Norway. The instruments used during NORSEX include the stepped frequency microwave radiometer, airborne microwave scatterometer, precision radiation thermometer and metric aerial photography. The data are inventoried, summarized, and presented in a user-friendly format. Data summaries are presented as time-history plots which indicate when and where data were obtained as well as the sensor configuration. All data are available on nine-track computer tapes in card-image format upon request to the NASA Langley Technical Library.

  8. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  9. Remote vehicle emissions sensing feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rendahl, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Previous papers have addressed quality assurance efforts with regard to collecting data of known quality, data validation, and preliminary analysis of Wisconsin`s Remote Vehicle Emissions Sensing (RVES) project conducted in 1993 and 1994. This paper will analyze in greater detail the field data collected over the two years of studies. This analysis included making comparisons of mass emissions of total hydrocarbon emissions with respect to vehicle model year and total contribution to tropospheric ozone forming emissions in Southeastern Wisconsin. A simple analysis of errors of commission and errors of omission as a function of varying RVES cut points will be reviewed. And finally, potential emission reductions gained from the use of remote vehicle sensing will also be explored. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The Texas Remote Sensing Training Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The project was designed to train federal, state and regional agency managers, scientists and engineers. A one-week seminar was designed and implemented to build vocabulary, introduce technical subject areas and give students enough training to allow them to relate remote sensing technology to operational agency projects. The seminar was designed to perform the dual function of conveying enough remote sensing information to be of value as a stand-alone and preparing students for detailed pattern recognition training. The LARSYS III portion of the training project was executed exactly as designed in the LARSYS training materials package; the LARSYS package did not contain a LANDSAT training module. Two LANDSAT training modules were developed using Texas LANDSAT data. One module contained central Texas data and the second module contained coastal zone data.

  11. Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing at SDSM&T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price Maribeth H.

    1999-01-01

    The College of Earth Systems at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology established a Center for Remote Sensing to consolidate and coordinate the educational and research thrusts from different parts of campus into unified center with a focus on applications of remote sensing data in integrated environmental assessments. The threefold mission objectives of the Center are: 1) To educate students and the community in the principles and applications of remote sensing 2) To facilitate use of remote sensing in research coupling earth modeling, monitoring, and GIS 3) To distribute remote sensing data and expertise to regional federal, state, tribal, and local agencies.

  12. Remote Sensing of Global Wetland Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; Prigent, Catherine; Birkett, Charon; Coe, Mike; Hasen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although natural wetlands only cover about 4% of the earth's ice-free land surface, they are the world's largest methane (CH4) source and the only one dominated by climate. In addition, wetlands affect climate by modulating temperatures and heat fluxes, storing water, increasing evaporation, and altering the seasonality of runoff and river discharge to the oceans. Current CH4 emissions from wetlands are relatively well understood but the sensitivity of wetlands and their emissions to climate variations remains the largest uncertainty in the global CH4 cycle and could strongly influence predictions of future climate. Therefore, characterizing climate-sensitive processes prevailing in the world's wetlands is crucial to understanding and predicting physical and biogeochemical responses of wetlands to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Recent research has resulted in the first generation of models to predict methane emissions from wetlands but the models must still be applied to static data on wetland distributions. Moreover, no models currently exist to realistically predict the distribution and dynamics of wetlands themselves for the current, or any other, climate. The dominant obstacle to modeling wetland dynamics has been lack of remote sensing techniques and data useful for characterizing quantitatively the seasonal and interannual variations of wetlands. We report on initial remote sensing studies undertaken to validate a global hydrological model linking rivers, takes and wetlands. Using a combination of SSM/I microwave and TOPEX Poseidon altimetry data sets, we developed and applied techniques to quantify inundation extent and duration for several large wetlands in tropical Africa and South America. Our initial results indicate that seasonally-inundated wetlands can be well characterized over large spatial scales and at monthly time scales using these remote sensing data. The results also confirm that currently available remote sensing products can

  13. Recognizing thrust faults on remote sensing images

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, G.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This article examines the geomorphic evidence for thrusting and compares it to the expression of other faults and unconformities on remote sensing images. No single feature identifies thrusting, but rather the coincidence of several factors builds a case for a thrust interpretation. An example from Pakistan illustrates the geomorphic criteria in an area with excellent exposures and classic thrust features. The structure interpretation is supported by construction of cross sections; together these are used to suggest areas of exploration interest.

  14. Flood Management Enhancement Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanowski, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    SENTAR, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in December 1994. The intent of the NASA Cooperative Agreement was to stimulate broad public use, via the Internet, of the very large remote sensing databases maintained by NASA and other agencies, thus stimulating U.S. economic growth, improving the quality of life, and contributing to the implementation of a National Information Infrastructure. SENTAR headed a team of collaborating organizations in meeting the goals of this project. SENTAR's teammates were the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC), the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC), and the Alabama Emergency Management Agency (EMA). For this cooperative agreement, SENTAR and its teammates accessed remotely sensed data in the Distributed Active Archive Centers, and other available sources, for use in enhancing the present capabilities for flood disaster management by the Alabama EMA. The project developed a prototype software system for addressing prediction, warning, and damage assessment for floods, though it currently focuses on assessment. The objectives of the prototype system were to demonstrate the added value of remote sensing data for emergency management operations during floods and the ability of the Internet to provide the primary communications medium for the system. To help achieve these objectives, SENTAR developed an integrated interface for the emergency operations staff to simplify acquiring and manipulating source data and data products for use in generating new data products. The prototype system establishes a systems infrastructure designed to expand to include future flood-related data and models or to include other disasters with their associated remote sensing data requirements and distributed data sources. This report covers the specific work performed during the seventh, and final, milestone period of the project, which

  15. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  16. Highlights: US Commercial Remote Sensing Industry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Ron

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation profiles the US remote sensing industry based on responses to a survey by 1450 industry professionals. The presentation divides the industry into three sectors: academic, commercial, and government; the survey results from each are covered in a section of the presentation. The presentation also divides survey results on user needs into the following sectors: spatial resolution, geolocation accuracy; elevation accuracy, area coverage, imagery types, and timeliness. Data, information, and software characteristics are also covered in the presentation.

  17. Approaches to remote sensing data analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives: To present an overview of the essential steps in the remote sensing data analysis process, and to compare and contrast manual (visual) and automated analysis methods Rationale: This overview is intended to provide a framework for choosing a manual of digital analysis approach to collecting resource information. It can also be used as a basis for understanding/evaluating invited papers and poster sessions during the Symposium

  18. Structural analysis techniqes for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    The structural analysis of remotely sensed imagery is defined and basic techniques for implementing the process are described. Structural analysis uses knowledge of the properties of an entity, its parts and their relationships, and the relationships in which it participates at a higher level to locate and recognize objects in a visual scene. The representation of structural knowledge, the development of algorithms for using the knowledge to help analyze an image, and techniques for storage and retrieval of relational models are addressed.

  19. Imaging spectrometers for remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, M. P.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Macenka, S. A.; Page, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three imaging spectrometers and two camera systems for remote sensing are described. Two of the imaging spectrometers are versions of the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) for Mars Observer and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The other spectrometer is the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is currently under construction. The optical imaging systems are the wide angle and narrow angle cameras for the CRAF mission.

  20. Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The roles and activities of NASA and the National Conference of State Legislatures in fostering remote sensing technology utilization by the states and in promoting interstate communication and cooperation are reviewed. The reduction and interpretation of LANDSAT MSS and aerial reconnaissance data for resources management and environment assessment are described as well as resource information systems, and the value of SEASAT synthetic aperture radar and LANDSAT 4 data.

  1. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  2. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  3. Remote sensing on Indian and public lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.; Woll, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques by the Bureaus of Indian Affairs and Land Management in planning resource problems, making decisions, writing environmental impact statements, and monitoring their respective programs is investigated. For Indian affairs, data cover the Papago, Fort Apache, San Carlos, and South Dakota Reservations. For the Land Management Office, data cover cadastral surveys, California desert study, range watersheds, and efforts to establish a natural resources information system.

  4. Improved microwave radiometry for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leber, A.; Flattau, T.

    1979-01-01

    Significant improvements in the gain stability and overall performance of microwave radiometers have been achieved with the use of a self-balancing gain modulation technique. This technique, in combination with automatic thermal calibration, is particularly well suited for remote sensing radiometric applications. The essential features of such a radiometer, including typical data obtained from a spaceborne satellite, is presented to show the instrument's utility.

  5. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  6. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  7. CLIMATE FEEDBACKS AND FUTURE REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, J.

    2009-12-01

    Water vapor and cloud - climate feedbacks are two fundamental feedbacks in the context of climate change. Although more realistic in terms of water vapor, present-day climate models fail to properly represent the physical processes associated with cloud-climate feedbacks. Remote sensing from space of these small-scale processes, such as clouds, turbulence and convection, is notoriously difficult and is still not good enough in order to provide the necessary constraints that would lead to a better understanding of the climate system and to improved climate prediction. A Program on ‘Climate Feedbacks and Future Remote Sensing Observations’ was organized under the auspices of the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS). The goals of this Program were: i) To bring together scientists from different branches of the climate research community (theory, models, observations) to address key problems in the physics of climate feedbacks; ii) To promote the use of remote sensing observational data in the climate physics and climate modeling community; iii) To provide guidance on future research and future missions regarding the physics of climate change. The main conclusions and recommendations from this KISS Program will be presented in detail.

  8. Modeling of pulsed lasers for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed lasers are useful for remote sensing of wind and greenhouse gases to better understand the atmosphere and its impact on weather patterns and the environment. It is not always practical to develop and optimize new laser systems empirically due to the time and expense associated with such endeavors. A practical option is to use a laser model to predict various performance parameters and compare these with the needs required for a particular remote sensing application. This approach can be very useful in determining the efficacy of potential laser systems, saving both time and money before proceeding with the actual construction of a laser device. As a pedagogical example, the modeling of diode pumped Tm:Ho:YLF and Tm:Ho:LuLF lasers are examined. Tm:Ho lasers operating around 2.0 μm have been used for wind measurements such as clear air turbulence and wake vortices. The model predictions for the laser systems examined here are compared to the actual laser performance, validating the usefulness of the modeling approach. While Tm:Ho fluoride lasers are used as a pedagogical example, the model is applicable to any lanthanide series pulsed laser system. This provides a useful tool for investigating potential laser systems that meet the requirements desired for a variety of remote sensing applications.

  9. Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2006-05-01

    Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures

  10. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Brinker, David J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) have an on-going activity to develop remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of icing conditions aloft. A multiple instrument approach is the current emphasis of this activity. Utilizing radar, radiometry, and lidar, a region of supercooled liquid is identified. If the liquid water content (LWC) is sufficiently high, then the region of supercooled liquid cloud is flagged as being an aviation hazard. The instruments utilized for the current effort are an X-band vertical staring radar, a radiometer that measures twelve frequencies between 22 and 59 GHz, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data are post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled LWC profile and aircraft hazard identification. Remotely sensed measurements gathered during the 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) were compared to aircraft in-situ measurements. Although the comparison data set is quite small, the cases examined indicate that the remote sensing technique appears to be an acceptable approach.

  11. Estimating Riparian ET through Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Z.; Bawazir, S.; Bleiweiss, M.; Skaggs, R.; Schmugge, T.

    2005-12-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) along the Rio Grande River has become a major hydrological as well as political issue in New Mexico. The State of New Mexico has spent millions of dollars in recent years to eradicate riparian vegetation without being able to quantify the change in regional ET. Many studies have focused on measuring evapotranspiration of individual riparian vegetation types, mainly saltcedar and native cottonwood. However, the riparian vegetation on the Middle Rio Grande varies in density and species.. Spatial variation in climate, soil type and depth to groundwater causes variation in ET, as well. It is obvious that in order to obtain more accuracy in measurements, multiple sampling points are needed; thus, making the process costly and impractical An alternative solution, which is also cost-effective, is measuring ET by using remote sensing technology. Remote sensing combines regional satellite data with localized ET measurement to calculate regional ET. REEM (Regional ET Estimation Model) is a process that uses the energy balance at the top of the canopy to estimate ET. REEM has been using ASTER images for values of surface temperature, albedo and NDVI to calculate net radiation (Rn), ground heat flux (G) and sensible heat flux (H). The ET is then calculated as residual of the energy components. The REEM model is being used to calculate regional ET values for the Riparian vegetation of the Middle Rio Grande. The paper compares the ET values for various vegetation types using remote sensing and ET derived from Eddy Covariance Flux Towers.

  12. Compositing multitemporal remote sensing data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, J.; Huete, A.R.; Hood, J.; Kerr, Y.

    1993-01-01

    To eliminate cloud and atmosphere-affected pixels, the compositing of multi temporal remote sensing data sets is done by selecting the maximum vale of the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) within a compositing period. The NDVI classifier, however, is strongly affected by surface type and anisotropic properties, sensor viewing geometries, and atmospheric conditions. Consequently, the composited, multi temporal, remote sensing data contain substantial noise from these external conditions. Consequently, the composited, multi temporal, remote sensing data contain substantial noise from these external effects. To improve the accuracy of compositing products, two key approaches can be taken: one is to refine the compositing classifier (NDVI) and the other is to improve existing compositing algorithms. In this project, an alternative classifier was developed and an alternative pixel selection criterion was proposed for compositing. The new classifier and the alternative compositing algorithm were applied to an advanced very high resolution radiometer data set of different biome types in the United States. The results were compared with the maximum value compositing and the best index slope extraction algorithms. The new approaches greatly reduced the high frequency noises related to the external factors and repainted more reliable data. The results suggest that the geometric-optical canopy properties of specific biomes may be needed in compositing. Limitations of the new approaches include the dependency of pixel selection on the length of the composite period and data discontinuity.

  13. Autofocus method for scanning remote sensing cameras.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hengyi; Han, Chengshan; Xue, Xucheng; Hu, Changhong; Yao, Cheng

    2015-07-10

    Autofocus methods are conventionally based on capturing the same scene from a series of positions of the focal plane. As a result, it has been difficult to apply this technique to scanning remote sensing cameras where the scenes change continuously. In order to realize autofocus in scanning remote sensing cameras, a novel autofocus method is investigated in this paper. Instead of introducing additional mechanisms or optics, the overlapped pixels of the adjacent CCD sensors on the focal plane are employed. Two images, corresponding to the same scene on the ground, can be captured at different times. Further, one step of focusing is done during the time interval, so that the two images can be obtained at different focal plane positions. Subsequently, the direction of the next step of focusing is calculated based on the two images. The analysis shows that the method investigated operates without restriction of the time consumption of the algorithm and realizes a total projection for general focus measures and algorithms from digital still cameras to scanning remote sensing cameras. The experiment results show that the proposed method is applicable to the entire focus measure family, and the error ratio is, on average, no more than 0.2% and drops to 0% by reliability improvement, which is lower than that of prevalent approaches (12%). The proposed method is demonstrated to be effective and has potential in other scanning imaging applications. PMID:26193414

  14. Monitoring vegetation responses to drought -- linking Remotely-sensed Drought Indices with Meteorological drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.; Liu, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Effectively monitoring vegetation drought is of great significance in ecological conservation and agriculture irrigation at the regional scale. Combining meteorological drought indices with remotely sensed drought indices can improve tracking vegetation dynamic under the threat of drought. This study analyzes the dynamics of spatially-defined Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and temporally-defined Vegetation Health Index (VHI) from remotely sensed NDVI and LST datasets in the dry spells in Southwest China. We analyzed the correlation between remotely sensed drought indices and meteorological drought index of different time scales. The results show that TVDI was limited by the spatial variations of LST and NDVI, while VHI was limited by the temporal variations of LST and NDVI. Station-based buffering analysis indicates that the extracted remotely sensed drought indices and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) could reach stable correlation with buffering radius larger than 35 km. Three factors affect the spatiotemporal relationship between remotely sensed drought indices and SPI: i) different vegetation types; ii) the timescale of SPI; and iii) remote sensing data noise. Vegetation responds differently to meteorological drought at various time scales. The correlation between SPI6 and VHI is more significant than that between SPI6 and TVDI. Spatial consistency between VHI and TVDI varies with drought aggravation. In early drought period from October to December, VHI and TVDI show limited consistency due to the low quality of remotely sensed images. The study helps to improve monitoring vegetation drought using both meteorological drought indices and remotely sensed drought indices.

  15. The cross time and space features in remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Song, W. L.; Qu, W.; Fu, J. E.; Pang, Z. G.

    2015-08-01

    Remote sensing is one subject of the modern geomatics, with a high priority for practical applications in which cross time and space analysis is one of its significant features. Object recognition and/or parameter retrieval are normally the first step in remote sensing applications, whereas cross time and space change analysis of those surface objects and/or parameters will make remote sensing applications more valuable. Based on a short review on the historic evolution of remote sensing and its current classification system, the cross time and space features commonly existing in remote sensing applications were discussed. The paper, aiming at improving remote sensing applications and promoting development of the remote sensing subject from a new vision, proposed a methodology based subject classification approach for remote sensing and then suggest to establish the theory of cross time and space remote sensing applications. The authors believe that such a new cross time and space concept meets the demand for new theories and new ideas from remote sensing subject and is of practical help to future remote sensing applications.

  16. The application of remote sensing to resource management and environmental quality programs in Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.; Martinko, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Activities of the Kansas Applied Remote Sensing Program (KARS) designed to establish interactions on cooperative projects with decision makers in Kansas agencies in the development and application of remote sensing procedures are reported. Cooperative demonstration projects undertaken with several different agencies involved three principal areas of effort: Wildlife Habitat and Environmental Analysis; Urban and Regional Analysis; Agricultural and Rural Analysis. These projects were designed to concentrate remote sensing concepts and methodologies on existing agency problems to insure the continued relevancy of the program and maximize the possibility for immediate operational use. Completed projects are briefly discussed.

  17. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  18. Monitoring Wetland Changes with Remote Sensing: An East African Example

    PubMed

    Haack

    1996-05-01

    Environmental managers need current, accurate information upon which to base decisions. Viable information, especially in developing countries, is often unavailable. Satellite remote sensing is an appropriate and effective data source for mapping the surface of the earth, including a variety of environmental features. Remote-sensing-derived information is enhanced by being one component within a geographic information system (GIS). These techniques were employed to study an expanding delta in East Africa.The Omo River flows from the Ethiopian Highlands into the northern end of Lake Turkana, creating a large delta extending between Ethiopia and Kenya. This isolated and unique wetland feature has expanded by over 500 sq km in the last 15 years as measured by space-borne remote sensing techniques and corroborated by low-altitude aircraft reconnaissance flights.The growth of the delta appears to be a function of both increased sedimentation and decreased lake levels and river flows. Within the delta there has been a selective decline in wildlife and an increase in human activity, both pastoral and agricultural. The uniqueness of this isolated delta suggests that consideration be given to its possible protection and management. PMID:8661611

  19. Online Remote-Sensing Tool for Calculating Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Sammis, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    Remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET) models are important for forest, phreatophyte, rangeland, and agricultural water and pest management. However, most remote sensing ET models are not available in an Internet-based operational mode. Manually downloading satellite and weather data and processing this data is complicated and time-consuming, requiring as much as 2-6 hrs per satellite scene. If the ET algorithm is going to be used by the scientific community or management agencies and farmers, it is imperative that the computer processing be automated and user-friendly; the user should be able to input the dates and locations of interest and have the model output the ET results (map and ACSII data file). The objective of our research was to test the hypothesis that remote sensing algorithms that calculate daily ET based on energy balance could be automated. An Internet-based ET model using MODIS, local weather station, and forecast data was developed. The automated calculated daily ET was compared to measured eddy-covariance ET under both stressed and non-stressed conditions.

  20. Can Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Detect Species Specific Biochemicals ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Discrimination of a few plants scattered among many plants is a goal common to detection of agricultural weeds, invasive plant species and illegal Cannabis clandestinely grown outdoors, the subject of this research. Remote sensing technology provides an automated, computer based, land cover classification capability that holds promise for improving upon the existing approaches to Cannabis detection. In this research, we investigated whether hyperspectral reflectance of recently harvested, fully turgid Cannabis leaves and buds depends upon the concentration of the psychoactive ingredient Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that, if present at sufficient concentration, presumably would allow species-specific identification of Cannabis.

  1. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 11th, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., April 25-29, 1977, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to remote sensor development and sensor data analysis and interpretation, and to the following fields of application of remote sensors: geology and mineral resources, meteorology, agriculture, forestry and rangeland, ocean and coastal regions, and environmental quality. Attention is also given to economic and institutional issues and technology transfer in the field of remote sensing, to microwave remote sensing and to the current and future role of remote sensing in operational programs.

  2. Assessment of crop productivity over intensively managed agriculture regions in India and Australia using solar-induced fluorescence remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadas, R.; Huete, A. R.; Patel, N. R.; Padalia, H.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Kuruvilla, A.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite based estimation of solar-induced terrestrial fluorescence (SIF) is considered to be a direct measure of photosynthetic functional status of the vegetation. Prior studies have shown SIF to more accurately retrieve the productivity of intensively managed croplands, as in the U.S. corn belt. In this study, we assessed and compared agricultural productivity over two intensive crop production regions in Australia and India using SIF data, traditional spectral measures, and crop yield data. Regional level wheat yield data were obtained for the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in India and the Murray Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia for analyses with GOME-2 SIF satellite and MODIS VI measurements, and gross primary productivity from flux towers. We investigated the importance of integrating traditional meteorological parameters and ground based data with time-series vegetation indices for scaling of SIF to obtain robust yield prediction models for application across years and continents. This study further explored the relationship of inter annual variations in crop phenology metrics through SIF retrievals and its relationship with crop yields. The IGP study region showed systematic cycles of double cropping. MDB region on the other hand showed cycles of pronounced winter cropping and a weaker and variable second cropping over the analysis period. For various winter wheat crop seasons in IGP, from 2007 to 2012, SIF explained and accounted between 48 to 74 per cent of the variations in regional wheat yields. Similar results were obtained in the case of MDB also, however, the relationship between SIF and yield estimates was weaker (R2 = 0.44). SIF measurements, as a surrogate of crop productivity, were considerably higher over the highly productive IGP region in almost all the years considered. The SIF data shows immense potential for modelling agricultural productivity, particularly as the resolution of SIF retrievals continues to improve.

  3. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  4. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  5. Determination of the effects of temporal change in urban and agricultural land uses as seen in the example of the town of Akhisar, using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Gulgun, Bahriye; Yörük, Ismail; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Bolca, Mustafa; Güneş, Asli

    2009-03-01

    Today, as a result of erratic and unplanned urbanization, towns are rapidly becoming a mass of concrete and town-dwellers are suffocated by their busy and stressful professional lives. They feel a need for places where they can find breathing-space in their free time. Green areas within towns are important spaces where townspeople are able to carry out recreational activities. These places form a link between townspeople and nature. The importance of urban green areas is increasing with every passing day due to their social, psychological, ecological, physical and economic functions and their impact on the quality of towns. In this study it has been attempted to demonstrate the pressures of urban development on agricultural land by determining the changing land use situation over the years in the district of Akhisar. In this research, an aerial photograph from year 1939 and satellite images of the town from the years 2000 and 2007 were used. Land use changes in the region were determined spatially. As a result of this study, which aims to determine in which direction urbanization is progressing in the district, the importance of town planning emerges. This study will be informative for the local authorities in their future town planning projects. With its flat and almost flat fertile arable land, the district of Akhisar occupies an important position within the province of Manisa. From the point of view of olive production the region is one of Turkey's important centres. Fifty-five percent of the olive production in the province of Manisa is realized in Akhisar. However, the results of the present study show that while agricultural areas comprised 2.5805 km(2) in 1939, these had diminished to 1.5146 km(2) in the year 2000 and had diminished to 1.0762 km(2) in the year 2007 and residential area (dense) 0.449 km(2) occupied in 1939, in the year 2000 this had risen to 1.9472 and 2.3238 km(2) in the year 2007. This planless urbanization in the study area has led to

  6. Hyperspectral and multispectral sensors for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Kullar, Sukhbir; Cochrane, David; O, Nixon; Lomako, Andrey; Draijer, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Remote Hyperspectral and Multispectral sensors have been developed using modern CCD and CMOS fabrication techniques combined with advanced dichroic filters. The resulting sensors are more cost effective while maintaining the high performance needed in remote sensing applications. A single device can contain multiple imaging areas tailored to different multispectral bandwidths in a highly cost effective and reliable package. This paper discusses a five band visible to near IR scanning sensor. By bonding advanced dichroic filters onto the cover glass and directly in the imaging path a highly efficient multispectral sensor is achieved. Up to 12,000 linear pixel arrays are possible1 with this advanced filter technology approach. Individual imaging areas on the device are designed to have unique pixel sizes and clocking to enable tailored imaging performance for the individual spectral bands. Individual elements are also based on high resolution Time Delay and Integration technology2,3 (TDI) to maximize sensitivity and throughput. Additionally for hyperspectral imagers, a split frame CCD design is discussed using high sensitivity back side illuminated (BSI) processes that can achieve high quantum efficiency. As these sensors are used in remote sensing applications, device robustness and radiation tolerance was required.

  7. The Use of Remote Sensing for Monitoring, Prediction, and Management of Hydrologic, Agricultural, and Ecological Processes in the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA-EPSCoR program in South Dakota is focused on the enhancement of NASA-related research in earth system science and corresponding infrastructure development to support this theme. Hence, the program has adopted a strategy that keys on research projects that: a) establish quantitative links between geospatial information technologies and fundamental climatic and ecosystem processes in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) and b) develop and use coupled modeling tools, which can be initialized by data from combined satellite and surface measurements, to provide reliable predictions and management guidance for hydrologic, agricultural, and ecological systems of the NGP. Building a partnership network that includes both internal and external team members is recognized as an essential element of the SD NASA-EPSCoR program. Hence, promoting and tracking such linkages along with their relevant programmatic consequences are used as one metric to assess the program's progress and success. This annual report first summarizes general activities and accomplishments, and then provides progress narratives for the two separate, yet related research projects that are essential components of the SD NASA-EPSCoR program.

  8. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture: Identification and classification of Iowa's crops, soils and forestry resources using ERTS-1 and complimentary underflight imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlstede, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Carlson, R. E.; Fenton, T. E.; Thomson, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Springtime ERTS-1 imagery covering pre-selected test sites in Iowa showed considerable detail with respect to broad soil and land use patterns. Additional imagery has been incorporated into a state mosaic. The mosaic was used as a base for soil association lines transferred from an existing map. The regions of greatest contrast are between the Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association area and adjacent areas. Landscape characteristics in this area result in land use patterns with a high percentage of pasture, hay, and timber. The soil association areas of the state that have patterns interpreted to be associated with intensive row crop production are: Moody, Galva-Primghar-Sac, Clarion-Nicollet-Webter, Tama-Muscatine, Dinsdale-Tama, Cresco-Lourdes, Clyde, Kenyon-Floyd-Clyde, and the Luton-Onawa-Salix area on the Missouri River floodplain. Forestland estimates have been attained for an area in central Iowa using wintertime ERTS-1 imagery. Visual analysis of multispectral, temporal imagery indicates that temporal analysis for cropland identification and acreage analyses procedures may be a very useful tool. Combinations of wintertime, springtime, and summertime ERTS-1 imagery separate most vegetation types. Timing can be critical depending upon crop development and harvesting times because of the dynamic nature of agricultural production.

  9. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Boeovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Saemundsson, K.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The wide variety of geological and geophysical phenomena which can be observed in Iceland, and particularly their very direct relation to the management of the country's natural resources, has provided great impetus to the use of ERTS-1 imagery to measure and map the dynamic natural phenomena in Iceland. MSS imagery is being used to study a large variety of geological and geophysical eruptive products, geologic structure, volcanic geomorphology, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena of Iceland. Some of the preliminary results from this research projects are: (1) a large number of geological and volcanic features can be studied from ERTS-1 imagery, particularly imagery acquired at low sun angle, which had not previously been recognized; (2) under optimum conditions the ERTS-1 satellite can discern geothermal areas by their snow melt pattern or warm spring discharge into frozen lakes; (3) various maps at scales of 1:1 million and 1:500,000 can be updated and made more accurate with ERTS-1 imagery; (4) the correlation of water reserves with snowcover can improve the basis for planning electrical production in the management of water resources; (5) false-color composites (MSS) permitted the mapping of four types of vegetation: forested; grasslands, reclaimed, and cultivated areas, and the seasonal change of the vegetation, all of high value to rangeland management.

  10. The 1994 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 1994)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium focus on remote sensing, particularly on global monitoring of the earth with emphasis on the solution of environmental problems. Topics discussed include remote sensing of clouds and earth troposphere, sea ice remote sensing, optical remote sensing, land monitoring and thermal sensing, atmospheric sounding and monitoring, atmospheric correction, and satellite imaging data. Other subject areas are ecosystems and vegetation monitoring; ocean winds and surface scattering; ocean waves, currents and bathymetry; satellite oceanography; SAR for remote sensing; neural nets application to remote sensing; geographical information systems; and electromagnetic wave propagation. Also discussed environmental monitoring using ERS-1; Topex/Poseidon results; spaceborne instruments; image processing and classification algorithms; and future space missions.

  11. Recent advances in land data assimilation for remote sensing observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a number of decades, remote sensing observations have been used to define static model parameters and/or forcing inputs for a range of land surface models. However, recent advances in remote sensing theory have also enabled the remote retrieval of dynamic land model states (e.g. leaf area inde...

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing Hyperspectral Data Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A.; Li, H.; Wu, W.; Kizer, S.; Huang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Hyperspectral data from satellite remote sensors provide abundant information on atmospheric temperature, water, trace gases, clouds, and surface. Fast and accurate radiative transfer models are needed to perform and link GCM Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) with remote sensing data. We have developed a Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model, which is capable of simulating Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiance (or reflectance) from far-IR to UV-VIS spectral region. It is 3-4 orders of magnitude faster than line-by-line radiative transfer models. For example, it takes about 10 miliseconds to simulate one IASI spectrum with 8461 spectral channels in IR spectral region. It is about 900 times faster than MODTRAN fast model to simulate SCHIAMACHY data in solar spectral region. It has been validated using real satellite data such as AIRS, IASI, CrIS, and SCHIAMACHY satellite data and it can be easily applied to other satellite data.

  13. Determination of impact of urbanization on agricultural land and wetland land use in Balçovas' delta by remote sensing and GIS technique.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Mustafa; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Kurucu, Yusuf; Altinbas, Unal; Esetlili, M Tolga; Gulgun, Bahriye

    2007-08-01

    Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of big cities are areas of greet attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, deltas, with their fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of such areas to be planned in a sustainable way by local authorities, there is a need for detailed data about these regions. In this study, the changes in land use of the Balçova Delta, which is to the immediate west of Turkey's third largest city Izmir, from 1957 up to the present day, were investigated. In the study, using aerial photographs taken in 1957, 1976 and 1995 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2005, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and changes in the coastline were determined spatially. Through this study, which aimed to reveal the characteristics of the areas of land already lost as well as the types of land use in the Balçova delta and to determine geographically the remaining areas in need of protection, local authorities were provided with the required data support. Balçova consists of flat and fertile wetland with mainly citrus-fruit orchards and flower-producing green houses. The marsh and lagoon system situated in the coastal areas of the delta provides a habitat for wild life, in particular birds. In the Balçova Delta, which provides feeding and resting for migratory birds, freshwater sources are of vital importance for fauna and flora. The settlement area, which in 1957 was 182 ha, increased 11-fold up to the year 2005 when it reached 2,141 ha. On the other hand, great losses were determined in farming land, olive groves, forest and in the marsh and lagoon system. This unsystematic and rapid urbanization occurring in the study region is not only causing the loss of important agricultural land and wetland, but also lasting water and soil pollution. PMID:17180418

  14. International Models and Methods of Remote Sensing Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.

    A classification of remote sensing courses throughout the world, the world-wide need for sensing instruction, and alternative instructional methods for meeting those needs are discussed. Remote sensing involves aerial photointerpretation or the use of satellite and other non-photographic imagery; its focus is to interpret what is in the photograph…

  15. Remote Sensing as a Demonstration of Applied Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Robert N.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the field of remote sensing, including discussions of geo-synchronous and sun-synchronous remote-sensing platforms, the actual physical processes and equipment involved in sensing, the analysis of images by humans and machines, and inexpensive, small scale methods, including aerial photography. (CS)

  16. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  17. Spectroscopic data for thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Nemtchinov, V.; Li, Z.

    1995-01-01

    There has been extensive world-wide use of chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFC's), especially CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2), hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's), HCFC-22 (CHFCl2) in particular, and sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) in numerous many industrial applications. These chemicals possess either a strong ozone-depletion potential or a global-warming potential, or both, and pose a threat to the inhabitability of our planet. Recognition of this fact has led to significant curtailment, if not total banishment, of their use globally. However, as recent satellite observations have shown, decline in their atmospheric concentrations may not be immediate. The marked depletion of ozone which has been observed in recent years at high latitudes has made infrared remote sensing of the atmosphere an activity of high priority. The success of any infrared remote sensing experiment conducted in the atmosphere depends upon the availability of accurate, high-resolution, spectroscopic data that are applicable to that experiment. This paper presents a preliminary phase of a multi-faceted work using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which is in progress in our laboratory. The concept of how laboratory-borne measurements can be geared toward obtaining a database that is directly applicable to satellite-borne remote sensing missions is the main thrust of this paper which addresses itself to ongoing or planned international space missions. Spectroscopic data on the unresolvable bands of the above mentioned as well as several other man-made gases and on the individual spectral lines of such naturally present trace gases as CO2, N2O, NH3, and CH4 are presented. There is often significant overlap between the isolated lines of better known bands of the more abundant species and the weaker absorption features identifiable as bands of the currently less abundant CFC's, HCFC's, and SF6.

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  19. Remote Sensing And Surface Hydrocarbon Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, M. D.; Jones, V. T.; Richers, D. M.

    1984-08-01

    The Geosat oil and gas test site program stimulated interest in the interaction between surface hydrocarbon concentrations and interpretation of remote sensing data. The test case results suggested that lineaments correspond to avenues of preferential hydrocarbon seepage and that this seepage affects vegetation health and populations at Patrick Draw field in Wyoming and potentially at Lost River field, West Virginia. These two areas were selected for additional surface hydrocarbon surveys in order to test these hypotheses. The Patrick Draw study shows that a zone of stressed vegetation, visible on thematic mapper data, definitely coincides with an area of marked leakage of hydrocarbons and that the composition of these gases would predict an intermediate type oil and gas reservoir such as exists in the area. The study further indicates that the leakage is in large part controlled by the presence of fractures/faults recognized as lineaments on the remote sensing images. The Lost River study specifically investigated the possible existence of hydrocarbon leakage causing anomalous populations of maple trees in a climax oak forest. These maples were first recognized by study of thematic mapper simulator data. The soil gas hydrocarbon concentrations are above average in several of the maple anomalies over the field. This supports the inference that the maples are present because they are more tolerant of soil conditions where hydrocarbon seepage is active. The crest of the field has low soil gas magnitudes, but high values occur to the updip eastern edge of the field along a fault/fracture that was detected in the seismic data. The conclusion that preferential pathways of hydrocarbon leakage are recognized in spectral and textural analysis of remote sensing data is supported by other studies and integrated into a suggested exploration/hydrocarbon migration model.

  20. Low-cost remote chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen Keith

    The intentional or accidental release of a hazardous chemical, such as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) or a toxic industrial chemical (TIC), could endanger many lives. In domestic chemical release situations, a rapid response, which is critical for casualty minimization, requires that primary and first responders have the ability to rapidly probe the threatened area from a safe distance. First responders require sensors that are portable, remote (stand-off), sensitive, robust, and cost effective. While a number of remote chemical sensors are being developed, none meet the requirements of the first responder community due to their cost, complexity, and size. This work proposes a unique approach to hazardous chemical detection based on low-cost, low-energy, uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors fitted with narrow bandpass filters. Prototype remote differential absorption radiometers (DARs) based on low-cost pyroelectric detectors fitted with relatively broad (30 cm-1) bandpass filters for sensitivity to hazardous chemical simulants, including methanol, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), were developed and tested. A methanol detection limit of 0.014 atm cm was demonstrated with the prototype sensor. This is well below military prescribed detection limits and demonstrates that sensors based on uncooled pyroelectric detectors can achieve sensitivities exceeding military requirements. Once chemical sensitivity was demonstrated, a prototype multi-spectral sensor comprised of 8 pyroelectric detectors. The measured methanol detection limit for this sensor was 0.033 atm cm. This prototype exhibited a unique response to three hazardous chemical simulants which could be used to detect and to identify the chemical reliably. To improve chemical sensitivity in realistic sensing environments, correction for background effects, such as temperature variations and spectral emissivity characteristics, is required. A simple background