Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural residue removal

  1. Modeling Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal at the Subfield Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, D.J.; McCorkle, D.S.; Koch, J.B.; Bryden, K.M.

    2012-05-02

    This study developed a computational strategy that utilizes data inputs from multiple spatial scales to investigate how variability within individual fields can impact sustainable residue removal for bioenergy production. Sustainable use of agricultural residues for bioenergy production requires consideration of the important role that residues play in limiting soil erosion and maintaining soil C, health, and productivity. Increased availability of subfield-scale data sets such as grain yield data, high-fidelity digital elevation models, and soil characteristic data provides an opportunity to investigate the impacts of subfield-scale variability on sustainable agricultural residue removal. Using three representative fields in Iowa, this study contrasted the results of current NRCS conservation management planning analysis with subfield-scale analysis for rake-and-bale removal of agricultural residue. The results of the comparison show that the field-average assumptions used in NRCS conservation management planning may lead to unsustainable residue removal decisions for significant portions of some fields. This highlights the need for additional research on subfield-scale sustainable agricultural residue removal including the development of real-time variable removal technologies for agricultural residue.

  2. A mutli-factor analysis of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated m...

  3. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  4. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 – 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  5. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  6. A Conceptual Evaluation of Sustainable Variable-Rate Agricultural Residue Removal

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have near-term potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but their removal must be managed carefully to maintain soil health and productivity. Recent studies have shown that subfield scale variability in soil properties (e.g., slope, texture, and organic matter content) that affect grain yield significantly affect the amount of residue that can be sustainably removed from different areas within a single field. This modeling study examines the concept of variable-rate residue removal equipment that would be capable of on-the-fly residue removal rate adjustments ranging from 0 to 80%. Thirteen residue removal rates (0% and 25–80% in 5% increments) were simulated using a subfield scale integrated modeling framework that evaluates residue removal sustainability considering wind erosion, water erosion, and soil carbon constraints. Three Iowa fields with diverse soil, slope, and grain yield characteristics were examined and showed sustainable, variable-rate agricultural residue removal that averaged 2.35, 7.69, and 5.62 Mg ha-1, respectively. In contrast, the projected sustainable removal rates using rake and bale removal for the entire field averaged 0.0, 6.40, and 5.06 Mg ha-1, respectively. The modeling procedure also projected that variable-rate residue harvest would result in 100% of the land area in all three fields being managed in a sustainable manner, whereas Field 1 could not be sustainably managed using rake and bale removal, and only 83 and 62% of the land area in Fields 2 and 3 would be managed sustainably using a rake and bale operation for the entire field. In addition, it was found that residue removal adjustments of 40 to 65% are sufficient to collect 90% of the sustainably available agricultural residue.

  7. An Integrated Model for Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth; K. M. Bryden

    2003-12-01

    Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40

  8. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  9. Past and present trends of agricultural production and crop residues available for removal in the Mid-American Region

    SciTech Connect

    Posselius, J.H. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    This report consists of two separate studies. Part I discusses past and present trends of agricultural production in the MASEC region, while Part II emphasizes crop residues available for removal in the MASEC region. Part I analyzes agricultural crop and livestock production levels and trends by crop and livestock type on a state level basis. The resource base is divided into three main categories: starch crops, sugar crops, and livestock. The term starch crops refers to crops which are currently grown in significant acreage in the North Central region, such as: barley, beans, corn, oats, rice, rye, grain sorghum, sunflowers, and wheat. The term sugar crops refers to; sugar beets and sweet sorghum, and the term livestock refers to; cattle, dairy, hogs, chickens, and turkeys. The states that comprise the North Central region includes; Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Part II estimates the amount of crop residue available for removal in the MASEC region by crop type, on a county and state level basis. Wind and water erosion are considered as are nutrient losses and the net energy aspects of residue removal.

  10. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  11. Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality and public health impacts of animal manure produced at large concentrated animal facilities prompted the need for viable solutions for their conversion and reuse. Our laboratory at the Southern Regional Research Center, as part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Departme...

  12. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. In 2012, about 13.3 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was produced from corn in the USA which makes up 10% of gasoline supply. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic fee...

  13. Resist residue removal using UV ozone treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yu; Ku, Yao-Ching

    2010-04-01

    In a conventional lithography process, the resist pattern is removed by dry strip or wet chemical etch. The wet chemical etch includes sulfuric peroxide etch and solvent etch. The wet chemical etch process is always combined with the dry strip process to meet the residue process spec. However, in some applications, only the wet-etch process can be used to avoid substrate damage during the plasma step. However, organic residue can be found from particle surface scan and TGA/DSC after normal solvent strip. In this paper, we investigate polymer residue stripping using only solvent as well as solvent in combination with UV treatment. For solvents only, some solvents different from the conventional PGMEA/PGME mixture in polarity, also exhibited stripping ability but the efficiency is not as good as PGME/PGMEA mixture. When supplemented with UV treatment, the organic residue can be further decomposed and removed completely. The UV we used contains 185nm and 254nm wavelengths. Ozone is generated during UV exposure and acts as oxidant. The organic residue is thus decomposed and removed. It has been proven as an effective method to cleave the C-C bond without damaging the wafer substrate. The organic residue on the wafer surface can be easily stripped away under UV-ozone exposure. Its defect performance is also discussed in this paper.

  14. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  15. Finesky -- removing higher order sky residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Grumm, David

    2010-07-01

    We report on a new IRAF task called finesky that removes higher order sky residuals in NICMOS images by creating a masked median image of the observed sky. This median sky image is thereafter subtracted from the science images. A residual signal after image processing using the calibration software calnica may be present due to reference files that do not sufficiently match the conditions of the observations. This includes a slight mismatch in the dark current or the flat-field corrections. The task described here can also used to create sky flat-field images.

  16. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  17. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  18. Rapid pyrolysis of agricultural residues at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, R.; Sjoestroem, K.; Bjoernbom, E.

    1995-11-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of many countries especially in Latin America. Gasification of agricultural residues such as bagasse from sugar cane for electricity production is a solution to meet energy demands with a favourable effect on the environment. Pyrolysis (heating solid biomass in absence of air to produce solid, liquid or gaseous fuels) is the first step in gasification and combustion. Depending on the conditions the solid, liquid or gaseous products are maximized. The treatment conditions in the pyrolysis determine the char yield and its reactivity in gasification. Char yield and char reactivity are important for the capacity of the gasifier. The rapid pyrolysis of biomass is performed in a free-fall reactor at 850{degrees}C. The biomass used in the study was wood (birch) and agricultural residues such as bagasse and leaves both from sugar cane and banana. The reactivity of the char obtained in pyrolysis is determined by reaction with steam in a thermobalance. The low amounts of a highly porous char and the high yield of gaseous products obtained in rapid pyrolysis of bagasse at high temperature are similar to those produced in rapid pyrolysis of wood. Bagasse gives more volatiles and less char than sugar cane residues and banana harvest residues. Bagasse produces a less reactive char after devolatilization than wood. The char obtained by rapid pyrolysis contains a fraction that can be further volatilized by slow pyrolysis. The fraction of char removed by slow pyrolysis is lower in chars from bagasse and sugar cane leaves than in chars from wood. The structures of the chars obtained from birch, bagasse, sugar cane and banana leaves were observed by scanning electron microscope. Qualitative X-ray microanalysis of the chars was made using an electron microscope supplied with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Ca, K, S, Si, Al and Mg were visible on the surface of the chars.

  19. Focus on agricultural residues: Microstructure of almond hull (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural residues have historically been used as animal feed or burned for disposal. These residues, therefore, have little economic value and may end up becoming disposal problems because tighter air quality control measures may limit burning of the residues. Therefore, value-added products mad...

  20. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  1. 40 CFR 156.144 - Residue removal instructions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residue removal instructions-general. 156.144 Section 156.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.144 Residue removal instructions—general. (a) General....

  2. 40 CFR 156.144 - Residue removal instructions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the heading “Storage and Disposal.” (c) Exemption for residential/household use products. Residential/household use pesticide products are exempt from the residue removal instruction requirements in this... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residue removal...

  3. FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES AND PROCESSING BYPRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, the production of fuel ethanol from corn starch reached 4.5 billion gallons in the U.S. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover and wheat straw, and agricultural processing byproducts such as corn fiber and rice hulls, can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks for conversi...

  4. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  5. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  6. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  7. Oxidation in Acidic Medium of Lignins from Agricultural Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labat, Gisele Aparecida Amaral; Gonçalves, Adilson Roberto

    Agricultural residues as sugarcane straw and bagasse are burned in boilers for generation of energy in sugar and alcohol industries. However, excess of those by-products could be used to obtain products with higher value. Pulping process generates cellulosic pulps and lignin. The lignin could be oxidized and applied in effluent treatments for heavy metal removal. Oxidized lignin presents very strong chelating properties. Lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse were obtained by ethanol-water pulping. Oxidation of lignins was carried out using acetic acid and Co/Mn/Br catalytical system at 50, 80, and 115 °C for 5 h. Kinetics of the reaction was accomplished by measuring the UV-visible region. Activation energy was calculated for lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse (34.2 and 23.4 kJ mol-1, respectively). The first value indicates higher cross-linked formation. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy data of samples collected during oxidation are very similar. Principal component analysis applied to spectra shows only slight structure modifications in lignins after oxidation reaction.

  8. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  9. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  10. Ultracapacitor having residual water removed under vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Wei, Chang; Jerabek, Elihu Calvin; Day, James

    2002-10-15

    A multilayer cell is provided that comprises two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the current collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying pores in the electrodes and separator. The mutilayer cell is electrolyzed to disassociate water within the cell to oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. A vacuum is applied to the cell substantially at the same time as the electrolyzing step, to remove the oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. The cell is then sealed to form a ultracapacitor substantially free from water.

  11. Utilization and recycle of agricultural wastes and residues

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A critical examination of proposed schemes for treating agricultural wastes and residues as sources of both food and energy (biogas, for instance) explores three questions as they relate to the various groups of biological and thermochemical conversion processes: What is the state of the art, what are the critical R and D needs, and which methods have the most commercial potential. The problem of cellulose degradation represents a link common to all types of agricultural waste- and residue-conversion schemes; depending on the process objectives, cellulose can be perceived as either a valuable resource or a stubborn impediment. The subjects addressed include (1) the possible methods of directly converting animal manure and plant residues into animal feedstuffs or human food, (2) the potential for anaerobic fermentation processes (particularly farm-size units) to produce energy and food from agricultural wastes while effectively controlling pollution, and (3) the thermochemical conversion of residues via combustion, partial oxidation-pyrolysis, and fluid-phase reactors. A discussion of the application of all these techniques to a single waste (rye-grass straw) places the array of available options into perspective.

  12. Product distribution from pyrolysis of wood and agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Di Russo, C.; Rea, G.

    1999-06-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of agricultural residues (wheat straw, olive husks, grape residues, and rice husks) and wood chips have been investigated on a bench scale. The experimental system establishes the conditions encountered by a thin (4 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} m diameter) packed bed of biomass particles suddenly exposed in a high-temperature environment, simulated by a radiant furnace. Product yields (gases, liquids, and char) and gas composition, measured for surface bed temperatures in the range 650--1000 K, reproduce trends already observed for wood. However, differences are quantitatively large. Pyrolysis of agricultural residues is always associated with much higher solid yields (up to a factor of 2) and lower liquid yields. Differences are lower for the total gas, and approximate relationships exist among the ratios of the main gas species yields, indicating comparable activation energies for the corresponding apparent kinetics of formation. However, while the ratios are about the same for wood chips, rice husks, and straw, much lower values are shown by olive and grape residues. Large differences have also been found in the average values of the specific devolatilization rates. The fastest (up to factors of about 1.5 with respect to wood) have been observed for wheat straw and the slowest (up to factors of 2) for grape residues.

  13. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  15. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

  16. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST PRODUCT RESIDUES. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary assessment was made of the environmental impacts of several types of conversion processes for producing energy or fuels from agricultural and forestry residues. Fifteen examples were selected to represent various combinations of agricultural residues and conversion ...

  17. Removal of residual contamination from clean protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Miller, M.L. , Inc., Albuquerque, NM ); Brehm, L.E.; Peterson, S.K. )

    1988-06-01

    This paper reports that during 1986, a small but significant number of skin contamination incidents at Northern States Power Company's Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant were believed to have been caused by residual contamination in dry-cleaned protective clothing. A survey of 24 other nuclear power plants in May and June of 1986 indicated that about half of these facilities had experienced instances of sweat-induced skin contamination on persons wearing laundered, clean protective clothing, and a simple experiment showed that perspiration was indeed capable of removing residual contamination from the 100% cotton fabric used in the Monticello Plant's coveralls. In order to further study this problem, a series of tests were performed on samples of the plant's protective clothing coveralls to determine how effective wet washing methods would be in removing residual contamination from this clothing, which previously had been laundered exclusively by dry cleaning.

  18. Performance of Agricultural Residue Media in Laboratory Denitrifying Bioreactors at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Feyereisen, Gary W; Moorman, Thomas B; Christianson, Laura E; Venterea, Rodney T; Coulter, Jeffrey A; Tschirner, Ulrike W

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors can be effective for removing nitrate from agricultural tile drainage; however, questions about cold springtime performance persist. The objective of this study was to improve the nitrate removal rate (NRR) of denitrifying bioreactors at warm and cold temperatures using agriculturally derived media rather than wood chips (WC). Corn ( L.) cobs (CC), corn stover (CS), barley ( L.) straw (BS), WC, and CC followed by a compartment of WC (CC+WC) were tested in laboratory columns for 5 mo at a 12-h hydraulic residence time in separate experiments at 15.5 and 1.5°C. Nitrate-N removal rates ranged from 35 to 1.4 at 15.5°C and from 7.4 to 1.6 g N m d at 1.5°C, respectively; NRRs were ranked CC > CC+WC > BS = CS > WC and CC ≥ CC+WC = CS ≥ BS > WC for 15.5 and 1.5°C, respectively. Although NRRs for CC were increased relative to WC, CC released greater amounts of carbon. Greater abundance of nitrous oxide (NO) reductase gene () was supported by crop residues than WC at 15.5°C, and CS and BS supported greater abundance than WC at 1.5°C. Production of NO relative to nitrate removal (NO) was consistently greater at 1.5°C (7.5% of nitrate removed) than at 15.5°C (1.9%). The NO was lowest in CC (1.1%) and CC-WC (0.9%) and greatest in WC (9.7%). Using a compartment of agricultural residue media in series before wood chips has the potential to improve denitrifying bioreactor nitrate removal rates, but field-scale verification is needed. PMID:27136142

  19. Technical assessment of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from agriculture residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guohui; Feng, Fei; Xiao, Jun; Shen, Laihong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents thermodynamic evaluations of the agriculture residual-to-SNG process by thermochemical conversion, which mainly consists of the interconnected fluidized beds, hot gas cleaning, fluidized bed methanation reactor and Selexol absorption unit. The process was modeled using Aspen Plus software. The process performances, i.e., CH4 content in SNG, higher heating value and yield of SNG, exergy efficiencies with and without heat recovery, unit power consumption, were evaluated firstly. The results indicate that when the other parameters remain unchanged, the steam-to-biomass ratio at carbon boundary point is the optimal value for the process. Improving the preheating temperatures of air and gasifying agent is beneficial for the SNG yield and exergy efficiencies. Due to the effects of CO2 removal efficiency, there are two optimization objectives for the SNG production process: (I) to maximize CH4 content in SNG, or (II) to maximize SNG yield. Further, the comparison among different feedstocks indicates that the decreasing order of SNG yield is: corn stalk > wheat straw > rice straw. The evaluation on the potential of agriculture-based SNG shows that the potential annual production of agriculture residual-based SNG could be between 555×108 ˜ 611×108 m3 with utilization of 100% of the available unexplored resources. The agriculture residual-based SNG could play a significant role on solving the big shortfall of China's natural gas supply in future.

  20. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  1. USING REVERSE OSMOSIS TO REMOVE AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suffolk County, N.Y., has examined its groundwater for agricultural and organic contaminants since 1978. Recent discoveries of specific chemicals in private wells increased the concern over contamination and spurred a study to determine a cost-effective system for removing agricu...

  2. Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.J.; Cummings, R.J.; Dell'Orto, S.; Fanfoni, K.J.; Fast, S.J.; Gottung, E.J.; Jackson, D.A.; Kabrick, R.M.

    1982-12-01

    A two-year comprehensive effort to develop a new biogas generation concept for crop residues called dry fermentation is documented. This concept simplifies the fermentation system while enabling it to be integrated into existing agricultural practices with minimum disruption. The parameters controlling fermentation are documented with three substrates - corn stover, wheat straw, and old grass. The controlling parameters are substrate composition characteristics, moisture content, inoculum needs, reaction temperature, and pH control. Other variables examined included density of solids, particle size, reactor size, and separation of anaerobic digestion (hydrolysis and methane production). Experiments were conducted at scales varying from one liter to 110 m/sup 3/. Due to the high volumetric densities of organics in the dry fermentation process, it is usually tested in a batch form. At normal biodegradable fractions and densities, most of the available carbon will be converted to biogas in a 75-day period, if an average volumetric gas production rate of one volume of reactor per day is achieved in a batch decay. A lower gas production rate may be of greater interest so that it integrates into an annual or biannual crop residue harvesting practice.

  4. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RHR results.

  5. Electrolytic Removal of Nitrate From CELSS Crop Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Guillermo; Sager, John

    1996-01-01

    The controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) resource recovery system is a waste processing system using aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors to recover plant nutrients and secondary foods from inedible biomass. Crop residues contain significant amounts of nitrate which presents two problems: (1) both CELSS biomass production and resource recovery consume large quantities of nitric acid, (2) nitrate causes a variety of problems in both aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors. A technique was proposed to remove the nitrate from potato inedible biomass leachate and to satisfy the nitric acid demand using a four compartment electrolytic cell.

  6. Preparation of agricultural residue anion exchangers and its nitrate maximum adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Orlando, U S; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2002-09-01

    Anion exchangers were prepared from different agricultural residues (AR) after reaction with epichlorohydrin and dimethylamine in the presence of pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide (EDM method). Agricultural residues anion exchangers (AR-AE) produced by the EDM method were inexpensive and showed almost the same NO3- removal capacities as Amberlite IRA-900. AR-AE produced from AR with higher hemicelluloses, lignin, ash and extractive contents resulted in the lower yields. Sugarcane bagasse with the highest alpha-cellulose contents of 51.2% had the highest yield (225%) and lowest preparation cost. The highest maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) for nitrate was obtained from rice hull (1.21 mmol g(-1)) and pine bark natural exchangers (1.06 mmol g(-1)). No correlation was found between Qmax and alpha-cellulose content in the original AR. AR-AE produced from different AR demonstrated comparable Qmax due to the removal of non-active compounds such as extractives, lignin and hemicelluloses from AR during the preparation process. Similar preparation from pure cellulose and pure alkaline lignin demonstrated that the EDM method could not produce anion exchangers from pure lignin due to its solubilization after the reaction with epichlorohydrin. PMID:12227509

  7. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  8. Manual for applying fluidized-bed-combustion residue to agricultural lands. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, W.L.; Hern, J.L.; Korcak, R.F.; Carlson, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) is a process that reduces sulfur emissions from coal-fired electric-generating plants. The residue from the process is a mixture of alkaline oxides, calcium sulfate, and coal ash constituent. Since 1976, USDA/ARS has investigated the potential agriculture use of the residue. The investigations comprised an extensive series of laboratory, greenhouse, field plot, and animal-feeding experiments. The best and safest use of AFBC residue in agriculture was as a substitute for agricultural lime. The report contains guidelines for appling AFBC residue to agricultural lands.

  9. Alternative cooling resource for removing the residual heat of reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, C. Y.; Choi, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system of a Candu reactor is a closed cooling system which delivers demineralized water to coolers and components in the Service Building, the Reactor Building, and the Turbine Building and the recirculated cooling water is designed to be cooled by the Raw Service Water (RSW). During the period of scheduled outage, the RCW system provides cooling water to the heat exchangers of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS) in order to remove the residual heat of the reactor, so the RCW heat exchangers have to operate at all times. This makes it very hard to replace the inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers because the replacement work requires the isolation of the RCW. A task force was formed to prepare a plan to substitute the recirculated water with the chilled water system in order to cool the SDCS heat exchangers. A verification test conducted in 2007 proved that alternative cooling was possible for the removal of the residual heat of the reactor and in 2008 the replacement of inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers for both Wolsong unit 3 and 4 were successfully completed. (authors)

  10. Development of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of endosulfan residues in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Zhiyan; Wang, Junping; Zhang, Yan

    2005-09-21

    Two competitive immunoassays, a laboratory assay based on microwell plates and a field test based on the use of polystyrene tubes, have been developed for the detection of endosulfan in agricultural products. The limit of detection for the microwell plate format was 0.8 +/- 0.1 microg/kg, and the limit of detection for the tube format was 1.6 +/- 0.2 microg/kg. A simple, rapid, and efficient extraction method was employed, and 76-112% recoveries of spiked samples were obtained. Methanol extracts of some agricultural product samples such as grape, carrot, spinach, and tobacco could be analyzed directly by immunoassay after dilution in 0.5% fish skin gelatin-phosphate buffered saline. In contrast, extracts of green tea caused significant interference in the assay, and a number of simple cleanup methods were ineffective in removing interference. However, use of the coagulating reagent polyvinyl pyrrolidone removed the matrix effect effectively. For the validation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, samples were analyzed by ELISA and gas chromatography (GC) after solid phase extraction. The relationship between data obtained using the tube assay and microwell assay was good (the lowest r(2) value was 0.94), and also, the immunoassay assay data correlated well with data obtained from GC analysis (the lowest r(2) value was 0.93). The developed immunoassay methods are the suitable methods for the rapid quantitative and reliable determination of endosulfan residues in agricultural products. PMID:16159161

  11. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the RHR results. A highly statistically significant decreasing trend was observed for the RHR injection mode start-only unreliability. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for RHR shutdown cooling mode start-only unreliability and RHR shutdown cooling model 24-hour unreliability.

  12. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  13. Effects of Maize Residue Removal and Tillage on Soil Erosion, Carbon, and Macronutrient Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, J.; Shipitalo, M.; Lal, R.; Dayton, E. A.; Hopkins, D.; Jones, F. S.; Joynes, A.; Dungait, J.

    2013-12-01

    Erosion by water is a principal process of soil degradation in agricultural lands. Soil erosion influences the storage and fluxes of C and key macronutrients N and P in soil surface layers. No till (NT) crop management significantly reduces erosion on susceptible landscapes. The selective removal of crop residues for bio-energy production from no-till systems has been suggested as a secondary crop, but the effect of this practice on the conservation benefits of NT has not been quantified. Therefore, this study was initiated in spring 2012 to examine the effects of soil management practices on erosion and associated macronutrient fluxes on erodible soils subjected to a high intensity simulated rain storm at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) in Coshocton, OH, U.S.A. The soil management practices evaluated included: long term no-till with 100% crop residue (NT100) , no-till with 50% crop reside (NT50), NT with complete crop residue removal (NT0), long term conventional tillage (CT), and long term no-tillage plots that were cultivated (TNT) with a rototiller before the rainfall application. A field rainfall simulator was utilized to apply rainfall at an intensity of 7 cm hr-1 to a 4 m2 area of each plot for 30 minutes. Total runoff from the NT0 plots (22.1 mm) was almost double compared with the NT 50% (13.3 mm), CT (12.8 mm) and TNT (12.8 mm) plots and was more than 5 times greater than the NT100 plots (4.4mm). CT and NT0 plots produced 40 (2.7 Mg ha-1) and 20 times (1.4 Mg ha-1) more soil loss, respectively, than NT100 plots (0.07 Mg ha-1). Tillage of the no-till (TNT) soil produced the largest sediment-bound fluxes of C and N, while sediment-bound P fluxes were largest in the CT soils. Natural abundance δ13C and δ15N values were distinct between eroded sediments and the source topsoils and suggested enhanced loss of older (>28 yrs) C residues in CT plots. All observations suggest NT management provides greater resilience to soils than CT during

  14. Global bioenergy potential from high-lignin agricultural residue.

    PubMed

    Mendu, Venugopal; Shearin, Tom; Campbell, J Elliott; Stork, Jozsef; Jae, Jungho; Crocker, Mark; Huber, George; DeBolt, Seth

    2012-03-01

    Almost one-quarter of the world's population has basic energy needs that are not being met. Efforts to increase renewable energy resources in developing countries where per capita energy availability is low are needed. Herein, we examine integrated dual use farming for sustained food security and agro-bioenergy development. Many nonedible crop residues are used for animal feed or reincorporated into the soil to maintain fertility. By contrast, drupe endocarp biomass represents a high-lignin feedstock that is a waste stream from food crops, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell, which is nonedible, not of use for livestock feed, and not reintegrated into soil in an agricultural setting. Because of high-lignin content, endocarp biomass has optimal energy-to-weight returns, applicable to small-scale gasification for bioelectricity. Using spatial datasets for 12 principal drupe commodity groups that have notable endocarp byproduct, we examine both their potential energy contribution by decentralized gasification and relationship to regions of energy poverty. Globally, between 24 million and 31 million tons of drupe endocarp biomass is available per year, primarily driven by coconut production. Endocarp biomass used in small-scale decentralized gasification systems (15-40% efficiency) could contribute to the total energy requirement of several countries, the highest being Sri Lanka (8-30%) followed by Philippines (7-25%), Indonesia (4-13%), and India (1-3%). While representing a modest gain in global energy resources, mitigating energy poverty via decentralized renewable energy sources is proposed for rural communities in developing countries, where the greatest disparity between societal allowances exist. PMID:22355123

  15. Global bioenergy potential from high-lignin agricultural residue

    PubMed Central

    Mendu, Venugopal; Shearin, Tom; Campbell, J. Elliott; Stork, Jozsef; Jae, Jungho; Crocker, Mark; Huber, George; DeBolt, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of the world's population has basic energy needs that are not being met. Efforts to increase renewable energy resources in developing countries where per capita energy availability is low are needed. Herein, we examine integrated dual use farming for sustained food security and agro-bioenergy development. Many nonedible crop residues are used for animal feed or reincorporated into the soil to maintain fertility. By contrast, drupe endocarp biomass represents a high-lignin feedstock that is a waste stream from food crops, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell, which is nonedible, not of use for livestock feed, and not reintegrated into soil in an agricultural setting. Because of high-lignin content, endocarp biomass has optimal energy-to-weight returns, applicable to small-scale gasification for bioelectricity. Using spatial datasets for 12 principal drupe commodity groups that have notable endocarp byproduct, we examine both their potential energy contribution by decentralized gasification and relationship to regions of energy poverty. Globally, between 24 million and 31 million tons of drupe endocarp biomass is available per year, primarily driven by coconut production. Endocarp biomass used in small-scale decentralized gasification systems (15–40% efficiency) could contribute to the total energy requirement of several countries, the highest being Sri Lanka (8–30%) followed by Philippines (7–25%), Indonesia (4–13%), and India (1–3%). While representing a modest gain in global energy resources, mitigating energy poverty via decentralized renewable energy sources is proposed for rural communities in developing countries, where the greatest disparity between societal allowances exist. PMID:22355123

  16. Steam pretreatment of agricultural residues facilitates hemicellulose recovery while enhancing enzyme accessibility to cellulose.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Richard P; Arantes, Valdeir; Saddler, Jack

    2015-06-01

    The origins of lignocellulosic biomass and the pretreatment used to enhance enzyme accessibility to the cellulosic component are known to be strongly influenced by various substrate characteristics. To assess the impact that fibre properties might have on enzymatic hydrolysis, seven agricultural residues were characterised before and after steam pretreatment using a single pretreatment condition (190°C, 5min, 3% SO2) previously shown to enhance fractionation and hydrolysis of the cellulosic component of corn stover. When the fibre length, width and coarseness, viscosity, water retention value and cellulose crystallinity were monitored, no clear correlation was observed between any single substrate characteristic and the substrate's ease of enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the amount of hemicellulose that was solubilised during pretreatment correlated (r(2)=0.98) with the effectiveness of enzyme hydrolysis of each pretreated substrate. Simons's staining, to measure the cellulose accessibility, showed good correlation (r(2)=0.83) with hemicellulose removal and the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25780906

  17. Biofiltration methods for the removal of phenolic residues.

    PubMed

    Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins Das; Miyamura, Tábata Taemi Miazaki Ohara; Moraes, Dante Augusto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Converti, Attilio

    2006-01-01

    Industrial effluents from the pharmaceutical industry often contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds. The presence of "anthropogenic" organic compounds in the environment is a serious problem for human health; therefore, it merits special attention by the competent public agencies. Different methods have been proposed in the last two decades for the treatment of this kind of industrial residues, the most important of which are those utilizing absorption columns, vaporization and extraction, and biotechnological methods. Biofiltration is a method for the removal of contaminants present in liquid or gaseous effluents by the use of aerobic microorganisms, which are immobilized on solid or porous supports. Although several bacteria can utilize aromatic compounds as carbon and energy source, only a few of them are able to make this biodegradation effectively and with satisfactory rate. For this reason, more investigation is needed to ensure an efficient control of process parameters as well as to select the suited reactor configuration. The aim of this work is to provide an overview on the main aspects of biofiltration for the treatment of different industrial effluents, with particular concern to those coming from pharmaceutical industry and laboratories for the production of galenicals. PMID:16915636

  18. Residues of endosulfan in surface and subsurface agricultural soil and its bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of many hydrophobic pesticides has been reported by various workers in various soil environments and its bioremediation is a major concern due to less bioavailability. In the present study, the pesticide residues in the surface and subsurface soil in an area of intense agricultural activity in Pakkam Village of Thiruvallur District, Tamilnadu, India, and its bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium was investigated. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm and 30-40 cm) were sampled, and pesticides in different layers of the soil were analyzed. Alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan concentrations ranged from 1.42 to 3.4 mg/g and 1.28-3.1 mg/g in the surface soil, 0.6-1.4 mg/g and 0.3-0.6 mg/g in the subsurface soil (15-30 cm), and 0.9-1.5 mg/g and 0.34-1.3 mg/g in the subsurface soil (30-40 cm) respectively. Residues of other persistent pesticides were also detected in minor concentrations. These soil layers were subjected to bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium under a simulated soil profile condition in a soil reactor. The complete removal of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed over 25 days. Residues of endosulfate were also detected during bioremediation, which was subsequently degraded on the 30th day. This study revealed the existence of endosulfan in the surface and subsurface soils and also proved that the removal of such a ubiquitous pesticide in the surface and subsurface environment can be achieved in the field by bioaugumenting a biosurfactant-producing bacterial consortium that degrades pesticides. PMID:26413801

  19. 40 CFR 156.144 - Residue removal instructions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.144 Residue... pesticide residues from the container prior to container disposal that are specified in § 156.146 and §...

  20. 40 CFR 156.144 - Residue removal instructions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.144 Residue... pesticide residues from the container prior to container disposal that are specified in § 156.146 and §...

  1. 40 CFR 156.144 - Residue removal instructions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.144 Residue... pesticide residues from the container prior to container disposal that are specified in § 156.146 and §...

  2. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregates in a no-till corn/soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding the removal of corn residue for use in the biofuels industry. Concerned producers are asking questions pertaining to what impacts removing residue will have on the following crop (short-term) and the effects this practice has on soil quality (long-term). To ad...

  3. Soil response to corn residue removal and cover crops in Eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of crop residue has been shown to degrade soil organic carbon (SOC), and hence soil quality. The present study was conducted to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality parameters. The experimental site was located in Brookings County, ...

  4. Fuel ethanol production from agricultural residues: current status and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, about 6.5 billion gallons of ethanol were produced from corn starch in the U.S. Various agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, and barley straw can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks for conversion to fuel ethanol. These residues contain both cellulo...

  5. Activated Carbon Derived from Fast Pyrolysis Liquids Production of Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis is a thermochemical method that can be used for processing energy crops such as switchgrass, alfalfa, soybean straw, corn stover as well as agricultural residuals (broiler litter) for bio-oil production. Researchers with the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) of the USDA developed a 2...

  6. Evaluation of two agricultural residues as ligno-cellulosic filler in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Agricultural residues refer to the waste stream coming from agricultural production and processing operations. These materials are often rich in ligno-cellulosic fibers, but offer no significant value at present. The processing plants usually pay for disposal of these waste streams, howev...

  7. Crop Residue Removal Effects on Production Costs and Soil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residue has been identified as a near-term source of biomass for renewable fuel, heat, power, chemicals and other bio-materials. Our objective is to examine the potential impacts on the soil resource and nutrient replacement costs for different crop residue management strategies. Preliminary da...

  8. Guidelines on management of agricultural and agro-industrial residue utilization

    SciTech Connect

    1982-12-31

    This document, prepared by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), presents guidelines on agricultural and agro-industrial residues utilization. Although an account of the technical aspects is given in the document, they are not presented in detail. The purpose of these guidelines is to promote greater awareness of the potentials and importance of residues utilization, as well as providing a review of the fundamental principles that are involved. Guidance is offered on the procedures and methodologies that could be used for managing agricultural and agro-industrial residues utilization. The guidance is aimed at policy formulation.

  9. Conversion of agricultural residues to carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose acetate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In view of continuing interest in the use of agricultural by-products, we have converted cellulose, wheat straw, barley straw, and rice hull into carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Microwave-assisted synthesis was found to be a partly effective alternative to the conventional heating process. The CMC thu...

  10. Polyphenols from different agricultural residues: extraction, identification and their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), corn husk (CH), peanut husk (PNH), coffee cherry husk (CCH), rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) are low-value byproducts of agriculture. They have been shown to contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant properties. In this study, the effects of two types of solvent extraction methods: solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and hot water extraction on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues were investigated to optimize the extraction conditions based on total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). Methanol (50 %) was found to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics with higher DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity, followed by ethanol and water. The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts (50 %) were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography; in addition gallic acid became the major phenolic acid present in all the agricultural residues whereas ferulic acid, epicatechin, catechin, quercitin and kampferol present in lesser amounts. The present investigation suggested that agricultural residues are potent antioxidants. The overall results of this research demonstrated the potential of agricultural residues to be an abundant source of natural antioxidants suitable for further development into dietary supplements and various food additives. PMID:25892773

  11. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites. PMID:20499931

  12. Assessment of a Sinkhole Filter for Removing Agricultural Contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market v...

  13. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  14. [Study of multi-residue method for determining pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured from agricultural products by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yoko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured from agricultural products was examined. Five mL water was added to 5 g sample in a polypropylene tube, and the tube was left to stand at room temperature for 30 min. Then, 20 mL acetonitrile was added to the sample. The mixture was homogenized in a high-speed homogenizer, followed by salting out with 1 g NaCl and 4 g anhydrous MgSO4. After centrifugation, the organic layer was purified on a graphitized carbon/PSA cartridge column. After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol-water and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The recoveries of 93 pesticides fortified into 5 kinds of processed foods [Chinese cabbage kimchi, marmalade, raisin, umeboshi (pickled plum) and worcester sauce] were examined at the concentrations of 0.02 and 0.1 μg/g (n=5). The recoveries of 61 pesticides in all foods were 70-120% with relative standard deviation below 20% at both concentrations. Seventy-four processed foods obtained from markets in Japan were examined with this method. Pesticide residues over the maximum residue limit (0.01 μg/g) were detected in 2 processed foods. PMID:24389475

  15. Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  16. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  17. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  18. Crop residue stabilization and application to agricultural and degraded soils: A review.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jorge; Monreal, Carlos; Barea, José Miguel; Arriagada, César; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Agricultural activities produce vast amounts of organic residues including straw, unmarketable or culled fruit and vegetables, post-harvest or post-processing wastes, clippings and residuals from forestry or pruning operations, and animal manure. Improper disposal of these materials may produce undesirable environmental (e.g. odors or insect refuges) and health impacts. On the other hand, agricultural residues are of interest to various industries and sectors of the economy due to their energy content (i.e., for combustion), their potential use as feedstock to produce biofuels and/or fine chemicals, or as a soil amendments for polluted or degraded soils when composted. Our objective is review new biotechnologies that could be used to manage these residues for land application and remediation of contaminated and eroded soils. Bibliographic information is complemented through a comprehensive review of the physico-chemical fundamental mechanisms involved in the transformation and stabilization of organic matter by biotic and abiotic soil components. PMID:25936555

  19. Corn residue removal effects on soybean yield and nitrogen dynamics in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerations for using corn residues as a biofuel feedstock should include impacts on subsequent crops in the rotation, in particular soybean. We used the APEX model to assess the impacts of four rates of corn residue removals; 0%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, across two land types; highly erodible (HEL) an...

  20. Simulated impacts of crop residue removal and tillage on soil organic matter maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulosic biofuel production may generate new markets and additional revenue for farmers. However, residue removal may cause other environmental problems such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter (SOM). The objective of this study was to determine the amounts of residue necessary for SOM...

  1. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: corn cobs.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    Biomass gasification couples the high power efficiency with the possibility of valuably using the byproducts heat and biochar. The use of agricultural wastes instead of woody feedstock extends the seasonal availability of biomasses. The downdraft type is the most used reactor but has narrow ranges of feedstock specifications (above all on moisture and particle size distribution), so tests on a demonstrative scale are conducted to prove the versatility of the gasifier. Measurements on pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition are studied to assess the feasibility of such operations with corn cobs. Material and energy balances, and performance indexes are compared for the four tests carried out under different biomass loads (66-85 kg/h). A good operability of the plant and interesting results are obtained (gas specific production of 2 m3/kg, gas heating value 5.6-5.8 MJ/m3, cold gas efficiency in the range 66-68%, potential net power efficiency 21.1-21.6%). PMID:25299486

  2. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for amaranth control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture practices are threatened by glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Integrated practices including PRE herbicides and high-residue conservation agriculture systems may decrease Amaranth emergence. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2006 through cash crop harvest in...

  3. The impact of corn residue removal on soil aggregates and particulate organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of corn stover as a biofuel feedstock is being considered. It is important to understand the implications of this practice when establishing removal guidelines to ensure the long-term sustainability of both the biofuel industry and soil health. Above- and below-ground plant residues are th...

  4. Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic co-composting of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    El Sebaie, O D; Hussin, A H; Shalaby, E E; Mohamed, M G; Lbrahem, M T

    2000-01-01

    Fertile soil is the most important resource for food production. The agricultural area in Egypt is limited to 6 million faddans. This limited area has derived many farmers to use several types of chemical fertilizers, to enhance the fertility of the land and hence the productivity. Excessive application of chemical fertilizer lead to the build up of these residuals because they are superfluous. This will cause waste of money and also soil pollution. Ultimately, this would adversely affect the ecological system in the soil and surrounding environment, especially water bodies. Composting of organic solid wastes will address some of the problems of solid waste disposal and gives a beneficial product which may replace the expensive chemical fertilizers. Other organic compostable solid wastes could be utilized to produce this compost. Agricultural residues are cheap raw materials for such compost and are available in vast quantities as well. This compost can be used as a soil conditioner to improve soil characteristics and its productivity. Crop residues mixed with manure, may be co-composted to give a soil conditioner. Agricultural residues, about 106 million tons/year, may produce about 55 million tons/year of compost. Three co-composting were carried out at the experimental station of the Faculty of Agriculture in Abis. Two aerobic co-composting of winter and summer crop residues and one anaerobic co-composting inter rop esidue were produced. The development of the co-composting processes controlled by the temperature, moisture content, and chemical composition was studied. The aerobic co-composting of winter crop residues was found to be the best experiment as it complied with the standards of the Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 100/1967. This co-compost is expected to be free from pathogenic microorganisms as the dominant temperature was almost about 50 degrees C from the 42nd day till the 101st day of the experiment. PMID:17219853

  5. Organochlorine insecticide residues in soils and soil invertebrates from agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gish, C.D.

    1970-01-01

    Soils and earthworms and other soil invertebrates were collected from 67 agricultural fields in eight States. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for DDE, DDD, DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and gamma-chlordane insecticides. Organochlorine insecticides in soils averaged 1.5 ppm, dry weight, and in earthworms, 13.8 ppm. Residues in earthworms averaged nine times that in soils. Residues ranged from a trace to 19.1 ppm in soils and from a trace to 159.4 ppm in earthworms. Residues in beetle larvae from two fields averaged 0.6 ppm; in snails from two fields, 3.5 ppm; and in slugs from four fields, 89.0 ppm. Amounts of insecticides in earthworms varied directly with amounts in soils. Coefficients of correlation between residues in soils and residues in earthworms usually were significant for DDE, DDD, and DDT regardless of crop or soil type.

  6. AGRICULTURAL CONTAMINANTS REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY CARBON AND REVERSE OSMOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The groundwater of Suffolk County, New York, is designated as a sole source aquifer and in recent years there have been increasing concerns about the contamination of this water by agricultural chemicals. Two parallel treatment systems were evaluated for a one-year period: granul...

  7. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  8. Nitrate removal and denitrification in headwater agricultural streams of the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams can serve as important sites for nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds. Here we examine the influence of agricultural streams on watershed N export in the Willamette River Basin of western Oregon, USA, a region with mixed agricultural, urban and forestry land uses...

  9. Removal of Residual Nuclei Following a Cavitation Event using Low-Amplitude Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Cain, Charles A.; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic residual bubble nuclei can persist on the order of 1 second following a cavitation event. These bubbles can limit the efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, as they attenuate pulses that arrive subsequent to their formation and seed repetitive cavitation activity at a discrete set of sites (cavitation memory). Here, we explore a strategy for the removal of these residual bubbles following a cavitation event, using low amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate bubble coalescence. All experiments were conducted in degassed water and monitored using high speed photography. In each case, a 2 MHz histotripsy transducer was used to initiate cavitation activity (a cavitational bubble cloud), the collapse of which generated a population of residual bubble nuclei. This residual nuclei population was then sonicated using a 1 ms pulse from a separate 500 kHz transducer, which we term the ‘bubble removal pulse.’ Bubble removal pulse amplitudes ranging from 0 to 1.7 MPa were tested, and the backlit area of shadow from bubbles remaining in the field following bubble removal was calculated to quantify efficacy. It was found that an ideal amplitude range exists (roughly 180 – 570 kPa) in which bubble removal pulses stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubble nuclei, effectively removing them from the field. Further optimization of bubble removal pulse sequences stands to provide an adjunct to cavitation-based ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, mitigating the effects of residual bubble nuclei that currently limit their efficacy. PMID:25265172

  10. Effects of crop residue returning on nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jun; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-06-01

    Crop residue returning is a common practice in agricultural system that consequently influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Much attention has been focused on the effects of crop residue on N2O release. However, no systematic result has yet been drawn because environmental factors among different studies vary. A meta-analysis was described to integrate 112 scientific assessments of crop residue returning on N2O emissions in this study. Results showed that crop residue returning, when averaged across all studies, had no statistically significant effect on N2O release compared with control treatments. However, the range of effects of crop residue returning on N2O emission was significantly affected by synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application, type of crop residue, specific manner in which crop residue has returned, and type of land-use. N2O release was significantly inhibited by 11.7% and 27.1% (P < 0.05) when crop residue was with synthetic N fertilizer and when type of land-use was paddy, respectively. While N2O emissions were significantly enhanced by 42.1% and 23.5% (P < 0.05) when crop residue was applied alone and when type of land-use was upland, respectively. N2O emissions were likewise increased when crop residue with lower C/N ratio was used, mulching of crop residue was performed, and type of land-use was fallow. Our study provides the first quantitative analysis of crop residue returning on N2O emissions, indicating that crop residue returning has no statistically significant effect on N2O release at regional scale, and underlining that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines should take the opposite effects of crop residue returning on upland and paddy into account when estimating the N2O emission factor of crop residue for different land-use types. Given that most of data are dominated by certain types of crop residue and specific application methods, more field data are required to reduce uncertainty.

  11. Rapid and economical indicator for evaluating arsenic removal with minimum aluminum residual during coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Chen, Hong; Sato, Yuko; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-11-01

    Detection of various types of contaminants in water treatment plant by sophisticated analytical methods such as inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry requires hours to days to provide the results. Because naturally occurring ultraviolet (UV) active compounds are commonly present in almost all source waters and can be rapidly monitored by UV absorbance at 260 nm (E260), the extent of correlation between the removal efficiency of E260 and the removal efficiency of As(V) with minimum soluble residual Al by coagulation process was investigated. Percentage removals for E260 were well correlated to those of As(V). When sufficient alum or polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was added for 60-65% removal of E260, 90-95% removal of As(V) was achieved with minimum soluble residual Al regardless of the initial level of turbidity, E260, and As(V). As E260 analysis is precisely available even by an unskilled plant operator in a few minutes, E260 removal efficiency appears to be the promising economical indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of the coagulation process for the removal of contaminants with minimum residual Al. PMID:14568045

  12. Study on the Agricultural Residues Burning and PM2.5 Change in China by Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural residues are materials left over from the production of crops. The total amount of agricultural residues in China is about 660 million tons every year, while a large proportion of that is burnt directly on the croplands. Agricultural residues burning is a significant source of air pollution in developing countries including China. In this study, the MODIS MOD14A1 products were used to derive the daily fire spots of China. Then, the agricultural residues burning spots were obtained by extracting with the area of croplands which is from MODIS MCD12Q1 products. After vectorization of agricultural residues burning pixels and with the help of fishnet, the burning density distribution maps were eventually completed. According to the statistics, there were 71,237 pixels of agricultural residues burning in 2014. The pixels mainly focused on April, June and October, the number of which were 11,628, 10,912 and 20,965 respectively. The results show that the distribution of agricultural residues burning is closely connected with ploughing and harvesting activities and it is more severe in north China. The air quality data of 150 cities in China were also used to obtain the daily and monthly distribution maps of PM2.5 by Kriging interpolation method. The maps indicate that the PM2.5 is always higher in north China than that in south China. Comparing the results of agricultural residues burning points with the results of PM2.5, we found the agricultural residues burning can cause the PM2.5 increase, especially in June, the agricultural residues burning region was spatially and temporally consistent with the PM2.5 increase region in this month.

  13. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation. PMID:22312795

  14. Removal of Residual Nuclei Following a Cavitation Event: A Parametric Study

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A.; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy can be compromised by residual cavitation bubble nuclei that persist following the collapse of primary cavitation. In our previous work, we have developed a unique strategy for mitigating the effects of these residual bubbles using low amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate their aggregation and subsequent coalescence—effectively removing them from the field. Here, we further develop this bubble removal strategy through an investigation of the effect of frequency on the consolidation process. Bubble removal pulses ranging from 0.5 – 2 MHz were used to sonicate the population of residual nuclei produced upon collapse of a histotripsy bubble cloud. For each frequency, mechanical index (MI) values ranging from 0 to approximately 1.5 were tested. Results indicated that, when evaluated as a function of bubble removal pulse MI, the efficacy of bubble removal shows markedly similar trends for all frequencies tested. This behavior divides into three distinct regimes (with provided cutoffs being approximate): (1) MI < 0.2: Minimal effect on the population of remnant cavitation nuclei; (2) 0.2 < MI < 1: Aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubbles, the extent of which trends toward a maximum; (3) MI > 1: Bubble coalescence is compromised as bubble removal pulses induce high magnitude inertial cavitation of residual bubbles. The major distinction in these trends came for bubble removal pulses applied at 2 MHz, which were observed to generate the most effective bubble coalescence of all frequencies tested. We hypothesize that this is a consequence of the secondary Bjerknes force being the major facilitator of the consolidation process, the magnitude of which increases when the bubble size distribution is far from resonance such that the phase difference of oscillation of individual bubbles is minimal. PMID:26719861

  15. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  16. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  17. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, J B; van Weerd, J H; Huisman, E A; Verreth, J A J

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential use of these residues in fish feeds. In Costa Rica, during the 1993-1994 production season, major agricultural sectors (crop and livestock) generated a total amount of 3.15-3.25 million MT of residues (classified in by-products: used residues and wastes: not used residues). Some residues are treated to turn them into valuable items or to diminish their polluting effects (e.g., the so-called by-products). About 1.56-1.63 million MT of by-products were used for different purposes (e.g. fertilization, animal feeding, fuel, substrates in greenhouses). However, the remainder (1.59-1.62 million MT) was discharged into environment causing pollution. About 1.07-1.2 million MT wastes came from major crop systems (banana, coffee, sugarcane and oil palm) whereas the remainder came from animal production systems (porcine and poultry production, slaughtering). These data are further compared to residues estimates for the 2001-2002 production season coming from the biggest crops activities. Unfortunately, most of the studied wastes contain high levels of moisture and low levels of protein, and also contain variable amounts of antinutritional factors (e.g., polyphenols, tannins, caffeine), high fibre levels and some toxic substances and pesticides. All these reasons may limit the use of these agricultural wastes for animal feeding, especially in fish feeds. The potential use of the major vegetable and animal residues in fish feeds is discussed based on their nutritional composition, on their amount available over the year and on their pollution risks. Other constraints to use these wastes in fish feeds are the extra costs of drying and, in most cases

  18. Biochemical production of bioenergy from agricultural crops and residue in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi Alavijeh, Masih; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-06-01

    The present study assessed the potential for biochemical conversion of energy stored in agricultural waste and residue in Iran. The current status of agricultural residue as a source of bioenergy globally and in Iran was investigated. The total number of publications in this field from 2000 to 2014 was about 4294. Iran ranked 21st with approximately 54 published studies. A total of 87 projects have been devised globally to produce second-generation biofuel through biochemical pathways. There are currently no second-generation biorefineries in Iran and agricultural residue has no significant application. The present study determined the amount and types of sustainable agricultural residue and oil-rich crops and their provincial distribution. Wheat, barley, rice, corn, potatoes, alfalfa, sugarcane, sugar beets, apples, grapes, dates, cotton, soybeans, rapeseed, sesame seeds, olives, sunflowers, safflowers, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts have the greatest potential as agronomic and horticultural crops to produce bioenergy in Iran. A total of 11.33million tonnes (Mt) of agricultural biomass could be collected for production of bioethanol (3.84gigaliters (Gl)), biobutanol (1.07Gl), biogas (3.15billion cubic meters (BCM)), and biohydrogen (0.90BCM). Additionally, about 0.35Gl of biodiesel could be obtained using only 35% of total Iranian oilseed. The potential production capacity of conventional biofuel blends in Iran, environmental and socio-economic impacts including well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the social cost of carbon dioxide reduction are discussed. The cost of emissions could decrease up to 55.83% by utilizing E85 instead of gasoline. The possible application of gaseous biofuel in Iran to produce valuable chemicals and provide required energy for crop cultivation is also studied. The energy recovered from biogas produced by wheat residue could provide energy input for 115.62 and 393.12 thousand hectares of irrigated and rain-fed wheat

  19. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Effects of mechanical removal and incorporation of post-harvest residue on ratoon sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of post-harvest residue management in conjunction with incorporation on sugarcane grown on heavy-textured soils in the high rainfall climate of Louisiana. For the first experiment, whole-plots consisted of full retention, complete removal by burnin...

  1. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregate distribution and particulate organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding short and long term impacts of corn residue removal for use in the biofuels industry. To address these concerns, a field study was established in eastern South Dakota in 2000 using no-till soil management within a two-year corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine m...

  2. 40 CFR 156.146 - Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable pesticides. 156.146 Section 156.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.146 Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable...

  3. 40 CFR 156.146 - Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable pesticides. 156.146 Section 156.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.146 Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable...

  4. 40 CFR 156.146 - Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable pesticides. 156.146 Section 156.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.146 Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable...

  5. 40 CFR 156.146 - Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable pesticides. 156.146 Section 156.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.146 Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable...

  6. 40 CFR 156.146 - Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nonrefillable containers-rigid containers with dilutable pesticides. 156.146 Section 156.146 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.146 Residue removal instructions for nonrefillable...

  7. Residue removal and climatic effects on soil carbon content of no-till soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While no-till management practices usually result in increased soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, the effect of residue removal with no-till is not well understood, especially in warmer climates. A multi-year study was conducted at six locations having a wide range of climatic conditions in centra...

  8. Intraoperative detection and removal of microscopic residual sarcoma using wide-field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Jeffrey K; Ferrer, Jorge M; Brigman, Brian E; Lee, Chang-Lung; Dodd, Rebecca D; Eward, William C; Marshall, Lisa F; Cuneo, Kyle C; Carter, Jessica E; Ramasunder, Shalini; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, W David; Griffith, Linda G; Bawendi, Moungi G; Kirsch, David G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The goal of limb-sparing surgery for a soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity is to remove all malignant cells while preserving limb function. After initial surgery, microscopic residual disease in the tumor bed will cause a local recurrence in approximately 33% of patients with sarcoma. To help identify these patients, the authors developed an in vivo imaging system to investigate the suitability of molecular imaging for intraoperative visualization. METHODS: A primary mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma and a wide field-of-view imaging device were used to investigate a series of exogenously administered, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes activated by cathepsin proteases for real-time intraoperative imaging. RESULTS: The authors demonstrated that exogenously administered cathepsin-activated probes can be used for image-guided surgery to identify microscopic residual NIR fluorescence in the tumor beds of mice. The presence of residual NIR fluorescence was correlated with microscopic residual sarcoma and local recurrence. The removal of residual NIR fluorescence improved local control. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that their technique has the potential to be used for intraoperative image-guided surgery to identify microscopic residual disease in patients with cancer. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society. PMID:22437667

  9. Selective Removal of Residual Orthodontic Composite Using a Rapidly Scanned Carbon Dioxide Laser with Spectral Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasuna, Krista

    Background and Objective: Excessive heat accumulation within the tooth, incomplete removal of composite, and variable damage to the enamel are shortcomings of using conventional burs to remove residual orthodontic composite after debonding fixed appliances. The objective of this study was to determine if composite could be selectively removed from the enamel surface using a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser controlled by spectral feedback. Materials and Methods: A carbon dioxide laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3 microm with a pulse duration of 10-15 micros and a pulse repetition rate of ˜ 200 Hz was used to selectively remove composite from the buccal surfaces of 21 extracted teeth. GrenGloo(TM) composite was used to better visualize residual composite and the amount of enamel lost was measured with optical microscopy. A spectral feedback system utilizing a miniature spectrometer was used to control the laser scanning system. Pulpal temperature measurements were performed during composite removal to determine if there was excessive heat accumulation. Results: The amount of enamel lost averaged 22.7microm +/- 8.9 and 25.3 microm +/- 9.4 for removal at 3.8 and 4.2 J/cm2, respectively. An average maximum temperature rise of 1.9°C +/- 1.5 was recorded, with no teeth approaching the critical value of 5.5°C. The average time of composite removal was 19.3 +/- 4.1 seconds. Conclusions: Residual orthodontic composite can be rapidly removed from the tooth surface using a rapidly scanned CO2 laser with spectral feedback, with minimal temperature rise within the pulp and with minimal damage to the underlying enamel surface.

  10. HOW DOES ADDING AND REMOVING LIQUID FROM SOCKET BLADDERS AFFECT RESIDUAL LIMB FLUID VOLUME?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Cagle, JC; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Adding and removing liquid from socket bladders is a means for people with limb loss to accommodate residual limb volume change. Nineteen people with trans-tibial amputation using their regular prosthetic socket fitted with fluid bladders on the inside socket surface underwent cycles of bladder liquid addition and removal. In each cycle, subjects sat, stood, and walked for 90s with bladder liquid added and then sat, stood, and walking for 90s again with the bladder liquid removed. The amount of bladder liquid added was increased in each cycle. Bioimpedance analysis was implemented to measure residual limb fluid volume. Results showed that the preferred bladder liquid volume was 16.8 mL (s.d.8.4), corresponding to 1.7% (s.d.0.8%) of the average socket volume between the bioimpedance voltage-sensing electrodes. Limb fluid volume driven out of the residual limb when bladder liquid was added was typically not recovered upon subsequent bladder liquid removal. Fifteen of nineteen subjects experienced a gradual limb fluid volume loss over the test session. Care should be taken when implementing adjustable socket technologies in people with limb amputation. Reducing socket volume may accentuate limb fluid volume loss. PMID:24203546

  11. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ag’s ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  12. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  13. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products

  14. [Cumulative risk assessment for consumers of agricultural crops polluted with one chemical class pesticide residues (case of triazole fungicides)].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, N M; Omel'chuk, S T

    2011-01-01

    Different indices of cumulative risk assessment of combination of residues of pesticides which may simultaneously be present in raw agricultural crops, based on toxic evaluation of such combination have been presented. Risk for population health due to consumption of raw agricultural crops with triazole residues is acceptable on hazard index, point of departure index and cumulative risk index, exceeds allowable level on criterion "total margin of exposure". PMID:22768736

  15. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  16. Removal of Residual Cavitation Nuclei to Enhance Histotripsy Erosion of Model Urinary Stones

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy has been shown to be an effective treatment for model kidney stones, eroding their surface to tiny particulate debris via a cavitational bubble cloud. However, similar to shock wave lithotripsy, histotripsy stone treatments display a rate-dependent efficacy with pulses applied at low rate generating more efficient stone erosion in comparison to those applied at high rate. This is hypothesized to be the result of residual cavitation bubble nuclei generated by bubble cloud collapse. While the histotripsy bubble cloud only lasts on the order of 100 µs, these microscopic remnant bubbles can persist on the order of 1 second—inducing direct attenuation of subsequent histotripsy pulses and influencing bubble cloud dynamics. In an effort to mitigate these effects, we have developed a novel strategy to actively remove residual cavitation nuclei from the field using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses. Previous work has demonstrated that with selection of the appropriate acoustic parameters these bubble removal pulses can stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of microscopic bubble nuclei—effectively deleting them from the target volume. Here, we incorporate bubble removal pulses in histotripsy treatment of model kidney stones. It was found that when histotripsy is applied at low rate (1 Hz), bubble removal does not produce a statistically significant change in erosion. At higher pulse rates of 10, 100, and 500 Hz, incorporating bubble removal results in 3.7-, 7.5-, and 2.7-fold increases in stone erosion, respectively. High speed imaging indicates that the introduction of bubble removal pulses allows bubble cloud dynamics resulting from high pulse rates to more closely approximate those generated at the low rate of 1 Hz. These results corroborate previous work in the field of shock wave lithotripsy regarding the ill-effects of residual bubble nuclei, and suggest that high treatment efficiency can be recovered at high pulse rates through

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

    2012-04-01

    To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size. PMID:22323047

  18. β-Xylanase production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on sugars agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Karni, M; Deopurkar, R L; Rale, V B

    1993-07-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans grew well in media containing glucose, fructose, xylan or xylose but β-xylanase was only produced with xylan or xylose. Lactose and maltose were poor substrates for growth. β-Xylanase production was repressed in media containing glucose or fructose along with xylose. Agricultural residues, such as wheat bran, paddy husk and rice straw, could be used as carbon sources for growth and β-xylanase production of Aureobasidium pullulans. Tween 80 at 0.5% (v/v) increased the yield of β-xylanase by up to 20%. PMID:24420115

  19. 40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods. 180.7 Section 180.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.7...

  20. 40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods. 180.7 Section 180.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.7...

  1. 40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods. 180.7 Section 180.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.7...

  2. 40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods. 180.7 Section 180.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.7...

  3. 40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods. 180.7 Section 180.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.7...

  4. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and in a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.

  5. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and inmore » a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.« less

  6. Removal of famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin residues in red wines: effects of clarification and filtration processes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Jose; Payá, Paula; Cámara, Miguel Angel; Barba, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The effects of six clarification agents [egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite + gelatine, charcoal, polyvinylpolypyrrolidine (PVPP) and silica gel] on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) were studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone using an HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). Generally, trifloxystrobin is the fungicide that is the lowest persistent one in wines, except in the egg albumin study whereas, the most persistent one is fluquinconazole. The elimination depends on the nature of the active ingredient, though the water stability in the presence of light within it has more influence than the solubility and polarity of the product itself. The most effective clarifying agents were the charcoal and PVPP. The silica gel and bentonite plus gelatine were not enough to reduce considerably the residual contents in the wine clarified with them. In general terms, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest removal after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with egg albumine and bentonite plus gelatine, and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP. PMID:17763033

  7. Effects of physical and morphometric factors on nutrient removal properties in agricultural ponds.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Onodera, S; Okubo, K; Takagi, S; Maruyama, Y; Jin, G; Shimizu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Effects of physical and morphometric factors on nutrient removal properties were studied in small agricultural ponds with different depths, volumes, and residence times in western Japan. Average residence time was estimated to be >15 days, and it tended to decrease from summer to winter because of the increase in water withdrawal for agricultural activity. Water temperature was clearly different between the surface and bottom layers; this indicates that thermal stratification occurred in summer. Chlorophyll-a was significantly high (>20 μg/L) in the surface layer (<0.5 m) and influenced by the thermal stratification. Removal ratios of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and dissolved total phosphorus in the ponds were estimated to be 53-98% and 39-98% in August and 10-92% and 36-57% in December, respectively. Residence time of the ponds was longer in August than in December, and DTN removal, in particular, was more significant in ponds with longer residence time. Our results suggest residence time is an important factor for nitrogen removal in small agricultural ponds as well as large lakes. PMID:26676006

  8. Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from rice husk residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Ruiguang; Li, Guiying; Hu, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of dye wastewater by activated carbon (AC) prepared from rice husk residue wastes was studied. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (50-450 mg/L), pH (3-11) and temperature (30-70 °C) on the removal of methylene blue (MB), neutral red, and methyl orange. Kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of dyes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggested that AC was effective to remove dyes, especially MB, from aqueous solutions. Desorption studies found that chemisorption by the adsorbent might be the major mode of dye removal. Fourier transform infrared results suggested that dye molecules were likely to combine with the O-H and P=OOH groups of AC. PMID:26942535

  9. Rainfall-induced removal of copper-based spray residues from vines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P; Soto-Gómez, D; De La Calle, I; López-Periago, J E; Paradelo, M

    2016-10-01

    The continuous use of copper against fungal diseases and off-target effects causes major environmental and agronomic problems. However, the rain-induced removal of Cu-based residues is known only for a limited number of crops. We present the results of rain-induced removal of fungicides from two monitored vineyard plots which were sprayed with two widely used Cu-based formulations: copper-oxychloride (CO) and Bordeaux mixture (BM), respectively. Cu removal per growing season was 0.60±0.12kgha(-1) (30% of the applied fungicide) for CO and 0.80±0.10kgha(-1) for BM (70% of the applied fungicide). Fractioning the Cu in soluble (CuS) and particulate fractions (CuP) showed that most of the Cu was removed as CuP, but CuS concentrations found in throughfall collectors exceeded the regulatory threshold for toxicity in surface waters. The first few millimeters of rain caused most of the Cu removal. Our findings agreed with the data reported in the scientific literature, in which a significant fraction of the Cu-based formulation is loosely attached to the plant surfaces. In addition, we found that rainfall energy had a minor influence on the removal. PMID:27344398

  10. Organic matter removal from saline agricultural drainage wastewater using a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Ateia, Mohamed; Nasr, Mahmoud; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fujii, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of salinity on the removal of organics and ammonium from agricultural drainage wastewater (ADW) using moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Under the typical salinity level of ADW (total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration up to 2.5 g·L(-1)), microorganisms were acclimated for 40 days on plastic carriers and a stable slime layer of attached biofilm was formed. Next, six batch mode MBBRs were set up and run under different salinity conditions (0.2-20 g-TDS·L(-1)). The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) in 6 hours decreased from 98 and 68% to 64 and 21% with increasing salt concentrations from 2.5 to 20 g-TDS·L(-1), respectively. In addition, at decreasing salt levels of 0.2 g-TDS·L(-1), both COD removal and nitrification were slightly lowered. Kinetic analysis indicated that the first-order reaction rate constant (k1) and specific substrate utilization rate (U) with respect to the COD removal remained relatively constant (10.9-11.0 d(-1) and 13.1-16.1 g-COD-removed.g-biomass(-1)·d(-1), respectively) at the salinity range of 2.5-5.0 g-TDS·L(-1). In this study, the treated wastewater met the standard criteria of organic concentration for reuse in agricultural purposes, and the system performance remained relatively constant at the salinity range of typical ADW. PMID:26465302

  11. Treatment of smelting residue for arsenic removal and recovery of copper using pyro-hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Atsushi; Takasaki, Yasushi; William, Tongamp; Yamatodani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Yasunori; Sunagawa, Shigeru; Ono, Eiki

    2010-09-15

    During pyro-metallurgical processing of non-ferrous metals, smelting residues such as smelter slag, flue gas, containing value metals and also harmful substances are inevitably generated as secondary product. For reduction of environmental loading and recovery of the value metals, such materials demand proper treatment options. In this research, some experimental steps were investigated to remove high arsenic (As: 19.5 wt%) and recover copper (Cu: 3.1 wt%) contained in such smelting residues. In the first-stage arsenic and other volatile materials were removed by pyro-metallurgical treatment and in the second-stage the treated residue from pyro-processing was treated in hydrometallurgical processing involving a two-stage leaching operation in H(2)SO(4) solution to dissolve the metals followed by solvent extraction using LIX-84I as extractant to recover dissolved Cu in final leached solution. The results showed that over 90% of arsenic in smelting residue was removed by volatilization and recovered as As(2)O(3) while copper content increased to 4.2 wt%. In the two-stage leaching process, first up to 90% of arsenic was selectively dissolved in 0.25 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution and second, the solids were further leached in 1.0 mol/L H(2)SO(4) solution giving 85% of copper dissolution. Over 90% of copper dissolved into solution was recovered by solvent extraction. Finally over 99% of arsenic dissolved in the first-stage leach solution was co-precipitated with iron dissolved in second-stage leach solution after copper recovery. PMID:20619796

  12. Organic particulate emissions from field burning of garden and agriculture residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Monteiro, Cristina; Pio, Casimiro; Tomé, Mário

    2011-08-01

    To assess the particulate matter (PM) composition, the smoke from three different agriculture and garden residues, commonly subjected to open field burning in Northern Portugal (potato haulm (A), arable weed vegetation (B) and collard greens stalks/pruned green leafy-twigs (C)) have been sampled into 3 different size fractions (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 ). To replicate another frequent practise of reducing or dispose agriculture/garden debris, residue C was complementarily burned in a metal container with addition of used lubricant oil. The size-segregated aerosol samples were analysed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon by a thermal-optical transmission technique. The organosoluble OC was fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Burning of residue C produced the highest PM emissions. OC was the dominant carbonaceous component in all aerosol samples, contributing to about 98% of total carbon (TC). The detailed chemical profiles of particulate emissions, including organic tracer compounds, have been assessed. The contribution of phenolics (0.2-39% OC, w/w) and organic acids (1.5-13% OC, w/w) to OC was always predominant over other organic compounds, whose distribution patterns were found to vary from one residue to another. The polyphenols, as the guaiacyl derivatives, were particularly abundant in PM from the residue C burning, but anthropogenic constituents completely superimposed the emission profiles after addition of used lubricant oil. It was shown that the prevailing ambient conditions (such as high humidity) likely contributed to atmospheric processes (e.g. coagulation and hygroscopic growth), which influenced the particle size characteristics of the smoke tracers, shifting their distribution to larger diameters. Since it was shown that the relative contribution of different carbon forms and organic compounds may strongly depend on the size of the particulate matter, the barely

  13. Removal of element mercury by medicine residue derived biochars in presence of various gas compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Yongwang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Fumei; He, Chuan; Wang, Yinyin; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    Pyrolyzed biochars from an industrial medicinal residue waste were modified by microwave activation and NH4Cl impregnation. Mercury adsorption of different modified biochars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg(0) occurred on the surface of M6WN5 which was modified both microwave and 5wt.% NH4Cl loading, and exothermic chemisorption process was a dominant route for Hg(0) removal. Microwave activation improved pore properties and NH4Cl impregnation introduced good active sites for biochars. The presence of NO and O2 increased Hg(0) adsorption whereas H2O inhibited Hg(0) adsorption greatly. A converse effect of SO2 was observed on Hg(0) removal, namely, low concentration of SO2 promoted Hg(0) removal obviously whereas high concentration of SO2 suppressed Hg(0) removal. The Hg(0) removal by M6WN5 was mainly due to the reaction of the C−Cl with Hg(0) to form HgCl2, and the active state of C−Cl(*) groups might be an intermediate group in this process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that mercury adsorption by the biochars was exothermic process and apparent adsorption energy was 43.3 kJ/mol in the range of chemisorption. In spite of low specific surface area, M6WN5 proved to be a promising Hg(0) sorbent in flue gas when compared with other sorbents. PMID:26051992

  14. Preparation of Three-Dimensional Chitosan-Graphene Oxide Aerogel for Residue Oil Removal.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Tian, Mingwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Sun, Kaikai; Tang, Xiaoning

    2016-08-01

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the hydrophily and dispersibility in aqueous solution limit its practical application in environmental protection. In this paper, a novel, environmentally friendly adsorbent, chitosan and chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels with a diverse shape, large specific surface area, and unique porous structure were prepared by a freeze-drying method. The structure of the adsorbents was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD); the specific surface area and swelling capability were also characterized. In addition, removal of diesel oil from seawater by chitosan aerogel (CSAG) and chitosan-graphene oxide aerogel (AGGO-1 and AGGO-2) was studied and batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of different adsorbent dosages (0-6 g), contact time (0-120 minutes), pH (3-9), and initial concentrations of oil residue (3-30 g/L) to determine the optimum condition for the adsorption of residue oil from seawater. The results showed that the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels were more effective to remove diesel oil from seawater compared with pure chitosan aerogel. A removal efficiency ≥ 95% of the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels could be achieved easily at the initial concentrations of 20 g/L, which indicated that the chitosan-graphene oxide aerogels can be used to treat the industrial oil leakage or effluent in the natural water. PMID:27456137

  15. A universal process development methodology for complete removal of residues from 300mm wafer edge bevel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Mai; Linnane, Michael; Longstaff, Chris; Ueda, Kenichi; Winter, Tom

    2006-03-01

    Many yield limiting, etch blocking defects are attributed to "flake" type contamination from the lithography process. The wafer edge bevel is a prime location for generation of this type of defect. Wafer bevel quality is not readily observed with top down or even most off axis inspection equipment. Not all chemistries are removed with one "universal" cleaning process. IC manufacturers must maximize usable silicon area as well. These requirements have made traditional chemical treatments to clean the wafer edge inadequate for many chemistry types used in 193nm processing. IBM has evaluated a method to create a robust wafer bevel and backside cleaning process. An August Technology AXi TM Series advanced macro inspection tool with E20 TM edge inspection module has been used to check wafer bevel cleanliness. Process impact on the removal of post apply residues has been investigated. The new process used backside solvent rinse nozzles only and cleaned the wafer bevel completely. The use of the topside edge solvent clean nozzles was eliminated. Thickness, wet film defect measurements (wet FM), and pattern wafer defect monitors showed no difference between the new backside rinse edge bead removal process and the process of record. Solvent topside edge bead removal of both bottom anti-reflective coatings and resist materials showed better cut width control and uniformity. We conclude that the topside solvent edge bead removal nozzle can be removed from the process. Backside solvent rinse nozzles can clean the backside of the wafer, the wafer bevel, and can wrap to the front edge of the wafer to provide a uniform edge bead removal cut width that is not sensitive to coater module tolerances. Recommendations are made for changes to the typical preventive maintenance procedures.

  16. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  17. An Investigation of Nitrate Removal In A First-order Agricultural Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, L.

    Nitrate removal along a 180 m length of a first-order stream draining an agricultural watershed was investigated at an experimental water quality station in Eastern Canada; in-situ stream and shallow groundwater monitoring was coupled with laboratory ex- periments carried out on intact stream sediment cores. Downstream nitrate losses were assumed to be a function of groundwater dilution through the sandy sediments under- lying the stream, bacterial removal, or vegetative uptake. A series of stream nitrate and bromide addition experiments were carried out in order to conduct a mass balance study of stream dilution with low-nitrate groundwater. Net removal during transport through bacterial processes such as denitrification were evaluated by measuring ni- trate concentrations of water overlying intact stream sediment cores in the laboratory. Isotopic analyses of nitrate-N were conducted to look for denitrification signatures. Results suggest that although laboratory core experiments point to high net nitrate removal rates, this was not consistent with field observations, where groundwater di- lution could account for observed changes in nitrate concentrations during transport. This apparent disparity between simulated laboratory and in-situ stream removal rates may be a function of the physical transport processes controlling exchanges between stream bottom sediments and the overlying water. These results suggest that caution must be exercises in extrapolating potentials for nitrate removal measured in labora- tory experiments to the field, and outlines the importance of considering hydrological transport mechanisms that may control these exchanges.

  18. Residual acrylic adhesive after removal of plastic orthodontic brackets: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Caspersen IVAR

    1977-06-01

    After etching for one minute with 35 per cent phosphoric acid, thirty-eight permanent teeth were furnished with plastic brackets. An additional twelve teeth were used as references and were etched but were not furnished with brackets. Four teeth served as untreated controls. Eight brackets had fallen off one week later. The remaining brackets were removed with various instruments. All the teeth were extracted and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On all of the teeth originally furnished with brackets, residual acrylic was found on the tooth surface. The SEM examination was supplemented with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (ED) which confirmed that the observed residues differed in their chemical composition from the dental substance. PMID:326059

  19. Removal of copper in leachate from mining residues using electrochemical technology.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Andréa; Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Zaviska, François; Benzaazoua, Mostafa

    2014-01-15

    This research is related to a laboratory study on the performance of a successive mining residues leaching and electrochemical copper recovery process. To clearly define the experimental region for response surface methodology (RSM), a preliminary study was performed by applying a current intensity varying from 0.5 A to 4.0 A for 60 min. By decreasing the current intensity from 4.0 A to 0.5 A, a good adhesion and a very smooth and continuous interface of copper was formed and deposited on the cathode electrode. However, the removal rate of Cu decreased from 83.7% to 37.9% when the current intensity passed from 4.0 A to 0.5 A, respectively. Subsequently, the factorial design and central composite design methodologies were successively employed to define the optimal operating conditions for copper removal in the mining residues leachate. Using a 2(3) factorial matrix, the best performance for copper removal (97.7%) was obtained at a current intensity of 2.0 A during 100 min. The current intensity and electrolysis time were found to be the most influent parameters. The contribution of current intensity and electrolysis time was around 65.8% and 33.9%, respectively. The treatment using copper electrode and current intensity of 1.3 A during 80 min was found to be the optimal conditions in terms of cost/effectiveness. Under these conditions, 86% of copper can be recovered for a total cost of 0.56 $ per cubic meter of treated mining residues leachate. PMID:24365775

  20. Graphene treatment using a very low energy Ar+ ion beam for residue removal.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung Seok; Kim, Ki Seok; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Mishra, Anurag; Yeom, Geun Young

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Ar+ ion energy on the removal of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) residue remaining on the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene surface without damaging the graphene surface was investigated. Stable and low energy Ar+ ion beams having a mono-energetic energy distribution with a peak energy of 7.5 eV or 11.5 eV could be formed by using a two-grid magnetically enhanced ICP ion gun with and without the application of 25 Gauss axial magnetic field, respectively, while controlling the Ar gas flow rate. When the CVD graphene treatment was performed with the Ar+ ions having the ion energy peak at 7.5 eV (with the magnetic field) and 11.5 eV (without the magnetic field), the blue shift of Raman G peak from p-type doped to intrinsic graphene indicating the removal of residue on the graphene surface could be observed for both conditions, however, the graphene treated at 11.5 eV (without the magnetic field) showed the increase of the defect while that treated at 7.5 eV (with the magnetic field) showed no significant change of the defect. It is believed that, for the treatment of CVD graphene, possibly due to the low binding energy area such as grain boundaries and domains in the CVD graphene, low energy ions with less than the energy of 10 eV is required not to damage the graphene surface, and a magnetically enhanced ICP ion gun which can provide stable and low energy Ar+ ions with a mono-energetic ion energy distribution with a peak of 7.5 eV can be applicable to the residue removal on the graphene surface. PMID:25971019

  1. Agricultural residue valorization using a hydrothermal process for second generation bioethanol and oligosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Fátima; Domínguez, Elena; Vila, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Garrote, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the hydrothermal valorization of an abundant agricultural residue has been studied in order to look for high added value applications by means of hydrothermal pretreatment followed by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, to obtain oligomers and sugars from autohydrolysis liquors and bioethanol from the solid phase. Non-isothermal autohydrolysis was applied to barley straw, leading to a solid phase with about a 90% of glucan and lignin and a liquid phase with up to 168 g kg(-1) raw material valuable hemicellulose-derived compounds. The solid phase showed a high enzymatic susceptibility (up to 95%). It was employed in the optimization study of the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, carried out at high solids loading, led up to 52 g ethanol/L (6.5% v/v). PMID:26000836

  2. A RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of loss of residual heat removal system after reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanrikut, A.; Heper, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    A computational investigation of the experiment concerning the loss of the residual heat removal system (RHRS) during reduced inventory operation was simulated using the RELAP5/ MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code. The experiment was conducted at the UMCP 2 x 4 integral test loop (University of Maryland) and consisted of two parts: loss of RHRS and loss of feedwater system. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to assess the capability of the RELAP5 code to capture the phenomena observed in the experiment during the boiler-condenser mode (BCM) and the loss of feedwater (LOFW) system transient.

  3. Evaluation of nitrate removal in buffer zone supply by water from agricultural drained catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien; Chaumont, Cedric; Guenne, Angeline

    2010-05-01

    The European Directive 2000/60/CE states objectives of a good ecological and chemical status from water body until 2015. The Cemagref project focuses on the constructed wetlands (CW) which can be used as buffer zones to lower the impact of agricultural practices on hydrosystems and decrease or even stop the transfer of contaminants via the surface waters. The experiments are carried out on a drained area where the runoff is limited and waters from the soil profile are concentrated at the drain pipes outlet. The constructed wetland studied is located at Aulnoy (77) at 70 km north-east of Paris, within the Orgeval catchment (France). Our aim is to assess the efficiency of constructed wetlands on the removal of agricultural nitrates. We are also interested in the hydrological balance of CW and agricultural catchment. The buffer zone is connected to a drained agricultural catchment of 35 hectares. The crops in the agricultural plots mainly consist in cereals (corn, maize), vegetables (horse bean, pea), sugar beet and rape. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied following normal agricultural practices. The site is monitored since 2005 for discharge and nitrate concentration in order to infer water and nitrate budgets. The buffer zone includes a pond (860m2) and a reservoir (3305 m2). The storage volume is estimated to 8000m3 which corresponds to about 10% of drainage runoff. Our study reveals potential nitrate removal because a decrease of nitrate average contents has been documented between inlet and outlet CW over a measurement period of 4 years. Average values of 57 mg/l, 40 mg/l and 27 mg/l are respectively measured at the main drain, in the pond mean and in the reservoir; that is a reduction close to 50% of nitrate fluxes. The semi-potential denitrification experiments confirm the denitrification capacity of buffer zone sediments. This constructed wetland allows the treatment of waters from agricultural drainage and provides results in line with the expectations of "good

  4. Laser cleaning: an alternative method for removing oil-spill fuel residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.; Piñon, V.; Ramil, A.; Yañez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Cleaning methods employed in last oil spills usually require direct contact or the intervention of external agents that can lead to additional contamination and damage of treated surfaces. As an alternative, a laser-based methodology is proposed in this work for controlled removal of fuel residues caused by the accident of Prestige tanker from rocks, as well as tools and equipment employed in fuel retaining and elimination procedures. Ablation thresholds of fuel crust and underlying material have been investigated with the aim to establish operational parameters that preserve the structural integrity and identity of the latter. The clean-up process was controlled by the self-limiting nature of the process or by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Contaminated, no contaminated and cleaned areas of the samples have been characterized by complementary microscopy techniques to help in the task of optimizing the laser cleaning procedure and checking the effectiveness of the removal process.

  5. Stability of nitrofuran residues during honey processing and nitrofuran removal by macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qi; Yu, Shifeng; Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Jia, Jiajia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing concern that the presence of antibiotics such as nitrofurans in animal-derived food products is harmful to human. This study originally assessed the effects of different honey processing steps on the stabilities of four nitrofuran metabolites (3-amino-2-oxazolidone, 1-aminohydantonin, semicarbazide and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone). Macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were evaluated for the removal of these residues. Nitrofuran metabolites were analysed by LC-MS/MS after each processing step. The results revealed that honey processing reduced nitrofuran metabolites in honey and the total loss was from 56.6% to 90.4%. Furthermore, LS-901 was the optimum MAR with adsorption rates of 69.9-91.8% for four metabolites. After removing nitrofuran metabolites, the honey could be safely used as winter feed for honeybees. PMID:24874365

  6. Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Klavarioti, Maria; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Kassinos, Despo

    2009-02-01

    Over the past few years, pharmaceuticals are considered as an emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end-products. The environmental applications of AOPs are numerous, including water and wastewater treatment (i.e. removal of organic and inorganic pollutants and pathogens), air pollution abatement and soil remediation. AOPs are applied for the abatement of pollution caused by the presence of residual pharmaceuticals in waters for the last decade. In this light, this paper reviews and assesses the effectiveness of various AOPs for pharmaceutical removal from aqueous systems. PMID:18760478

  7. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples. PMID:18651087

  8. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    PubMed

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. PMID:24874794

  9. Atrazine soil core residue analysis from an agricultural field 21 years after its ban.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Hofmann, Diana; Vanderborght, Jan; Lelickens, Anna; Köppchen, Stephan; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-07-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) groundwater monitoring in the Zwischenscholle aquifer in western Germany revealed concentrations exceeding the threshold value of 0.1 μg L and increasing concentration trends even 20 yr after its ban. Accordingly, the hypothesis was raised that a continued release of bound atrazine residues from the soil into the Zwischenscholle aquifer in combination with the low atrazine degradation in groundwater contributes to elevated atrazine in groundwater. Three soil cores reaching down to the groundwater table were taken from an agricultural field where atrazine had been applied before its ban in 1991. Atrazine residues were extracted from eight soil layers down to 300 cm using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extracted atrazine concentrations ranged between 0.2 and 0.01 μg kg for topsoil and subsoil, respectively. The extracted mass from the soil profiles represented 0.07% of the applied mass, with 0.01% remaining in the top layer. A complete and instantaneous remobilization of atrazine residues and vertical mixing with the groundwater body below would lead to atrazine groundwater concentrations of 0.068 μg L. Considering the area where atrazine was applied in the region and assuming instantaneous lateral mixing in the Zwischenscholle aquifer would result in a mean groundwater concentration of 0.002 μg L. A conservative estimation suggests an atrazine half-life value of about 2 yr for the soil zone, which significantly exceeds highest atrazine half-lives found in the literature (433 d for subsurface soils). The long-term environmental behavior of atrazine and its metabolites thus needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25603092

  10. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  11. Removal of Nitrogen and Pathogens in Agricultural or Urban Channles using Engineered Streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, J. E.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Treating non-point source pollution is one of our greatest challenges in environmental hydrology. Previous efforts in agricultural or urban settings have focused on removing sources or implementing distributed best management practices (BMPs) throughout a watershed. However, for stream pollution, the most efficient point of treatment would be within the stream itself, which integrates flows from the entire watershed. Engineered streambed modifications in urban or agricultural streams and constructed channels have the potential to mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Geomedia designed to treat water pollutants and achieve an optimal residence time via hydraulic conductivity modifications are termed biohydrochemical enhancement structures for stream water treatment (BEST). BEST modules can efficiently drive interchange, attenuating nutrients and pathogens (and can be designed to remove other pollutants such as phosphorus, metals or trace organics). Numerical models, combined with data from bench-top and 2D experiments, demonstrate effective contaminant removal potential for practical applications. Nitrogen and pathogens could be attenuated within a series of BEST on the order of 50 m of stream length, and at a favorable cost compared to traditional BMPs, suggesting that BEST could be an effective best management practice for constructed stormwater channels (particularly outlets of detention ponds) or channels carrying irrigation return flows. New results from a constructed stream demonstrate the real-world applicability of the BEST system.

  12. Engineered biochar from biofuel residue: characterization and its silver removal potential.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong; Yang, Liuyan

    2015-05-20

    A novel approach was used to prepare engineered biochar from biofuel residue (stillage from bagasse ethanol production) through slow pyrolysis. The obtained biochar was characterized for its physicochemical properties as well as silver sorption ability. Sorption experimental data showed that engineered biochar quickly and efficiently removed silver ion (Ag(+)) from aqueous solutions with a Langmuir maximum capacity of 90.06 mg/g. The high sorption of Ag(+) onto the biochar was attributed to both reduction and surface adsorption mechanisms. The reduction of Ag(+) by the biochar was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the postsorption biochar, which clearly showed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon matrix. An antimicrobial ability test indicated that silver-laden biochar effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, while the original biochar without silver nanoparticles promoted growth. Thus, biochar, prepared from biofuel residue materials, could be potentially applied not only to remove Ag(+) from aqueous solutions but also to produce a new value-added nanocomposite with antibacterial ability. PMID:25923987

  13. Enhanced Cleaning of Genesis Solar Wind Sample 61348 for Film Residue Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Allton, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a nonnominal reentry. During the recovery of the collector materials from the capsule, many of the collector fragments were placed on the adhesive protion of post-it notes to prevent the fragments from moving during transport back to Johnson Space Center. This unknowingly provided an additional contaminate that would prove difficult to remove with the limited chemistries allowed in the Genesis Curation Laboratory. Generally when collector material samples are prepared for allocation to PIs, the samples are cleaned front side only with Ultra-Pure Water (UPW) via megasonic dispersion to the collector surface to remove crash debris and contamination. While this cleaning method works well on samples that were not placed on post-its during recovery, it has caused movement of the residue on the back of the sample to be deposited on the front in at least two examples. Therefore, samples placed on the adhesive portion on post-it note, require enhanced cleaning methods since post-it residue has proved resistant to UPW cleaning.

  14. Phosphate removal from wastewaters using a weak anion exchanger prepared from a lignocellulosic residue.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Noeline, B F; Manohar, D M

    2006-04-15

    Surface modifications of lignocellulosic residues has become increasingly important for improving their applications as adsorbents. In this study a new adsorbent system (BS-DMAHP) containing dimethylaminohydroxypropyl (DMAHP) weak base groups was prepared by the reaction of banana stem (BS), a lignocellulosic residue with epichlorohydrin and dimethylamine followed by treatment of hydrochloric acid. The original BS and BS-DMAHP were characterized with the help of surface area analyzer, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface charge density of the samples as a function of pH was investigated using potentiometric titrations. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for phosphate and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range of 5.0-7.0. Adsorption has been found to be concentration dependent and endothermic and follows a reversible second-order kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium data. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model. Adsorption experiments were conducted using a commercial chloride form Duolite A-7, a weak base anion exchanger. The removal efficiency was tested using fertilizer industry wastewater. Adsorbed phosphate on BS-DMAHP can be recovered by treating with 0.1 M NaOH solution. A stability test operated for four cycles indicate a capacity loss of < 12.0%. PMID:16683617

  15. Suspended Sediment and Phosphorus Removal in a Woodchip Filter System Treating Agricultural Wash Water.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Tahina; Robertson, Will Dean; Finnigan, Darryl S

    2016-05-01

    Woodchip filters have received attention in recent years for their ability to sustain denitrification activity across multiyear time frames. However, in some freshwater aquatic ecosystems, P rather than N is the nutrient considered most responsible for eutrophication. Previous studies have indicated that woodchip filters have limited ability to remove dissolved P, but in agricultural terrain, P export in watercourses is often dominated by particulate P (PP). Woodchip media, because of their high porosity and permeability and the surface roughness of the particles, could be effective for PP removal. In this study, we tested a woodchip filter for its ability to remove suspended sediment and associated PP at a farm in southern Ontario, Canada, where vegetable wash water with extremely high total suspended solids (TSS) was generated. The treatment system consisted of a 12.3-m concrete sedimentation tank and a slightly larger woodchip filter (16.1 m) installed in a subsurface trench. During 7 mo of full-scale operation, treating 10.8 m d, the filter system removed 71% of influent total P (TP) averaging 8.8 mg L and 99% of TSS averaging 5800 mg L, with most of the removal occurring in the tank and a lesser amount (6-16%) occurring in the woodchip filter. Almost all of the TP removal was associated with PP (91% removal) because dissolved P, averaging 1.5 mg L in the wash water, was little changed. Woodchip filters, when coupled with a solids settling tank, have the potential to provide high-capacity, low-maintenance treatment of suspended solids and associated particulate P in turbid waters. PMID:27136144

  16. Evidence of residual disease in ossicles of patients undergoing cholesteatoma removal.

    PubMed

    Dornhoffer, J L; Colvin, G B; North, P

    1999-01-01

    For the past several years there has been much debate regarding the advisability of reusing the incus for ossicular reconstruction in cases involving cholesteatoma. There appears to be some evidence that microscopic foci of cholesteatoma in the incus could lead to reimplantation of the cholesteatoma should the incus be used in the reconstruction phase. In an effort to elucidate the incidence of microscopic residual cholesteatoma, the incudes of patients with cholesteatoma were examined both grossly in the operating room and microscopically in the laboratory for erosion and residual cholesteatoma. Our examination showed that a number of specimens apparently free of cholesteatoma after macroscopic examination had microscopic evidence of cholesteatoma. Likewise, microscopic examination of an incus that appeared to be free of residual cholesteatoma revealed epithelial cells deeply invading the bone. Macroscopic examination consistently underestimated the amount of erosion that was clearly evident upon histologic examination. In light of these findings, gross examination of the incus after removal of cholesteatoma is not reliably predictive of invasive microscopic disease. Reusing the ossicles in this situation creates the potential of reimplanting the disease. PMID:10219392

  17. Study on the removal of pesticide in agricultural run off by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Ahmad; Hartini, W J H; Ali, Nora'aini; Endut, A

    2011-05-01

    In this batch study, the adsorption of malathion by using granular activated carbon with different parameters due to the particle size, dosage of carbons, as well as the initial concentration of malathion was investigated. Batch tests were carried out to determine the potential and the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC) in removal of pesticide in agricultural run off. The granular activated carbon; coconut shell and palm shells were used and analyzed as the adsorbent material. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity of 909.1mg/g. The results indicate that the GAC could be used to effectively adsorb pesticide (malathion) from agricultural runoff. PMID:21232934

  18. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  19. A combined process of adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation for furfural removal using zero-valent iron residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Furong; Bao, Jianguo; Zhang, Tian C; Lei, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using a combined adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation process (with zero-valent iron (ZVI) residue from heat wraps as an absorbent and catalyst) to remove furfural in the solution was evaluated. The influencing parameters (e.g. pH, H2O2 concentration, initial furfural concentration) and the reusability of ZVI residue (to replace the iron powder) were estimated. The ZVI residue was found to have much better adsorption effect on furfural at pH 2.0 compared with pH 6.7. For Fenton-like reaction alone with ZVI residue, the highest furfural removal of 97.5% was observed at the concentration of 0.176 mol/L H2O2, and all of the samples had >80% removal efficiency at different initial furfural concentrations of 2, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmol/L. However, with a combined adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation, the removal efficiency of furfural was nearly 100% for all treatments. The ZVI residue used for furfural removal was much better than that of iron powder in the Fenton-like reaction at a seven-cycle experiment. This study suggests the combined process of adsorption and Fenton-like oxidation using ZVI residue is effective for the treatment of furfural in the liquid. PMID:26006292

  20. Removal of Residual Cavitation Nuclei to Enhance Histotripsy Fractionation of Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Remnant bubble nuclei generated by primary cavitation collapse can limit the efficiency of histotripsy soft tissue fractionation. When these residual bubbles persist from one histotripsy pulse to the next, they can seed the repetitive nucleation of cavitation bubbles at a discrete set of sites within the focal volume. This effect—referred to as cavitation memory—manifests in inefficient lesion formation, as certain sites within the focal volume are overtreated while others remain undertreated. While the cavitation memory effect can be passively mitigated by using a low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) that affords remnant nuclei sufficient time for dissolution between successive pulses, this low PRF also results in slow lesion production. As such, it would be highly desirable to maintain the high per-pulse efficiency associated with low pulse rates when much higher PRFs are utilized. In this vein we have developed a strategy for the active removal of the remnant bubble nuclei following primary cavitation collapse, using low amplitude ultrasound sequences (termed bubble removal sequences) to stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of these bubbles. In this study, bubble removal sequences were incorporated in high-PRF histotripsy treatment (100 Hz) of a red blood cell tissue-mimicking phantom that allows for the visualization of lesion development in real-time. A series of reference treatments were also conducted at the low PRF of 1 Hz in order to provide a point of comparison when cavitation memory effects are minimal. It was found that bubble removal sequences as short as 1 ms are capable of maintaining the efficacious lesion development characteristics associated with the low PRF of 1 Hz when the much higher pulse rate of 100 Hz is used. These results were then extended to the treatment of a large volume within the tissue phantom, and optimal bubble removal sequences identified for the single-focal-spot case were utilized to homogenize a 10 × 10

  1. Evaluation of dry technology for removal of pellicle adhesive residue on advanced optical reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paracha, Shazad; Bekka, Samy; Eynon, Benjamin; Choi, Jaehyuck; Balooch, Mehdi; Varghese, Ivin; Hopkins, Tyler

    2013-09-01

    The fast pace of MOSFET scaling is accelerating the introduction of smaller technology nodes to extend CMOS beyond 20nm as required by Moore's law. To meet these stringent requirements, the industry is seeing an increase in the number of critical layers per reticle set as it move to lower technology nodes especially in a high volume manufacturing operation. These requirements are resulting in reticles with higher feature densities, smaller feature sizes and highly complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC), built with using new absorber and pellicle materials. These rapid changes are leaving a gap in maintaining these reticles in a fab environment, for not only haze control but also the functionality of the reticle. The industry standard of using wet techniques (which uses aggressive chemicals, like SPM, and SC1) to repel reticles can result in damage to the sub-resolution assist features (SRAF's), create changes to CD uniformity and have potential for creating defects that require other means of removal or repair. Also, these wet cleaning methods in the fab environment can create source for haze growth. Haze can be controlled by: 1) Chemical free (dry) reticle cleaning, 2) In-line reticle inspection in fab, and 3) Manage the environment where reticles are stored. In this paper we will discuss a dry technique (chemical free) to remove pellicle adhesive residue from advanced optical reticles. Samsung Austin Semiconductors (SAS), jointly worked with Eco-Snow System (a division of RAVE N.P., Inc.) to evaluate the use of Dry Reactive Gas (DRG) technique to remove pellicle adhesive residue on reticles. This technique can significantly reduce the impact to the critical geometry in active array of the reticle, resulting in preserving the reticle performance level seen at wafer level. The paper will discuss results on the viability of this technique used on advanced reticles.

  2. Removal of radium from groundwater using a modified bauxite refinery residue.

    PubMed

    Clark, M W; Akhurst, D J; Fergusson, L

    2011-01-01

    Radium (Ra) removal by an unconventional sorbent, a modified bauxite refinery residue (MBRR), is investigated for a groundwater extracted in Missouri, USA. The MBRR treatment causes substantial reductions of both gross α and combined Ra activities from 0.955 ± 0.005 and 0.66 ± 0.005 Bq L to below detection limits (0.037 Bq L or 1 pCi L). Column breakthrough occurs at 0.555 Bq L for gross α and 0.185 Bq L for combined Ra (15 and 5 pCi L; USEPA's maximum contaminant levels) after 54 and 40 d run time, respectively. At 84 d the MBRR media continues to remove 24.3% of raw water gross α and 39.7% of the combined Ra. The treatment effluent has an initial pH of 10.9, outside the USEPA guides (6.5-8.5); this may be readily mitigated by posttreatment acid injection, or by raw water blending. The MBRR simultaneously removes other potentially hazardous trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, and Fe) to extremely low concentrations. In addition, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure testing of spent MBRR suggests that metals are bound tightly, such that it is nonhazardous, permitting cost-effective disposal to landfill without special confinement or storage. Consequently, MBRR may be utilized as an alternative adsorbent for treating Ra-contaminated groundwater. PMID:22031566

  3. Dissipation and Removal of the Etofenprox Residue during Processing in Spring Onion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Won; Bang, Woo-Suk; Jo, Hyeong-Wook; Moon, Joon-Kwan

    2015-08-01

    The dissipation and removal of the etofenprox residue was studied in spring onion grown under greenhouse conditions. Samples of spring onion were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after last application, and removal rates of etofenprox by washing and drying processes were measured. Samples were extracted with acetone and partitioned with dichloromethane. The dichloromethane layer was then concentrated, cleaned up with florisil column chromatography, and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD). At the fortification levels of 0.5, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg, recoveries ranged from 92.0 to 107.7%, with a coefficient of variation of 4.3-7.9% (n = 3). The method limit of quantification (MLOQ) was found to be 0.05 mg/kg in spring onion. The half-lives of etofenprox in spring onion were found to be 9.5 and 7.9 days, at the single or double application rates. Removal rates of etofenprox were 21.6-43.9 and 66.6-88.5% by various washing or drying processes, respectively. PMID:26168318

  4. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (g.ml-1), centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  5. A sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos residue determination in Chinese agricultural smaples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A monoclonal antibody-based competitive antibody-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimized for determining chlorpyrifos residue in agricultural products. The IC50 and IC10 of this ELISA were 3.3 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL respectively. The average recoveries recovery rate...

  6. Production and characterization of biochar from agricultural by-products: Overview and use of cotton biomass residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a newly constructed scientific term for a porous carbonaceous solid produced by dry carbonization or pyrolysis and gasification of biomass. Crop residues and agricultural processing byproducts are major source materials for producing bioenergy (syngas and bio-oil) and biochar by pyrolys...

  7. Agricultural residues and energy crops as potentially economical and novel substrates for microbial production of butanol (a biofuel)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes production of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) from a variety of agricultural residues and energy crops employing biochemical or fermentation processes. A number of organisms are available for this bioconversion including Clostridium beijerinckii P260, C. beijerinckii BA101, C. a...

  8. FEASIBILITY STUDY TO PRODUCE BIODIESEL FROM LOW COST OILS AND NEW CATALYSTS DERIVED FROM AGRICULTURAL & FORESTRY RESIDUES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will develop and demonstrate the feasibility of preparing reusable and recoverable solid, porous acid and base catalysts for biodiesel production using activated carbon generated from agricultural and forestry residues (i.e., a sustainable biomass).  These ne...

  9. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. PMID:27067672

  10. Effect of post-harvest residue and methods of residue removal on ground inhabiting arthropod predators in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the blanket of post-harvest crop residue generated during green-cane harvesting on ground inhabiting arthropod predators of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was evaluated in two experiments spanning a four year period. Crop residue was either all...

  11. Reprint of "Characterization of cyclodextrin containing nanofilters for removal of pharmaceutical residues".

    PubMed

    Jurecska, Laura; Dobosy, Péter; Barkács, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Éva; Záray, Gyula

    2015-03-15

    Due to the increasing amount of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in general and pharmaceutical residues in particular in municipal wastewater, the efficiency of water treatment technologies should be improved. Following the biological treatment of wastewater nanofiltration offers a possible way for the removal of POPs. In this study β-cyclodextrin containing nanofilters having different chemical composition and thickness (1.5-3.5 mm) were investigated. For their characterization, their adsorption capacity was determined applying ibuprofen containing model solution and total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. It could be established that the regeneration of nanofilters with ethanol and the application of inorganic additives (NaCl, NaHCO3, NH4HCO3) increased the adsorption capacity of nanofilters. The best results were achieved with chemical composition of 30 m/m% β-cyclodextrin polymer beads and 70 m/m% ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in the presence of 1 2mmol ammonium hydrogen carbonate/nanofilter. PMID:25638693

  12. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone. PMID:27010486

  13. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Comparative study on factors affecting anaerobic digestion of agricultural vegetal residues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Presently, different studies are conducted related to the topic of biomass potential to generate through anaerobic fermentation process alternative fuels supposed to support the existing fossil fuel resources, which are more and more needed, in quantity, but also in quality of so called green energy. The present study focuses on depicting an optional way of capitalizing agricultural biomass residues using anaerobic fermentation in order to obtain biogas with satisfactory characteristics.. The research is based on wheat bran and a mix of damaged ground grains substrates for biogas production. Results The information and conclusions delivered offer results covering the general characteristics of biomass used , the process parameters with direct impact over the biogas production (temperature regime, pH values) and the daily biogas production for each batch relative to the used material. Conclusions All conclusions are based on processing of monitoring process results , with accent on temperature and pH influence on the daily biogas production for the two batches. The main conclusion underlines the fact that the mixture batch produces a larger quantity of biogas, using approximately the same process conditions and input, in comparison to alone analyzed probes, indicating thus a higher potential for the biogas production than the wheat bran substrate. Adrian Eugen Cioabla, Ioana Ionel, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel and Francisc Popescu contributed equally to this work PMID:22672892

  15. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  16. Thermogravimetric kinetic study of agricultural residue biomass pyrolysis based on combined kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Hu, Mian; Hu, Wanyong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Pyrolytic kinetic of an agricultural residue (AR) feedstock, a mixture of plants (cotton, wheat, rich, corn) stems, was investigated based on combined kinetics. The most suitable mechanism for AR one-step pyrolysis was f(α)=(1-α)(1.1816)α(-1.8428) with kinetic parameters of: apparent activation energy 221.7kJ/mol, pre-exponential factor 4.17E16s(-1). Pyrolysis of AR feedstock could not be described by one-step reaction attributes to heterogeneous features of pyrolysis processes. Combined kinetics three-parallel-reaction (CK-TPR) model fitted the pyrolysis experimental data very well. Reaction mechanisms for pseudo hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin in CK-TPR model was f(α)=(1-α)(1.6244)α(-0.3371)[-ln(1-α)](-0.0515), f(α)=(1-α)(1.0597)α(-0.6909)[-ln(1-α)](0.9026) and f(α)=(1-α)(2.9577)α(-4.7719), respectively. Apparent activation energy of three pseudo components followed the order of Elignin(197.3kJ/mol)>Ecellulose(176.3kJ/mol)>Ehemicelluloses (151.1kJ/mol). Mechanism of hemicelluloses pyrolysis could be further expressed as f(α)=(1-α)(1.4). The pyrolytic mechanism of cellulose met the Nucleation well. However, mechanism of lignin pyrolysis was complex, which possibly was the combined effects of Nucleation, Diffusion, Geometrical contraction, and Power law. PMID:27521788

  17. Performance Enhancement of a High Speed Jet Impingement System for Nonvolatile Residue Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Near, Steve; Stith, Rex

    1996-01-01

    A high speed jet impingement cleaning facility has been developed to study the effectiveness of the nonvolatile residue removal. The facility includes a high pressure air compressor which charges the k-bottles to supply high pressure air, an air heating section to vary the temperature of the high pressure air, an air-water mixing chamber to meter the water flow and generate small size droplets, and a converging- diverging nozzle to deliver the supersonic air-droplet mixture flow to the cleaning surface. To reliably quantify the cleanliness of the surface, a simple procedure for measurement and calibration is developed to relate the amount of the residue on the surface to the relative change in the reflectivity between a clean surface and the greased surface. This calibration procedure is economical, simple, reliable, and robust. a theoretical framework is developed to provide qualitative guidance for the design of the test and interpretation of the experimental results. The result documented in this report support the theoretical considerations.

  18. Heat transfer analysis of the passive residual heat removal system in ROSA/AP600 experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Kukita, Yutaka; Schultz, R.R.

    1998-10-01

    The passive residual heat removal (PRHR) system in the Westinghouse AP600 advanced passive reactor design is a natural-circulation-driven heat exchanger cooled by the water in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). During the experiments, which simulated small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the AP600 reactor using the ROSA-V Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF), the PRHR system heat removal rates well exceeded the core decay power soon after the actuation of the PRHR. This resulted in continuous cooldown and depressurization of the primary side. The PRHR heat transfer performance in these experiments was analyzed by applying heat transfer correlations available in literature to the PRHR heat exchanger tube bundle. Also, the three-dimensional natural circulation in the IRWST was simulated numerically using the FLUENT code. The total heat transfer rate of the PRHR was predicted within 5% of the measured value. The fluid temperature distribution in the IRWST was also predicted well except that the elevation of the thermally stratified region was underpredicted. The calculated flow pattern in the IRWST suggests that the atypical IRWST geometry in the LSTF may have affected the PRHR heat transfer performance during the experiments only a little.

  19. Copper, lead and zinc removal from metal-contaminated wastewater by adsorption onto agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Janyasuthiwong, Suthee; Phiri, Sheila M; Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Rene, Eldon R; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural wastes (groundnut shell, orange and banana peel, rice husk, coconut husk and Wawa tree saw dust) as potential cost-effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from wastewater was evaluated. The effect of pH (2.0-6.0), adsorbent dosage (0.6-2.2 g), contact time (10-130 min) and initial concentration (Pb: 5-105 mg/L, Cu and Zn: 2.5-52.7 mg/L) on the metal removal efficiency and uptake capacity were investigated using response surface methodology to optimize the process conditions. Groundnut shell showed a high potential to remove Cu, Pb and Zn from synthetic wastewater. The highest removal efficiencies with groundnut as the adsorbent were 85% at pH 5.0 for Cu and 98% at pH 3.0 for Pb and Zn. The optimum conditions obtained were 2.5 g adsorbent with 40.7 mg/L Cu at pH 4.4 and 64 min contact time, 2.5 g adsorbent with 196.1 mg/L Pb at pH 5.6 and 60 min contact time and 3.1 g adsorbent with 70.2 mg/L Zn at pH 4.3 and 50 min contact time, for Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. The regeneration of the groundnut shell was possible for a maximum of three cycles using 0.2 M HCl as the desorbing solution without any significant change in the adsorbing efficiency. PMID:26001037

  20. Development of Thermophilic Tailor-Made Enzyme Mixtures for the Bioconversion of Agricultural and Forest Residues

    PubMed Central

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Matsakas, Leonidas; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even though the main components of all lignocellulosic feedstocks include cellulose, hemicellulose, as well as the protective lignin matrix, there are some differences in structure, such as in hardwoods and softwoods, which may influence the degradability of the materials. Under this view, various types of biomass might require a minimal set of enzymes that has to be tailor-made. Partially defined complex mixtures that are currently commercially used are not adapted to efficiently degrade different materials, so novel enzyme mixtures have to be customized. Development of these cocktails requires better knowledge about the specific activities involved, in order to optimize hydrolysis. The role of filamentous fungus Myceliophthora thermophila and its complete enzymatic repertoire for the bioconversion of complex carbohydrates has been widely proven. In this study, four core cellulases (MtCBH7, MtCBH6, MtEG5, and MtEG7), in the presence of other four “accessory” enzymes (mannanase, lytic polyssacharide monooxygenase MtGH61, xylanase, MtFae1a) and β-glucosidase MtBGL3, were tested as a nine-component cocktail against one model substrate (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose) and four hydrothermally pretreated natural substrates (wheat straw as an agricultural waste, birch, and spruce biomass, as forest residues). Synergistic interactions among different enzymes were determined using a suitable design of experiments methodology. The results suggest that for the hydrolysis of the pure substrate (PASC), high proportions of MtEG7 are needed for efficient yields. MtCBH7 and MtEG7 are enzymes of major importance during the hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw, while MtCBH7 plays a crucial role in case of spruce. Cellobiohydrolases MtCBH6 and MtCBH7 act in combination and are key enzymes for the hydrolysis of the hardwood (birch). Optimum combinations were predicted from suitable statistical models which were able to further increase hydrolysis yields, suggesting that

  1. Development of Thermophilic Tailor-Made Enzyme Mixtures for the Bioconversion of Agricultural and Forest Residues.

    PubMed

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Matsakas, Leonidas; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even though the main components of all lignocellulosic feedstocks include cellulose, hemicellulose, as well as the protective lignin matrix, there are some differences in structure, such as in hardwoods and softwoods, which may influence the degradability of the materials. Under this view, various types of biomass might require a minimal set of enzymes that has to be tailor-made. Partially defined complex mixtures that are currently commercially used are not adapted to efficiently degrade different materials, so novel enzyme mixtures have to be customized. Development of these cocktails requires better knowledge about the specific activities involved, in order to optimize hydrolysis. The role of filamentous fungus Myceliophthora thermophila and its complete enzymatic repertoire for the bioconversion of complex carbohydrates has been widely proven. In this study, four core cellulases (MtCBH7, MtCBH6, MtEG5, and MtEG7), in the presence of other four "accessory" enzymes (mannanase, lytic polyssacharide monooxygenase MtGH61, xylanase, MtFae1a) and β-glucosidase MtBGL3, were tested as a nine-component cocktail against one model substrate (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose) and four hydrothermally pretreated natural substrates (wheat straw as an agricultural waste, birch, and spruce biomass, as forest residues). Synergistic interactions among different enzymes were determined using a suitable design of experiments methodology. The results suggest that for the hydrolysis of the pure substrate (PASC), high proportions of MtEG7 are needed for efficient yields. MtCBH7 and MtEG7 are enzymes of major importance during the hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw, while MtCBH7 plays a crucial role in case of spruce. Cellobiohydrolases MtCBH6 and MtCBH7 act in combination and are key enzymes for the hydrolysis of the hardwood (birch). Optimum combinations were predicted from suitable statistical models which were able to further increase hydrolysis yields, suggesting that tailor

  2. Microchip electrophoresis for fast and interference-free determination of trace amounts of glyphosate and glufosinate residues in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuan; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Fast screening of herbicide residues is becoming important to ensure food safety, but traditional chromatographic methods may not be suitable for rapid on-site analysis of samples with complicated matrices. Here, we describe a method for rapid and sensitive determination of glyphosate (GLYP) and glufosinate (GLUF) residues in agricultural products by electrophoresis on disposable microchips with laser-induced fluorescence detection. With this method, quantitative analysis of trace amounts of GLYP and GLUF can be achieved with relatively simple sample preparation. PMID:25673479

  3. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  4. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  5. Glucose(xylose) isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Chanitnun, Kankiya; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose) isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose) isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its K m values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its V max values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85°C and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60°C after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose) isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24031932

  6. Removal of selenium from contaminated agricultural drainage water by nanofiltration membranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Presser, T.S.; Davis, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Seleniferous agricultural drainage wastewater has become a new major source of pollution in the world. In the USA, large areas of farmland in 17 western states, generate contaminated salinized drainage with Se concentrations much higher than 5 ??g/l, the US Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criterion for the protection of aquatic life; Se values locally reach 4200 ??g/l in western San Joaquin Valley, California. Wetland habitats receiving this drainage have generally shown Se toxicosis in aquatic birds causing high rates of embryonic deformity and mortality, or have indicated potential ecological damage. Results of our laboratory flow experiments indicate that nanofiltration, the latest membrane separation technology, can selectively remove > 95% of Se and other multivalent anions from > 90% of highly contaminated water from the San Joaquin Valley, California. Such membranes yield greater water output and require lower pressures and less pretreatment, and therefore, are more cost effective than traditional reverse osmosis membranes. Nanofiltration membranes offer a potential breakthrough for the management of Se contaminated wastes not only from agricultural drainage, but from other sources also.

  7. Removal of trichloroethylene by zerovalent iron/activated carbon derived from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuh-fan; Cheng, Yu-ling; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2013-11-15

    Activated carbon (AC) and zerovalent iron (ZVI) have been widely used in the adsorption and dehalogenation process, respectively, for the removal of organic compounds in environmental treatments. This study aims to prepare ZVI/AC derived from an agricultural waste, coir pith, through simple one-step pyrolysis. The effect of activation temperature and time on the surface area, iron content, and zerovalent iron ratio of ZVI/AC was systemically investigated. The results indicated that the activation of AC by FeSO4 significantly increased surface area of AC and distributed elemental iron over the AC. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of ZVI/AC revealed that zerovalent iron was present. As compared to AC without FeSO4 activation, ZVI/AC increased the trichloroethylene removal rate constant by 7 times. The dechlorination ability of ZVI/AC was dominated by the zerovalent iron content. We have shown that lab-made ZVI/AC from coir pith can effectively adsorb and dehalogenate the chlorinated compounds in water. PMID:23994578

  8. Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using amine-grafted agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, W G; Kandasamy, Jaya; Ngo, H H; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-09-15

    Adsorption using low-cost adsorbents is a favourable water treatment method for the removal of water contaminants. In this study the enhanced removal of nitrate, a contaminant at elevated concentration affecting human health and causing eutrophication of water, was tested using chemically modified agricultural wastes as adsorbents. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption studies were performed on corn cob and coconut copra that were surface modified by amine-grafting to increase the surface positive charges. The Langmuir nitrate adsorption capacities (mgN/g) were 49.9 and 59.0 for the amine-grafted (AG) corn cob and coconut copra, respectively at pH6.5 and ionic strength 1×10(-3)M NaCl. These values are higher than those of many commercially available anion exchange resins. Fixed-bed (15-cm height) adsorption capacities (mgN/g) calculated from the breakthrough curves were 15.3 and 18.6 for AG corn cob and AG coconut copra, respectively, for an influent nitrate concentration 20mg N/L at a flow velocity 5m/h. Nitrate adsorption decreased in the presence of sulphate, phosphate and chloride, with sulphate being the most competitive anion. The Thomas model fitted well to the fixed-bed adsorption data from four repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. Plug-flow model fitted well to the data from only the first cycle. PMID:27192699

  9. Mitigation Measures Following a Loss-of-Residual-Heat-Removal Event During Shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-10-15

    The transient following a loss-of-residual-heat-removal event during shutdown was analyzed to determine the containment closure time (CCT) to prevent uncontrolled release of fission products and the gravity-injection path and rate (GIPR) for effective core cooling using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The plant conditions of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 2815-MW(thermal) power in Korea, were reviewed, and possible event sequences were identified. From the CCT analysis for the five cases of typical plant configurations, it was estimated for the earliest CCT to be 40 min after the event in a case with a large cold-leg opening and emptied steam generators (SGs). However, the case with water-filled SGs significantly delayed the CCT through the heat removal to the secondary side. From the GIPR analysis for the six possible gravity-injection paths from the refueling water storage tank (RWST), the case with the injection point and opening on the other leg side was estimated to be the most suitable path to avoid core boiling. In addition, from the sensitivity study, it was evaluated for the plant to be capable of providing the core cooling for the long-term transient if nominal RWST water is available. As a result, these analysis methods and results will provide useful information in understanding the plant behavior and preparing the mitigation measures after the event, especially for Combustion Engineering-type PWR plants. However, to directly apply the analysis results to the emergency procedure for such an event, additional case studies are needed for a wide range of operating conditions such as reactor coolant inventory, RWST water temperature, and core decay heat rate.

  10. Mechanism of removal of undesirable residual amylase, insoluble starch, and select colorants from refinery streams by powdered activated carbons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need in the world-wide sugar industry to find a practical and economical solution to remove or inactivate residual alpha-amylase that are high temperature stable from factory or refinery streams. A survey of refineries that used amylase and had activated carbon systems for decolorization,...

  11. RESIDUAL OXIDANTS REMOVAL FROM COASTAL POWER PLANT COOLING SYSTEM DISCHARGES: FIELD EVALUATION OF SO2 ADDITION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a dechlorination system that uses SO2 to remove residual oxidants from chlorinated sea water in a power plant cooling system. Samples of unchlorinated, chlorinated, and dechlorinated cooling water were obtained at Pa...

  12. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field. PMID:27184447

  13. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  14. Applied K fertilizer use efficiency in pineapples grown on a tropical peat soil under residues removal.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Ahmad, Husni M H; Musa, Hanafi M; Rahim, Anuar A; Rastan, Syed Omar S

    2005-01-21

    In Malaysia, pineapples are grown on peat soils, but most K fertilizer recommendations do not take into account K loss through leaching. The objective of this study was to determine applied K use efficiency under a conventionally recommended fertilization regime in pineapple cultivation with residues removal. Results showed that K recovery from applied K fertilizer in pineapple cultivation on tropical peat soil was low, estimated at 28%. At a depth of 0-10 cm, there was a sharp decrease of soil total K, exchangeable K, and soil solution K days after planting (DAP) for plots with K fertilizer. This decline continued until the end of the study. Soil total, exchangeable, and solution K at the end of the study were generally lower than prior values before the study. There was no significant accumulation of K at depths of 10-25 and 25-45 cm. However, K concentrations throughout the study period were generally lower or equal to their initial status in the soil indicating leaching of the applied K and partly explained the low K recovery. Potassium losses through leaching in pineapple cultivation on tropical peat soils need to be considered in fertilizer recommendations for efficient recovery of applied K. PMID:15674449

  15. Feasibility of removing furfurals from sugar solutions using activated biochars made from agricultural residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks are often prepared for ethanol fermentation by treatment with a dilute mineral acid catalyst that hydrolyzes the hemicellulose and possibly cellulose into soluble carbohydrates. The acid catalyzed reaction scheme is sequential whereby released monosaccharides are further ...

  16. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg · ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  17. Modelling crop canopy and residue rainfall interception effects on soil hydrological components for semi-arid agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Joseph A.; Ahuja, Lajpat R.; Green, Timothy R.; Ma, Liwang

    2007-01-01

    Crop canopies and residues have been shown to intercept a significant amount of rainfall. However, rainfall or irrigation interception by crops and residues has often been overlooked in hydrologic modelling. Crop canopy interception is controlled by canopy density and rainfall intensity and duration. Crop residue interception is a function of crop residue type, residue density and cover, and rainfall intensity and duration. We account for these controlling factors and present a model for both interception components based on Merriam's approach. The modified Merriam model and the current modelling approaches were examined and compared with two field studies and one laboratory study. The Merriam model is shown to agree well with measurements and was implemented within the Agricultural Research Service's Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM). Using this enhanced version of RZWQM, three simulation studies were performed to examine the quantitative effects of rainfall interception by corn and wheat canopies and residues on soil hydrological components. Study I consisted of 10 separate hypothetical growing seasons (1991-2000) for canopy effects and 10 separate non-growing seasons (1991-2000) for residue effects for eastern Colorado conditions. For actual management practices in a no-till wheat-corn-fallow cropping sequence at Akron, Colorado (study II), a continuous 10-year RZWQM simulation was performed to examine the cumulative changes on water balance components and crop growth caused by canopy and residue rainfall interception. Finally, to examine a higher precipitation environment, a hypothetical, no-till wheat-corn-fallow rotation scenario at Corvallis, Oregon, was simulated (study III). For all studies, interception was shown to decrease infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration from soil, deep seepage of water and chemical transport, macropore flow, leaf area index, and crop/grain yield. Because interception decreased both infiltration and soil evapotranspiration

  18. Residual Removal Effects on Soil Properties within a Spatially Variable Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residue has been identified as a feedstock for biofuel production. Biofuel proponents often label crop residue a waste and fail to acknowledge its importance to maintaining critical soil functions. Crop residue provides physical protection from water and wind erosion, serves as a source of ener...

  19. Potential losses of macro and micronutrients by removal of sugarcane post-harvest crop residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green-cane harvest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) deposits large amounts of leaf residue onto the soil. Decomposition of crop residue recycles nutrients into the soil and maintains soil health. However, with the establishment of the bioenergy industry, crop residues may be harvested as feedstock for ...

  20. Integrating herbicides in a high-residue cover crop conservation agriculture setting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture systems provide a means to ensure long-term agricultural productivity, protect environmental quality, and reduce inputs into farming systems. Weed control in these systems rely on multiple tactics to achieve effective weed management while limiting chemical inputs. Practic...

  1. Black Carbon, CO2, CO, CH4, and C2-C4 Hydrocarbon Emissions from Agricultural Residue Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. P.; Lincoln, E.; Richardson, M.

    2013-12-01

    The burning of agricultural crop residue represents a significant source of trace gas emissions and particulate matter on a regional and global scale. This study measured black carbon, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2 - C4 hydrocarbon emissions from the burning of agricultural grass residues. The Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducted two agricultural burning experiments at ARS in Greenbelt, MD. The principal objectives were to measure spectral properties of the soil after burning, and to sample and quantify emissions. Smoke samples were collected in canisters and were analyzed by GC/FID. Emissions of black carbon were measured with an aethelometer during the burns. The first burn experiment was in May 2012. Three 10 x 10 m plots of broadcast straw with typical fuel loadings of 2, 3, and 4 T/ha were burned and sampled. The second burn experiment was in September 2012, conducted on four identical 30 x 30 m plots of grass residue, with a fuel loading of 4 T/ha. The emission factors of BC (black carbon), and GHG emissions CO2 and CH4 will be reported for both fire experiments along with other major carbon emissions. Average emission factors for the May fires were 1650 g/kg CO2 and 6.5 g/kg CH4. The September fires were of higher combustion efficiency with emission factors of 1750 g/kg for CO2 and 1.0 g/kg of CH4. BC emissions were highly positively correlated with CO concentration for all of the plots.

  2. Biochemical suitability of crop residues for cellulosic ethanol: disincentives to nitrogen fertilization in corn agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Morgan E; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Snapp, Sieglinde; McSwiney, Claire P; Baldock, Jeffrey A

    2011-03-01

    Concerns about energy security and climate change have increased biofuel demand, particularly ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks (e.g., food crop residues). A central challenge to cropping for cellulosic ethanol is the potential environmental damage from increased fertilizer use. Previous analyses have assumed that cropping for carbohydrate in residue will require the same amount of fertilizer as cropping for grain. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that increases in biomass in response to fertilization are not uniform across biochemical classes (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, lignin) or tissues (leaf and stem, grain, reproductive support). Although corn grain responds vigorously and nonlinearly, corn residue shows only modest increases in carbohydrate yields in response to high levels of fertilization (25% increase with 202 kg N ha(-1)). Lignin yields in the residue increased almost twice as much as carbohydrate yields in response to nitrogen, implying that residue feedstock quality declines as more fertilizer is applied. Fertilization also increases the decomposability of corn residue, implying that soil carbon sequestration becomes less efficient with increased fertilizer. Our results suggest that even when corn is grown for grain, benefits of fertilization decline rapidly after the ecosystem's N demands are met. Heavy application of fertilizer yields minimal grain benefits and almost no benefits in residue carbohydrates, while degrading the cellulosic ethanol feedstock quality and soil carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:21348531

  3. Development of a process to achieve residue-free photoresist removal after high-dose ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOmber, Janice I.; Nair, Rajesh S.

    1991-04-01

    Photoresist subjected to high-dose ion implantation tends to bubble and explode during the plasma photoresist stripping process in single-wafer ashers. A process has been developed to achieve the goals of complete photoresist removal with no bubbling or residues, minimum particulates, and minimal-CV shifts. These goals are accomplished by suitable photoresist pretreatment and optimization of resist strip parameters. Deep UV bake prior to implantation along with reduced platen temperature topside-lamp-assisted ashing have resulted in a residue-free ash with a low-CV shift.

  4. Effect of sampling size on the determination of accurate pesticide residue levels in Japanese agricultural commodities.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masahiro; Yajima, Tomonari; Iijima, Kazuaki; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-01

    The uncertainty in pesticide residue levels (UPRL) associated with sampling size was estimated using individual acetamiprid and cypermethrin residue data from preharvested apple, broccoli, cabbage, grape, and sweet pepper samples. The relative standard deviation from the mean of each sampling size (n = 2(x), where x = 1-6) of randomly selected samples was defined as the UPRL for each sampling size. The estimated UPRLs, which were calculated on the basis of the regulatory sampling size recommended by the OECD Guidelines on Crop Field Trials (weights from 1 to 5 kg, and commodity unit numbers from 12 to 24), ranged from 2.1% for cypermethrin in sweet peppers to 14.6% for cypermethrin in cabbage samples. The percentages of commodity exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRLs) specified by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law may be predicted from the equation derived from this study, which was based on samples of various size ranges with mean residue levels below the MRL. The estimated UPRLs have confirmed that sufficient sampling weight and numbers are required for analysis and/or re-examination of subsamples to provide accurate values of pesticide residue levels for the enforcement of MRLs. The equation derived from the present study would aid the estimation of more accurate residue levels even from small sampling sizes. PMID:22475588

  5. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  6. Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms.

    PubMed

    Kimming, M; Sundberg, C; Nordberg, A; Baky, A; Bernesson, S; Norén, O; Hansson, P-A

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products. PMID:20970998

  7. Iron coated sand/glauconite filters for phosphorus removal from artificially drained agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandermoere, Stany; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    Flanders (Belgium) is confronted with reactive phosphorus concentrations in streams and lakes which are three to four times higher than the 0.1 ppm P limit set by the Water Framework Directive. Much of the excessive P input in surface waters is derived from agriculture. Direct P input from artificially drained fields (short-circuiting the buffering capacity of the subsoil) is suspected to be one of the major sources. We aim to develop simple and cheap filters that can be directly installed in the field to reduce P concentration from the drain water. Here we report on the performance of such filters tested at lab scale. As starting materials for the P filter, iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were used. These materials, both rich in Fe, were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35, 50/50 and 0/100 (iron coated sand/glauconite ratio based on weight basis) and filled in plastic tubes. A screening experiment using the constant head method with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P showed that all four types of mixtures reduced the P concentration in the outflowing water to almost zero, and that the 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 mixtures had a sufficiently large hydraulic conductivity of 0.9 to 6.0 cm/min, while the hydraulic conductivity of the 50/50 mixture was too low (< 0.4 cm/min). In a second experiment the iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 and filled in the same plastic tubes as in the first experiment. Subsequently a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P was passed through the filters over several days, in amounts equivalent to half of the yearly water volume passing through the drains. This experiment firstly showed that in all cases the hydraulic conductivity fluctuated strongly: it decreased from 4.0-6.0 cm/min to 2.0-1.5 cm/min for the 75/25 filter, and to values < 0.4 cm/min for the 65/35 filter, whereas it increased from 0.8 to 1.4 cm/min for the 0/100 filter. Secondly, we observed a

  8. Black carbon and particulate matter optical properties from agricultural residue burning in the Pacific Northwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, A. L.; Aurell, J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Hays, M. D.; Gullett, B.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of agricultural residues in field is a common management practice that is used to quickly clear fields of post-harvest vegetation and to stimulate seed production in some grass species. Although cropland burning contributes only a minor fraction to the United States particulate matter and black carbon emissions, it can have substantial impacts on local and regional air quality and visibility. During the 2013 burning season in the Pacific Northwest United States emissions were measured from a series of burns carried out on cropland. Kentucky bluegrass residues (Poa pratensis), winter wheat stubble (Triticum aestivum), and chemically fallowed winter wheat stubble were burned in field. Particulate matter, light absorption and scattering, and black carbon concentrations were measured at ground level downwind of the field. Although particulate emissions varied substantially by fuel type and even among fields of the same fuel with different treatments (i.e., light versus heavy residues) the black carbon fraction of particulate matter was consistently less than 5% and accordingly single scattering albedos were above 0.9. The emissions exhibited strong spectral variation, with absorption angstrom exponents in the range of 3 - 5 in the wavelength range of 405 to 532 nm. Laboratory burns with residues collected from the fields produced emissions that were considerably more absorbing with single scattering albedos near 0.65 and lower absorption angstrom exponents of 1 - 2.

  9. Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics with Residue Removal Using the CQESTR Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about CO_2 emissions and fossil fuel supplies have enhanced interest in using crop residues for biofuel production; however, maintaining soil organic carbon (SOC) through residue return is vital for maintaining soil productivity. Our objectives were to simulate long-term SOC dynamics using ...

  10. Effects of clarification and filtration processes on the removal of fungicide residues in red wines (var. Monastrell).

    PubMed

    Fernández, M J; Oliva, J; Barba, A; Cámara, M A

    2005-07-27

    The effects of six clarification agents (egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite plus gelatin, charcoal, PVPP, and silica gel) on the removal of residues of four fungicides (cyprodinil, fludioxonil, pyrimethanil, and quinoxyfen) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain), are studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of cyprodinil, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil was performed by gas chromatography with an alkaline thermoionic detector (NPD), whereas that of quinoxyfen using an electron captor detector (ECD). In general, and for all of the fungicides except quinoxyfen, blood albumin has proved to be the most effective clarifying agent in the removal of residues, whereas silica gel proved to be ineffective against all of the pesticides with the exception of fludioxonil. Quinoxyfen is the least persistent fungicide in the clarified wines and that which appears with highest frequency in the lees. In general, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest elimination after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with charcoal and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP. PMID:16029011

  11. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  12. Biosolids amendment dramatically increases sequestration of crop residue-carbon in agricultural soils in western Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release of carbon dioxide through microbial respiration from the world’s crop residues (non-edible plant parts left in the field after harvest) represents an important form of carbon transfer from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. We hypothesized that alleviation of environmental stress (moi...

  13. Multipesticide residue assessment of agricultural soil and water in major farming areas in Benguet, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Del Prado Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the concentration and presence of pesticide residues in water and soil in Benguet, which is a vegetable producing region in the Philippines. Seventy-eight samples and 49 water samples were taken from different farms covering three municipalities in the province of Benguet and were analyzed using gas chromatography. Meteorological conditions of temperature and humidity were also taken. Thirty-four of the soil samples were found to be positive for pesticide residues. The most significant pesticide type with the highest concentration was technical endosulfan, with a mean concentration of 0.025 mg/kg, followed by endosulfan sulfate (0.015 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.01 mg/kg), profenofos (0.003 mg/kg), chlorothanil, cypermethrin, and cylohathrin (all at 0.002 mg/kg). One water sample was found to be positive for pesticide residue of chlorpyrifos in municipality 2 at a concentration of 0.07 mg/L. The data also showed that endosulfan, which is restricted in the Philippines and banned in other countries, was found to be the most prevalent pesticide used (17.7%) and the second highest in concentration (0.015 mg/kg) in soil samples. The study also showed a relationship between temperature and pesticide concentration in soil. In conclusion, pesticide residues were found in soil and water samples in the farming areas of Benguet. PMID:20162264

  14. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  15. BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES: IMPACT OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS ON CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII GROWTH AND BUTANOL FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pretreatment and hydrolysis of fiber-rich agricultural biomass, compounds such as salts, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), acetic, ferulic, glucuronic, p-coumaric acids, and phenolic compounds are produced. Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 can utilize the individual sugars present in lig...

  16. Production of Endoglucanase, Beta-glucosidase and Xylanase by Bacillus licheniformis Grown on Minimal Nutrient Medium Containing Agriculture Residues

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J.; Park, T. S.; Kim, J. N.; Ha, Jong K.; Seo, S.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis was grown in minimal nutrient medium containing 1% (w/v) of distillers dried grain with soluble (DDGS), palm kernel meal (PKM), wheat bran (WB) or copra meal (CM), and the enzyme activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and reducing sugars was measured to investigate a possibility of using cost-effective agricultural residues in producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The CM gave the highest endoglucanase activity of 0.68 units/mL among added substrates at 48 h. CM yielded the highest titres of 0.58 units/ml of β-glucosidase, compared to 0.33, 0.23, and 0.16 units/mL by PKM, WB, and DDGS, respectively, at 72 h. Xylanase production was the highest (0.34 units/mL) when CM was added. The supernatant from fermentation of CM had the highest reducing sugars than other additional substrates at all intervals (0.10, 0.12, 0.10, and 0.11 mg/mL respectively). It is concluded that Bacillus licheniformis is capable of producing multiple cellulo- and hemicellololytic enzymes for bioethanol production using cost-effective agricultural residues, especially CM, as a sole nutrient source. PMID:25050035

  17. Studies on the practical application of producer gas from agricultural residues as supplementary fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gasification of various agricultural residues in down-draft, fixed bed gas producers and the utilization of the gas in small diesel engines converted for dual-fuel operation were studied at the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines. Such agricultural residues as coconut shells, wood waste, rice hulls and corn cobs were readily gasified in gas producers of simple design. Cleaning of the gas before its use in diesel engines presented some problems. Use of charcoal in the gas producers to provide gas to a 5-brake horsepower single cylinder engine and a 65-brake horsepower six cylinder engine proved satisfactory. With charcoal as fuel, the percentage of the total energy from diesel oil replaced by producer gas and utilized in the single cylinder engine was higher (79%) compared to that in the six cylinder engine (73%). The thermal efficiency of the bigger gas producer, however was significantly better (85%) compared to the smaller gas producer (70%). The total gasification rate of the bigger reactor (20 kg/h) was 8 times that (2.5 kg/h) of the smaller reactor.

  18. Nitrate and phosphate removal from agricultural subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Salo, Morgan W; Schmit, Christopher G; Hay, Christopher H

    2016-10-01

    Woodchip bioreactors have been increasingly used as an edge-of-field treatment technology to reduce the nitrate loadings to surface waters from agricultural subsurface drainage. Recent studies have shown that subsurface drainage can also contribute substantially to the loss of phosphate from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to investigate nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters. The woodchip bioreactor demonstrated average nitrate removal efficiencies of 53.5-100% and removal rates of 10.1-21.6 g N/m(3)/d for an influent concentration of 20 mg N/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6-24 h. When the influent nitrate concentration increased to 50 mg N/L, the bioreactor nitrate removal efficiency and rate averaged 75% and 18.9 g N/m(3)/d at an HRT of 24 h. Nitrate removal by the woodchips followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants of 1.42-1.80 mg N/L/h when nitrate was non-limiting. The steel byproduct filter effectively removed phosphate in the bioreactor effluent and the total phosphate adsorption capacity was 3.70 mg P/g under continuous flow conditions. Nitrite accumulation occurred in the woodchip bioreactor and the effluent nitrite concentrations increased with decreasing HRTs and increasing influent nitrate concentrations. The steel byproduct filter efficiently reduced the level of nitrite in the bioreactor effluent. Overall, the results of this study suggest that woodchip denitrification followed by steel byproduct filtration is an effective treatment technology for nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage. PMID:27344249

  19. An Acidic Thermostable Recombinant Aspergillus nidulans Endoglucanase Is Active towards Distinct Agriculture Residues

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Eveline Queiroz de Pinho; Rubini, Marciano Regis; Mello-de-Sousa, Thiago Machado; Duarte, Gilvan Caetano; de Faria, Fabrícia Paula; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio Jose

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is poorly exploited as a source of enzymes for lignocellulosic residues degradation for biotechnological purposes. This work describes the A. nidulans Endoglucanase A heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris, the purification and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Active recombinant endoglucanase A (rEG A) was efficiently secreted as a 35 kDa protein which was purified through a two-step chromatography procedure. The highest enzyme activity was detected at 50°C/pH 4. rEG A retained 100% of activity when incubated at 45 and 55°C for 72 h. Purified rEG A kinetic parameters towards CMC were determined as Km = 27.5 ± 4.33 mg/mL, Vmax = 1.185 ± 0.11 mmol/min, and 55.8 IU (international units)/mg specific activity. Recombinant P. pastoris supernatant presented hydrolytic activity towards lignocellulosic residues such as banana stalk, sugarcane bagasse, soybean residues, and corn straw. These data indicate that rEG A is suitable for plant biomass conversion into products of commercial importance, such as second-generation fuel ethanol. PMID:23936633

  20. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

  1. Compensation by the residual intestine after intestinal resection in the rat. I. Influence of amount of tissue removed.

    PubMed

    Hanson, W R; Osborne, J W; Sharp, J G

    1977-04-01

    Thirty days after resection of 10 to 80% of the midportion of the small intestine, excluding the duodenum, several cell kinetic parameters were investigated in the residual intestine. The degree of intestinal response increased in a stepwise fashion as the amount of tissue removed was increased. The response involved marked increases in: DNA synthesis per crypt expressed as disintegrations per minute of tritium (3H) reflecting (3H)thymidine incorporation, cells per crypt column, 3H-labelled cells per crypt column, cells per villus column, and thickness of all intestinal wall components. These changes occureed throughout the small intestine even at lesser resections. "Crypt profiles'' reflected changes in cell counts, but when the labeling frequency of proliferative cells was expressed as a percentage of the total crypt height, there was no change. The total number of crypts in the duodenum remained unchanged and the total number of cyrpts in the residual jejunum plus ileum decreased proportionally to the amount of tissue removed. Intestinal compensation occurred by increasing the size of the structures present in the residual intestine, not by increasing the number of structural units. PMID:838224

  2. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance. PMID:24047590

  3. Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczynski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The effects of washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling on 16 pesticide (ten fungicides and six insecticides) residue levels in raw strawberries were investigated at different processing times (1, 2 and 5 min). An analysis of these pesticides was conducted using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous and electron capture detection (GC-NPD/ECD). The processing factor (PF) for each pesticide in each processing technique was determined. Washing with ozonated water was demonstrated to be more effective (reduction from 36.1 to 75.1 %) than washing with tap water (reduction from 19.8 to 68.1 %). Boiling decreased the residues of the most compounds, with reductions ranging from 42.8 to 92.9 %. Ultrasonic cleaning lowered residues for all analysed pesticides with removal of up to 91.2 %. The data indicated that ultrasonic cleaning and boiling were the most effective treatments for the reduction of 16 pesticide residues in raw strawberries, resulting in a lower health risk exposure. Calculated PFs for alpha-cypermethrin were used to perform an acute risk assessment of dietary exposure. To investigate the relationship between the levels of 16 pesticides in strawberry samples and their physicochemical properties, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26694708

  4. Pesticide residues in bovine milk from a predominantly agricultural state of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H R; Kaushik, A; Kaushik, C P

    2007-06-01

    One hundred forty seven samples of bovine milk were collected from 14 districts of Haryana, India during December 1998-February 1999 and analysed for the presence of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues. summation operator HCH, summation operator DDT, summation operator endosulfan and aldrin were detected in 100%, 97%, 43% and 12% samples and with mean values of 0.0292, 0.0367, 0.0022 and 0.0036 microg/ml, respectively. Eight percent samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.10 mg/kg as recommended by WHO for summation operator HCH, 4% samples of 0.05 mg/kg for alpha-HCH, 5% samples of 0.01 mg/kg for gamma-HCH, 26% samples of 0.02 mg/kg for beta-HCH as recommended by PFAA and 24% samples of 0.05 mg/kg as recommended by FAO for summation operator DDT. Concentrations of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were more as compared to other isomers and metabolites of HCH and DDT. PMID:17180431

  5. The Rapid Screening of Triazophos Residues in Agricultural Products by Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ge; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Shanshan; She, Yongxin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method was developed in this study for efficient screening of triazophos residues in a large number of samples. Based on the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China and CAC for triazophos in different agro-products, the representative apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice samples were selected as spiked samples, and the triazophos at the concentrations of the MRL values were spiked to blank samples. Subsequently, the five samples with the spiked triazophos standard were measured by CLEIA 100 times, and the detection results indicated that the correction factors of the apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice were determined as 0.79, 0.66, 0.85, 0.76, and 0.91, respectively. In this experiment, 1500 real samples were detected by both the CLEIA and the GC-MS methods. With the GC-MS method, 1462 samples were identified as negative samples and 38 samples as positive samples. Based on the correction factors, the false positive rate of the CLEIA method was 0.13%, and false negative rate was 0. The results showed that the established CLEIA method could be used to screen a large number of real samples. PMID:26218576

  6. The Rapid Screening of Triazophos Residues in Agricultural Products by Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ge; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Shanshan; She, Yongxin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method was developed in this study for efficient screening of triazophos residues in a large number of samples. Based on the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by China and CAC for triazophos in different agro-products, the representative apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice samples were selected as spiked samples, and the triazophos at the concentrations of the MRL values were spiked to blank samples. Subsequently, the five samples with the spiked triazophos standard were measured by CLEIA 100 times, and the detection results indicated that the correction factors of the apple, orange, cabbage, zucchini, and rice were determined as 0.79, 0.66, 0.85, 0.76, and 0.91, respectively. In this experiment, 1500 real samples were detected by both the CLEIA and the GC-MS methods. With the GC-MS method, 1462 samples were identified as negative samples and 38 samples as positive samples. Based on the correction factors, the false positive rate of the CLEIA method was 0.13%, and false negative rate was 0. The results showed that the established CLEIA method could be used to screen a large number of real samples. PMID:26218576

  7. Rapid screening of flonicamid residues in environmental and agricultural samples by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Gangbing; Sun, Jianfan; Zou, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Jiagao

    2016-05-01

    A fast and sensitive polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the analysis of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. Two haptens of flonicamid differing in spacer arm length were synthesized and conjugated to proteins to be used as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To obtain most sensitive combination of antibody/coating antigen, two antibodies were separately screened by homologous and heterologous assays. After optimization, the flonicamid ELISA showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) was 3.86mgL(-1), and the limit of detection (IC20 value) was 0.032mgL(-1). There was no cross-reactivity to similar tested compounds. The recoveries obtained after the addition of standard flonicamid to the samples, including water, soil, carrot, apple and tomato, ranged from 79.3% to 116.4%. Moreover, the results of the ELISA for the spiked samples were largely consistent with the gas chromatography (R(2)=0.9891). The data showed that the proposed ELISA is an alternative tool for rapid, sensitive and accurate monitoring of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. PMID:26897400

  8. Nutrient removal of agricultural drainage water using algal turf scrubbers and solar power

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay poses significant challenges because of increasing population pressure, conversion of farmland to urban/suburban development, and the expense of infrastructure needed to achieve significant and sustained nutrient reductions from agricultural and urban sources. One ...

  9. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by raw and modified plant residue materials as biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zemin; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-04-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), e.g., naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene and pyrene, from aqueous solution by raw and modified plant residues was investigated to develop low cost biosorbents for organic pollutant abatement. Bamboo wood, pine wood, pine needles and pine bark were selected as plant residues, and acid hydrolysis was used as an easily modification method. The raw and modified biosorbents were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The sorption isotherms of PAHs to raw biosorbents were apparently linear, and were dominated by a partitioning process. In comparison, the isotherms of the hydrolyzed biosorbents displayed nonlinearity, which was controlled by partitioning and the specific interaction mechanism. The sorption kinetic curves of PAHs to the raw and modified plant residues fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The sorption rates were faster for the raw biosorbents than the corresponding hydrolyzed biosorbents, which was attributed to the latter having more condensed domains (i.e., exposed aromatic core). By the consumption of the amorphous cellulose component under acid hydrolysis, the sorption capability of the hydrolyzed biosorbents was notably enhanced, i.e., 6-18 fold for phenanthrene, 6-8 fold for naphthalene and pyrene and 5-8 fold for acenaphthene. The sorption coefficients (Kd) were negatively correlated with the polarity index [(O+N)/C], and positively correlated with the aromaticity of the biosorbents. For a given biosorbent, a positive linear correlation between logKoc and logKow for different PAHs was observed. Interestingly, the linear plots of logKoc-logKow were parallel for different biosorbents. These observations suggest that the raw and modified plant residues have great potential as biosorbents to remove PAHs from wastewater. PMID:25079403

  10. Simulating Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Effects of Residue Removal Using the CQESTR Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern about CO2 emissions and fossil fuel supplies has increased interest in using crop residues for biofuel production. However, maintaining soil organic matter (SOM) is vital for maintaining soil productivity. Our objectives were to simulate long-term SOM dynamics of a sandy loam soil using the ...

  11. Use of activated carbons to remove undesirable residual amylase from factory and refinery streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, there has been increased world-wide concern over residual (carry-over) activity of mostly high temperature (HT) and very high temperature (VHT) stable amylases in white, refined sugars from refineries to various food and end-user industries. HT and VHT stable amylases were develope...

  12. Legal and Policy Issues: Removing the Residue of Past Segregation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, F. Erik

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the Knight v. Alabama ruling by looking at undergraduate student demographic data for historically African American Alabama A&M University and Alabama State University and traditionally American Auburn University and the University of Alabama is discussed. To eradicate the remaining residue of discrimination and segregation, the…

  13. Does temporary socket removal affect residual limb fluid volume of trans-tibial amputees?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Hartley, TL; Phillips, RH; Ciol, MA; Hafner, BJ; Allyn, KJ; Harrison, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower-limb prosthesis users typically experience residual limb volume losses over the course of the day that can detrimentally affect socket fit. Objectives To determine if temporarily doffing the prosthesis encouraged residual limb fluid volume recovery and if the recovered fluid was maintained. Study Design Experimental design. Methods Residual limb fluid volume was monitored on sixteen participants in three test sessions each. Participants conducted six cycles of resting/standing/walking. Between the third and fourth cycles, participants sat for 30 minutes with the prosthesis and liner: donned (ON), the prosthesis doffed but the liner donned (LINER), or the prosthesis and liner doffed (OFF). Results Percentage fluid volume gain and retention were greatest for the OFF condition followed by the LINER condition. Participants experienced fluid volume losses for the ON condition. Conclusion Doffing the prosthesis and/or liner during rest improved residual limb fluid volume retention compared with leaving the prosthesis and liner donned. Clinical Relevance Practitioners should advise patients who undergo high daily limb volume losses to consider temporarily doffing their prosthesis. Fluid volume retention during subsequent activity will be highest if both the prosthesis and liner are doffed. PMID:25710944

  14. Effects of residue removal on glomalin related soil protein content of soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) mediates many physical soil properties, and may serve as a carbon sink. Identifying agricultural management practices that increase SOM are vital for improving or maintaining soil quality. Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and is a fr...

  15. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure.

  16. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. PMID:23962760

  17. Evaluation of Mediterranean Agricultural Residues as a Potential Feedstock for the Production of Biogas via Anaerobic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nitsos, Christos; Matsakas, Leonidas; Triantafyllidis, Kostas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal, dilute acid, and steam explosion pretreatment methods, were evaluated for their efficiency to improve the methane production yield of three Mediterranean agricultural lignocellulosic residues such as olive tree pruning, grapevine pruning, and almond shells. Hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatments provided low to moderate increase in the digestibility of the biomass samples, whereas steam explosion enabled the highest methane yields to be achieved for almond shells at 232.2 ± 13.0 mL CH4/gVS and olive pruning at 315.4 ± 0.0 mL CH4/gVS. Introduction of an enzymatic prehydrolysis step moderately improved methane yields for hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated samples but not for the steam exploded ones. PMID:26609521

  18. Reduction of hazardous organic solvent in sample preparation for hydrophilic pesticide residues in agricultural products with conventional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiki; Kobara, Yuso; Baba, Koji; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-05-22

    An original extraction method using water as an extractant has been established for environmentally friendly sample preparation procedures for hydrophilic pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, methomyl, pymetrozine, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in agricultural samples with conventional HPLC. Water-based extraction and cleanup with two solid-phase extraction cartridges can recover target hydrophilic pesticides quantitatively. The matrix effects of tested samples on the proposed method developed herein were negligibly small. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of almost all tested pesticides were 70-120% with satisfactory precision (%CV < 20%). The analytical data are in good accordance with Japanese or European Union guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The reduction rate of hazardous organic solvents used for the proposed method and by reducing the sample size for extraction was about 70% compared with the Japanese authorized reference method used in this work. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sample preparation procedures for hydrophilic pesticides. PMID:23614723

  19. Evaluation of Mediterranean Agricultural Residues as a Potential Feedstock for the Production of Biogas via Anaerobic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Nitsos, Christos; Matsakas, Leonidas; Triantafyllidis, Kostas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal, dilute acid, and steam explosion pretreatment methods, were evaluated for their efficiency to improve the methane production yield of three Mediterranean agricultural lignocellulosic residues such as olive tree pruning, grapevine pruning, and almond shells. Hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatments provided low to moderate increase in the digestibility of the biomass samples, whereas steam explosion enabled the highest methane yields to be achieved for almond shells at 232.2 ± 13.0 mL CH4/gVS and olive pruning at 315.4 ± 0.0 mL CH4/gVS. Introduction of an enzymatic prehydrolysis step moderately improved methane yields for hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated samples but not for the steam exploded ones. PMID:26609521

  20. Removal of 2',3'-dideoxynucleotide residues from injected DNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Legerski, R J; Penkala, J E; Peterson, C A; Wright, D A

    1990-07-01

    Dideoxynucleotides have proved to be potent differential inhibitors of DNA polymerases in vitro and in vivo. Used extensively in studies of DNA repair and replication, they have more recently been used as antiviral agents particularly in treating patients for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Once incorporated, these sugar-modified analogues prevent the further extension of the polynucleotide chain because of the absence of a 3'-hydroxyl group. We demonstrated that, upon injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes, 2',3'-dideoxynucleotides are efficiently removed from plasmid DNA preterminated with these analogues allowing subsequent closure by ligation. The removal process is not sensitive to aphidicolin but is quantitatively inhibited by novobiocin. PMID:2366792

  1. A comparative in vitro efficacy of conventional rotatory and chemomechanical caries removal: Influence on cariogenic flora, microhardness, and residual composition

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio Jose; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Morales-Luckie, Raul Alberto; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemomechanical caries removal system is part of the minimal invasive dentistry; the aim of the study was to compare the amount of bacteria after caries removal with chemomechanical system and conventional rotatory instruments and to test the Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis of residual dentin after excavation. Materials and Methods: Molars were induced for demineralization, confirmed with DIAGNOdent; Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into the cavities and filled. Caries removal was performed with rotatory instruments and chemomechanical system; surviving bacteria were cultured for 24 and 48 hours at 37°C. Vickers microhardness and micro-RAMAN analysis were tested after excavation. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon, continuity correction, odds ratio, ANOVA post hoc Tukey test, and Spearman correlation. Results: Demineralization was significantly detectable at 240 hours of incubation; conventional rotatory instruments and chemomechanical caries removal were effective in 19.4%-22.6% and 25.8%-32.3%, respectively. Vickers microhardness of chemomechanical system was higher (P < 0.0001) than conventional rotatory instruments and comparable to healthy dentin. Micro-RAMAN analysis showed that healthy dentin is correlated to chemomechanical system (R2 = 0.683, P < 0.00001) and drilling with burs (R2 = 0.139, P < 0.00001). Conclusion: The chemomechanical system is effective for caries elimination, comparable to conventional rotatory instruments; the remaining Vickers microhardness and composition surface tissue are similar to healthy dentin. PMID:25506140

  2. Peering through the OH forest: a new technique to remove residual sky features from Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Vivienne; Hewett, Paul C.

    2005-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) currently provides by far the largest homogeneous sample of intermediate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio optical spectra of galaxies and quasars. The fully automated SDSS spectroscopic reduction pipeline has provided spectra of unprecedented quality that cover the wavelength range 3800-9200Å. However, in common with spectra from virtually all multi-object surveys employing fibres, there remain significant systematic residuals in many of the spectra owing to the incomplete subtraction of the strong OH sky emission lines longward of 6700Å. These sky lines affect almost half the wavelength range of the SDSS spectra, and the S/N ratio over substantial wavelength regions in many spectra is reduced by more than a factor of 2 over that expected from counting statistics. We present a method to automatically remove the sky-residual signal, using a principal component analysis which takes advantage of the correlation in the form of the sky-subtraction residuals present in each spectrum. Application of the method results in spectra with essentially no evidence for degradation owing to the incomplete subtraction of OH emission features. A dramatic improvement in the quality of a substantial number of spectra, particularly those of faint objects such as the bulk of the high-redshift quasars, is achieved. We make available Interactive Data Language (IDL) code and documentation to implement the sky-residual subtraction scheme on SDSS spectra included in the public data releases. To ensure that absorption and emission features intrinsic to the object spectra do not affect the subtraction procedure, line masks must be created that depend on the scientific application of interest. We illustrate the power of the sky-residual subtraction scheme using samples of SDSS galaxy and quasar spectra, presenting tests involving the near-infrared CaII triplet absorption, metal absorption line features in damped Lyman-α systems and composite spectra of high

  3. Selenium and nitrate removal from agricultural drainage using the AIWPS(R) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Green, F.B.; Lundquist, T.J.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Zarate, M.A.; Zubieta, I.X.; Oswald, W.J.

    2003-01-02

    Monthly Maximum Discharge Limits (MMDL) have been established for selenium in irrigation drainage by the State of California and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency following observations of avian teratogenesis at the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley of California. As a result of these and other adverse effects, farmers and drainage districts on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley must reduce selenium concentrations in irrigation, drainage discharged to the San Joaquin River. Drainage treatment will be required in the near future to meet existing MMDL and future Total Maximum Discharge Limits (TMDL) for the San Joaquin River. A 0.4-hectare Algal Bacterial Selenium Removal (ABSR) Facility was designed and constructed at the Panoche Drainage District in 1995 and 1996 using the Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond Systems (R) or AIWPS (R) Technology. Each of two physically identical systems combined a Reduction Pond (RP) with a shallow, peripheral algal High Rate Pond (HRP). A Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit and a slow sand filter were used to remove particulate selenium from the effluent of each system. The two systems were operated under different modes of operation and the bacterial substrate varied in each system. The rates of nitrate and selenium removal were compared. Microalgae were harvested using DAF and used as a carbon-rich substrate for nitrate- and selenate-reducing bacteria. Mass removals of total soluble selenium of 77 percent or greater were achieved over a three-year period. Nitrate and selenate were removed by assimilatory and dissimilatory bacterial reduction, and nitrate was also removed by algal assimilation. The final removal of particulate selenium is the focus of ongoing investigations. The removal of particulate selenium is expected to increase the overall removal of selenium to greater than 90 percent and would allow farmers and drainage districts to discharge irrigation drainage in compliance with regulatory

  4. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of nitrogen from MBT residues by leachate recirculation in combination with intermittent aeration.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoai Nam; Münnich, Kai; Fricke, Klaus; Harborth, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) techniques have been used to reduce the emission potential of waste before placement in landfills for a couple of years, especially in Europe. The main focus of MBT is on the reduction of native organic substances and not on nitrogen compounds. As a result, the concentrations of organic substances in leachate from MBT landfills are considerably reduced in comparison to leachates from municipal solid waste landfills, while the ammonia nitrogen concentrations remain at a high level. From the stabilization of old landfills it is well known that recirculation of leachate and supplementary aeration can reduce emissions to an acceptable level in a comparatively short time. In a series of laboratory-scale tests the efficiency of this technique for MBT residues was investigated under different boundary conditions. While the effect of leachate recirculation is also well known for MBT residues, the additional aeration has so far not been investigated. The results show that this technique has only a limited influence on the reduction of organic carbon compounds. In view of nitrogen compounds, only the additional aeration during recirculation shows a strong effect on the quality of leachate, in which the concentrations of ammonium and total nitrogen are reduced by more than 90%. The results indicate that by using simple techniques the long-term emission behavior of MBT residues can be quickly reduced to an acceptable level. PMID:24293068

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different doses of γ irradiation on the changes in the crude fibre contents of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs. Ground samples of the 6 residues were irradiated by γ irradiation at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 100 kilogray (kGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation has no effect on total N whereas it decreased CF contents especially at the highest dose (100 kGy) reaching 30% for cottonwood, 21% for wheat straw and maize straw, and about 16% for barley straw, lentils straw and maize cobs. NDF decreased by about 6% for cottonwood, wheat straw and barley straw, 11% for maize straw and 9% for maize cobs. γ Irradiation (100 kGy) also decreased ADF by 8% for cottonwood, 7% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 6% for wheat straw and barley straw. No effects on NDF and ADF in lentils straw were observed. ADL content was also decreased by 8% in cottonwood, 21% in wheat straw, 18% in barley straw and maize straw, and by 30% in maize cobs, with no effect in lentils straw. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 31, 25, 13, 18, 19 and 15% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. Also hemicellulose (HCL):CF ratios increased by 48, 18, 15, 17, 5 and 4% for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, and 48%, 18%, 15%, 17%, 5% and 4% in the HCL:CF ratio for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively. CL:ADL ratios increased by γ irradiation (100 kGy) by 23, 16, 14 and 38% for wheat straw, barley straw, maize straw and maize cobs, respectively, with no changes in the ratios for cottonwood and lentils straw

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on cell-wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of 150 kilogray (kGy) of γ irradiation on cell-wall constituents of cottonwood (CW), lentils straw (LS), apple pruning products (AP) and olive cake (OC) were investigated. Samples were irradiated by γ irradiation at a dose level of 150 kGy under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation decreased CF contents by about 29% for CW, LS and AP and by 17% for OC. NDF values were also decreased by about 4% for CW and OC, and by about 12% for LS and AP. γ Irradiation treatment also decreased ADF values only for CW by 8%. ADL contents decreased by 8% for CW and 5% for OC with no effects for LS and AP. The percentage of cellulose (CL): CF ratio increased by 30, 34, 38 and 20% for CW, LS, AP and OC, respectively. Also, the percentage of hemicellulose (HCL): CF increased by 57% for CW and 16% for OC and decreased by 7% for LS and AP. The percentage of HCL: ADL increased by 22% for CW but decreased by 33% for LS and AP with no changes for OC. There were no changes in CL: ADL ratio for all residues.

  8. Selenium bioaccessibility and speciation in biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms grown on selenium-rich agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Aureli, Federica; D'Amato, Marilena; Prakash, Ranjana; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Nagaraja, Tejo Prakash; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Cultivation of saprophytic fungi on selenium-rich substrates can be an effective means to produce selenium-fortified food. Pleurotus florida, an edible species of oyster mushrooms, was grown on wheat straw from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to mobilize and accumulate selenium from the growth substrate was studied. Selenium concentration in biofortified mushrooms was 800 times higher compared with control samples grown on wheat straw from non selenium-rich areas (141 vs 0.17 μg Se g(-1) dry weight). Seventy-five percent of the selenium was extracted after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and investigation of the selenium molecular fractions by size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS revealed that proteins and any other high molecular weight selenium-containing molecule were hydrolyzed to peptides and low molecular weight selenocompounds. Analysis of the gastrointestinal hydrolysates by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the bioaccessible selenium was mainly present as selenomethionine, a good bioavailable source of selenium, which accounted for 73% of the sum of the detected species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms using selenium-rich agricultural by-products as growth substrates. The proposed approach can be used to evaluate whether selenium-contaminated plant waste materials harvested from high-selenium areas may be used to produce selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms based on the concentration, bioaccessibility and speciation of selenium in the mushrooms. PMID:23578637

  9. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost...

  10. Floodplain restoration enhances denitrification and reach-scale nitrogen removal in an agricultural stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams of the agricultural Midwest export large quantities of nitrogen, which impairs downstream water quality, most notably in the Gulf of Mexico. The two-stage ditch is a novel restoration practice, in which floodplains are constructed alongside channelized ditches. During hi...

  11. Surfactant modified coir pith, an agricultural solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kumar, M V Suresh

    2005-10-01

    The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the modified coir pith was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found to be 4.0. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of coexisting anions has also been studied. The feasibility of using spent adsorbent as fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release was also investigated. PMID:17051911

  12. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications. PMID:25748124

  13. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  14. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water.

    PubMed

    Bento, Natálya I; Santos, Patrícia S C; de Souza, Talita E; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Castro, Cínthia S

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400°C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe2O3 is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe(2+) species present in Fe3O4, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction. PMID:27149399

  15. Removal of reactive blue 19 from aqueous solution by pomegranate residual-based activated carbon: optimization by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize Reactive Blue 19 removal by activated carbon from pomegranate residual. A 24 full factorial central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time on the dye removal efficiency. Methodology The activated carbon prepared by 50 wt.% phosphoric acid activation under air condition at 500°C. The range of pH and initial dye concentration were selected in a way that considered a wide range of those variables. Furthermore, the range of contact time and adsorbent dose were determined based on initial tests. Levels of selected variables and 31 experiments were determined. MiniTab (version 16.1) was used for the regression and graphical analyses of the data obtained. Results It was found that the decrease of initial dye concentration and the increase of initial pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time are beneficial for improving the dye removal efficiency. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results presented high R2 value of 99.17% for Reactive Blue 19 dye removal, which indicates the accuracy of the polynomial model is acceptable. Conclusions Initial pH of 11, adsorbent dose of 1.025 g/L, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, and contact time of 6.8 minutes found to be the optimum conditions. Dye removal efficiency of 98.7% was observed experimentally at optimum point which confirmed close to model predicted (98.1%) result. PMID:24678702

  16. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form. PMID:26627559

  17. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  18. Comparison of pesticide residues in surface water and ground water of agriculture intensive areas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The organochlorines (OClPs) and organophosphates (OPPs) pesticides in surface and ground water having intensive agriculture activity were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risks on human health. As per USEPA 8081 B method, liquid-liquid extraction followed by Gas-Chromatographic technique with electron capture detector and mass selective detector (GC-MS) were used for monitoring of pesticides. Among organochlorines, α,β,γ,δ HCH’s, aldrin, dicofol, DDT and its derivatives, α,β endosulphan’s and endosulphan-sulphate were analysed; dichlorovos, ethion, parathion-methyl, phorate, chlorpyrifos and profenofos were determined among organophosphates. As compared to ground water, higher concentrations of OClPs and OPPs were found in surface water. Throughout the monitoring study, α - HCH (0.39 μg/L in Amravati region),α - endosulphan (0.78 μg/L in Yavatmal region), chlorpyrifos (0.25 μg/L in Bhandara region) and parathion-methyl (0.09 μg/L in Amravati region) are frequently found pesticide in ground water, whereas α,β,γ-HCH (0.39 μg/L in Amravati region), α,β - endosulphan (0.42 μg/L in Amravati region), dichlorovos (0.25 μg/L in Yavatmal region), parathion-methyl (0.42 μg/L in Bhandara region), phorate (0.33 μg/L in Yavatmal region) were found in surface water. Surface water was found to be more contaminated than ground water with more number of and more concentrated pesticides. Among pesticides water samples are found to be more contaminated by organophosphate than organochlorine. Pesticides in the surface water samples from Bhandara and Yavatmal region exceeded the EU (European Union) limit of 1.0 μg/L (sum of pesticide levels in surface water) but were within the WHO guidelines for individual pesticides. PMID:24398360

  19. Removal of atrazine from water by low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Joseph, P E

    2008-05-01

    In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust. PMID:18357400

  20. Cleaning painted surfaces: evaluation of leaching phenomenon induced by solvents applied for the removal of gel residues.

    PubMed

    Casoli, Antonella; Di Diego, Zaira; Isca, Clelia

    2014-12-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important, delicate, and at the same time controversial processes in the conservation treatment of paintings. Although a strict definition of cleaning would be the removal of dirt, grime, or other accretions (surface cleaning), in the conservation field, cleaning is used in the broader meaning to include thinning/removing altered or “unwanted layers” of materials without damaging or altering the physicochemical properties of the surfaces to be preserved. The cleaning of unvarnished paintings is one of the most critical issues that are currently discussed. Several studies exist regarding different cleaning tools, such as gels, soaps, enzymes, ionic liquids, and foams, as well as various dry methods and lasers, but only a few have been performed on the risk associated with the use of water and organic solvents for the cleaning treatments in relation to the original paint binder. The aim of the study is to verify analytically the behavior of water gelling agents during cleaning treatments and the interaction of the following elements: water or organic solvents applied for the removal of gel residues with the original lipid paint binder. For this purpose, the study was conducted on a fragment of canvas painting (sixteenth to seventeenth century) of Soprintendenza per i Beni Storici, Artistici ed Etnoantropologici del Friuli Venezia Giulia (Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethno-anthropological Heritage of Friuli Venezia Giulia), Udine by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:24659401

  1. Reuse of drinking water treatment residuals in a continuous stirred tank reactor for phosphate removal from urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach of reusing drinking water treatment residuals (WTR) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to remove phosphate (P) from urban wastewater. The results revealed that the P removal efficiency of the WTR was more than 94% for urban wastewater, in the condition of initial P concentration (P0) of 10 mg L⁻¹, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h and WTR dosage (M0) of 10 g L⁻¹. The P mass transfer from the bulk to the solid-liquid interface in the CSTR system increased at lower P0, higher M0 and longer HRT. The P adsorption capacity of WTR from urban wastewater was comparable to that of the 201 × 4 resin and unaffected by ions competition. Moreover, WTR had a limited effect on the metals' (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ni) concentrations of the urban wastewater. Based on the principle of waste recycling, the reuse of WTR in CSTR is a promising alternative technology for P removal from urban wastewater. PMID:25176310

  2. Vertical distribution of agriculture crop residue burning aerosol observed by space-borne lidar CALIOP - A case study over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A. K.; Shibata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). It is also one of the main causes for dense atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) formation over South Asian region. Present study deals with spatial and vertical variability of aerosol optical and microphysical properties during the crop residue burning season (October and November) over the IGB. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire location data and MODIS AOD data confirms the crop residue burning activities over irrigated cropland of the IGB during October and November, 2009. Large values (> 0.7) of MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) backscatter (>0.006 km-1 sr-1 below 1.0 km altitude) are suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning. The increase in tropospheric columnar NO2 and surface CO concentration during October and November also emphasized the significant contribution of crop residue burning activities in enhanced anthropogenic pollution over the IGB. Vertical distribution of backscatter coefficients showed trapping of biomass (crop residues) burning aerosol within boundary layer. Spatial variation of aerosol backscatter and AOD showed large value above north-west part of IGB, major area of crop residue burning activities. The results of this study will be very useful in quantification of optical properties of atmospheric brown clouds and its effect on climate.

  3. Agricultural by-products as low-cost sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from dilute wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Humelnicu, D; Ignat, M; Doroftei, F

    2015-05-01

    n the last years, much attention has been focused on the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from contaminated waters. In this context, we studied the sorption performances of two kinds of by-products resulted from the agriculture: soy bran and mustard husk. The effects of contact time, the initial metal ion concentration, pH, sorbent mass, and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the agricultural by-products as sorbents were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the adsorption process indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data showed that non-linear Langmuir isotherm fits better than other isotherms. The obtained values for the separation factor, R L were less than one which supports that the adsorption process was favorable. The obtained results indicated that the soy bran has a higher sorption capacity toward zinc ions (74.02 mg g(-1)) than mustard husk (63.69 mg g(-1)). Therefore, there is a great requirement for the search of biomaterials that are cheap and easily available for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. The studied sorbents have the advantage of very low cost and great availability for simple operational experiments. PMID:25832011

  4. The impact of biochars prepared from agricultural residues on phosphorus release and availability in two fertile soils.

    PubMed

    Manolikaki, Ioanna I; Mangolis, Argirios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2016-10-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is influenced by pyrolysis conditions and type of biomass. Essential macronutrient P retained in biochar could be released and made available to plants, enhancing plant growth. This study was conducted in order to evaluate whether biochar, produced from agricultural residues, could release P in water, as well as study its potential effect on plant growth and P uptake. Biochar samples were prepared from rice husks, grape pomace and olive tree prunings by pyrolysis at 300 °C and 500 °C. These samples were used for P batch successive leaching experiments in order to determine P release in water. Subsequently, rice husk and grape pomace biochars, produced by pyrolysis at 300 °C, were applied to two temperate soils with highly different pH. A three-month cultivation period of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was studied in threefold replication, while three harvests were accomplished. Treatments comprised control soils (without amendment) and soils amended only with biochar. Results of P leaching tests showed a continuous release of P from all biochars as compared to raw biomass samples, for which the highest P concentrations were detected during the first extraction. Grape pomace and rice husk biochars pyrolyzed at 500 °C showed higher levels of water-extractable P, as compared to their corresponding raw biomass. Biochars, at 500 °C, leached more P in all four extractions, compared to biochars at 300 °C, apart from olive tree prunings biochars, where both pyrolysis temperatures presented a similar trend. Concerning plant yield of ryegrass, rice husk and grape pomace biochars showed positive statistically significant effects on plant yield only in slightly acidic soil in second and third harvests. In terms of P uptake of ryegrass, grape pomace biochars depicted positive significant differences (P < 0.05) in third harvest, in slightly acidic soil, while in first and second harvests positive

  5. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  6. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  7. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  8. A pilot plant for removing chromium from residual water of tanneries.

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technical process for removing trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via precipitation. This process can be considered an alternative that avoids a remediation procedure against the metal presence in industrial wastes. This process was verified in a treatment pilot plant located in León, México handling 10 m3/day of three types of effluents. The effluent streams were separated to facilitate the elimination of pollutants from each one. The process was based on in situ treatment and recycle to reduce problems associated with transportation and confinement of contaminated sludges. Two types of treatment were carried out in the pilot plant: The physical/chemical and biological treatments. Thirty-five experiments were conducted and the studied variables were the pH, type of flocculant, and its dose. The statistical significance of chromium samples was 94.7% for its precipitation and 99.7% for recovery. The objectives established for this phase of the development were accomplished and the overall efficiencies were measured for each stage in the pilot plant. The results were: a) chromium precipitation 99.5% from wastewater stream, b) chromium recovery 99% for recycling, and c) physical/chemical treatment to eliminate grease and fat at least 85% and 65 to 70% for the biological treatment. The tanning of a hide lot (350 pieces) was accomplished using 60% treated and recycled water without affecting the product quality. The recovered chromium liquor was also used in this hide tanning. This technical procedure is also applicable for removing heavy metals in other industrial sectors as well as in reducing water consumption rates, if pertinent adjustments are implemented. PMID:7621802

  9. A novel agricultural waste adsorbent for the removal of lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M N Mohamad; Ngah, W S Wan; Norliyana, M S; Daud, W R Wan; Rafatullah, M; Sulaiman, O; Hashim, R

    2010-10-15

    The present study explores the ability of modified soda lignin (MSL) extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in removing lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of contact time, point zero charge (pH(pzc)) and pH of the solution, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dosage on the removal process were investigated. Furthermore, the MSL is characterized by SEM, XRF, FT-IR and surface area analysis. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The kinetic data obtained at different initial concentrations were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The results provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis of adsorption mechanism. PMID:20619537

  10. Using flue gas desulfurization gypsum to remove dissolved phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ray B; Buda, Anthony R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Church, Clinton D; Saporito, Louis S; Folmar, Gordon J; Bose, Salil; Allen, Arthur L

    2012-01-01

    High levels of accumulated phosphorus (P) in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula are a major source of dissolved P entering drainage ditches that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. The objective of this study was to design, construct, and monitor a within-ditch filter to remove dissolved P, thereby protecting receiving waters against P losses from upstream areas. In April 2007, 110 Mg of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a low-cost coal combustion product, was used as the reactive ingredient in a ditch filter. The ditch filter was monitored from 2007 to 2010, during which time 29 storm-induced flow events were characterized. For storm-induced flow, the event mean concentration efficiency for total dissolved P (TDP) removal for water passing through the gypsum bed was 73 ± 27% confidence interval (α = 0.05). The removal efficiency for storm-induced flow by the summation of load method was 65 ± 27% confidence interval (α = 0.05). Although chemically effective, the maximum observed hydraulic conductivity of FGD gypsum was 4 L s(-1), but it decreased over time to <1 L s(-1). When bypass flow and base flow were taken into consideration, the ditch filter removed approximately 22% of the TDP load over the 3.6-yr monitoring period. Due to maintenance and clean-out requirements, we conclude that ditch filtration using FGD gypsum is not practical at a farm scale. However, we propose an alternate design consisting of FGD gypsum-filled trenches parallel to the ditch to intercept and treat groundwater before it enters the ditch. PMID:22565248

  11. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Haiyang; Wu, Di; Wu, Wengang; Xu, Jun; Hao, Yilong

    2009-11-01

    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 µm. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  14. ZnCl2-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan; Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2016-07-01

    Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl2-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm2/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL-1 solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl2-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R2 > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl2-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R2 > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl2-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  15. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Removal of Cd, Cr, and Pb from aqueous solution by unmodified and modified agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Suthor, Vishandas; Rafique, Ejaz; Yasin, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    The adsorption of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb), widely detected in wastewater, by unmodified and modified banana stalks, corn cob, and sunflower achene was explored. The three agricultural wastes were chemically modified with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), in order to improve their adsorptive binding capacity. The experiments were conducted as a function of contact time and initial metal ion concentrations. Of the three waste materials, corn cob had the highest adsorptive capacity for Pb than Cr and Cd. The NaOH-modified substrates had higher adsorptive capacity than the acid modified samples. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity between 10 and 100 %. The Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was highest (21-60 mg g(-1) of banana, 30-57 mg g(-1) of corn cob, and 23-28 mg g(-1) of sunflower achene) and that of Cd was least (4-7 mg g(-1) of banana, 14-20 mg g(-1) of corn cob, and 11-16 mg g(-1) of sunflower achene). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. The results demonstrate that the agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate water polluted with heavy metals. PMID:25626568

  17. Production of cellulases from Aspergillus niger NS-2 in solid state fermentation on agricultural and kitchen waste residues.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Namita; Tewari, Rupinder; Soni, Raman; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Various agricultural and kitchen waste residues were assessed for their ability to support the production of a complete cellulase system by Aspergillus niger NS-2 in solid state fermentation. Untreated as well as acid and base-pretreated substrates including corn cobs, carrot peelings, composite, grass, leaves, orange peelings, pineapple peelings, potato peelings, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, saw dust, wheat bran, wheat straw, simply moistened with water, were found to be well suited for the organism's growth, producing good amounts of cellulases after 96 h without the supplementation of additional nutritional sources. Yields of cellulases were higher in alkali treated substrates as compared to acid treated and untreated substrates except in wheat bran. Of all the substrates tested, wheat bran appeared to be the best suited substrate producing appreciable yields of CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase at the levels of 310, 17 and 33 U/g dry substrate respectively. An evaluation of various environmental parameters demonstrated that appreciable levels of cellulases could be produced over a wide range of temperatures (20-50 °C) and pH levels (3.0-8.0) with a 1:1.5 to 1:1.75 substrate to moisture ratio. PMID:22503148

  18. Fate of 14C-ethion insecticide in the presence of deltamethrin and dimilin pesticides in cotton seeds and oils, removal of ethion residues in oils, and bioavailability of its bound residues to experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Mahdy, Fathia; Hashad, Adly; Elgemeie, Galal H

    2014-12-24

    Ethyl-1-(14)C-ethion and some of its degradation products have been prepared for comparison purposes. Cotton plants were treated with (14)C-ethion alone and in the presence of deltamethrin and dimilin pesticides under conditions simulating local agricultural practice. (14)C-Residues in seeds were determined at harvest time; about 47.5% of (14)C-activity was associated with oil. After further extraction of seeds with ethanol, the ethanol-soluble (14)C-residues accounted for 10.6% of the total seed residues, whereas the cake contained about 37.3% of the total residues as bound residues in the case of ethion only. The bound residues decreased in the presence of deltamethrin and dimilin pesticides and amounted to 8.1 and 10.4% of the total residues, respectively. About 95% of the (14)C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. Chromatographic analysis of crude cotton oil revealed the presence of ethion monooxon, O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate, and O,O-diethyl phosphoric acid in addition to one unknown compound in the case of ethion alone or ethion and dimilin. The same degradation products are found in the case of ethion and deltamethrin in addition to ethion dioxon, whereas ethanol extract revealed the presence of ethion dioxon and O,O-diethyl phosphoric acid as free metabolites. Acid hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites in the ethanol extract yielded O,O-diethyl S-hydroxymethyl phosphorodithioate. The bound residues were quite readily bioavailable to the rats. After feeding rats with the cake containing ethion-bound residues, a substantial amount (60%) of (14)C-residues was eliminated in the urine, whereas the (14)C-residues excreted in expired air and feces were 10 and 9%, respectively. About 11% of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs. PMID:25420216

  19. Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T A H; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Zhang, J; Liang, S; Yue, Q Y; Li, Q; Nguyen, T V

    2013-11-01

    This critical review discusses the potential use of agricultural waste based biosorbents (AWBs) for sequestering heavy metals in terms of their adsorption capacities, binding mechanisms, operating factors and pretreatment methods. The literature survey indicates that AWBs have shown equal or even greater adsorption capacities compared to conventional adsorbents. Thanks to modern molecular biotechnologies, the roles of functional groups in biosorption process are better understood. Of process factors, pH appears to be the most influential. In most cases, chemical pretreatments bring about an obvious improvement in metal uptake capacity. However, there are still several gaps, which require further investigation, such as (i) searching for novel, multi-function AWBs, (ii) developing cost-effective modification methods and (iii) assessing AWBs under multi-metal and real wastewater systems. Once these challenges are settled, the replacement of traditional adsorbents by AWBs in decontaminating heavy metals from wastewater can be expected in the future. PMID:24045220

  20. Strain IMB-1, a novel bacterium for the removal of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, Hancock T.L.; Costello, A.M.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    A facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, that has been isolated from agricultural soil grows on methyl bromide (MeBr), methyl iodide, methyl chloride, and methylated amines, as well as on glucose, pyruvate, or acetate. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that strain IMB-1 classes in the alpha subgroup of the class Proteobacteria and is closely related to members of the genus Rhizobium. The ability of strain IMB-1 to oxidize MeBr to CO2 is constitutive in cells regardless of the growth substrate. Addition of cell suspensions of strain IMB-1 to soils greatly accelerates the oxidation of MeBr, as does pretreatment of soils with low concentrations of methyl iodide. These results suggest that soil treatment strategies can be devised whereby bacteria can effectively consume MeBr during field fumigations, which would diminish or eliminate the outward flux of MeBr to the atmosphere.

  1. Confirmatory analysis of the AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger with 3-D computational fluid dynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwall, James R.; Karim, Naeem U.; Thakkar, Jivan G.; Taylor, Creed; Schulz, Terry; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-07-01

    The AP1000 is an 1100 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 received final design approval from the US-NRC in 2004. The AP1000 design is based on the AP600 design that received final design approval in 1999. Wherever possible, the AP1000 plant configuration and layout was kept the same as AP600 to take advantage of the maturity of the design and to minimize new design efforts. As a result, the two-loop configuration was maintained for AP1000, and the containment vessel diameter was kept the same. It was determined that this significant power up-rate was well within the capability of the passive safety features, and that the safety margins for AP1000 were greater than those of operating PWRs. A key feature of the passive core cooling system is the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX) that provides decay heat removal for postulated LOCA and non-LOCA events. The PRHR HX is a C-tube heat exchanger located in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) above the core promoting natural circulation heat removal between the reactor cooling system and the tank. Component testing was performed for the AP600 PRHR HX to determine the heat transfer characteristics and to develop correlations to be used for the AP1000 safety analysis codes. The data from these tests were confirmed by subsequent integral tests at three separate facilities including the ROSA facility in Japan. Owing to the importance of this component, an independent analysis has been performed using the ATHOS-based computational fluid dynamics computer code PRHRCFD. Two separate models of the PRHR HX and IRWST have been developed representing the ROSA test geometry and the AP1000 plant geometry. Confirmation of the ROSA test results were used to validate PRHRCFD, and the AP1000 plant model

  2. Lacustrine wetland in an agricultural catchment: nitrogen removal and related biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrini, R.; Arese, C.; Delconte, C.

    2007-09-01

    The role of specific catchment areas, such as the soil-river or lake interfaces, in removing or buffering the flux of N from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems is globally recognized but the extreme variability of microbiological and hydrological processes make it difficult to predict the extent to which different wetlands function as buffer systems. In this paper we evaluate the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a lacustrine wetland are responsible for the nitrate removal from ground waters feeding Candia Lake (Northern Italy). A transect of 18 piezometers was installed perpendicular to the shoreline, in a sub-unit formed by 80 m of poplar plantation, close to a crop field and 30 m of reed swamp. The chemical analysis revealed a drastic NO3-N ground water depletion from the crop field to the lake, with concentrations decreasing from 15-18 mg N/l to the detection limit within the reeds. Patterns of Cl, SO4, O2, NO2-N, HCO3 and DOC suggest that the metabolic activity of bacterial communities, based on the differential use of electron donors and acceptors in redox reactions is the key function of this system. The significant inverse relationship found between NO3-N and HCO3 is a valuable indicator of the denitrification activity. The pluviometric regime, the temperature, the organic carbon availability and the hydrogeomorphic properties are the main environmental factors affecting the N transformations in the studied lacustrine ecosystem.

  3. Lacustrine wetland in an agricultural catchment: nitrogen removal and related biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrini, R.; Arese, C.; Delconte, C.

    2008-03-01

    The role of specific catchment areas, such as the soil-river or lake interfaces, in removing or buffering the flux of N from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems is globally recognized but the extreme variability of microbiological and hydrological processes make it difficult to predict the extent to which different wetlands function as buffer systems. In this paper we evaluate the degree to which biogeochemical processes in a lacustrine wetland are responsible for the nitrate removal from ground waters feeding Candia Lake (Northern Italy). A transect of 18 piezometers was installed perpendicular to the shoreline, in a sub-unit formed by 80 m of poplar plantation, close to a crop field and 30 m of reed swamp. The chemical analysis revealed a drastic NO3--N ground water depletion from the crop field to the lake, with concentrations decreasing from 15-18 mg N/l to the detection limit within the reeds. Patterns of Cl-, SO42-, O2, NO2--N, HCO3- and DOC suggest that the metabolic activity of bacterial communities, based on the differential use of electron donors and acceptors in redox reactions is the key function of this system. The significant inverse relationship found between NO3--N and HCO3- is a valuable indicator of the denitrification activity. The pluviometric regime, the temperature, the organic carbon availability and the hydrogeomorphic properties are the main environmental factors affecting the N transformations in the studied lacustrine ecosystem.

  4. Bioenergy: Agricultural Crop Residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing cost of fossil fuels especially natural gas and petroleum as well as a desire to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are driving the expansion of bioenergy. Plant biomass (woody, grain and nongrain) is a potential energy source. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, plant biomass was a maj...

  5. Transverse and Longitudinal Streambed Flux and Nitrate Removal in an Agricultural Stream Reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaid, H.; Rahimi, M.; Wilson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Late spring and summer streambed surface water - groundwater (SW-GW) flux and nitrate removal were estimated for Leary Weber Ditch, IN, along a reach near the confluence with Sugar Creek, IN, using data collected in 2004 and 2005. Stream stage, groundwater heads and temperatures were continuously monitored in streambed piezometers and stream bank wells for two transects across Leary Weber Ditch. Periodic manual measurements of stage, head and temperature were also made upstream and downstream of these transects. The data were used to develop two-dimensional (2D), cross-sectional (transverse) models of streambed water, heat, and nitrate transport perpendicular to the stream and a 2D longitudinal model along the axis of the stream. Model-estimated SW-GW exchange was influenced by physical heterogeneity in the streambed, stream channel topography, and local GW heads. Transverse modeling indicated that SW-GW exchange was generally greater near the banks and decreased toward the center of the channel. However, streambed heterogeneity modified this pattern with smaller flux at locations where fine silt was observed in cores, and greater and more temporally variable flux where the fine silt was absent. Transverse SW-GW exchange occurred mostly through lateral GW flow in shallow sediments, with different GW heads on the stream banks leading to transverse flow underneath the streambed at depth. The longitudinal modeling indicated that stream channel topography and streambed heterogeneity resulted in hyporheic flow paths within the streambed. Nitrate bearing stream water entered the streambed as a result of hyporheic flow, rapid stream stage rise during high flow events, and lowered GW levels leading to losing conditions. Field measurements of streambed nitrate concentration and simulation results suggest rapid denitrification in the anaerobic streambed, such that streambed nitrate removal was primarily determined by spatial and seasonal SW-GW exchange patterns.

  6. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution and nickel plating industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: Peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Periasamy, K.; Namasivayam, C.

    1995-07-01

    Activated carbon prepared from peanut hulls (PHC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The process of uptake obeys both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Quantitative removal of Ni(II) from 100 mL aqueous solution containing 20 mg/L Ni(II) by 85 mg PHC was observed over a pH range of 4.0 to 10.0. The suitability of PHC for treating nickel plating industry wastewater was also tested. A comparative study with a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) showed that PHC is 36 times more efficient compared to GAC based on Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q{sub O}).

  7. Characterisation of Particulate Matter Emitted from Cofiring of Lignite and Agricultural Residues in a Fixed-Bed Combustor

    PubMed Central

    Mantananont, Nattasut; Garivait, Savitri; Patumsawad, Suthum

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the emission of fixed bed combustor batch operated. Real-time analyser ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) system was used to size-segregated particulate matter emission ranging from 40 nm to 10 μm. The results show that total number concentration were 3.4 × 103, 1.6 × 104, and 1.5 × 105 particles/cm3 · kgfuel, while total mass of particles were 12.2, 8.0, and 6.5 mg/Nm3 · kgfuel for combustion of lignite, rice husk and bagasse, respectively. But it can be noticed that cofiring released more particulate matter. Meanwhile it was found that the effect of ratio of over-fired air to total air supply is more pronounced, since decrease in this ratio, the amount of particles are decreased significantly. For particle size distribution, it can be observed that submicron-sized particles dominate and the most prevailing size is in the range: 50 nm agricultural residues. However, during cofiring of fuel mixture at 70% rice husk mass concentration, it is found that there are two major fractions of particle size; 40 nm

  8. Nitrate removal effectiveness of a riparian buffer along a small agricultural stream in western Oregon.

    PubMed

    Wigington, P J; Griffith, S M; Field, J A; Baham, J E; Horwath, W R; Owen, J; Davis, J H; Rain, S C; Steiner, J J

    2003-01-01

    The Willamette Valley of Oregon has extensive areas of poorly drained, commercial grass seed lands. Little is know about the ability of riparian areas in these settings to reduce nitrate in water draining from grass seed fields. We established two study sites with similar soils and hydrology but contrasting riparian vegetation along an intermittent stream that drains perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) fields in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. We installed a series of nested piezometers along three transects at each site to examine NO3-N in shallow ground water in grass seed fields and riparian areas. Results showed that a noncultivated riparian zone comprised of grasses and herbaceous vegetation significantly reduced NO3-N concentrations of shallow ground water moving from grass seed fields. Darcy's law-based estimates of shallow ground water flow through riparian zone A/E horizons revealed that this water flowpath could account for only a very small percentage of the streamflow. Even though there is great potential for NO3-N to be reduced as water moves through the noncultivated riparian zone with grass-herbaceous vegetation, the potential was not fully realized because only a small proportion of the stream flow interacts with riparian zone soils. Consequently, effective NO3-N water quality management in poorly drained landscapes similar to the study watershed is primarily dependent on implementation of sound agricultural practices within grass seed fields and is less influenced by riparian zone vegetation. Wise fertilizer application rates and timing are key management tools to reduce export of NO3-N in stream waters. PMID:12549555

  9. Recycling agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal: a kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Gong, X F; Zou, H L; Liu, C Y; Chen, C L; Zeng, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we exhibit the recycling of agriculture wastes of ramie stalk as bioadsorbents for Cd(2+) removal. Based on our experimental results, it is realized that Cd(2+) adsorption to ramie stalk is highly pH sensitive, indicating the adsorption is driven by surface complexation reaction. The high adsorption capacity of ramie stalk toward Cd(2+) (qm = 10.33 mg g(-1), 0.09 mol-Cd g(-1)), which corresponds to around 21.95% of active adsorption sites available of ramie stalk, is believed to be closely related to its high cellulose and lignin content. The inhomogeneous surface of ramie stalk due to the high cellulose and lignin content also accounts for the observation that the adsorption kinetic is described well by the pseudo second order kinetic model. Results from thermodynamic studies suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. All these properties demonstrate the potential of ramie stalk as a low cost bioadsorbent for the application of heavy metal removal. PMID:26819396

  10. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  11. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  12. Assessment of residual heat removal and containment spray pump performance under air and debris ingesting conditions. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, P.S.; Tantillo, T.J.; Swift, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of the performance of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) and Containment Spray (CS) pumps during the recirculation phase of reactor core and containment cooldown following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA). The pumped fluid is expected to contain debris such as insulation and may ingest air depending on sump conditions. Findings are based on information collected from the literature and from interviews with pump and seal manufacturers. These findings show that for pumps at normal flow rates operating with sufficient Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH), pump performance degradation is negligible if air ingestion quantities are less than 2% by volume. For air ingestion between 3% and 15% by volume, head degradation depends on individual pump design and operating conditions and for air quantities greater than 15% performance of most pumps will be fully degraded. Also, small quantities of air will increase NPSH requirements for these pumps. For the types and quantities of debris likely to be present in the recirculating fluid, pump performance degradation is expected to be negligible.

  13. High basicity adsorbents from solid residue of cellulose and synthetic polymer co-pyrolysis for phenol removal: Kinetics and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    The activated carbons (ACs) produced from solid residue of cellulose and synthetic polymer co-pyrolysis (CACs) and commercial activated carbon from coconut shell (GC) were used for phenol removal. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism were investigated. All studied activated carbons are predominantly microporous and are characterized by basic surface characteristics. Surface area SBET varies between 1235 and 1499 m2/g, whereas the pHPZC changes from 7.70 to 10.63. The bath adsorption of phenol (P) was carried out at ambient temperature. The equilibrium time and equilibrium sorption capacity were determined. It was found that the boundary layer effect is bigger in AC with high basic characteristics of the surface. The rate controlling step is the intraparticle diffusion in CACs only, whereas in ACs with higher amount of acidic functionalities the adsorbate-surface interaction influences the rate of kinetic as well. The equilibrium isotherms are L2 type for commercial AC and L4 for CACs. The CACs are characterized by very high adsorption capacity that vary between 312 and 417 mg/g. The main mechanism of phenol adsorption is micropore filling within pores smaller than 1.4 nm. In the absence of solvent effect further adsorption of phenol on CACs takes place. The enhanced adsorption is due to dispersive/repulsive interaction induced by oxygen functionalities.

  14. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haiyang; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Xueying; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat), individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV) under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space) in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0), 200 kg N ha-1 (N200), 250 kg N ha-1 (N250), maize residue plus N200 (MN200), maize residue plus N250 (MN250), wheat residue plus N200 (WN200) and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250). Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O emissions

  15. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianmin; Xie, Yingxin; Jin, Haiyang; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Xueying; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat), individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV) under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space) in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0), 200 kg N ha-1 (N200), 250 kg N ha-1 (N250), maize residue plus N200 (MN200), maize residue plus N250 (MN250), wheat residue plus N200 (WN200) and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250). Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O emissions

  16. Solution pH effects on arsenic removal by drinking water treatment residuals in presence of metals and ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a Group A carcinogen whose presence in soils in higher than background concentrations has become a serious concern with increasing suburban encroachment on former agricultural lands. One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of As in soil and water environments is by promoting its adsorption onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) are cost-effective sources of such Fe/Al hydroxides, and generated during the drinking water treatment process as a byproduct. Preliminary work in our laboratory showed that the WTRs are characterized by large specific surface and a net positive charge, ideal for retention of oxyanions such as those of As. However, the overall magnitude of As retention by the WTRs is a function of solution factors such as pH, presence of competing ions and complexing metals. A comprehensive understanding of the aforementioned parameters is, therefore, needed to quantify As mobility and bioaccessibility. The primary objective of the studying progress is to determine the effect of solution pH (range: 3-10) on the amount of As sorbed by the WTRs in the presence of competing ligands such as phosphate, sulfate and silicate as well as complexing metals (e.g., calcium and lead). Experiments are being conducted at 3 solid/solution ratios- 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 and four initial As loads (375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mgAs L-1). Sodium arsenate is used as the As source. Arsenate adsorption is expected to decrease with increasing pH because generally when solution pH is less than pH of the zero point of charge, the positively charged surface on the soil prefers to complex with the negatively charged arsenate oxyanions. Furthermore, phosphate, sulfate and silicate are expected to compete with arsenate for sorption sites because like arsenate, these ions are typically sorbed via formation of inner-sphere complexes with suface functional groups. On the other hand, the presence of metals like lead and calcium

  17. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  18. Bioemulsifier production byMicrobacterium SP. strains isolated from mangrove and their application to remove cadmiun and zinc from hazardous industrial residue

    PubMed Central

    Aniszewski, Erick; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Mota, Fábio Faria; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of ecosystems with heavy metals is an important issue in current world and remediation technologies should be in according to environmental sustainability concept. Bioemulsifier are promising agents to be used in metal removal and could be effective to many applications in environmental industries. The aims of this work was screening the potential production of bioemulsifier by microorganisms isolated from an oil contaminated mangrove, and evaluate cadmium and zinc removal potential of those strains from a hazardous industrial residue. From that, bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were isolated from urban mangrove sediments. Four isolates were identified as Microbacterium sp by 16S rRNA analysis and were able to reduce up to 53.3% of culture medium surface tension (TS) when using glucose as carbon and energy source and 20.2% when sucrose was used. Suspensions containing bioemulsifier produced by Microbacterium sp. strains show to be able to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated industrial residue, and its ability varied according carbon source. Significant differences in metal removal were observed by all strains depending on the carbon source. When glucose was used, Cd and Zn removal varied from 17 to 41%, and 14 to 68%, respectively. However, when sucrose was used it was observed only 4 to a maximum of 15% of Cd removal, and 4 to 17% of Zn removal. When the same tests were performed after ethanol precipitation, the results were different: the percentages of removal of Zn (7–27%) and Cd (14–32%) were higher from sucrose cultures. This is the first report of heavy metals removal by bioemulsifier from Microbacterium sp. PMID:24031486

  19. Characterization of humic substances isolated from clay- and silt-sized fractions of a corn residue-amended agricultural soil

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, C.E.; Hayes, M.H.B.

    1999-12-01

    In a small-plot field study on a Waukegan silt loam soil, annual applications of 20 g N m{sup {minus}2} were made each May for 8 years before planting corn (Zea mays L.). Subplots were fertilized with 0.8 g {sup 15}N m{sup {minus}2}. Soil treatment in the fall either incorporated the chopped corn stover after grain harvest, using a rototiller, or the stover was removed from the plots. Soil samples taken in the fall were ultrasonicated, separated into clay- and silt-sized fractions, and extracted exhaustively with 0.1 mol L{sup {minus}1} sodium pyrophosphate (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) + 0.1 mol L{sup {minus}1} NaOH (pH 12.6). Humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids were isolated using the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) procedures. A variety of analytical methods were employed. The most useful information was obtained from amino acid (AA) and neutral sugar (NS) analyses, and from cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C-NMR and {delta}{sup 13}C data. Overall, the corn residue amendments did not have a large effect on the composition of the humic substances (HS) from the different sized separates, but there were differences in the relative abundance of some AA and NS in the HAs and FAs. The NMR and {delta}{sup 13}C data provided evidence of some compositional differences and extent of humification between the HS from the clay- and silt-sized separates. The conclusion reached is, therefore, that the silt-sized particles were microaggregates of clay-sized particles, and the HS in these microaggregates were partially protected from bioalteration. These HS bore greater resemblance to the plants of origin than did those associated with the clays. The composition of the HAs and that of the FAs were similar to that of the Mollisol soil standard of the IHSS, but they were different from humic samples from other non-Mollisol soil types.

  20. Removal efficiency of a constructed wetland combined with ultrasound and UV devices for wastewater reuse in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Attilio; Hellio, Claire; Marzo, Alessia; Milani, Mirco; Lebret, Karen; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Langergraber, Günter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of a chemical-free water treatment for treating the secondary effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant with the aim of reusing the water for agriculture. Urban wastewater was treated by three units run in series: a full-scale horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland, a small pond with an ultrasound (US) system and a UV device. The treatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of the Italian wastewater limits for irrigation reuse, water quality improvement (removal percentage) and algae bloom control. The tolerable infection risk, associated with the use of wastewaters for irrigating crops, was also assessed by applying the microbial risk analyses proposed in the WHO guidelines for wastewater reuse. The constructed wetland was efficient in reducing physical-chemical and microbiological concentrations, and its efficiency was very steady over the investigation period. The UV system significantly improved water quality (p<0.05) in terms of pathogen concentration with a further average decrease from 0.35 to 1.23 log units, depending on the microbiological parameter. The US device was able to prevent algae bloom on a free water surface and maintain Chlorophyll-a concentration stable and low 2 months after activation. PMID:24350488

  1. CONCERNS WITH THE BENEFICIAL REUSE IN AGRICULTURE OF RESIDUALS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenic organisms that may be present in such residuals, processes commonly employed for controlling them; these processes' effectiveness and how extensively they are used; and issues and concerns with beneficial reuse will be discussed. Processes presently being researche...

  2. Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; -Rahman, Naveed-ur; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2014-02-01

    from burning of agricultural residues in Pakistan.

  3. Monitoring of selected pesticides residue levels in water samples of paddy fields and removal of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos residues from water using rice bran.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhra; Fakhruddin, A N M; Chowdhury, M A Z; Rahman, M A; Alam, M K

    2012-08-01

    Consumption of pesticides associated foods increased in recent decades in Bangladesh. Most of the pesticides come from paddy, as rice is the main food items here and about 70 % pesticides are used only on paddy fields. Water samples of paddy fields and Kaliganga River of Manikganj district were analyzed to provide base line data on cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and diazinon residue by using high performance liquid chromatography. Levels of Cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and diazinon detected in the paddy field water samples were (0.605 ± 0.011 μg/L), (0.06 ± 0.001 μg/L) and (0.039 ± 0.002 μg/L), respectively. 0.11 ± 0.003 μg/L of cypermethrin and 0.012 ± 0.0006 μg/L of chlorpyrifos were also identified in the water samples of Kaligonga River. Diazinon residue was not detected in the river water samples. The detected concentrations of pesticide residues in the river water were below the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) value of drinking water (0.1 μg/l) adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. Cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were chosen for decontamination through rice bran, as it was found in river water. Two gm rice bran could easily decontaminated 95.6 % and 96.4 % of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. The result of this study showed that pesticide residue was detected in water samples were below the MRLs value, which can easily be decontaminated through absorption of rice bran. PMID:22627618

  4. Processes, Controls, and Potential for In-situ Nutrient Removal During Managed Aquifer Recharge in an Agricultural Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Los Huertos, M.; Lockwood, B.

    2008-12-01

    We are conducting research on rates and dynamics of water quality improvement that occur during managed aquifer recharge (MAR), with a focus on reducing the load of nitrate exported during recharge. Nitrate is the most common nonpoint source pollutant in surface and ground water in the United States, and is a problem particularly in basins developed for agriculture. Our study site is located in central coastal California, where diversion from a slough (wetland) is permitted during periods of high flow for use in MAR. Diverted water is recharged into an eolian and fluvial, unconfined aquifer using a 3-km2 percolation pond, then subsequently recovered and distributed to local farmers. As a result of agricultural and other activities in the basin, diverted slough water is often rich in nitrate (historical values as high as 4 mM); similarly high nitrate values have been measured in water from the underlying aquifer. Prior to the start of the 2007-08 water year, we surveyed, sampled, and instrumented the recharge pond in order to quantify local seepage rates and sample recharging water to assess changes in water quality during infiltration through the base of the pond. Nests of piezometers and lysimeters were screened at depths of 50 to 150 cm beneath the base of the pond and sampled weekly throughout the recharge season. Total MAR was 7.4 × 105 m3 (600 ac-ft) during the 2007-08 water year, with initial nitrate concentrations of 10 μM to 100 μM in the diverted water. Point-specific infiltration rates were greater than 10 m/day in some locations below the pond, and much lower in other locations. Nitrate concentrations were reduced by 50 to 90% beneath the pond, with the greatest reductions occurring at lower concentrations and slower infiltration rates. Suboxic conditions developed beneath the pond during recharge, which is consistent with removal of nitrate by denitrification. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were elevated during the recharge season throughout

  5. Investigation of metal contamination induced by a through silicon via reveal process using direct Si/Cu grinding and residual metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Naoya; Aoyagi, Masahiro; Katagawa, Daisuke; Bandoh, Tsubasa; Mitsui, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated metal contamination induced by a through silicon via (TSV) reveal process using direct Si/Cu grinding and residual metal removal. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) wafer including TSVs was bonded to a glass support substrate, and a TSV reveal process was performed by direct Si/Cu grinding and residual metal removal. Then, metal contamination near the SiO2/Si interface on the front side of the wafer was investigated by using a pulsed-MOS capacitor technique and measuring the effective generation lifetime and effective surface generation velocity before and after this TSV reveal process. The results of Zerbst analysis showed that the changes in average effective generation lifetime and average effective surface generation velocity were ‑5.4 and +4.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the effect of metal contamination induced by our TSV reveal process on circuit components is small.

  6. Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Information Document, Amendment 10. GCFR residual heat removal system criteria, design, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of safety design bases to support the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) residual heat removal (RHR) systems. The report is structured to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review and comment in the licensability of these design bases. This report also presents information concerning a specific plant design and its performance as an auxiliary part to assist the NRC in evaluating the safety design bases.

  7. Bioaccessibility of environmentally aged 14C-atrazine residues in an agriculturally used soil and its particle-size aggregates.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Modler, Janette; Schaeffer, Andreas; Burauel, Peter

    2008-08-15

    After 22 years of aging under natural conditions in an outdoor lysimeter the bioaccessibility of 14C-labeled atrazine soil residues to bacteria was tested. Entire soil samples as well as sand-sized, silt-sized, and clay-sized aggregates (>20, 20-2, and <2microm aggregate size, respectively) were investigated under slurried conditions. The mineralization of residual radioactivity in the outdoor lysimeter soil reached up to 4.5% of the total 14C-activity after 16 days, inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. The control samples without inoculated bacteria showed a mineralization maximum of only about 1% after 44 days of incubation. Mineralization increased in the clay-sized aggregates up to 6.2% of the total residual 14C-activity within 23 days. With decreasing soil aggregate sizes, residual 14C-activity increased per unit of weight, but only minor differences of the mineralization in the soil and soil size aggregates using mineral-media for incubation was observed. Using additional Na-citrate in the incubation, the extent of mineralization increased to 6.7% in soil after 23 days following incubation with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. These results show that long-term aged 14C-atrazine residues are still partly accessible to the atrazine degrading microorganism Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. PMID:18767643

  8. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. PMID:26882523

  9. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    PubMed

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation. PMID:27098519

  10. Use of bauxite residue (red mud) as a low cost sorbent for sulfide removal in polluted water remediation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yanqing; Sun, Qiyao; Sun, Ruichuan; Burke, Ian T; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide is an important pollutant in aqueous systems. Sulfide removal from polluted waters is required prior to discharge. Red mud (RM) is a solid waste of bauxite processing that is rich in reactive iron oxides and consequently has the potential to be used to remove sulfide from aqueous systems. A series of experiments was undertaken using raw and sintered RM to remove sulfide from waters. RM was highly efficient at sulfide removal (average 75% sulfide removal at initial concentration of ∼5 mg L(-1), with 500 mg L(-1) RM addition) due to both physical adsorption (high specific area) and chemical reaction (with amorphous Fe). Sintered RM, which has a lower surface area and lower mineral reactivity, was much less efficient at removing sulfide (∼20% removal under equivalent experimental conditions). Furthermore, concomitant metal release from raw RM was lower than for sintered RM during the sulfide removal process. The results showed that raw RM is a potentially suitable material for sulfide removal from polluted waters and consequently could be used as a low cost alternative treatment in certain engineering applications. PMID:27438240

  11. Evaluation of solid residues removed from a mangrove swamp in the São Vicente Estuary, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, C A M M; Costa, T M

    2010-10-01

    Mangrove swamps are found in estuaries along the coastal plains of tropical regions and have be subjected to heavy occupation and use pressure due to their privileged locations and abundance of biological resources. The present work evaluated the ecological characteristics and solid wastes accumulated in eight areas along the Santos - São Vicente Estuary Complex. The superficially deposited residues at each sampling site were collected and subsequently washed, drained, counted, weighed and separated into classes according to their composition and predominant use. The predominant litter type in terms of density was plastic (62.81%) and, by weight, wood (55.53%). The greatest deposition of residues was associated with areas that were less inclined and that had low plant density levels, indicating that the presence of obstacles was not critical for retaining floating residues in mangrove areas. The presence of the most frequently encountered types of solid waste residues could be explained by local activities. PMID:20621318

  12. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were <1, and most of the cancer risk values were <10(-6), suggesting that DDTs and HCHs in the farmland will not pose non-carcinogenic risks and will pose only very low cancer risks to the Tibetan residents. PMID:26874624

  13. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated. PMID:26088763

  14. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  15. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Hu; Zhao Hongwei; Shi Chengli; Wu Boda; Fan Zunqiang; Wan Shunguang; Geng Chunyang

    2012-12-15

    Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK 23H SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON TANK 48H WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; Thomas02 White, T; Lawrence Oji, L; Chris Martino, C; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2006-07-31

    Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from 4 to 20.4 microns. The mass per unit area ranged from 1 to 5.3 milligrams per square inch. The residues appear to consist primarily of potassium tetraphenylborate (39.8 wt% KTPB) and dried salt solution (33.5 wt% total of nitrates, nitrites and oxalate salts), although {approx}30% of the solid mass was not accounted for in the mass balance. No evidence of residue buildup was found inside the pipe, as expected. The residue leaching characteristics were measured by placing one pipe in inhibited water and one pipe in DWPF Recycle simulant. After soaking for less than 4 weeks, the inhibited water was 95.4% effective at removing the residue and the DWPF Recycle simulant was 93.5% effective. The surface appearance of the pipes after leaching tests appeared close to the clean shiny appearance of a new pipe. Total gamma counts of leachates averaged 48.1 dpm/ml, or an equivalent of 2.35E-11 Ci/gm Cs-137 (dry solids basis), which is much lower than the 1.4 E-03 Ci/gm expected for Tank 48 dry slurry solids.

  17. Developing Field Studies to Measure Corn Residue Removal Effects on Soil Organic Matter - A Multi-Location Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover was identified in the Billion Ton Report as a primary feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production because it is the most abundant crop residue in the U.S. Potential water and wind erosion effects of stover harvest were considered for those predictions, but several USDA...

  18. Biological removal of pharmaceutical compounds using white-rot fungi with concomitant FAME production of the residual biomass.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadou, I A; Sánchez-Vázquez, R; Molina, R; Martínez, F; Melero, J A; Bautista, L F; Iglesias, J; Morales, G

    2016-09-15

    The efficiency of two white-rot fungi (WRF), Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum, to eliminate thirteen pharmaceutical pollutants with concomitant biodiesel production from the accumulating lipid content after treatment, was examined. The removal efficiency was studied using both individual and combined strains. The results of individual and combined strains showed a total removal (100%) of diclofenac (DCF), gemfibrozil (GFZ), ibuprofen (IBP), progesterone (PGT) and ranitidine (RNT). Lower removals were achieved for 4-acetamidoantipyrin (AAA), clofibric acid (ACF), atenolol (ATN), caffeine (CFN), carbamazepine (CZP), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulpiride (SPD), although the combination of both strains enhanced the system's efficiency, with removals ranging from 15 to 41%. This increase of the removal efficiency when combining both strains was attributed to the interactions developed between them (i.e., competition). Results from enzymatic and cytochrome P450 examination suggested that both extracellular (laccase, MnP, LiP) and intracellular oxidation mechanisms participate in the biological removal of pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, the "green" potential of the fungal sludge generated during the biological removal process was assessed for biodiesel production by means of one-step direct (in-situ) transformation. This process consists of the simultaneous extraction and conversion of lipids contained in the sludge by catalytic esterification/transesterification using a robust acid heterogeneous Zr-SBA-15 catalyst. This catalytic system provided conversions close to 80% of the saponifiable fraction (including free fatty acids and glycerides) in the presence of high amount of impurities. The overall weight FAME yield, based on the initial dried mass, was close to 30% for both strains. PMID:27233048

  19. Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter

    SciTech Connect

    May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility that houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS), was

  20. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution. PMID:27441855

  1. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes. PMID:25849115

  2. Endocrine disruptors compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in urban wastewater: implications for agricultural reuse and their removal by adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Mariangela; Rizzo, Luigi; Farina, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In the last years, a lot of emerging contaminants, such as, endocrine disruptors compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in wastewater. Because of their toxicity and possible adverse effects on the environment and humans, their release from urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTPs) effluents should be minimized, particularly when a wastewater reuse for crops irrigation is expected. Many processes have been investigated for advanced treatment of UWWTP effluents as well as for emerging contaminant degradation; among these, adsorption process was successfully used to remove EDCs and PPCPs from wastewater. This article shortly reviews EDCs and PPCPs removal from UWWTP effluents by adsorption process using conventional and non-conventional adsorbents. The fate of EDCs and PPCPs in UWWTPs and the implications for agricultural wastewater reuse has been addressed too. In spite of the adsorption process looking to be a valuable alternative to other advanced technologies for the removal of emerging contaminants from wastewater, some gaps still remain to evaluate the actual feasibility at full scale. However, according to a few studies available in scientific literature on the use of both powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon at full scale, adsorption process by activated carbon is a promising, potentially effective, and economically feasible solution for producing safe wastewater for agricultural reuse. PMID:23532534

  3. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. PMID:25160079

  4. Determination of neonicotinoid pesticides residues in agricultural samples by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Han, Chao; Qian, Yan; Ding, Huiying; Chen, Xiaomei; Xi, Junyang

    2011-07-15

    This work reports a new sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, confirmation and quantification of six neonicotinoid pesticides (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, clothiandin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Activated carbon and HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for cleaning up the extracts. Analysis is performed by LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with D(4)-labeled imidacloprid. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD≤8.6%) for all compounds. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample and 0.02 mg kg(-1) for tea sample. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations levels (0.01 mg kg(-1), 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample, 0.02 mg kg(-1), 0.04 mg kg(-1) and 0.2 mg kg(-1) for tea sample), were in the range 82.1-108.5%. The method was satisfactorily validated for the analysis of 150 agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Imidacloprid and acetamiprid were detected at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.6 mg kg(-1). PMID:21641601

  5. Use of residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain for the removal of pollutants from environmental media: A review of batch biosorption approaches.

    PubMed

    Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Massas, Ioannis; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Residues and by-products of the olive-oil production chain have been widely studied as biosorbents for the removal of various pollutants from environmental media due to their significant adsorption properties, low cost, production at local level and renewability. In this review, adsorbents developed from olive-tree cultivation residues and olive-oil extraction by-products and wastes are examined, and their sorption characteristics are described and discussed. Recent information obtained using batch sorption studies is summarized and the adsorption mechanisms involved, regarding various aquatic and soil pollutants (metal ions, dyes, radionuclides, phenolic compounds, pesticides) are presented and discussed. It is evident that several biosorbents show the potential to effectively remove a wide variety of pollutants from aqueous solutions, especially Pb and Cd. However, there is need to (a) develop standardized batch study protocols, and potentially reference materials, for effective cross-evaluation of biosorbents of similar nature and for improved understanding of mechanisms involved and (b) investigate scaling-up and regeneration issues that hold back industry-level application of preselected adsorbents. PMID:25901848

  6. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  7. NOVA1 inhibition by miR-146b-5p in the remnant tissue microenvironment defines occult residual disease after gastric cancer removal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mira; Jung, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kang, Youngran; Jang, You-Jin; Hong, Soon Won; Choi, Seung Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    2016-01-01

    Occult residual disease in remnant tissues could be the cause of tumor relapse. To identify signal molecules and target cells that may be indicative of occult residual disease within a remnant microenvironment, proximal resection margin tissues of gastric cancers were used, as these correspond to the nearest remnant tissues after gastrectomy. Increased miR-146b-5p in the remnant microenvironment was determined to be a strong risk factor for tumor relapse and poor survival rate. NOVA1, a target gene of miR-146b-5p, was decreased in remnant tissues of patients with a poor prognosis. NOVA1 was enriched in stromal spindle cells such as fibroblasts within normal tissues. In non-neoplastic inflammation, such as gastritis, NOVA1 was highly enriched in T lymphocytes and stromal spindle cells, while expression of this protein was frequently decreased in those types of cells within gastric cancer tissues. Particularly, decreased NOVA1 in T cells within the gastric cancer tissues was correlated with decreased FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells and was associated with poor patient prognosis. In vitro analysis showed that the NOVA1 gene was inhibited by miR-146b-5p. In immune cells as well as stromal spindle cells, decreased NOVA1, possibly inhibited by miR-146b-5p, is a candidate biomarker predicting poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and is also a biomarker of occult residual disease in remnant tissues after gastric cancer removal. PMID:26673617

  8. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    PubMed

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process. PMID:24191456

  9. Study of the effects of urban organic residues on the distribution of culturable actinomycetes in a Tunisian agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Mokni-Tlili, Sonia; Jaoua, Leila; Murano, Fumio; Jedidi, Naceur; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to identify a collection of actinomycetes isolates and to study the influence of amendment [municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and farmyard manure (FM)] on their distribution in agricultural soil. For this purpose, a phenotypic and molecular characterization of 226 isolates collected from soil (with and without amendment) and 55 isolates from MSWC and FM was developed. The phenotypic study showed that the majority of strains isolated belong to the genus Streptomyces. By using the 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (restriction digest using six enzymes AluI, HhaI, MspI, TaqI, RsaI and HaeIII), two clusters were found: Streptomyces, dominant genus and Amycolatopsis, followed by Nocardioides. This result agreed with phylogeny revealed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The number of these actinomycetes in soil increased with FM or MSWC application. The studied soil is a potential source for isolation of actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces, and the application of organic amendment to the soil appeared to have an impact on the diversity of actinomycetes. Amendment of the soil with MSWC and FM significantly increased the number of actinomycetes due to the contribution of bacteria originally contained in biowastes and/or by stimulation of the endogenous soil micro-organisms. PMID:19423577

  10. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. PMID:16406295

  11. An analysis of producing ethanol and electric power from woody residues and agricultural crops in East Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayilova, Rubaba Mammad

    The increasing U.S. dependence on imported oil; the contribution of fossil fuels to the greenhouse gas emissions and the climate change issue; the current level of energy prices and other environmental concerns have increased world interest in renewable energy sources. Biomass is a large, diverse, readily exploitable resource. This dissertation examines the biomass potential in Eastern Texas by examining a 44 county region. This examination considers the potential establishment of a 100-megawatt (MW) power plant and a 20 million gallon per year (MMGY) ethanol plant using lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass sources considered are switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse, and logging residues. In the case of electricity generation, co-firing scenarios are also investigated. The research analyzes the key indicators involved with economic costs and benefits, environmental and social impacts. The bioenergy production possibilities considered here were biofeedstock supported electric power and cellulosic ethanol production. The results were integrated into a comprehensive set of information that addresses the effects of biomass energy development in the region. The analysis indicates that none of the counties in East Texas have sufficient biomass to individually sustain either a 100% biomass fired power plant or the cellulosic ethanol plant. Such plants would only be feasible at the regional level. Co-firing biomass with coal, however, does provide a most attractive alternative for the study region. The results indicate further that basing the decision solely on economics of feedstock availability and costs would suggest that bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is not a viable energy alternative. Accounting for some environmental and social benefits accruing to the region from bioenergy production together with the feedstock economics, however, suggests that government subsidies, up to the amount of accruing benefits, could make the bioenergies an attractive business opportunity

  12. Adaptive scene-based correction algorithm for removal of residual fixed pattern noise in microgrid image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; LeMaster, Daniel A.

    2012-06-01

    Pixel-to-pixel response nonuniformity is a common problem that affects nearly all focal plane array sensors. This results in a frame-to-frame fixed pattern noise (FPN) that causes an overall degradation in collected data. FPN is often compensated for through the use of blackbody calibration procedures; however, FPN is a particularly challenging problem because the detector responsivities drift relative to one another in time, requiring that the sensor be recalibrated periodically. The calibration process is obstructive to sensor operation and is therefore only performed at discrete intervals in time. Thus, any drift that occurs between calibrations (along with error in the calibration sources themselves) causes varying levels of residual calibration error to be present in the data at all times. Polarimetric microgrid sensors are particularly sensitive to FPN due to the spatial differencing involved in estimating the Stokes vector images. While many techniques exist in the literature to estimate FPN for conventional video sensors, few have been proposed to address the problem in microgrid imaging sensors. Here we present a scene-based nonuniformity correction technique for microgrid sensors that is able to reduce residual fixed pattern noise while preserving radiometry under a wide range of conditions. The algorithm requires a low number of temporal data samples to estimate the spatial nonuniformity and is computationally efficient. We demonstrate the algorithm's performance using real data from the AFRL PIRATE and University of Arizona LWIR microgrid sensors.

  13. From municipal sewage to drinking water: fate and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Heberer, Th; Reddersen, K; Mechlinski, A

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment was recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry and as a matter of public concern. Residues of PhACs have been found as contaminants in sewage, surface, and ground- and drinking water samples. Since June 2000, a new long-term monitoring program of sewage, surface, ground- and drinking water has been carried out in Berlin, Germany. Samples, collected periodically from selected sites in the Berlin area, are investigated for residues of PhACs and related contaminants. The purpose of this monitoring is to investigate these compounds over a long time period to get more reliable data on their occurrence and fate in the different aquatic compartments. Moreover, the surface water investigations allow the calculation of season-dependent contaminant loads in the Berlin waters. In the course of the monitoring program, PhACs and some other polar compounds were detected at concentrations up to the microg/L-level in all compartments of the Berlin water cycle. The monitoring is accompanied and supported by several other investigations such as laboratory column experiments and studies on bank filtration and drinking water treatment using conventional or membrane filtration techniques. PMID:12227607

  14. Production and characterization of multi-polysaccharide degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC199 for saccharification of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Arnthong, Jantima; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2014-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is a key step in the conversion of agricultural by-products to biofuels and value-added chemicals. Utilization of a robust microorganism for on-site production of biomass-degrading enzymes has gained increasing interest as an economical approach for supplying enzymes to biorefinery processes. In this study, production of multi-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC199 by solid-state fermentation was improved through the statistical design approach. Among the operational parameters, yeast extract and soybean meal as well as the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 and initial pH were found as key parameters for maximizing production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. Under the optimized condition, the production of FPase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, and β-xylosidase was achieved at 23, 663, 88, 1,633, and 90 units/g of dry substrate, respectively. The multi-enzyme extract was highly efficient in the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw, corn cob, and corn stover. In comparison with commercial cellulase preparations, the BCC199 enzyme mixture was able to produce remarkable yields of glucose and xylose, as it contained higher relative activities of β-glucosidase and core hemicellulases (xylanase and β-xylosidase). These results suggested that the crude enzyme extract from A. aculeatus BCC199 possesses balanced cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities required for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, and supplementation of external β-glucosidase or xylanase was dispensable. The work thus demonstrates the high potential of A. aculeatus BCC199 as a promising producer of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes for the biomass conversion industry. PMID:25001556

  15. Effect of Zero-Valent Iron on Removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Agricultural Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel water filtration system using zero-valent iron (ZVI) is being investigated as a simple and inexpensive approach to reducing E. coli O157:H7 in water for both pre- and post-harvest processes. Purpose: This study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of zero-valent iron in the removal ...

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

    2011-10-20

    A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in

  17. Removal of pharmaceutical residues using ozonation as intermediate process step at Linköping WWTP, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Malmborg, Jonas; Ek, Mats; Sehlén, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pilot tests as basis for the design, implementation and operation of a future full-scale oxidation plant completing the existing sewage treatment in Linköping, Sweden, were performed. Using an ozonation step between bio-sedimentation and post-denitrification processes, the primary goal was the removal of the highest priority substances to effluent water levels that will not cause adverse effects in the recipient considering the natural dilution. The study included initial emission screenings, dose control trials, treatment performance studies and eco-toxicity studies. At an ozone dose of 5 mg O3/L, most substances could be removed. Ecotoxicological tests showed no negative effect for the tested ozone doses. High levels of oxygen into the denitrification could be rapidly reduced in the biology. The number of bacteria in the treated water could be significantly reduced even at relatively low ozone doses. Based on these results, the planning for the full-scale implementation of the treatment system was initiated in 2015. PMID:27120656

  18. New field-based agricultural biomass burning trace gas, PM2.5, and black carbon emission ratios and factors measured in situ at crop residue fires in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin J.; Green, David C.; Main, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Despite policy attempts to limit or prevent agricultural burning, its use to remove crop residues either immediately after harvest (e.g. field burning of wheat stubble) or after subsequent crop processing (e.g. "bonfires" of rice straw and rapeseed residues) appears to remain widespread across parts of China. Emission factors for these types of small but highly numerous fire are therefore required to fully assess their impact on atmospheric composition and air pollution. Here we describe the design and deployment of a new smoke measurement system for the close-range sampling of key gases and particles within smoke from crop residue fires, using it to assess instantaneous mixing ratios of CO and CO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 from wheat stubble, rice straw, and rapeseed residue fires. Using data of our new smoke sampling system, we find a strong linear correlation between the PM2.5 mass and BC, with very high PM2.5 to BC emission ratios found in the smouldering phase (up to 80.7 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1) compared to the flaming phase (2.0 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1). We conclude that the contribution of BC to PM2.5 mass was as high as 50% in the flaming phase of some burns, whilst during smouldering it sometimes decreased to little over one percent. A linear mixing model is used to quantify the relative contribution of each combustion phase to the overall measured smoke composition, and we find that flaming combustion dominated the total emission of most species assessed. Using time series of trace gas concentrations from different fire cases, we calculated 'fire integrated' trace gas emission factors (EFs) for wheat, rice and rapeseed residue burns as 1739 ± 19 g kg-1, 1761 ± 30 g kg-1and 1704 ± 27 g kg-1 respectively for CO2, and 60 ± 12 g kg-1, 47 ± 19 g kg-1 and 82 ± 17 g kg-1 respectively for CO. Where comparisons were possible, our EFs agreed well with those derived via a simultaneously-deployed open path Fourier transform infrared (OP

  19. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2014-03-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, <0.1 μg/l) to 33.41 μg/l in the tested samples. Parathion was found in two tested samples at the concentration of 0.73 and 6.23 μg/l. None of the tested samples was found contaminated with Methoxychlor, DDT and Ethion. Three soil bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas peli BG1, Burkholderia caryophylli BG4 and Brevundimonas diminuta PD6 degraded chlorpyrifos completely in 8, 10 and 10 days, respectively, when 20 mg/l chlorpyrifos was supplied as sole source of carbon. Whereas, BG1, BG4 and PD6 took 14, 16 and 16 days, respectively, for complete removal of 50 mg/l chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos degradation rates were found maximum by all three isolates at 2nd day of incubation for both tested concentrations. The results of the present study suggest the need for regular monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  20. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, <0.1 μg/l) to 33.41 μg/l in the tested samples. Parathion was found in two tested samples at the concentration of 0.73 and 6.23 μg/l. None of the tested samples was found contaminated with Methoxychlor, DDT and Ethion. Three soil bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas peli BG1, Burkholderia caryophylli BG4 and Brevundimonas diminuta PD6 degraded chlorpyrifos completely in 8, 10 and 10 days, respectively, when 20 mg/l chlorpyrifos was supplied as sole source of carbon. Whereas, BG1, BG4 and PD6 took 14, 16 and 16 days, respectively, for complete removal of 50 mg/l chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos degradation rates were found maximum by all three isolates at 2nd day of incubation for both tested concentrations. The results of the present study suggest the need for regular monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  1. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijun; Matarrita, Jessie; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChERS extraction followed by use of EMR-Lipid ("enhanced matrix removal of lipids") and an additional salting out step for cleanup. The optimal amount of EMR-Lipid was determined to be 500mg for 2.5mL extracts for most of the analytes. The co-extractive removal efficiency by the EMR-Lipid cleanup step was 83-98% for fatty samples and 79% for kale, including 76% removal of chlorophyll. Matrix effects were typically less than ±20%, in part because analyte protectants were used in the LPGC-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diverse pesticides were mostly 70-120%, whereas recoveries of nonpolar polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls were mostly lower than 70% through the cleanup procedure. With the use of internal standards, method validation results showed that 76-85 of the 117 analytes achieved satisfactory results (recoveries of 70-120% and RSD≤20%) in pork, avocado, and kale, while 53 analytes had satisfactory results in salmon. Detection limits were 5-10ng/g for all but a few analytes. EMR-Lipid is a new sample preparation tool that serves as another useful option for cleanup in multiresidue analysis, particularly of fatty foods. PMID:27139213

  2. The Development of a Curriculum for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues for Environmental Literacy of Secondary School Students at Samaki Wittaya Municipality School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klakayan, Jagree; Singseewo, Adisak

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to (1) design a curriculum on Production of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues, (2) implement the designed curriculum, and (3) study and compare the learning achievements of Matthayomsuksa 3 students at Samakee Wittaya Municipality School in terms of knowledge, learning skills, and participation in the production of…

  3. Removal of oil from oil-in-saltwater emulsions by adsorption onto nano-alumina functionalized with petroleum vacuum residue.

    PubMed

    Franco, Camilo A; Nassar, Nashaat N; Cortés, Farid B

    2014-11-01

    Formation water from oilfields is one of the major environmental issues related to the oil industry. This research investigated oil adsorption onto nanoparticles of hydrophobic alumina and alumina nanoparticles functionalized with a petroleum vacuum residue (VR) at 2 and 4wt% to reduce the amount of oil in oil-saltwater emulsions at different pH values (5, 7 and 9). The initial concentration of crude oil in water ranged from 100 to 500mg/L. The change in oil concentration after adsorption was determined using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that all of the systems performed more effectively at a pH of 7 and using Al/4VR material. The oil adsorption was higher for neutral and acid systems compared with basic ones, and it was improved by increasing the amount of VR on the surface of the alumina. Additionally, the amount of NaCl adsorbed onto nanoparticles was estimated for different mixtures. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were evaluated using the Dubinin-Astakhov model, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model, and pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models, with a better fitting to the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model and pseudo-second-order model. PMID:25112913

  4. Removal of the free cysteine residue reduces irreversible thermal inactivation of feruloyl esterase: evidence from circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuaibing; Yi, Zhuolin; Pei, Xiaoqiong; Wu, Zhongliu

    2015-08-01

    Feruloyl esterase A from Aspergillus niger (AnFaeA) contains three intramolecular disulfide bonds and one free cysteine at position 235. Saturated mutagenesis at Cys235 was carried out to produce five active mutants, all of which displayed unusual thermal inactivation patterns with the most residual activity achieved at 75°C, much higher than the parental AnFaeA. But their optimal reaction temperatures were lower than the parental AnFaeA. Extensive investigation into their free thiol and disulfide bond, circular dichroism spectra and fluorescence spectra revealed that the unfolding of the parental enzyme was irreversible on all the tested conditions, while that of the Cys235 mutants was reversible, and their ability to refold was highly dependent on the denaturing temperature. Mutants denatured at 75°C were able to efficiently reverse the unfolding to regain native structure during the cooling process. This study provided valid evidence that free cysteine substitutions can reduce irreversible thermal inactivation of proteins. PMID:26079173

  5. Can agricultural soils effectively remove legacy carbon from the atmosphere? Lessons from Australian long-term soil experiments. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Farquharson, R.

    2009-12-01

    One of the greatest changes that has occurred in soils during the Anthropocene is loss of organic matter due to agriculture. This loss has resulted in both large declines in soil fertility and large emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. On the billions of hectares in production, humans are likely the only agent that will significantly change this situation. From a theoretical standpoint, any management practice which results in greater carbon return to the soil, increased stabilisation of soil carbon, or a reduction in losses should lead to positive carbon sequestration rates. Indeed, Australian field trial evidence indicates that there was a relative gain in soil carbon between most conventional and improved-management treatments. However, when soil carbon stocks were followed through time, the majority of these same studies indicated that there was an actual decrease in the quantity of carbon stored in the soil even in the improved-management treatments. These seemingly contradictory results suggest that many agricultural soils may still be responding to initial land clearing and that many management improvements are just slowing the loss soil carbon. This reduction in rate of loss of soil carbon represents a real greenhouse gas abatement in the form of avoided emissions. However, the predictive power of results from most agronomic field trials to alternative situations where these management practices have been implemented is questionable without detailed knowledge of the state of the soil carbon in the systems being considered.

  6. Unblocking the Sink: Improved CID-Based Analysis of Phosphorylated Peptides by Enzymatic Removal of the Basic C-Terminal Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanucara, Francesco; Chi Hoo Lee, Dave; Eyers, Claire E.

    2013-12-01

    A one-step enzymatic reaction for improving the collision-induced dissociation (CID)-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of phosphorylated peptides in an ion trap is presented. Carboxypeptidase-B (CBP-B) was used to selectively remove C-terminal arginine or lysine residues from phosphorylated tryptic/Lys-C peptides prior to their MS/MS analysis by CID with a Paul-type ion trap. Removal of this basic C-terminal residue served to limit the extent of gas-phase neutral loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), favoring the formation of diagnostic b and y ions as determined by an increase in both the number and relative intensities of the sequence-specific product ions. Such differential fragmentation is particularly valuable when the H3PO4 elimination is so predominant that localizing the phosphorylation site on the peptide sequence is hindered. Improvement in the quality of tandem mass spectral data generated by CID upon CBP-B treatment resulted in greater confidence both in assignment of the phosphopeptide primary sequence and for pinpointing the site of phosphorylation. Higher Mascot ion scores were also generated, combined with lower expectation values and higher delta scores for improved confidence in site assignment; Ascore values also improved. These results are rationalized in accordance with the accepted mechanisms for the elimination of H3PO4 upon low energy CID and insights into the factors dictating the observed dissociation pathways are presented. We anticipate this approach will be of utility in the MS analysis of phosphorylated peptides, especially when alternative electron-driven fragmentation techniques are not available.

  7. Triosephosphate isomerase: removal of a putatively electrophilic histidine residue results in a subtle change in catalytic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Nickbarg, E.B.; Davenport, R.C.; Petsko, G.A.; Knowles, J.R.

    1988-08-09

    An important active-site residue in the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase is His-95, which appears to act as an electrophilic component in catalyzing the enolization of the substrates. With the techniques of site-directed mutagenesis, His-95 has been replaced by Gln in the isomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant isomerase has been expressed in Escherichia coli strain DF502 and purified to homogeneity. The specific catalytic activity of the mutant enzyme is less than that of wild type by a factor of nearly 400. The mutant enzyme can be resolved from the wild-type isomerase on nondenaturing isoelectric focusing gels, and an isomerase activity stain shows that the observed catalytic activity indeed derives from the mutant protein. The mutant enzyme shows the same stereospecificity of proton transfer as the wild type. Tritium exchange experiments similar to those used to define the free energy profile for the wild-type yeast isomerase, together with a new method of analysis involving /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H doubly labeled substrates, have been used to investigate the energetics of the mutant enzyme catalyzed reaction. The deuterium kinetic isotope effects observed with the mutant isomerase using (1(R)-/sup 2/H)dihydroxyacetone phosphate and (2-/sup 2/H)glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are 2.15 +/- 0.04 and 2.4 +/- 0.1, respectively. These results lead to the conclusion that substitution of Gln for His-95 so impairs the ability of the enzyme to stabilize the reaction intermediate that there is a change in the pathways of proton transfer mediated by the mutant enzyme.

  8. The impact of forest residue removal and wood ash amendment on the growth of the ectomycorrhizal external mycelium.

    PubMed

    Hagerberg, David; Wallander, Håkan

    2002-02-01

    Intensive harvesting of forest residues for energy production may lead to the depletion of organic matter and mineral nutrients in the forest floor. In order to restore nutrient content wood ash has been suggested as a fertiliser. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are involved in the nutrient uptake of forest trees and this study investigates the influence of intensive harvesting and wood ash fertilisation on the external EM mycelium in forest soil. Nylon mesh bags filled with sand were buried in September 1997 in field plots which had or had not been intensively harvested. The effect of wood ash on the production of external EM mycelium was studied in mesh bags amended with wood ash. Mesh bags were retrieved in May and October 1998. The relative amount of fungal mycelia in the mesh bags was estimated with phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The fungi colonising the mesh bags were mainly (>90%) ectomycorrhizal. Fungal biomass in the mesh bags was low in the spring but high in the autumn. No significant effect on EM fungal biomass was observed in the mesh bags collected from intensively harvested plots compared with those from control plots, but wood ash amendment resulted in 2.4 times more EM fungal biomass (P<0.05). The effect of external EM mycelium on the dissolution of wood ash was studied in mesh bags filled with wood ash, using mesh bags buried in soil isolated from roots as EM-free controls. The external EM mycelium had no effect on the dissolution rate of the wood ash. 80% of the potassium was lost from the wood ash within a month, whereas no phosphorus was lost during the experimental period (up to 13 months). PMID:19709193

  9. A Fluorescence-Guided Laser Ablation System for Removal of Residual Cancer in a Mouse Model of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazarides, Alexander L.; Whitley, Melodi J.; Strasfeld, David B.; Cardona, Diana M.; Ferrer, Jorge M.; Mueller, Jenna L.; Fu, Henry L.; DeWitt, Suzanne Bartholf; Brigman, Brian E.; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Kirsch, David G.; Eward, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) generally involves tumor excision with a wide margin. Although advances in fluorescence imaging make real-time detection of cancer possible, removal is limited by the precision of the human eye and hand. Here, we describe a novel pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation system that, when used in conjunction with a previously described molecular imaging system, can identify and ablate cancer in vivo. Mice with primary STS were injected with the protease-activatable probe LUM015 to label tumors. Resected tissues from the mice were then imaged and treated with the laser using the paired fluorescence-imaging/ laser ablation device, generating ablation clefts with sub-millimeter precision and minimal underlying tissue damage. Laser ablation was guided by fluorescence to target tumor tissues, avoiding normal structures. The selective ablation of tumor implants in vivo improved recurrence-free survival after tumor resection in a cohort of 14 mice compared to 12 mice that received no ablative therapy. This prototype system has the potential to be modified so that it can be used during surgery to improve recurrence-free survival in patients with cancer. PMID:26877775

  10. Batch sorption dynamics, kinetics and equilibrium studies of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous phase using agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Joginder; Khare, Rajshree; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Ali, Amjad

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the agricultural residues viz., Syzygium cumini and Populus deltoides leaves powder have been used for the biosorption of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM analysis of the biosorbents were performed to explore the type of functional groups available for metal binding and to study the surface morphology. Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration, and equilibrium contact time were studied. Thermodynamic studies were carried out and the results demonstrated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the biosorption process. The equilibrium data were tested using four isotherm models—Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich and the maximum biosorption capacities were evaluated. The Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models were applied to study the reaction kinetics with pseudo-second order model giving the best fit ( R 2 = 0.99) to the experimental data.

  11. Quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities with the use of ion-pairing reagents in LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyue; Riter, Leah S; Wujcik, Chad E; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities (RACs). Instead of analysis in the traditionally used negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, these anionic compounds were detected in positive ESI with the use of ion-pairing reagents. In this approach, only a small amount (60µM) of a commercially available dicationic ion-pairing reagent was introduced into the post-column sample stream. This method has been validated in six different types of RACs including corn grain, corn stover, cotton seed, soybean, soy forage and orange with satisfactory quantitative accuracy and precision. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) values for these analytes were 1.0 to 3.0µg/kg. The standard curves were linear over the range of the tested concentrations (3.0 to 500µg/kg), with correlation coefficient (r) values≥0.999. Evaluation of ionization effects in RAC matrix extracts using diluent blanks for comparison showed no significant matrix effects were present. PMID:26717820

  12. Production of versatile peroxidase from Pleurotus eryngii by solid-state fermentation using agricultural residues and evaluation of its catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Palma, C; Lloret, L; Sepúlveda, L; Contreras, E

    2016-01-01

    Interest in production of ligninolytic enzymes has been growing over recent years for their use in various applications such as recalcitrant pollutants bioremediation; specifically, versatile peroxidase (VP) presents a great potential due to its catalytic versatility. The proper selection of the fermentation mode and the culture medium should be an imperative to ensure a successful production by an economic and available medium that favors the process viability. VP was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Pleurotus eryngii, using the agricultural residue banana peel as growth medium; an enzymatic activity of 10,800 U L(-1) (36 U g(-1) of substrate) was detected after 18 days, whereas only 1800 U L(-1) was reached by conventional submerged fermentation (SF) with glucose-based medium. The kinetic parameters were determined by evaluating the H2O2 and Mn(2+) concentration effects on the Mn(3+)-tartrate complex formation. The results indicated that although the H2O2 inhibitory effect was observed for the enzyme produced by both media, the reaction rates for VP obtained by SSF were less impacted. This outcome suggests the presence of substances released from banana peel during the fermentation, which might exhibit a protective effect resulting in an improved kinetic behavior of the enzyme. PMID:26444982

  13. Quantifying Total and Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of biomass is considered the next major advance in biorenewable fuels, energy, and products. Wholesale conversion to biomass utilization could result in removal of current crop residues from agricultural fields or even implementation of different crops and cropping strategies (i.e., swit...

  14. Evaluation of an Adsorbent Based on Agricultural Waste (Corn Cobs) for Removal of Tyrosine and Phenylalanine from Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Cibele C. O.; Franca, Adriana S.; Oliveira, Leandro S.

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, is quite relevant for the production of protein hydrolysates used as dietary formulations for patients suffering from congenital disorders of amino acid metabolism, such as phenylketonuria. In this study, an adsorbent prepared from corn cobs was evaluated for the removal of tyrosine (Tyr) from both a single component solution and a binary aqueous solution with phenylalanine (Phe). The adsorption behavior of tyrosine was similar to that of phenylalanine in single component solutions, however, with a much lower adsorption capacity (14 mg g−1 for Tyr compared to 109 mg g−1 for Phe). Tyr adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by a pseudosecond-order model as it was for Phe. In adsorption equilibrium studies for binary mixtures, the presence of Tyr in Phe solutions favored Phe faster adsorption whereas the opposite behavior was observed for the presence of Phe in Tyr solutions. Such results indicate that, in binary systems, Phe will be adsorbed preferably to Tyr, and this is a welcome feature when employing the prepared adsorbent for the removal of Phe from protein hydrolysates to be used in dietary formulations for phenylketonuria treatment. PMID:23936863

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the removal of U(VI) by low cost agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Kausar, Abida; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; MacKinnon, Gillian

    2013-11-01

    In this research, biosorption efficiency of different agro-wastes was evaluated with rice husk showing maximum biosorption capacity among the selected biosorbents. Optimization of native, SDS-treated and immobilized rice husk adsorption parameters including pH, biosorbent amount, contact time, initial U(VI) concentration and temperature for maximum U(VI) removal was investigated. Maximum biosorption capacity for native (29.56 mg g(-1)) and immobilized biomass (17.59 mg g(-1)) was observed at pH 4 while SDS-treated biomass showed maximum removal (28.08 mg g(-1)) at pH 5. The Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlated best with the U(IV) biosorption equilibrium data for the 10-100 mg L(-1) concentration range. The kinetics of the reaction followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters like free energy (ΔG(0)) and enthalpy (ΔH°) confirmed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. Experiments to determine the regeneration capacity of the selected biosorbents and the effect of competing metal ions on biosorption capacity were also conducted. The biomass was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, surface area analysis, Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The study proved that rice husk has potential to treat uranium in wastewater. PMID:23787279

  16. Adsorptive removal of oil spill from oil-in-fresh water emulsions by hydrophobic alumina nanoparticles functionalized with petroleum vacuum residue.

    PubMed

    Franco, Camilo A; Cortés, Farid B; Nassar, Nashaat N

    2014-07-01

    Oil spills on fresh water can cause serious environmental and economic impacts onshore activities affecting those who exploit freshwater resources and grassland. Alumina nanoparticles functionalized with vacuum residue (VR) were used as a low-cost and high hydrophobic nanosorbents. The nanomaterial resulting showed high adsorption affinity and capacity of oil from oil-in-freshwater emulsion. The effects of the following variables on oil removal were investigated, namely: contact times, solution pH, initial oil concentrations, temperature, VR loadings and salinity. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption was fast and equilibrium was achieved in less than 30 min. The amount adsorbed of oil was higher for neutral system compared to acidic or basic medium. Increasing the VR loading on nanoparticle surface favored the adsorption. Results of this study showed that oil removal for all systems evaluated had better performance at pH value of 7 using nano-alumina functionalized with 4 wt% VR. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were evaluated using the Polanyi theory-based Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model, and pseudo-first and pseudo-second order-models, respectively. PMID:24776679

  17. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Work, Timothy T; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus(Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  18. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  19. Characterization of biochars derived from agriculture wastes and their adsorptive removal of atrazine from aqueous solution: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Charrua, Alberto Bento; Weng, Chih-Huang; Yuan, Xiaoling; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of biochars produced from soybeans (SBB), corn stalks (CSB), rice stalks (RSB), poultry manure (PMB), cattle manure (CMB), and pig manure (PgMB) and their adsorption characteristics of atrazine were investigated. The adsorption capacity increased with the increase of temperature and initial atrazine concentration. More atrazine was removed from basic solutions than acidic solutions, due to the effects of adsorption and hydrolysis. The Freundlich isotherm adsorption parameters indicated that the adsorption capacity decreased in the order SBB>RSB>CMB>CSB>PMB>PgMB, which is associated to the pore volume of biochars. The total pore volume and biochar pH were concluded to play important roles in determining the adsorption capacity, and they may have contributed to physical adsorption mechanisms dominating the overall adsorption process (the low activation energy for all of the biochars). Modified Freundlich and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetics of the adsorption process. PMID:26364228

  20. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    benzene and ensure compliance with the NAAQS. Calculations of excessive lifetime cancer risk due to benzene amount to 25 and 10 per million inhabitants for children and adults, respectively, exceeding the USEPA threshold of 1 per million inhabitants. Annual exposure to isocyanic acid was close to 1 ppb, the concentration considered to be sufficient to enhance risks for cardiovascular diseases and cataracts. This study makes a case for urgent mitigation of post-harvest paddy residue fires as the unknown synergistic effect of multi-pollutant exposure due to emissions from this anthropogenic source may be posing grave health risks to the population of the N.W. IGP. This work has been published very recently and the citation to the complete work is: B.P. Chandra, Vinayak Sinha, Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide, Environment International, Volume 88, March 2016, Pages 187-197, ISSN 0160-4120, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.025.

  1. Adsorptive removal of dye using biochar derived from residual algae after in-situ transesterification: Alternate use of waste of biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Piyushi; Subramanian, K A; Dastidar, M G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this present study was to utilize the residual biomass (DB) of Spirulina platensis algae, left after in-situ transesterification, for biochar preparation. This is a solid waste residue of biodiesel industry. The biochar (BC) prepared was examined for its capacity to adsorb congo red dye from the aqueous solution. The results were compared with other adsorbents used in the study such as commercial activated carbon (AC), original algae biomass (AB) and DB. The results of proximate analysis of BC showed the decrease in the percentage of volatile matter and an increase in fixed carbon content compared to DB. The physico-chemical properties of BC were studied using elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The AC and BC adsorbents showed better performance in removing 85.4% and 82.6% of dye respectively from solution compared to AB (76.6%) and DB (78.1%). The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution on the adsorption phenomena was studied by conducting the batch adsorption experiments. The highest specific uptake for biochar was observed at acidic pH of 2 with 0.2 g/100 ml of adsorbent dosage and 90 mg/l of initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to three isotherms, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Freundlich model proved to show the best suited results with value of correlation coefficient of 99.12%. Thus, the application of DB for production of biochar as potential adsorbent supports sustainability of algae biodiesel. PMID:27474901

  2. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    PubMed

    Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-04-15

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. The treatment process achieved 3.5 logs removal of heterotrophic bacteria and up to 3.5 logs removal of fecal coliforms. The final chlorinated effluent had 1.8 × 10(2) MPN/100 mL of fecal coliforms and fulfils the required quality for restricted irrigation. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus) were detected at relative abundance ranging from 0.014 to 21 % of the total microbial community in the influent. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the highest approximated cell number in the influent but decreased to less than 30 cells/100 mL in both types of effluent. A culture-based approach further revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mainly found in the influent and non-chlorinated effluent but was replaced by other Pseudomonas spp. in the chlorinated effluent. Aeromonas hydrophila could still be recovered in the chlorinated effluent. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) determined that only chlorinated effluent should be permitted for use in agricultural irrigation as it achieved an acceptable annual microbial risk lower than 10(-4) arising from both P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila. However, the proportion of bacterial isolates resistant to 6 types of antibiotics increased from 3.8% in the influent to 6.9% in the chlorinated effluent. Examples of these antibiotic-resistant isolates in the chlorinated effluent include Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. Besides the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates, tetracycline resistance genes tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetH, tetZ were also present at an average 2.5 × 10(2), 1.6 × 10

  3. Cellulase production from agricultural residues by recombinant fusant strain of a fungal endophyte of the marine sponge Latrunculia corticata for production of ethanol.

    PubMed

    El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; El-Gendy, Mervat M A

    2012-02-01

    Several fungal endophytes of the Egyptian marine sponge Latrunculia corticata were isolated, including strains Trichoderma sp. Merv6, Penicillium sp. Merv2 and Aspergillus sp. Merv70. These fungi exhibited high cellulase activity using different lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentations (SSF). By applying mutagenesis and intergeneric protoplast fusion, we have obtained a recombinant strain (Tahrir-25) that overproduced cellulases (exo-β-1,4-glucanase, endo-β-1,4-glucanase and β-1,4-glucosidase) that facilitated complete cellulolysis of agricultural residues. The process parameters for cellulase production by strain Tahrir-25 were optimized in SSF. The highest cellulase recovery from fermentation slurries was achieved with 0.2% Tween 80 as leaching agent. Enzyme production was optimized under the following conditions: initial moisture content of 60% (v/w), inoculum size of 10(6) spores ml(-1), average substrate particle size of 1.0 mm, mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corncob (2:1) as the carbon source supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and corn steep solids, fermentation time of 7 days, medium pH of 5.5 at 30°C. These optimized conditions yielded 450, 191, and 225 units/gram dry substrate (U gds(-1)) of carboxylmethyl cellulase, filter-paperase (FPase), and β-glucosidase, respectively. Subsequent fermentation by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRC2, using lignocellulose hydrolysates obtained from the optimized cellulase process produced the highest amount of ethanol (58 g l(-1)). This study has revealed the potential of exploiting marine fungi for cost-effective production of cellulases for second generation bioethanol processes. PMID:21898149

  4. Agricultural policies and biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaim, S.; Hertzmark, D.

    The potentials for biomass energy derived from agricultural products are examined. The production of energy feedstocks from grains is discussed for the example of ethanol production from grain, with consideration given to the beverage process and the wet milling process for obtaining fuel ethanol from grains and sugars, the nonfeedstock costs and energy requirements for ethanol production, the potential net energy gain from ethanol fermentation, the effect of ethanol fuel production on supplies of protein, oils and feed and of ethanol coproducts, net ethanol costs, and alternatives to corn as an ethanol feedstock. Biomass fuel production from crop residues is then considered; the constraints of soil fertility on crop residue removal for energy production are reviewed, residue yields with conventional practices and with reduced tillage are determined, technologies for the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol and methanol are described, and potential markets for the products of these processes are identified. Implications for agricultural policy of ethanol production from grain and fuel and chemical production from crop residues are also discussed.

  5. Development of a soil bioassay for triclopyr residues and comparison with a laboratory extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of triclopyr ((3, 5, 6 trichloro-2-pyridinyl) oxy) acetic acid for the removal of woody and broad-leaf vegetation in right-of-ways and agricultural settings has been proposed in Alaska. Concentrations of triclopyr in soil after application are of concern because its residues may affect growt...

  6. The efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File versus WaveOne in removal of root filling residue that remains in oval canals after the use of ProTaper retreatment files: A cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Ajinkya M; Thakur, Bhagyashree; Metzger, Zvi; Kfir, Anda; Pawar, Mansing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current ex vivo study compared the efficacy of removing root fillings using ProTaper retreatment files followed by either WaveOne reciprocating file or the Self-Adjusting File (SAF). Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary canines with single oval root canal were selected and sectioned to obtain 18-mm root segments. The root canals were instrumented with WaveOne primary files, followed by obturation using warm lateral compaction, and the sealer was allowed to fully set. The teeth were then divided into two equal groups (N = 20). Initial removal of the bulk of root filling material was performed with ProTaper retreatment files, followed by either WaveOne files (Group 1) or SAF (Group 2). Endosolv R was used as a gutta-percha softener. Preoperative and postoperative high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the volume of the root filling residue that was left after the procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results: The mean volume of root filling residue in Group 1 was 9.4 (±0.5) mm3, whereas in Group 2 the residue volume was 2.6 (±0.4) mm3, (P < 0.001; t-test). Conclusions: When SAF was used after ProTaper retreatment files, significantly less root filling residue was left in the canals compared to when WaveOne was used. PMID:26957798

  7. Quantifying Total and Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources in South Dakota – A Preliminary Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of biomass is considered the next major advance in biorenewable fuels, energy, and products. Wholesale conversion to biomass utilization could result in removal of current crop residues from agricultural fields or even implementation of different crops and cropping strategies (i.e., swit...

  8. Predicting agricultural management influence on long-term soil organic carbon dynamics: implications for biofuel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term field experiments (LTE) are ideal for predicting the influence of agricultural management on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and examining biofuel crop residue removal policy questions. Our objectives were (i) to simulate SOC dynamics in LTE soils under various climates, crop rotations,...

  9. [Determination of Butroxydim in Agricultural Products by LC-MS].

    PubMed

    Minatani, Tomiaki; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Tada, Hiroyuki; Goto, Kotaro; Nemoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of butroxydim in agricultural products by LC-MS was developed. Butroxydim was extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot of the crude extract was cleaned up on an octadecyl silanized silica gel (C18) cartridge column (1,000 mg), followed by a salting-out step to remove water. Before purification on a silica gel (SI) cartridge column (690 mg), polar matrices were precipitated by adding ethyl acetate, n-hexane and anhydrous sodium sulfate successively. This process effectively removed caffeine and catechins and improved recovery when analyzing residual butroxydim in tea leaves. Recovery and repeatability were good; the relative standard deviations were less than 5% for all 12 tested agricultural products (brown rice, soybean, potato, spinach, cabbage, apple, orange, grapefruit, lemon, tomato, peas with pods, and tea). Average recoveries for 11 agricultural products, except for lemon, were 74-92%. PMID:26699270

  10. Cropping systems with corn residue production levels sufficient to maintain or even improve soil organic carbon levels and allow partial removal for biofuel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing energy demands and prices, declining petroleum reserves, and political instability in oil-rich areas of the world, all call for greater use of domestically produced biofuels. Recent reports concluded that US agriculture and forest lands have the capacity to produce immense amounts of plan...

  11. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Removal of Residual Elements in The Steel Ladle by a Combination of Top Slag and Deep Injection Practice

    SciTech Connect

    S. Street; K.S. Coley; G.A. Iron

    2001-08-31

    The objective of this work was to determine if tin could be removed from liquid steel by a combination of deep injection of calcium and a reducing top-slag practice. The work was carried out in three stages: injection of Ca wire into 35 Kg heats in an induction furnace under laboratory condition; a fundamental study of the solubility of Sn in the slag as a function of oxygen potential, temperature and slag composition; and, two full-scale plant trials. During the first stage, it was found that 7 to 50% of the Sn was removed from initial Sn contents of 0.1%, using 8 to 16 Kg of calcium per tonne of steel. The Sn solubility study suggested that low oxygen potential, high basicity of the slag and lower temperature would aid Sn removal by deep injection of Ca in the bath. However, two full-scale trials at the LMF station in Dofasco's plant showed virtually no Sn removal, mainly because of very low Ca consumption rates used (0.5 to 1.1 Kg/tonne vs. 8 to 16 Kg/tonne used during the induction furnace study in the laboratory). Based on the current price of Ca, addition of 8 to 16 Kg/tonne of steel to remove Sn is too cost prohibitive, and therefore, it is not worthwhile to pursue this process further, even though it may be technically feasible.

  12. Australian farmed Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Mulloway (Argyrosomus hololepidotus): residues of metallic, agricultural and veterinary chemicals, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Padula, David J; Madigan, Thomas L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2012-02-01

    Composite samples of Australian farmed Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) (YTKF) (n=27), Mulloway (Argyrosomus hololepidotus) (n=6) and manufactured feed (n=5) were analysed to benchmark levels of a broad range of residues and contaminants of potential public health and trade significance. A subset of these samples [YTKF (n=5), Mulloway (n=2) and feed (n=5)] was analysed for dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The mean concentration of dioxins in YTKF was 0.6 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.22-0.8) and in Mulloway was 0.16 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.16-0.16). The mean concentration of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in YTKF was 2.6 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 1.4-3.5), while Mulloway had a mean concentration of 0.67 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.57-0.76). The mean concentration of PCBs in YTKF was 21 μg kg(-1) (range 8.6-29) and in Mulloway was 5.4 μg kg(-1) (mean 4.7-6). The mean concentration of dioxin-like PCBs in YTKF was 2.1 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 1.2-2.8) and in Mulloway was 0.51 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.41-0.61). The mean mercury concentration in YTKF was 0.03 mg kg(-1) (range 0.02-0.05) and in Mulloway it was 0.02 mg kg(-1) (range 0.02-0.04). There were no detectable levels of any pesticide or antimicrobial compounds in any sample of YTKF or Mulloway. Attention is drawn to technical differences in port of entry testing programs such as sampling strategies, portion tested, laboratory methodology, residue definitions and reporting conventions that exporters' products may be subject to. All residues and contaminants were either undetectable or present at very low levels when judged against Australian, Japanese and European Union regulatory standards (where set). PMID:22142628

  13. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment plant system and laboratory-scale micelle-clay filtration for the removal of ibuprofen residues.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Samer; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Khamis, Mustafa; Zimmerman, Dikla; Shuali, Uri; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of Al-Quds Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP), which includes sequential elements as activated sludge, ultrafiltration, activated carbon column and reverse osmosis, to remove spiked ibuprofen, a non steroid anti inflammatory drug (NSAID), was investigated. Kinetic studies in pure water and in the activated sludge indicated that the drug was stable during one month of observation. Besides, the overall performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of ibuprofen from wastewater. Activated carbon column, which was the last element in the sequence before the reverse osmosis system, yielded 95.7% removal of ibuprofen. Batch adsorptions of the drug by using either activated charcoal or composite micelle-clay system were determined at 25°C and well described by Langmuir isotherms. Octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) bromide and montmorillonite were used to prepare the micelle-clay adsorbent, for which the adsorption kinetics are much faster than activated charcoal. Results suggest that integrating clay-micelle complex filters within the existing WWTP may be promising in improving removal efficiency of the NSAID. PMID:23688232

  14. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes and Antibiotic Residues in Wastewater and Soil Adjacent to Swine Feedlots: Potential Transfer to Agricultural Lands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Wang, Thanh; Shao, Bing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Shaochen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in swine feed could cause accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance genes, and agricultural application of swine waste could spread antibiotic resistance genes to the surrounding environment. Objectives: We investigated the distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes from swine feedlots and their surrounding environment. Methods: We used a culture-independent method to identify PMQR genes and estimate their levels in wastewater from seven swine feedlot operations and corresponding wastewater-irrigated farm fields. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater and soil samples were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The predominant PMQR genes in both the wastewater and soil samples were qnrD, qepA, and oqxB, whereas qnrS and oqxA were present only in wastewater samples. Absolute concentrations of all PMQR genes combined ranged from 1.66 × 107 to 4.06 × 108 copies/mL in wastewater and 4.06 × 106 to 9.52 × 107 copies/g in soil. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones ranged from 4.57 to 321 ng/mL in wastewater and below detection limit to 23.4 ng/g in soil. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of PMQR genes and (fluoro)quinolone concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.005) and the relative abundance of PMQR genes in paired wastewater and agricultural soil samples (r = 0.91, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Swine feedlot wastewater may be a source of PMQR genes that could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in animal husbandry environments using a culture-independent method. PMID:22569244

  15. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  16. Removal of terminal alpha-galactosyl residues from xenogeneic porcine endothelial cells. Decrease in complement-mediated cytotoxicity but persistence of IgG1-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Watier, H; Guillaumin, J M; Piller, F; Lacord, M; Thibault, G; Lebranchu, Y; Monsigny, M; Bardos, P

    1996-07-15

    To determine the role of the terminal alpha-galactosyl residue in the endothelial damage mediated by human xenoreactive natural antibodies (IgM and IgG), we treated porcine endothelial cells in culture with green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase. A practically complete removal of terminal alpha-Gal residues (as evaluated by flow cytometry with Bandeiraea simplicifolia isolectin B4) and concomitant exposure of N-acetyllactosamine were obtained without altering cell viability. A dramatic decrease in IgM and IgG binding (from a pool of human sera) was observed, confirming the key role of the alpha-galactosyl residues. The enzyme treatment did not induce any nonspecific immunoglobulin binding sites, but led to the exposure of new epitopes for a minor fraction of IgM. The main residual IgM and IgG binding could be due to xenoantigens other than the alpha-galactosyl residues. When alpha-galactosidase-treated endothelial cells were used as targets in cytotoxicity experiments, they were less susceptible than untreated cells to complement-mediated cytotoxicity induced by fresh human serum. In contrast, they did not acquire resistance to human IgG-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, despite the decrease in IgG binding. Because it is known that antibody-dependent cytotoxicity mediated by CD16+ NK cells is dependent on IgG1 and IgG3, and not on IgG2 or IgG4, which was confirmed by blocking experiments, we studied the binding of all four subclasses to intact and alpha-galactosidase-treated endothelial cells. Two major subclasses, IgG1 and IgG2, bound to untreated endothelial cells, whereas IgG3 binding was low and IgG4 binding was negligible. A decrease in IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 binding was observed upon alpha-galactosidase treatment, indicating that antibodies belonging to these three subclasses recognize alpha-galactosyl residues. The decrease in IgG2 binding was more pronounced than the decrease in IgG1 binding. Collectively, these data indicate that IgG1 xenoreactive natural

  17. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Chandra, B P; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-03-01

    In the north west Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r≥0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62±0.18ppb), benzene (2.51±0.28ppb), toluene (3.72±0.41ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88±0.30ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55±0.19ppb) and CO (552±113ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97±0.17ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of benzene and ensure

  18. Optimized rinsing procedures for enhancing removal of residues of highly viscous and colored substances in the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay.

    PubMed

    Plodíková, Petra; Pouzar, Miloslav; Rösslerová, Zdeňka; Prokopcová, Jana

    2015-10-01

    Two modifications of the rinsing procedure within the BCOP assay were proposed. Their ability to enhance the removal efficiency of highly viscous and colored samples was compared with an unmodified BCOP procedure (TG OECD 437). The first modification consisted of three-step washing of the applied chemicals from the cornea using Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM), olive oil and EMEM, while the classical OECD TG 437 procedure prescribes only EMEM. Within the second modification, mechanical removal of the tested sample from the cornea surface prior to the two step washing procedure was performed. The in vitro irritation score (IVIS) exceeded the value of 55 for 9 out of 20 samples when a non-modified rinsing procedure was used. The first modification with the olive oil resulted in a decrease in IVIS for numerous samples, while an IVIS score drop below the threshold value of 55 was only observed for two of them. Mechanical removal of sample residua resulted in a further decline in the measured IVIS. Only the three samples treated by means of this procedure revealed an IVIS above 55. The decreases in IVIS observed during both modifications were mainly related to the reduced opacity, whereas the permeability mostly remained unaffected. PMID:26028145

  19. 7 CFR 1280.209 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal. 1280.209 Section 1280.209 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Board § 1280.209 Removal. If the Secretary determines that any person appointed under this part fails...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.213 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal. 1260.213 Section 1260.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.213 Removal. If any person appointed under this part...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.26 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal. 1215.26 Section 1215.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Removal. If a member of the Board consistently refuses to perform the duties of a member of the Board,...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.213 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal. 1260.213 Section 1260.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.213 Removal. If any person appointed under this part...

  3. 7 CFR 63.108 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal. 63.108 Section 63.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections... CENTER General Provisions Board of Directors § 63.108 Removal. If the Secretary determines that...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.209 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal. 1280.209 Section 1280.209 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Board § 1280.209 Removal. If the Secretary determines that any person appointed under this part fails...

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Removal from flue gas and distribution in ash/residue of a refuse-derived fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford), performance data on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustor and its lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (FGC) system were obtained under good, intermediate, and poor combustor operation and high, normal, and low sulfur dioxide (SO2) control by the FGC system. The independent combustion system variables included steam load, air supply rate, and its distribution. For the FGC system, the outlet gas temperature from the spray dryer absorber served as an easily measurable surrogate for the approach to saturation temperature, while SO2 concentration in the flue gas at the fabric filter outlet continuously represented the lime stoichiometry. Test data included acid gas, trace organic, trace metal, and particulate concentrations, as well as material collection for the determination of ash/residue composition and production rates. In addition, process data and RDF feed and ash/residue generation rates were obtained. Correlations between combustion conditions and furnace emission of organic pollutants are presented.

  6. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  7. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  8. CROP-RESIDUE MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our agricultural production system is under increasing pressure to provide low cost, high quality food, fiber and biofuels while maintaining and preserving the environment. Increased interest in crop residues for production system sustainability is related to the recognition that the soil, water and...

  9. Phylogenetic and Multivariate Analyses To Determine the Effects of Different Tillage and Residue Management Practices on Soil Bacterial Communities▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N.; Patiño-Zúñiga, Leonardo; Vila-Sanjurjo, Antón; Crossa, José; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities are important not only in the cycling of organic compounds but also in maintaining ecosystems. Specific bacterial groups can be affected as a result of changes in environmental conditions caused by human activities, such as agricultural practices. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of different forms of tillage and residue management on soil bacterial communities by using phylogenetic and multivariate analyses. Treatments involving zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) with their respective combinations of residue management, i.e., removed residue (−R) and kept residue (+R), and maize/wheat rotation, were selected from a long-term field trial started in 1991. Analysis of bacterial diversity showed that soils under zero tillage and crop residue retention (ZT/+R) had the highest levels of diversity and richness. Multivariate analysis showed that beneficial bacterial groups such as fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderiales were favored by residue retention (ZT/+R and CT/+R) and negatively affected by residue removal (ZT/−R). Zero-tillage treatments (ZT/+R and ZT/−R) had a positive effect on the Rhizobiales group, with its main representatives related to Methylosinus spp. known as methane-oxidizing bacteria. It can be concluded that practices that include reduced tillage and crop residue retention can be adopted as safer agricultural practices to preserve and improve the diversity of soil bacterial communities. PMID:20382808

  10. Phylogenetic and multivariate analyses to determine the effects of different tillage and residue management practices on soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Patiño-Zúñiga, Leonardo; Vila-Sanjurjo, Antón; Crossa, José; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial communities are important not only in the cycling of organic compounds but also in maintaining ecosystems. Specific bacterial groups can be affected as a result of changes in environmental conditions caused by human activities, such as agricultural practices. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of different forms of tillage and residue management on soil bacterial communities by using phylogenetic and multivariate analyses. Treatments involving zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) with their respective combinations of residue management, i.e., removed residue (-R) and kept residue (+R), and maize/wheat rotation, were selected from a long-term field trial started in 1991. Analysis of bacterial diversity showed that soils under zero tillage and crop residue retention (ZT/+R) had the highest levels of diversity and richness. Multivariate analysis showed that beneficial bacterial groups such as fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and Burkholderiales were favored by residue retention (ZT/+R and CT/+R) and negatively affected by residue removal (ZT/-R). Zero-tillage treatments (ZT/+R and ZT/-R) had a positive effect on the Rhizobiales group, with its main representatives related to Methylosinus spp. known as methane-oxidizing bacteria. It can be concluded that practices that include reduced tillage and crop residue retention can be adopted as safer agricultural practices to preserve and improve the diversity of soil bacterial communities. PMID:20382808

  11. Chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and transfers during duck pellet feed processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wei, Wei; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agricultural crops (including food) and animal feeds in China, resulting in heavy contamination. Many studies have focused on the food-processing effects on chlorpyrifos removal, but sufficient information is not observed for feed-processing steps. Here, chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and its transfers in duck pellet feed-processing steps were evaluated. In field trials, the highest residues for rice grain, shelled corn, and soybean seed were 12.0, 0.605, and 0.220 mg/kg, respectively. Residues of all rice grain and about half of shelled corn exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China, and five soybean seeds exceeded the MRL of China. Chlorpyrifos residue was reduced 38.2% in brown rice after the raw rice grain was hulled. The residue in bran increased 71.2% after milling from brown rice. During the squashing step, the residue reduced 73.8% in soybean meal. The residues reduced significantly (23.7-36.8%) during the process of granulating for rice, maize, and soybean products. Comparatively, the grinding process showed only limited influence on chlorpyrifos removal (<10%). The residues of duck pellet feeds produced from highly contaminated raw materials of this study were 1.01 mg/kg (maize-soybean feed) and 3.20 mg/kg (rice-soybean feed), which were much higher than the generally accepted value (>0.1 mg/kg) for animal feeding. Chlorpyrifos residues were removed significantly by processing steps of pellet feeds, but the residue of raw materials was the determining factor for the safety of duck feeding. PMID:25310710

  12. Genomic Prediction Accounting for Residual Heteroskedasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhining; Tempelman, Robert J.; Steibel, Juan P.; Ernst, Catherine W.; Bates, Ronald O.; Bello, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome prediction (WGP) models that use single-nucleotide polymorphism marker information to predict genetic merit of animals and plants typically assume homogeneous residual variance. However, variability is often heterogeneous across agricultural production systems and may subsequently bias WGP-based inferences. This study extends classical WGP models based on normality, heavy-tailed specifications and variable selection to explicitly account for environmentally-driven residual heteroskedasticity under a hierarchical Bayesian mixed-models framework. WGP models assuming homogeneous or heterogeneous residual variances were fitted to training data generated under simulation scenarios reflecting a gradient of increasing heteroskedasticity. Model fit was based on pseudo-Bayes factors and also on prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values computed on a validation data subset one generation removed from the simulated training dataset. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous residual variance WGP models were also fitted to two quantitative traits, namely 45-min postmortem carcass temperature and loin muscle pH, recorded in a swine resource population dataset prescreened for high and mild residual heteroskedasticity, respectively. Fit of competing WGP models was compared using pseudo-Bayes factors. Predictive ability, defined as the correlation between predicted and observed phenotypes in validation sets of a five-fold cross-validation was also computed. Heteroskedastic error WGP models showed improved model fit and enhanced prediction accuracy compared to homoskedastic error WGP models although the magnitude of the improvement was small (less than two percentage points net gain in prediction accuracy). Nevertheless, accounting for residual heteroskedasticity did improve accuracy of selection, especially on individuals of extreme genetic merit. PMID:26564950

  13. Alternative energy sources for agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.

    1981-05-01

    The following energy systems are discussed as alternative sources of energy for agriculture and potential demonstration projects in vocational agriculture programs: solar water heating, solar greenhouse heating, solar crop drying, gasification of wood or crop residues, and methane generation from livestock wastes. 13 references.

  14. Sustainable nanomaterials using waste agricultural residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. Learning from nature, one can produce a wide variety of nanoparticles using completely safe and benign materials such as ...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.106 - Paint removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Paint removers. 3201.106 Section 3201.106 Agriculture... Items § 3201.106 Paint removers. (a) Definition. Products formulated to loosen and remove paint from painted surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  16. Crop Residues: The Rest of the Story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent scientific publication stated that to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, the most permanent and rapid solution would be to sink crop residues to the ocean floor where they would be buried in deep ocean sediments. However, mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations by removing crop residu...

  17. Sensor needs for agricultural and carbon management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a wide variety of sensors and platforms available for agricultural and carbon management. Two areas of concern are monitoring plant nutrients and crop residue over agricultural watersheds. Excess plant nutrients and agricultural chemicals may runoff into the water supply, degrading water ...

  18. Sustainable residue removal for energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (organi...

  19. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  20. Management of post-harvest residue blanket

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely and effective residue management is essential for maximum sugar yields. Several studies were implemented in 2003 and harvested in 2004 in an effort to increase the effectiveness of residue management practices. Six studies were conducted to determine the effect of residue removal timing a...

  1. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  2. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Derzon, Dora K.; Nelson, Jill S.; Rand, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  3. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  4. How do soil quality indicators (SOC and nutrients) change with long-term different crop residue management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Heide; Lehtinen, Taru; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Leaving the crop residues (cereal grain straw, maize stover, sugar beet leaves) on the field may enhance SOC and soil nutrient contents (e.g. P, K, Mg). In contrast, harvesting crop residues for livestock bedding or energy production are often connected with a loss of soil fertility (Lehtinen et al., 2014). We have evaluated the effects of different management of crop residues on selected soil parameters of the upper soil (0-25 cm) in two long-term field experiments in Austria focused on P-dynamics (Marchfeld, since 1982 and Alpenvorland, since 1986). In four P-fertilisation stages (0, 75, 150, 300 kg P2O5 ha‑1y‑1) all crop residues were incorporated in one treatment and all removed in the other one, respectively. The results show that the effects are different at the two investigated sites. At the site Marchfeld, a medium textured soil, on average SOC was significantly higher with the incorporation of crop residues (21.6 g kg‑1) compared to the removal (19.9 g kg‑1) after 32 years. In the long run, SOC levels could be maintained, if crop residues remained at the field, whereas the constant removal of crop residues resulted in a SOC decline. At the site Alpenvorland, SOC was only slightly higher with the incorporation of the crop residues after 28 years. In this case, in the long run, even with this management practice and, moreover, with the residue removal, SOC tended to decrease generally. At the Marchfeld, crop residue incorporation resulted in a significant increase of "plant available" phosphorus (P-CAL) only with very high P fertilization. However, "plant available" Mg (according to Schachtschabel) and potassium (K-CAL) were significantly higher in all P fertilisation stages compared to the residue removal treatments. At the site Alpenvorland, the soils are rich in silt and clay and with long-term incorporation of crop residues a significant increase only of „plant available" K of about 50% occurred. This indicates the necessity of taking into

  5. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  10. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  11. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  12. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  13. Agricultural chemicals in groundwater of the midwestern United States: Relations to land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the relations between land use and concentrations of selected agricultural chemicals (nitrate, atrazine residue [atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deethylatrazinc (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine)], and alachlor residue [alachlor, [2-chloro-2′,6′-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide] + alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (alachlor-ESA; 2-[(2,6-diethylphenyl)(methoxymethyl)amino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid)] in groundwater, detailed land use information based on accurate measurements from aerial photographs for the 1991 growing season was obtained within a 2-km radius surrounding 100 wells completed in near-surface unconsolidated aquifers in the midwestern USA. The most significant land use factors to the agricultural chemicals examined were: nitrate (amount of irrigated crop production, positive relation), atrazine residue (amount of irrigated crop production, positive relation), and alachlor residue (amount of highly erodible land, inverse relation). The investigation of smaller buffer sizes (size of circular area around sampled wells) proved insightful for this study. Additional land use factors having significant relations to all three agricultural chemicals were identified using these smaller buffer radii. The most significant correlations (correlation maxima) generally occurred at ≤500-m for nitrate and ≥1000-m for atrazine residue and alachlor residue. An attempt to improve the statistical relations to land use by taking hydrologic considerations into account (removing land outside the estimated most probable recharge area from the statistical analysis) was not as successful as anticipated. Only 45% of the nitrate, 32% of the atrazine residue, and 20% of the alachlor residue correlations were improved by a consideration of the estimated most probable recharge area.

  14. Assessment of Spectral Indices for Crop Residue Cover Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantification of surficial crop residue (non-photosynthetic vegetation) cover is important for assessing agricultural tillage practices, rangeland health, and brush fire hazards. The Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI) and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI) are two...

  15. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  16. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  17. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... This does not cause problems most of the time. Alternative Names Adenoidectomy; Removal of adenoid glands Images Adenoid removal - series References Wetmore RF. Tonsils and adenoids. In: Kliegman ...

  18. Environmental Implications of Biomass Removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass removal from the soil surface after harvest or as the harvest operation and then sued for energy production offers the potential for a significant energy resource. There are challenges that arise with biomass removal in cropping systems in which the crop residue has remained on the soil sur...

  19. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  1. 7 CFR 917.30 - Removal and disapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal and disapproval. 917.30 Section 917.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  2. 7 CFR 917.30 - Removal and disapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal and disapproval. 917.30 Section 917.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  3. 7 CFR 917.30 - Removal and disapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal and disapproval. 917.30 Section 917.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  4. 7 CFR 917.30 - Removal and disapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal and disapproval. 917.30 Section 917.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  5. 7 CFR 917.30 - Removal and disapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal and disapproval. 917.30 Section 917.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  6. 7 CFR 989.24 - Standard raisins, off-grade raisins, other failing raisins, and raisin residual material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES... raisins. (d) Raisin residual material means defective raisins, stemmer waste, sweepings, and other...

  7. 7 CFR 989.24 - Standard raisins, off-grade raisins, other failing raisins, and raisin residual material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... raisins. (d) Raisin residual material means defective raisins, stemmer waste, sweepings, and other...

  8. 7 CFR 989.24 - Standard raisins, off-grade raisins, other failing raisins, and raisin residual material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... raisins. (d) Raisin residual material means defective raisins, stemmer waste, sweepings, and other...

  9. 7 CFR 989.24 - Standard raisins, off-grade raisins, other failing raisins, and raisin residual material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... raisins. (d) Raisin residual material means defective raisins, stemmer waste, sweepings, and other...

  10. 7 CFR 989.24 - Standard raisins, off-grade raisins, other failing raisins, and raisin residual material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES... raisins. (d) Raisin residual material means defective raisins, stemmer waste, sweepings, and other...

  11. Residue management: Back to the roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addressing the issues of climate change and sustainable biomass feedstocks have soil as a common theme. Managing crop residues is directly related to soil management. Understanding how soil and crop residue management interact provides insight on how to assure agricultural soil can serve as a carbon...

  12. Crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues [e.g., corn (Zea mays) stover and small grain straw] are sometimes excluded when discussing cellulosic energy crops per se, but because of the vast area upon which they are grown and their current role in the development of cellulosic energy systems. This chapter focuses on current cor...

  13. Predicting Agricultural Management Influence on Long-Term Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implications for Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gollany, H. T.; Rickman, R. W.; Albrecht, S. L.; Liang, Y.; Kang, Shujiang; Machado, S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term field experiments (LTE) are ideal for predicting the influence of agricultural management on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and examining biofuel crop residue removal policy questions. Our objectives were (i) to simulate SOC dynamics in LTE soils under various climates, crop rotations, fertilizer or organic amendments, and crop residue managements using the CQESTR model and (ii) to predict the potential of no-tillage (NT) management to maintain SOC stocks while removing crop residue. Classical LTEs at Champaign, IL (1876), Columbia, MO (1888), Lethbridge, AB (1911), Breton, AB (1930), and Pendleton, OR (1931) were selected for their documented history of management practice and periodic soil organic matter (SOM) measurements. Management practices ranged from monoculture to 2- or 3-yr crop rotations, manure, no fertilizer or fertilizer additions, and crop residue returned, burned, or harvested. Measured and CQESTR predicted SOC stocks under diverse agronomic practices, mean annual temperature (2.1 19 C), precipitation (402 973 mm), and SOC (5.89 33.58 g SOC kg 1) at the LTE sites were significantly related (r 2 = 0.94, n = 186, P < 0.0001) with a slope not significantly different than 1. The simulation results indicated that the quantities of crop residue that can be sustainably harvested without jeopardizing SOC stocks were influenced by initial SOC stocks, crop rotation intensity, tillage practices, crop yield, and climate. Manure or a cover crop/intensified crop rotation under NT are options to mitigate loss of crop residue C, as using fertilizer alone is insufficient to overcome residue removal impact on SOC stocks

  14. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  15. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  16. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  18. Influence of Physical Habitat and Agricultural Contaminants on Fishes within Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are used within agricultural watersheds for the removal of excess water from agricultural fields. These headwater streams have been constructed or modified so they possess an enlarged trapezoidal cross-section, straightened channels, and riparian zones lacking woody veg...

  19. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgical cut is located. Recovery after a laparoscopic procedure is most often quicker, with less pain. Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is most often good when a single kidney is removed. If both kidneys are removed, ...

  20. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  1. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  2. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  3. The residual caries dilemma.

    PubMed

    Weerheijm, K L; Groen, H J

    1999-12-01

    Restorative dentistry is based on the assumption that bacterial infection of demineralized dentine should prompt operative intervention. One of the concepts of practical dentistry is to create a favourable environment for caries arrest with minimal operative intervention. The progress of remaining primary caries is key to any discussion of this concept. This discussion is important for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach, since the removal of all carious dentine is sometimes difficult using hand instruments only. In this paper the results of possible measures to guard against the effects of residual carious and its consequences are reviewed, in order to obtain an impression of the justification for (in)complete excavation of occlusal dentinal caries. Three types of measure are considered: isolating the caries process from the oral environment, excavating the carious dentine, and using a cariostatic filling material. Each of these measures contributes to the arrest of the caries process. However, none of these measures can arrest this process by itself. A combination of all three seems necessary. It is concluded that although residual caries does not seem to be the criterion for rerestoration, one has to strive for as complete caries removal as possible. If this cannot be fulfilled the sealing capacities of the filling material seem to be more important than its cariostatic properties. PMID:10600078

  4. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  5. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  6. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  7. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  8. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  9. Influence of steam explosion pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of vinegar residue.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiayu; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Jiafu; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2016-07-01

    Vinegar residue is the by-product in the vinegar production process. The large amount of vinegar residue has caused a serious environmental problem owing to its acidity and corrosiveness. Anaerobic digestion is an effective way to convert agricultural waste into bioenergy, and a previous study showed that vinegar residue could be treated by anaerobic digestion but still had room to improve digestion efficiency. In this study, steam explosion at pressure of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.5 MPa and residence time of 5, 10, 15, and 20 min were used to pretreat vinegar residue to improve methane production, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were applied to validate structural changes of vinegar residue after steam explosion. Results showed that steam explosion pretreatment could destroy the structure of lignocellulose by removing the hemicellulose and lignin, and improve the methane yield effectively. Steam explosion-treated vinegar residue at 0.8 MPa for 5 min produced the highest methane yield of 153.58 mL gVS (-1), which was 27.65% (significant, α < 0.05) more than untreated vinegar residue (120.31 mL gVS (-1)). The analyses of pH, total ammonia-nitrogen, total alkalinity, and volatile fatty acids showed that steam explosion did not influence the stability of anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that steam explosion pretreatment on vinegar residue might be a promising approach and it is worth further study to improve the efficiency of vinegar residue waste utilisation. PMID:27154975

  10. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  11. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  13. Effects of processing on carbendazim residue in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Erdong; Tao, Wuqun; Yao, Xi; Wang, Jin; Tang, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Samples of Pleurotus ostreatus were exposed to fungicide carbendazim to study the effect of processing on the residues. In most cases, processing operations led to a significant decrease in residue levels in the finished products, particularly through washing, drying, and cooking processes. The results indicated that rinsing under running tap water led to more than 70.30% loss in carbendazim residues. When dried under sunlight could remove more than 70.30% residues. There was a 63.90-97.14% reduction after steaming, with processing time extending, the removal rates increased especially for lower initial residue level samples. The residue was almost completely removed by frying combined with microwave heating. Furthermore, boiling the mushrooms reduced the residue in the mushroom and no carbendazim residues were determined in the broth. PMID:27386113

  14. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p<0.05), with other genes showing no significant change after anaerobic fermentation (p>0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p<0.05), except for tetG and sulI. PMID:26546700

  15. Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2010-08-26

    Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

  16. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  17. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Graffiti and grease removers. 2902.24 Section 2902.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.24 Graffiti and...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Graffiti and grease removers. 3201.24 Section 3201.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.24...

  19. 7 CFR 160.37 - Prior marks to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior marks to be removed. 160.37 Section 160.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.37 Prior marks to be...

  20. 7 CFR 160.37 - Prior marks to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior marks to be removed. 160.37 Section 160.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.37 Prior marks to be...

  1. 7 CFR 160.37 - Prior marks to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prior marks to be removed. 160.37 Section 160.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.37 Prior marks to be...

  2. 7 CFR 160.37 - Prior marks to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prior marks to be removed. 160.37 Section 160.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.37 Prior marks to be...

  3. 7 CFR 160.37 - Prior marks to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prior marks to be removed. 160.37 Section 160.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.37 Prior marks to be...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graffiti and grease removers. 2902.24 Section 2902.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.24 Graffiti and...

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. PMID:17827109

  6. Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from aqueous solution by raw and modified lignocellulosic materials: a review.

    PubMed

    Miretzky, P; Cirelli, A Fernandez

    2010-08-15

    In aqueous systems, chromium usually exists in both trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states, being Cr(VI) of particular importance and concern due to its great toxicity. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) are leather tanning, mining of chrome ore, production of steel and alloys, etc. The most common conventional method for Cr(VI) removal is reduction to Cr(III) at pH 2.0 and precipitation of Cr (OH)(3) with lime at pH 9-10. The disadvantage of precipitation is the disposal of the solid waste. Adsorption of Cr by different low cost materials seems to be a suitable choice for wastewater treatment. Many by-products of agriculture have proved to be suitable low cost adsorbents for Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from water. Lignocellulosic residues, which include both wood residues and agricultural residues, have adsorption capacity comparable to other natural sorbents, but they have the advantage of very low or no cost, great availability and simple operational process. This study is a review of the recent literature on the use of natural and modified lignocellulosic residues for Cr adsorption. The Cr maximum adsorption capacity and the adsorption mechanism under different experimental conditions are reported when possibly. PMID:20451320

  7. Assessment of secondary residues. Engineering and economic analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Ashare, E.

    1981-08-01

    Secondary agricultural residues are defined as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, and residues from pulp and paper processing. The analyses consist of specific case studies investigating the costs of converting liquid and/or solid residue streams to methane and/or ethanol. Several economically feasible examples were found: methane production from potato processing liquid residues, ethanol from potato processing solid residues, methane from cheese processing wastes, and methane from poultry processing liquid wastes. In facilities which operate year round, energy recovery is often feasible, whereas in seasonal operations, economic feasibility is not possible. Economic feasibility of energy production from secondary residues is strongly dependent on the current use of the solid and liquid residue. If the solid residue is sold as an animal feed, energy production is usually not economical. High solid and liquid residue disposal costs often make energy conversion economically feasible.

  8. Wheat roots and residue effects on soil aggregation and carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have been identified for a number of off-field uses. Poor understanding of the role of crop residues in key soil processes limits our ability to predict sustainable crop residue removal rates. A study was conducted to compare aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability, and soil ...

  9. Sugarcane Post-Harvest Residue Management in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Failure to remove sugarcane post-harvest residue often reduces ratoon crop yields in temperate climates. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effects of various residue management practices on sugarcane yield. For the first experiment, timing of post-harvest residue was based on th...

  10. Modeling the CO2 and N2O Emissions From Stover Removal for Biofuel Production From Continuous Corn Production in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Brenner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Corn stover, an agricultural residue, can be used as feedstock for near term bioethanol production and is available today at levels that can significantly impact energy supply. We evaluated the environmental impact of such a large-scale change in agricultural practices on green house gas production, soil erosion and soil carbon using the Century model. Estimates of soil C changes and GHG emissions were performed for the 99 counties in Iowa where previous environmental, management and erosion data was available. We employed climate, soil and historical management databases from a separate USDA-funded project as input to Century. RUSLE estimates of the residue requirements for acceptable soil loss rates under continuous corn agriculture were available from a previous study done Dr. Richard Nelson (Enersol Resources). Two mulch tillage and a no-till systems, where erosion estimates were available, were used as the basis for the simulations. Century simulations of these systems were run under a variety of stover removal rates. For each soil type within each county the model was run for 15 years (1980-1995) under continuous corn with convention tillage, and full residue return. Model simulation of crop yields and residue production were then calibrated to match those used by the Polysys model team at Oak Ridge and the simulation was repeated with the addition of the three corn tillage regimes, and several residue removal rates. County-average soil C changes (and net CO2 emissions) were calculated as area-weighted averages of the individual soil types in each county. For this study, we have utilized the IPCC approach to estimate annual N2O emissions. At low or zero residue removal rates, county-averaged soil C stocks were predicted to increase (i.e. net CO2 emissions are negative). Where the allowable residue removal rates (based on erosion tolerance) for mulch-tillage are on the order of 40-50% or more, the reduced input of C is such that the soils no longer sequester C

  11. Crop residue and residue management effects on Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) populations and soybean stand densities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Alfaress, S; Whitworth, R J; McCornack, B P

    2012-10-01

    In general, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) are considered nonpests of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], but changes in soil conservation practices have shifted the pest status of this organism from an opportunistic to a perennial, early-season pest in parts of central Kansas. As a result, soybean producers that rotate with corn (Zea mays L.) under conservation tillage practices have resorted to removing excess corn residue by using controlled burns. In a 2-yr field study (2009-2010), we demonstrated that residue removal in burned compared with unburned plots (measured as previous crop residue weights) had minimal impact on numbers of live and dead A. vulgare, soybean seedling emergence, and isopod feeding damage over time. Specifically, removal of residue by burning did not result in higher emergence rates for soybean stands or less feeding damage by A. vulgare. In a separate study, we found that number of live A. vulgare and residue weights had no consistent relationship with seedling emergence or feeding damage. Furthermore, seedling emergence was not impacted by higher numbers ofA. vulgare in unburned plots, indicating that emergence in this study may have been influenced by factors other than A. vulgare densities. These studies demonstrate that removing residue through controlled burning did not impact seedling emergence in presence of A. vulgare and that residue and feeding damage to seedlings did not consistently relate to A. vulgare densities. Other factors that may have influenced a relationship between residue and live isopod numbers, such as variable moisture levels, are discussed. PMID:23156159

  12. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be on your side, just below the ribs or right over the lowest ribs. Muscle, fat, and tissue are cut and moved. Your surgeon may need to remove a rib to do the procedure. The tube that carries ...

  13. Spleen removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders of blood cells, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), hereditary spherocytosis , thalassemia, hemolytic anemia , and hereditary ... spherocytic anemia Hemolytic anemia Hodgkin lymphoma Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) Patient Instructions Spleen removal - child - discharge Spleen ...

  14. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. PMID:21865802

  15. Assessment of secondary crop residues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashare, E.; Leuschner, A.P.; West, C.E.; Langton, B.

    1981-03-01

    This report is the first of three reports assessing the feasibility of converting secondary agricultural residues to energy in the form of either methane gas or ethyl alcohol. Secondary agricultural residues are defined in this study as those residues resulting from biomass processing to produce primary products; e.g., whey from cheese processing, vegetable processing wastes, residues from paper pulping, etc. This report summarizes the first two phases of this study, data compilation, and evaluation. Subsequent reports will analyze the technical and economic feasibility of converting these residues to energy and the implementability of this technology. The industries for which data has been compiled in this report include vegetable, fruit, seafood, meat, poultry, and dairy processing and the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. The data collected include raw product input, final processed product output, residue types, and quantity, residue concentration, biodegradability, seasonality of production, and geographic distribution of processing facilities. In general, these industries produce a relatively solid residue ranging in total solids concentration from 10 to 50% and a dilute liquid residue with an organic content (measured as COD or BOD) ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand mg/l. Due to the significant quantities of residues generated in each of the industries, it appears that the potential exists for generating a substantial quantity of energy. For a particular industry this quantity of energy can range from only one percent upwards to nearly thirty-five percent of the total processing energy required. The total processing energy required for the industries included in this study is approximately 2.5 quads per year. The potential energy which can be generated from these industrial residues will be 0.05 to 0.10 quads per year or approximately 2 to 4 percent of the total demand.

  16. Introduction: Evaluating long-term impacts of harvesting crop residues on soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing crop residues as biofuel feedstocks will involve trade-offs between bioenergy production and agroecosystem services. Consequently, agricultural production managers and policymakers need to critically evaluate current functions of crop residues in light of increasing demands for agricultura...

  17. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  18. Climatic and agricultural factors in nutrient exports from two watersheds in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Moog, Douglas B; Whiting, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Export of agricultural nutrients and sediment to lakes and oceans is of great environmental concern in many agricultural watersheds. Recent years have seen efforts to reduce loads through agricultural practices such as conservation tillage, efficient fertilization, and reservation of erodible areas. Monitoring the efficacy of such efforts is complicated by the fact they take place against a varying climatic and hydrologic background. In this study, statistical analysis was used to identify those climatic, hydrologic, and agricultural variables that best explained variations in nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids over the period 1976-1995 in two large agricultural watersheds that feed Lake Erie, those of the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers. The dominant variable was stream discharge; after curvefits to remove its influence, the residual loads were tested via stepwise linear regression to reveal the most significant explanatory variables. Loads of nitrate, total suspended solids, and total phosphorus tended to decrease when previous months were wet, except in the summer, and to decrease when snow cover was extensive. It is speculated that stores of nitrate in the soil were lost during wet periods through increased crop uptake and/or leaching. Nitrogen fertilizer application in the Maumee watershed decreased following dry periods, but not enough to decrease stream loads. Soluble reactive phosphorus loads were negatively correlated to conservation tillage and reserves, and positively correlated to fertilizer and manure sources. Results for total phosphorus were similar to those for total suspended solids, on which most transported phosphorus is adsorbed. PMID:11837447

  19. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particle impact residues from LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, R. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed structural and compositional analysis of several impactor residues was performed utilizing transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. Residues from the interior of several craters in gold surfaces were removed with a tungsten needle, mounted in EMBED-812 epoxy, and ultramicrotomed. The presence in these residues of equilibrated ferromagnesian minerals, recrystallization textures, glass, and melted metal and sulfide bodies decorating grain boundaries is indicative of varying degrees of shock metamorphism in all impact residues we have characterized.

  20. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  1. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  2. The 47th annual Florida pesticide residue workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an introductory article to a special section of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry consisting of publications from the 47th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop held in St. Pete Beach, FL in July of 2010....

  3. 40 CFR 180.513 - Chlorfenapyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the insecticide chlorfenapyr in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 (2) A tolerance of 0.01 parts per million...

  4. 40 CFR 180.513 - Chlorfenapyr; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the insecticide chlorfenapyr in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 (2) A tolerance of 0.01 parts per million...

  5. Use of Unchannelized Agricultural Streams as a Guiding Image for Restoring Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches or channelized headwater streams are a common landscape feature in the Midwestern United States. These streams have been channelized and maintained for removal of excess water from agricultural fields without regard for the aquatic biota. The use of pristine forested wa...

  6. Evaluation of a universal flow-through model for predicting and designing phosphorus removal structures.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad; Bowen, James; McGrath, Joshua; Nairn, Robert; Fox, Garey; Brown, Glenn; Wilson, Stuart; Gill, Clinton

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) removal structures have been shown to decrease dissolved P loss from agricultural and urban areas which may reduce the threat of eutrophication. In order to design or quantify performance of these structures, the relationship between discrete and cumulative removal with cumulative P loading must be determined, either by individual flow-through experiments or model prediction. A model was previously developed for predicting P removal with P sorption materials (PSMs) under flow-through conditions, as a function of inflow P concentration, retention time (RT), and PSM characteristics. The objective of this study was to compare model results to measured P removal data from several PSM under a range of conditions (P concentrations and RT) and scales ranging from laboratory to field. Materials tested included acid mine drainage residuals (AMDRs), treated and non-treated electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag at different size fractions, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. Equations for P removal curves and cumulative P removed were not significantly different between predicted and actual values for any of the 23 scenarios examined. However, the model did tend to slightly over-predict cumulative P removal for calcium-based PSMs. The ability of the model to predict P removal for various materials, RTs, and P concentrations in both controlled settings and field structures validate its use in design and quantification of these structures. This ability to predict P removal without constant monitoring is vital to widespread adoption of P removal structures, especially for meeting discharge regulations and nutrient trading programs. PMID:26950026

  7. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  8. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  9. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  10. MCMC Sampling for a Multilevel Model with Nonindependent Residuals within and between Cluster Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, William; Goldstein, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the effect of removing the independence assumptions between the residuals in two-level random effect models. We first consider removing the independence between the Level 2 residuals and instead assume that the vector of all residuals at the cluster level follows a general multivariate normal distribution. We…

  11. 7 CFR 701.53 - Debris removal and water for livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debris removal and water for livestock. 701.53 Section 701.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM AND CERTAIN RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED...

  12. WORKSHOP ON EMERGING PATHOGENS IN RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is considerable concern among regulatory authorities, the agricultural community and the public as a whole about the scientific community's ability to measure the level(s) of known pathogens in residuals. There is also concern for whether we are aware of all the pathogens t...

  13. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residue in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carmen; Mancebo, Ignacio; Saa, Antonio; Moreno, Marta M.

    2014-01-01

    Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown. PMID:25309953

  14. Sensor needs for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, H.; Neiers, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The peculiarities of agricultural remotely sensed data requirements evoke special sensor requirements. Vegetative species do not possess significantly different spectral signature at given phases of their development cycle. Hence, the key to their discriminability is the phasing of the phenologic cycle of the subject species. Significant improvements in classification can be obtained by consistently employing multi-temporal observations taken at specific times during the year. The present approach to agricultural data processing results in extracted data equal to approximately .05% of the acquired data. This paper discusses the derivation of agricultural peculiar requirements and the benefits to the end-to-end processing system by judicial utilization and placement of key editing functions such as sample segment extraction, cloudy image removal, sample registration and the elimination of redundant data.

  15. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Gerald C.

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  17. Biological residues define the ice nucleation properties of soil dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conen, F.; Morris, C. E.; Leifeld, J.; Yakutin, M. V.; Alewell, C.

    2011-06-01

    Soil dust is a major driver of ice nucleation in clouds leading to precipitation. It consists largely of mineral particles with a small fraction of organic matter constituted mainly of remains of micro-organisms that participated in degrading plant debris before their own decay. Some micro-organisms have been shown to be much better ice nuclei than the most efficient soil mineral. Yet, current aerosol schemes in global climate models do not consider a difference between soil dust and mineral dust in terms of ice nucleation activity. Here, we show that particles from the clay and silt size fraction of four different soils naturally associated with 0.7 to 11.8 % organic carbon (w/w) can have up to four orders of magnitude more ice nuclei per unit mass active in the immersion freezing mode at -12 °C than montmorillonite, the most efficient pure clay mineral. Most of this activity was lost after heat treatment. Removal of biological residues reduced ice nucleation activity to, or below that of montmorillonite. Desert soils, inherently low in organic content, are a large natural source of dust in the atmosphere. In contrast, agricultural land use is concentrated on fertile soils with much larger organic matter contents than found in deserts. It is currently estimated that the contribution of agricultural soils to the global dust burden is less than 20 %. Yet, these disturbed soils can contribute ice nuclei to the atmosphere of a very different and much more potent kind than mineral dusts.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  19. Splinter removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove a splinter, first wash your hands with soap and water. Use tweezers to grab the splinter. Carefully pull it out at the same angle it went in. If the splinter is under the skin or hard to grab: Sterilize a pin or needle by ...

  20. REMOVING INORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When EPA sets a regulation ( a maxim contaminant level) for a contaminant, it must also specify the "best available technology" (BAT) that can be used to remove the contaminant. ecause the regulations apply to community water systems, the technologies selected are ones that are c...