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Sample records for agricultural runoff event

  1. Genotoxicity in native fish associated with agricultural runoff events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Orlando, J.L.; Kotelevtsev, S.; Anderson, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether agricultural chemical runoff was associated with in-stream genotoxicity in native fish. Using Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis), we combined field-caging experiments in an agriculturally dominated watershed with controlled laboratory exposures to field-collected water samples, and we coupled genotoxicity biomarker measurements in fish with bacterial mutagenicity analysis of water samples. We selected DNA strand breakage as a genotoxicity biomarker and Ames Salmonella mutagenicity tests as a second, supporting indicator of genotoxicity. Data from experiments conducted during rainfall runoff events following winter application of pesticides in 2000 and 2001 indicated that DNA strand breaks were significantly elevated in fish exposed to San Joaquin River (CA, USA) water (38.8, 28.4, and 53.6% DNA strand breakage in year 2000 field, year 2000 lab, and year 2001 field exposures, respectively) compared with a nearby reference site (15.4, 8.7, and 12.6% DNA strand breakage in year 2000 field, year 2000 lab, and year 2001 field exposures, respectively). Time-course measurements in field experiments supported a linkage between induction of DNA strand breakage and the timing of agricultural runoff. San Joaquin River water also caused significant reversion mutation in two Ames Salmonella tester strains. Salmonella mutagenicity corroborated in-stream effects, further strengthening a causal relationship between runoff events and genotoxicity. Potentially responsible agents are discussed in the context of timing of runoff events in the field, concordance between laboratory and field exposures, pesticide application patterns in the drainage, and analytical chemistry data.

  2. Effects of a simulated agricultural runoff event on sediment toxicity in a managed backwater wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    permethrin (both cis and trans isomers), on 10-day sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a managed natural backwater wetland after a simulated agricultural runoff event. Sediment samples were collected at 10, 40, 100, 300, and 500 m from inflow 13 days prior to amendment and 1, 5, 12, 22, and 36 ...

  3. Variation of IUH shapes with size of rainfall-runoff events in a small agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, Kazimierz; Hejduk, Leszek; Banasik, Jerzy

    2013-04-01

    Instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) is one of the key components in many procedures for design flood estimation. The IUH defined by gamma pdf, called also Nash model, has been estimated for each of the over 30 recorded rainfall-runoff events, in a small (A=82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchment located in central Poland, in the period 1980-2010 (Banasik et al., 2011). Variability of the IUH characteristics (such as lag time, time to peak, maximum ordinate) vs. rainfall-runoff parameters (such as peak discharge and runoff depth) will be presented. A larger variability of the IUH characteristics for smaller events was noted. Two methods for estimating, empirically based, representative IUH, for the catchment and for the design flood estimation, are presented. The first one is based on mean values of time to peak and peak ordinate of all individual IUHs, and the other one is taking into account only the largest events when the lag time has tendency to decrease with runoff depth increasing. The empirically estimated representative IUHs are compared with unit hydrograph of FSSR and ReFH (Kjeldsen 2007). Results of single event model application, with the IUH incorporated in it, are compared with results of FFA for this catchment. Banasik K., Hejduk L. and Oygarden L., 2011. Prediction and reduction of diffuse pollution, solid emission and extreme flows from rural areas - case study of small agricultural catchments. Warsaw University of Life Sciences Press, Warsaw. Kjeldsen T.R., 2007. Flood Estimation Handbook, Supplementary Report No. 1. The revitalized FSR/FEH rainfall-runoff method. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, UK. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The investigation described in the paper is part of the research project KORANET founded by PL-National Center for Research and Development.

  4. Impacts of rainfall events on runoff water quality in an agricultural environment in temperate areas.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    Since a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations has been observed for surface waters at least over the last two decades, a change in weather conditions (temperature and precipitations) has been proposed to partly explain this increase. While the majority of DOC delivery from soils to stream occurs during rainfall events, a better understanding of the rainfall influence on DOC release is needed. This study has been conducted in Brittany, western France, on agricultural experimental plots receiving either cattle manure (CM) or pig slurry (PS) as fertilizers in accordance with local practices. Each plot was instrumented with a flow meter and an auto sampler for runoff measurements. The results show that export of DOC during high intensity events is higher than during lower intensity rainfalls. Fertilization has a noticeable impact on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes with an increase of five to seven folds for PS and CM respectively. If TOC shock load occurs shortly after the rainfall peak, DOC maximum appears with the first flush of the event. Organic carbon (OC) is mainly under colloidal (41.2%) and soluble (23.9%) forms during the first stage of a rainfall event and a control of rainfall intensity on OC colloidal transport is suggested. These findings highlight the potential risk of receiving water quality degradation due to the increase of heavier rainfall events with climate change in temperate areas.

  5. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  6. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  7. Predominant Runoff Components During Heavy Rainfall Events on Cultivated Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeřábek, J.; Zumr, D.; Strouhal, L.

    2015-12-01

    The fact that flash floods initiated in arable catchments are often accompanied by massive sediment and nutrient loads often leads to the assumption that surface runoff is the principle pathway by which runoff reaches watercourses. But the hydrology of cultivated catchments has its specific features due to the temporary variable topsoil properties and a sharp divide between topsoil and compacted subsoil. Under various conditions the prevailing runoff mechanisms may vary from surface runoff to subsurface runoff or deep percolation. On the basis of an evaluation of several rainfall-runoff events in a representative agricultural catchment (Nucice, Czech Republic), we show that runoff from cultivated land may be generated in a way similar to that seen on forested slopes, where shallow subsurface runoff is the predominant pathway. To identify the predominant runoff pathway, we employed a combination of turbidity measurements and stream discharge data. Although we observed temporal variability of topsoil properties attributable to seasonal weather changes and agricultural activities, e.g. bulk density and porosity, runoff generation was mainly driven by precipitation characteristics and the initial catchment saturation. The concept of the runoff formation was also observed during plot scale experiments with rainfall simulator. Various initial soil moisture conditions, and vegetation stages delimited the simulations. Variable proportions of both monitored runoff components were observed in relation to rainfall intensity and duration, ranging from zero surface runoff to a distinct dominance of surface runoff. Even with the highest tested precipitation intensities, surface runoff always formed due to saturation excess of the topsoil, irrespective of the topsoil properties and crops. The experiments were numerically modelled and analysed to understand the effect of temporal variability in the macropores and intra-aggregate voids ratio within the topsoil. We used a

  8. Estimation of Rainfall-runoff Erosivity for Individual Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Shin, J.; Jung, Y.; Heo, J.

    2011-12-01

    Annual rainfall-runoff erosivity (R factor) is the annual sum of R factors in erosive single storms, which is classified by USDA Agriculture Handbook (1997). High resolution precipitation data were needed for calculating the R factor in individual storm, but sufficient data were not available in many countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between rainfall-runoff erosivity and rainfall amounts for individual storm events. Pluviograph data from 5 weather stations with 40 years were used in this study. R factors of total 4,361 storm events were calculated and analyzed to figure out the relationship between them by statistical approach. The result shows that erosive precipitation data have a significant linear relationship with rainfall-runoff erosivity. In addition, new regression model in each station using rainfall amount was built to estimate the R factor where pluviograph data were not available.

  9. Water quality of runoff from agricultural-forestry watersheds in the Geum River Basin, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Chung, Sewoong; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2007-11-01

    Forestry and agricultural land uses constitute 85% of Korea and these land uses are typically mixed in many watersheds. Land cover is one of the most important factors affecting diffuse pollution and water quality. The aim of this study is to estimate the pollutant concentrations in runoff from four study watersheds consisting of a mix of forestry and agricultural land uses at different ratios in the Geum River Basin. The effect of topographical variables was also considered. The ratio of agricultural land use to the total area of study watersheds was in the range of 0.01-0.36. Flow rate and water quality (suspended solids, organics and nutrients) of runoff from 40 rainfall events were monitored at the study watersheds. Descriptive statistics showed higher nutrients and organic concentrations in runoff from watershed with higher agricultural activities. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of individual runoff event was calculated for each water quality constituent based on the flow rate and concentration data of runoff discharge, and arranged on a cumulative probability scale according to runoff occurrence. From the correlation analysis between EMC data and affecting variables, the ratio of agricultural land use to the total area was identified as the parameter that most affected the magnitude of EMC.

  10. Water quality of runoff from agricultural-forestry watersheds in the Geum River Basin, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Chung, Sewoong; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2007-11-01

    Forestry and agricultural land uses constitute 85% of Korea and these land uses are typically mixed in many watersheds. Land cover is one of the most important factors affecting diffuse pollution and water quality. The aim of this study is to estimate the pollutant concentrations in runoff from four study watersheds consisting of a mix of forestry and agricultural land uses at different ratios in the Geum River Basin. The effect of topographical variables was also considered. The ratio of agricultural land use to the total area of study watersheds was in the range of 0.01-0.36. Flow rate and water quality (suspended solids, organics and nutrients) of runoff from 40 rainfall events were monitored at the study watersheds. Descriptive statistics showed higher nutrients and organic concentrations in runoff from watershed with higher agricultural activities. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of individual runoff event was calculated for each water quality constituent based on the flow rate and concentration data of runoff discharge, and arranged on a cumulative probability scale according to runoff occurrence. From the correlation analysis between EMC data and affecting variables, the ratio of agricultural land use to the total area was identified as the parameter that most affected the magnitude of EMC. PMID:17294267

  11. Nutrient Models Developments Using Runoff-Nutrient Relationships in an Agricultural Prairie Basin, Manitoba.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Elliott, J. A.; Baulch, H. M.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient export to streams and lakes from agricultural activities can result in significant deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecosystem health. In Western Canada, particular concerns arise for prairie agricultural systems, which are dominated by the effects of a cold climate. Insufficient attention has been given to understand the links between cold region watershed responses and nutrient concentration and a robust watershed-scale modeling framework is needed to simulate nutrient concentration and loads. Long-term, field observations of nutrient concentration-runoff relationships were used to develop nutrient concentration models for the Tobacco Creek Model Watershed (TCMW) which drains into the Red River basin. Field observations include streamflow concentrations of N and P at multiple scales from two headwater basins. Distinct nutrient concentration-runoff models for snowmelt, rain on snow (ROS) and rainfall runoff processes were developed from observed runoff-nutrient concentration relationships. Snowmelt runoff had a moderately positive correlation with particulate nutrient concentrations but no correlation with that of dissolved nutrients. ROS runoff had a weak relationship with both particulate and dissolved nutrient concentrations. Rainfall runoff had the strongest positive correlation with particulate nutrient concentrations but no association with that of dissolved nutrients. The modeling approach also identified a clear hysteretic behavior in the relationship between runoff and particulate nutrient concentration during the 2013 snowmelt runoff event at the basin outlet gauge. The models provide insight into the hydrological controls on nutrient export from cold regions watersheds and the strong effects of inter-annual climatic variability. Snowmelt runoff is a reliable exporter of large nutrient loads while nutrient export by rainfall runoff exceeded snowmelt runoff during hydrologically wet summers such as 2002, 2005, 2011 and 2013.

  12. Multi-event urban runoff quality model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.; Smith, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is presented for simulating the quality of surface runoff from urban watersheds. The model can simulate impervious area, pervious area, and precipitation contributions to runoff quality as well as the effects of street sweeping and (or) detention storage. Within-storm variations of runoff quality are simulated for user-specified storm-runoff periods. Between these storms, a daily accounting of the accumulation and washoff of water-quality constituents on effective impervious areas is maintained. The time step of the within-storm simulations can range from 1 to 60 minutes. The model can be operated as a lumped-parameter model or as a distributed-parameter model. As a lumped-parameter model, no spatial variations in model parameters are accounted for, and input to the model requires flow hydrographs only at the outlet of the watershed. The outlet hydrographs can be either observed or simulated. As a distributed-parameter model, the model requires flow hydrographs at many points in the watershed, as defined by basin segmentation. These hydrographs will normally be simulated by the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model. This report includes a presentation of the theory and limitations of the model, as well as a program listing, instructions for running the program, and example simulations.

  13. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF RESTORED WETLANDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integration of the tax ditches into a drainage management system provides obvious benefits, but can also present a source of significant nonpoint source pollution from agricultural runoff. Many of Delaware's tax ditches have been listed on Delaware's Clean
    Water Act 303(d)...

  15. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  16. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation.

  17. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. PMID:26641333

  18. Temporal variability of colloidal material in agricultural storm runoff from managed grassland using flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gimbert, Laura J; Worsfold, Paul J

    2009-12-25

    This paper reports the use of flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) to determine the temporal variability of colloidal (<1mum) particle size distributions in agricultural runoff waters in a small managed catchment in SW England during storm events. Three storm events of varying intensity were captured and the colloidal material in the runoff analysed by FlFFF. The technique had sufficient sensitivity to determine directly the changing colloidal profile over the 0.08-1.0mum size range in the runoff waters during these storm events. Rainfall, total phosphorus and suspended solids in the bulk runoff samples were also determined throughout one storm and showed significant correlation (P<0.01) with the amount of colloidal material. Whilst there are some uncertainties in the resolution and absolute calibration of the FlFFF profiles, the technique has considerable potential for the quantification of colloidal material in storm runoff waters. PMID:19577239

  19. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  20. On-farm bioremediation of dimethazone and trifluralin residues in runoff water from an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is the use of living organisms, primarily microorganisms, to degrade environmental contaminants into less toxic forms. Nine biobeds (ground cavity filled with a mixture of composted organic matter, topsoil, and a surface grass) were established at Kentucky State University research farm (Franklin County, KY) to study the impact of this practice on reducing surface runoff water contamination by residues of dimethazone and trifluralin herbicides arising from an agricultural field. Biobed (biofilter) systems were installed at the bottom of the slope of specially designed runoff plots to examine herbicides retention and degradation before entering streams and rivers. In addition to biobed systems, three soil management practices: municipal sewage sludge (SS), SS mixed with yard waste compost (SS + YW), and no-mulch rototilled bare soil (NM used for comparison purposes) were used to monitor the impact of soil amendments on herbicide residues in soil following natural rainfall events. Organic amendments increased soil organic matter content and herbicide residues retained in soil following rainfall events. Biobeds installed in NM soil reduced dimethazone and trifluralin by 84 and 82%, respectively in runoff water that would have been transported down the land slope of agricultural fields and contaminated natural water resources. Biobeds installed in SS and SS+YW treatments reduced dimethazone by 65 and 46% and trifluralin by 52 and 79%, respectively. These findings indicated that biobeds are effective for treating dimethazone and trifluralin residues in runoff water.

  1. Quantifying the capacity of compost buffers for treating agricultural runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, S. A.; Beighley, R. E.; Buyuksonmez, F.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural operations, specifically, avocado and commercial nurseries require frequent and significant fertilizing and irrigating which tends to result in excessive nutrient leaching and off-site runoff. The increased runoff contains high concentrations of nutrients which negatively impacts stream water quality. Researcher has demonstrated that best management practices such as compost buffers can be effective for reducing nutrient and sediment concentrations in agricultural runoff. The objective of this research is to evaluate both the hydraulic capacity and the nutrient removal efficiency of: (a) compost buffers and (b) buffers utilizing a combination of vegetation and compost. A series of experiments will be performed in the environmental hydraulics laboratory at San Diego State University. A tilting flume 12-m long, 27-cm wide and 25-cm deep will be used. Discharge is propelled by an axial flow pump powered by a variable speed motor with a maximum capacity of 30 liters per second. The experiments are designed to measure the ratio compost mass per flow rate per linear width. Two different discharges will be measured: (a) treatment discharge (maximum flow rate such that the buffer decreases the incoming nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations below a maximum allowable limit) and (b) breaking discharge (maximum flow rate the buffer can tolerate without structural failure). Experimental results are presented for the hydraulic analysis, and preliminary results are presented for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from runoff. The results from this project will be used to develop guidelines for installing compost buffers along the perimeters of nursery sites and avocado groves in southern California.

  2. Land-Ocean Connections - Impacts of agricultural runoff on phytoplankton productivity in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J.; Dreszer, N.; Brewer, P. G.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Yaqui Valley is an area of intensive agriculture in Sonora, Mexico which borders the Gulf of California. The effects of high fertilizer utilization on local water quality and nutrient cycling have been studied extensively, especially for nitrogen, and surface runoff from agricultural fields has been shown to be a significant source of nutrients to the nearby coastal waters of the gulf. Phytoplankton blooms off the coast of the Yaqui Valley observed by satellite have been shown to be well correlated with large-scale irrigation events, suggesting that nutrients derived from agricultural runoff may be responsible for fueling such blooms. However, this connection between fertilizer nutrients and bloom events has not been verified by any direct field measurements. Here we will present field data collected in an attempt to determine the sources of nitrate and quantify the relative contribution of agricultural fertilizer and upwelling waters in the region. Surface water nutrient data (including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, silicate and phosphate) will be coupled with measurements of oxygen and nitrogen isotope ratios of dissolved nitrate and nitrogen isotopes of particulate organic matter in order to identify and understand nitrogen sources, cycling and transformation processes occurring within waters off the coast of the Yaqui Valley.

  3. Identifying priority zones in an agricultural catchment to mitigate glyphosate runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Desmet, Nele; Wilczek, Daniel; Boënne, Wesley; Seuntjens, Piet; Koopmans, Kim; Bylemans, Dany; Wouters, Katrien; Vandaele, Karel

    2015-04-01

    Pesticide concentrations in rivers generally have a very dynamic signature and are strongly dependent on time and space. The dynamic time course is due to the time- and space-variant input conditions resulting from fast overland (runoff and erosion, direct losses) and subsurface flow (artificial drainage), directly connecting surfaces and/or agricultural fields where pesticides are applied, to receiving rivers. A thorough understanding of pesticide behavior at the watershed scale is needed to increase the effectiveness of mitigation measures. We developed a method to derive priority zones for applying mitigation measures for erosion control and mitigation of glyphosate runoff in an agricultural catchment. The study catchment was selected based on results from geospatial pesticide emission modeling, historical glyphosate concentrations, and crop cover. Priority zones were derived based on a risk map which includes information about the topography, crop cover, the estimated glyphosate use, the potential erosion risk, and the connectivity of the agricultural parcels to the river. The theoretical risk map was then validated in the field using field observations of runoff during stormflow events, and observations of roads short-circuiting the runoff to the river. The validated risk map was used to define priority zones for measures related to erosion control. Suggestions for specific measures such as grass buffer strips and small dams at the field scale were made. The information will be used to target farmers that may have a significant impact on the glyphosate load to surface water. Those farmers will be encouraged to participate in a voluntary erosion control program supported by the local government. The effect of mitigation measures on the glyphosate concentrations in the river will be assessed by monitoring two years before and three years after implementation of the measures. We will present the general setup of the study and the selection methodology of the

  4. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García García, V.; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Suárez, M. L.

    2009-08-01

    Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of season and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3--N), ammonium-N (NH4+-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chloride (Cl-) concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetlands consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO3--N (72.3%), even though the mean values of inflow NO3--N concentrations were above 20 mg l-1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (45.4%), but as sources for NH4+-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetlands were capable of removing a mean value of 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO3--N a day-1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation and did not follow a seasonal pattern. The temporal variability for NO3--N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the net hydrologic retention and the inflow NO3--N concentration (R2adj=0.832, p<0.001), respectively. TON-N retention efficiency was only positively explained by the net hydrologic retention (R2adj=0.1997, p<0.05). No significant regression model was found for NH4+-N. Finally, the conservation of these Mediterranean wetland-streams may act as a tool to not only improves the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve a good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

  5. Influences of suspended particles on the runoff of pesticides from an agricultural field at Askim, SE-Norway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Riise, G; Lundekvam, H; Mulder, J; Haugen, L E

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the loss of particles from agricultural fields, and the role of suspended particles in carrying pesticides in surface runoff and drainage water. Propiconazole, a widely used fungicide was applied to experimental fields located at Askim, SE-Norway. Samples from surface runoff and drainage water were collected and analyzed for sediment mass, pesticides, particulate and dissolved organic carbon through a whole year. The surface soil and the runoff material were characterized by its particle size distribution, organic carbon content in size fractions and its ability to bind propiconazole. The results show that (1) particle runoff mostly occurred during the rainfall event shortly after harrowing in autumn. The highest particle concentration observed in the surface runoff water was 4600 mg l(-1), and in the drainage water 1130 mg l(-1); (2) the erosion of surface soil is size selective. The runoff sediment contained finer particle/aggregates rich in organic matter compared to its original surface soil; (3) the distribution coefficient (Kd) of propiconazole was significantly higher in the runoff sediment than in the parent soil. According to our calculation, particle-bound propiconazole can represent up to 23% of the total amount of propiconazole in a water sample with a sediment concentration of 7600 mg l(-1), which will significantly influence the transport behavior of the pesticide.

  6. Human pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care product ingredients in runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Joel A; Soliman, Mary; Suffet, I H Mel

    2005-03-01

    Irrigation of crops with treated wastewater has the potential to introduce effluent-derived organic microcontaminants into surface waters through agricultural runoff. To determine whether compounds indicative of the presence of treated effluent in irrigation water could be identified in agricultural runoff, surface runoff samples collected from effluent-irrigated and rain-fed cultivated fields were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organic compounds. A variety of compounds was identified that appeared to be associated with irrigation with treated wastewater. These compounds included human pharmaceuticals (e.g., carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, carisoprodol), personal care product ingredients (e.g., insect repellent, polycyclic musks), and alkyl phosphate flame retardant chemicals. Most of these compounds appear not to have been previously reported in agricultural runoff. These compounds were present at concentrations below the few published aquatic toxicology data available; however, their potential to elicit more subtle effects in aquatic organisms cannot be excluded. None of these compounds were detected by broad-spectrum analysis in samples from the same fields during runoff-producing rain events.

  7. Identifying Landscape Areas Prone to Generating Storm Runoff in Central New York Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, K.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff, NPS pollution is generated where VSAs coincide with polluting activities. Mapping storm runoff risks could allow for more precise and informed targeting of NPS pollution mitigation practices in agricultural landscapes. Topographic wetness indices (TWI) provide good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns and relative storm runoff risks. Simulation models are typically used in conjunction with TWIs to quantify VSA behavior. In this study we use empirically derived relationships between TWI values, volumetric water content (VWC) and rainfall frequencies to develop runoff probability maps. Rainfall and soil VWC were measured across regionally representative agricultural areas in central New York over three years (2012-2015) to determine the volume of runoff generated from agricultural fields in the area. We assumed the threshold for storm runoff occurs when the combination of antecedent soil water and rainfall are sufficient to saturate the soil. We determined that approximately 50% of the storm runoff volume is generated from 10% of the land area during spring, summer, and autumn seasons, while the risk of storm runoff generation is higher in the spring and autumn seasons than in the summer for the same area of land.

  8. Measurements and data analysis of suburban development impacts on runoff event characteristics and unit hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2014-05-01

    Urbanisation strongly changes the catchment hydrological response to rainfall. Monitoring data on hydrological variables are most commonly available from rural and large areas, but less so from urban areas, and rarely from small catchments undergoing hydrological changes during the construction processes associated with urban development. Moreover, changes caused by urbanisation in the catchment hydrological response to snowmelt have not been widely studied. In this study, the changes occurring in runoff generation were monitored in a developing catchment under construction and in two urban control catchments. The developing catchment experienced extreme change from forest to a suburban residential area. The data used included rainfall and runoff observations from a five-year period (the years 2001-2006) with 2 to 10 minute temporal resolution. In total, 636 and 239 individual runoff events were investigated for summer and winter conditions, respectively. The changes occurring in runoff event characteristics such as event runoff volumes, peak flow rates, mean runoff intensities, and volumetric runoff coefficients were identified by the means of exploratory data analysis and nonparametric comparison tests (the Kruskall-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests). The effect of urbanization on event runoff dynamics was investigated using instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUH) based on a two-parameter gamma distribution. The measurements and data analyses demonstrated how the impact of urbanization on runoff was best detected based on peak flow rates, volumetric runoff coefficients, and mean runoff intensities. Control catchments were essential to distinguish the hydrological impact caused by catchment characteristics from those caused by changes in the meteorological conditions or season. As the imperviousness of the developing catchment increased from 1.5% to 37%, significant increases were observed in event runoff depths and peak flows during rainfall-runoff events. At the

  9. Effect of Season on the Persistence of Bacterial Pathogens in Runoff from Agricultural Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from agricultural fields undergoing manure applications may carry a variety of chemical and microbial contaminants that compromise water quality and increase the possibility of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms when recreational waters are impacted. A series of r...

  10. Nutrient load generated by storm event runoff from a golf course watershed.

    PubMed

    King, K W; Balogh, J C; Hughes, K L; Harmel, R D

    2007-01-01

    Turf, including home lawns, roadsides, golf courses, parks, etc., is often the most intensively managed land use in the urban landscape. Substantial inputs of fertilizers and water to maintain turf systems have led to a perception that turf systems are a major contributor to nonpoint source water pollution. The primary objective of this study was to quantify nutrient (NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and PO(4)-P) transport in storm-generated surface runoff from a golf course. Storm event samples were collected for 5 yr (1 Apr. 1998-31 Mar. 2003) from the Morris Williams Municipal Golf Course in Austin, TX. Inflow and outflow samples were collected from a stream that transected the golf course. One hundred fifteen runoff-producing precipitation events were measured. Median NO(3)-N and PO(4)-P concentrations at the outflow location were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than like concentrations measured at the inflow location; however, median outflow NH(4)-N concentration was significantly less than the median inflow concentration. Storm water runoff transported 1.2 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1) yr(-1), 0.23 kg NH(4)-N ha(-1) yr(-1), and 0.51 kg PO(4)-P ha(-1) yr(-1) from the course. These amounts represent approximately 3.3% of applied N and 6.2% of applied P over the contributing area for the same period. NO(3)-N transport in storm water runoff from this course does not pose a substantial environmental risk; however, the median PO(4)-P concentration exiting the course exceeded the USEPA recommendation of 0.1 mg L(-1) for streams not discharging into lakes. The PO(4)-P load measured in this study was comparable to soluble P rates measured from agricultural lands. The findings of this study emphasize the need to balance golf course fertility management with environmental risks, especially with respect to phosphorus.

  11. Nutrient load generated by storm event runoff from a golf course watershed.

    PubMed

    King, K W; Balogh, J C; Hughes, K L; Harmel, R D

    2007-01-01

    Turf, including home lawns, roadsides, golf courses, parks, etc., is often the most intensively managed land use in the urban landscape. Substantial inputs of fertilizers and water to maintain turf systems have led to a perception that turf systems are a major contributor to nonpoint source water pollution. The primary objective of this study was to quantify nutrient (NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and PO(4)-P) transport in storm-generated surface runoff from a golf course. Storm event samples were collected for 5 yr (1 Apr. 1998-31 Mar. 2003) from the Morris Williams Municipal Golf Course in Austin, TX. Inflow and outflow samples were collected from a stream that transected the golf course. One hundred fifteen runoff-producing precipitation events were measured. Median NO(3)-N and PO(4)-P concentrations at the outflow location were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than like concentrations measured at the inflow location; however, median outflow NH(4)-N concentration was significantly less than the median inflow concentration. Storm water runoff transported 1.2 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1) yr(-1), 0.23 kg NH(4)-N ha(-1) yr(-1), and 0.51 kg PO(4)-P ha(-1) yr(-1) from the course. These amounts represent approximately 3.3% of applied N and 6.2% of applied P over the contributing area for the same period. NO(3)-N transport in storm water runoff from this course does not pose a substantial environmental risk; however, the median PO(4)-P concentration exiting the course exceeded the USEPA recommendation of 0.1 mg L(-1) for streams not discharging into lakes. The PO(4)-P load measured in this study was comparable to soluble P rates measured from agricultural lands. The findings of this study emphasize the need to balance golf course fertility management with environmental risks, especially with respect to phosphorus. PMID:17526881

  12. Hydrologic Conditions and Quality of Rainfall and Storm Runoff in Agricultural and Rangeland Areas in San Patricio County, Texas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    During 2000?2001, rainfall and runoff were monitored in one mixed agricultural watershed and two rangeland watersheds in San Patricio County, located in the Coastal Bend area of South Texas. During this period, five rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for selected nutrients. Ten runoff samples from nine runoff events were collected at the three watershed monitoring stations. Runoff samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, and bacteria. Study area rainfall during 2000 and 2001 was 33.27 and 28.20 inches, respectively, less than the long-term average annual of 36.31 inches. Total runoff from the study area watersheds during 2000?2001 was 2.46 inches; the regional average is about 2 inches per year. Rainfall and runoff during the study period was typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall interspersed with extreme events. Three individual storm events accounted for about 29 percent of the total rainfall and 86 percent of the total runoff during 2000?2001. Runoff concentrations of nutrients, major ions, and trace elements generally were larger in the mixed agricultural watershed than runoff concentrations in the rangeland watersheds. Pesticides were detected in two of eight runoff samples. Three pesticides (atrazine, deethylatrazine, and trifluralin) were detected in very small concentrations; only deethylatrazine was detected in a concentration greater than the laboratory minimum reporting level. Bacteria in agricultural and rangeland runoff is a potential water-quality concern as all fecal coliform and E. coli densities in the runoff samples exceeded Texas Surface Water Quality Standards for receiving waters. However, runoff and relatively large bacteria densities represent very brief and infrequent conditions, and the effect on downstream water is not known. Rainfall deposition is a major source of nitrogen delivered to the study area. Rainfall nitrogen (mostly ammonia and nitrate

  13. Relationship of wooded riparian zones and runoff potential to fish community composition in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, J.C.; Goldstein, R.M.; Newman, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship of fish community composition to riparian cover and runoff potential was investigated in 20 streams in the agricultural Minnesota River Basin during the summer of 1997. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences in fish community composition due to both riparian cover (wooded versus open) and runoff potential (high or low). Streams with wooded riparian zones had higher index of biological integrity (IBI) scores, species richness, diversity, and percentages of benthic insectivores and herbivores than streams with open riparian zones. Streams with low runoff potential had higher IBI scores and species richness than streams with high runoff potential. The riparian cover and runoff potential interaction was marginally significant with respect to IBI scores and species richness, suggesting a weak interaction between the two factors. Although both factors were important, riparian cover influenced fish community composition more than runoff potential in these streams, indicating that local factors (close to the stream) dominated landscape- or basin-level factors.

  14. Mitigating agrichemicals from an artificial runoff event using a managed riverine wetland.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard E; Shields, F Douglas; Murdock, Justin N; Kröger, Robert; Knight, Scott S

    2012-06-15

    We examined the mitigation efficiency of a managed riverine wetland amended with a mixture of suspended sediment, two nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and three pesticides (atrazine, metolachlor, and permethrin) during a simulated agricultural runoff event. Hydrologic management of the 500 m-long, 25 m-wide riverine wetland was done by adding weirs at both ends. The agrichemical mixture was amended to the wetland at the upstream weir simulating a four-hour, ~1cm rainfall event from a 16ha agricultural field. Water samples (1L) were collected every 30 min within the first 4h, then every 4h until 48 h, and again on days 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 post-amendment at distances of 0m, 10 m, 40 m, 300 m and 500 m from the amendment point within the wetland for suspended solids, nutrient, and pesticide analyses. Peak sediment, nutrient, and pesticide concentrations occurred within 3 h of amendment at 0m, 10 m, 40 m, and 300 m downstream and showed rapid attenuation of agrichemicals from the water column with 79-98%, 42-98%, and 63-98% decrease in concentrations of sediments, nutrients, and pesticides, respectively, within 48 h. By day 28, all amendments were near or below pre-amendment concentrations. Water samples at 500 m showed no changes in sediment or nutrient concentrations; pesticide concentrations peaked within 48 h but at ≤11% of upstream peak concentrations and had dissipated by day 28. Managed riverine wetlands≥1 ha and with hydraulic residence times of days to weeks can efficiently trap agricultural runoff during moderate (1cm) late-spring and early-summer rainfall events, mitigating impacts to receiving rivers.

  15. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  16. Aged Manures as Sources of Pathogens in Agricultural Runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overland runoff from fields with applied manure may carry a variety of chemical and microbial contaminants that compromise water quality and increase the human health risk of exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. A series of rainfall simulation experiments were designed and impl...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE PESTICIDE RUNOFF IN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) runoff may result in significant discharges of pesticides, suspended sediments, and fertilizers into estuarine habitats adjacent to agricultural areas or downstream from agricultural watersheds. Exposure of estuarine fin fish and shellfish to to...

  18. Effects of Cadastral Boundaries in Agricultural Land on Runoff Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Tripathi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Gangetic Plain is among the most fertile and highly cultivated regions of the world. It supports a large agrarian population that is rapidly growing since the Green Revolution of 1960s. With increasing population, the average farm size is decreasing. Consequently, the density of cadastral boundaries, which are used for separating individual farm holdings, is increasing. The cadastral boundaries in the Gangetic Plains are typically 25 to 30 cm high and 30 to 60 cm wide. These boundaries segment the flat topography of the region, creating small artificial water storages, the effect of which on the hydrology of the region is not extensively investigated. The objective of this research is to develop a laboratory scale physical model for understanding the effect of cadastral boundaries and resulting artificial storages on runoff generation. Experiments were performed in a hydrological apparatus equipped for simulating rainfall-runoff processes under control conditions. The experiments were carried out for watersheds with no cadastral boundaries, and with cadastral boundaries of varying dimensions and densities. Changes in the observed runoff were used to develop a mathematical model for explaining and predicting the impact of cadastral boundaries on the hydrology of the Gangetic Plains.

  19. Sensitivity of agricultural runoff to climate change in the San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficklin, D. L.; Luo, Y.; Gatzke, S. E.; Zhang, M.

    2008-12-01

    The quantification of the hydrological response to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is required for the proper management of agricultural systems and water resources. This study simulated variations in CO2, temperature and precipitation to quantify the hydrologic response in an intensive agricultural system. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of climate change on agricultural runoff in the San Joaquin watershed in California. The results of this study suggest that atmospheric CO2, precipitation, and temperature changes have significant effects on the yield of sediment, nitrate, total phosphorus, and two pesticides (diazinon and chlorypyrifos) chosen for consideration. As expected, precipitation had a greater impact on agricultural runoff compared to changes in either CO2 concentration or temperature. A change in precipitation of ±10% and ±20% generally altered agricultural runoff proportionally. In comparison to present day reference scenarios, a simulated increase in CO2 concentration while holding temperature and precipitation constant resulted in an increased nitrate, total phosphorus, and chlorpyrifos yield of 4.2, 7.8, and 6.4%, respectively, and a decreased sediment and diazinon yield of 6.3 and 6.4%, respectively. A temperature increase with no precipitation or CO2 concentration change caused a decrease for all agricultural runoff components. Results from this study provide valuable insight into the effects of various climate change scenarios on agricultural runoff and can direct policy makers and agricultural stakeholders in their efforts to create and comply with water quality legislation in a rapidly changing environment.

  20. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD(cr), TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO₃, TP, PO₄ and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways.

  1. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  2. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  3. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L; Furlong, Edward T; Davis, Jessica G; Revello, Rhiannon C; Borch, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone <0.8 to 2.23 ng L(-1) and androstenedione <0.8 to 1.54 ng L(-1)) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L(-1)). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (<0.8 to 25.0 ng L(-1)), androgens (<2 to 216 ng L(-1)), and progesterone (<8 to 98.9 ng L(-1)) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  4. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Owens, P R; Leytem, A B; Warnemuende, E A

    2007-05-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha-1, and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L-1) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH4-N L-1) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L-1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application.

  5. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Owens, P R; Leytem, A B; Warnemuende, E A

    2007-05-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha-1, and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L-1) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH4-N L-1) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L-1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. PMID:17029684

  6. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  7. Periphyton responses to nutrient and atrazine mixtures introduced through agricultural runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural runoff often contains pollutants with potential antagonistic impacts on periphyton, such as nutrients and atrazine. The individual influence of these pollutants on periphyton has been extensively studied, but their impact when introduced in a more realistic scenario of multiple agricult...

  8. Designing a constructed wetland for the detention of agricultural runoff for water quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Millhollon, Eddie P; Rodrigue, Paul B; Rabb, James L; Martin, Danny F; Anderson, Russell A; Dans, Darinda R

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to construct a wetland that would detain runoff from a 162-ha watershed for the purposes of improving water quality. The volume of runoff that needed to be detained was determined to be that amount coming off the 162-ha watershed consisting of 146 ha of cultivated crop land and 16 ha of pasture that exceeded the amount that would have come off of the watershed in its natural, forested state. The Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resource Conservation Service [NRCS]) runoff curve number method was used to estimate runoff from the watershed in its natural, forested state and in its current state of cultivated crop land and pasture. The design of the constructed wetland was accomplished using the natural topography of the wetland site and the design criteria for a sediment containment system developed by NRCS. The SPAW (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Water Field & Pond Hydrology) computer model was used to model depth and volume in the wetland to determine if the constructed wetland design would accommodate typical runoff events. Construction of the wetland occurred over a 4-mo period. The capabilities of the system were verified when Hurricane Rita deposited above-normal rainfall to the wetland site area. The wetland was able to accommodate this event, allowing flow through the system for 9 d, followed by continued detention of remaining runoff for water quality improvement.

  9. Flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in northwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, John; Ligneau, Laurence; de Roo, Ad; Vandaele, Karel

    1994-08-01

    In the last twenty years there has been an increase in the incidence of flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in many areas of northwestern Europe. These events take the form of inundations by soil-laden water associated with erision and the formation of ephemeral or talweg gullies developed in normally dry valley bottoms. Costs of such events may be considerable e.g. almost US$2M at Rottingdean, southern England, in 1987. These costs are largely borne by individual house occupants, insurance companies and local councils. The distribution of flooding is widespread but areas of high risk can be identified: the hilly area of central Belgium, parts of northern France, the South Downs in southern England and South-Limburg (the Netherlands). All these areas have silty, more or less loessial soils. Two types of flooding may be distinguished: winter flooding associated with wet soils and the cultivation of winter cereals, and summer flooding due to thunderstorm activity and runoff particularly from sugar beet, maize and potato crops. The distribution of these types of erosion varies in relation to the interaction between physical characteristics (soils and topography), climatic conditions and land use across the region. The reason for the recent increase in flooding events appears to be changes in land use, in the area of arable cropping, and the continued intensification of farming such as the use of chemical fertilizers, the decline in aggregate stability, the increase in the size of fields and compaction by farm vehicles. In some regions the risk of flooding has also increased because of expansion of urban areas in valley bottom locations. Communities have responded to the flooding hazard with emergency or protective measures usually involving engineered structures rather than land use change. The policy response to the increased risk of flooding has been very limited especially at the national and provincial level, the exception being plans developed

  10. Effects of surface run-off on the transport of agricultural chemicals to ground water in a sandplain setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at a depressional (lowland) and an upland site in sandy soils to evaluate the effects of surface run-off on the transport of agricultural chemicals to ground water. Approximately 16.5 cm of water was applied to both sites during the experiment, representing a natural precipitation event with a recurrence interval of approximately 100 years. Run-off was quantified at the lowland site and was not detected at the upland site during the experiment. Run-off of water to the lowland site was the most important factor affecting differences in the concentrations and fluxes of the agricultural chemicals between the two sites. Run-off of water to the lowland site appears to have played a dual role by diluting chemical concentrations in the unsaturated zone as well as increasing the concentrations at the water table, compared to the upland site. Concentrations of chloride, nitrate and atrazine plus metabolites were noticeably greater at the water table than in the unsaturated zone at both sites. The estimated mass flux of chloride and nitrate to the water table during the test were 5-2 times greater, respectively, at the lowland site compared to the upland site, whereas the flux of sulfate and atrazine plus metabolites was slightly greater at the upland site. Results indicate that matrix flow of water and chemicals was the primary process causing the observed differences between the two sites. Results of the experiment illustrate the effects of heterogeneity and the complexity of evaluating chemical transport through the unsaturated zone. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Effects of surface run-off on the transport of agricultural chemicals to ground water in a sandplain setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Landon, Matthew K.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at a depressional (lowland) and an upland site in sandy soils to evaluate the effects of surface run-off on the transport of agricultural chemicals to ground water. Approximately 16.5 cm of water was applied to both sites during the experiment, representing a natural precipitation event with a recurrence interval of approximately 100 years. Run-off was quantified at the lowland site and was not detected at the upland site during the experiment. Run-off of water to the lowland site was the most important factor affecting differences in the concentrations and fluxes of the agricultural chemicals between the two sites. Run-off of water to the lowland site appears to have played a dual role by diluting chemical concentrations in the unsaturated zone as well as increasing the concentrations at the water table, compared to the upland site. Concentrations of chloride, nitrate and atrazine plus metabolites were noticeably greater at the water table than in the unsaturated zone at both sites. The estimated mass flux of chloride and nitrate to the water table during the test were 5–2 times greater, respectively, at the lowland site compared to the upland site, whereas the flux of sulfate and atrazine plus metabolites was slightly greater at the upland site. Results indicate that matrix flow of water and chemicals was the primary process causing the observed differences between the two sites. Results of the experiment illustrate the effects of heterogeneity and the complexity of evaluating chemical transport through the unsaturated zone.

  12. Nutrient attenuation by a riparian wetland during natural and artificial runoff events.

    PubMed

    Casey, R E; Klaine, S J

    2001-01-01

    Due to chronic nutrient enrichment of surface water, wetlands adjacent to land managed with fertilizer have been studied to determine their role in nutrient dynamics. We sampled golf course runoff and determined the loads of NO3- and PO4(-3) transported during storms and the attenuation of those loads when runoff passed through a riparian wetland. All sampled storm events contained NO3- (2 to 1470 g NO3-N per event) and PO4(-3) (1 to 4156 g PO4-P per event). Extensive nutrient attenuation occurred when water passed through the riparian wetland. In 11 events, NO3- and PO4(-3) attenuation averaged 80 and 74%, respectively. In subsequent experiments, we created a stream of water flowing into the wetland and amended it with NO3-, PO4(-3) and Br-, creating an artificial runoff event. The experiments were conducted using conditions similar to those of natural runoff events. We observed rapid and complete attenuation of PO4(-3) immediately after runoff water infiltrated into the wetland subsurface. No PO4(-3) was observed in discharge from the wetland. Nitrate attenuation occurred following a lag phase of several hours that was probably due to reactivation of denitrifying enzymes. Nitrate attenuation was initially less than 60% but increased to 100% in all experiments. We observed extensive dilution of runoff water in the wetland subsurface indicating mixing with pre-event ground water in the wetland. The results indicated that intermittent inputs of NO3- and PO4(-3) could be successfully attenuated in the wetland on the time scale of natural storm events.

  13. Steroidal hormones in agricultural runoff: Lessons from studies at multiple scales in Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, S. P.; Aga, D.; Dutta, S.; Vaicunas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging contaminants such as steroidal hormones have raised considerable environmental concerns and in elevated concentrations have been shown to cause physiological and reproductive disorders in aquatic and wildlife species. Large or concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in agricultural landscapes can be an important source of steroidal hormones, especially, if animal waste or manure is applied to the land and runs off with surface waters. Delaware is a state with a large poultry industry where a significant portion of poultry litter is applied to agricultural lands as fertilizer. Over the past four years, we have investigated the potential threat posed by hormones in agricultural landscapes by determining the concentrations of estrogens at various scales - field plots (Dutta et al. 2010; Journal of Environmental Quality); watershed scale (Dutta et al., 2012; Water Air Soil Pollution) and statewide surveys of surface waters (Vaicunas et al., submitted; Journal of American Water Resources Association). This talk summarizes the key lessons that we have learnt from these studies. Special emphasis was placed on evaluating the pollution potential under typical agronomic conditions and under natural storm and runoff conditions. Estrogen analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS. The key questions that we addressed were: (a) What are the concentrations and forms (free versus conjugate) of estrogens in runoff? Do the concentrations exceed environmental thresholds? (b) How do the concentrations in runoff change with time after land-application of manure? (c) How do the estrogens concentrations vary across different landscape positions and what are the key runoff flow paths? Our results suggest that concentrations of estrogens in runoff were low and much below the levels that have been used for exposure or toxicological assays. Concentrations of conjugated forms of estrogens were higher than the free, more toxic, forms. However, since these forms are inter

  14. Inter-event variability in urban stormwater runoff response associated with hydrologic connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondula, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters the magnitude and composition of hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes from watersheds, with subsequent deleterious consequences for receiving waters. Projected changes in storm characteristics such as rainfall intensity and event size are predicted to amplify these impacts and render current regulations inadequate for protecting surface water quality. As stormwater management practices (BMPs) are increasingly being relied upon to reduce excess nutrient pollution in runoff from residential development, empirical investigation of their performance across a range of conditions is warranted. Despite substantial investment in urban and suburban BMPs, significant knowledge gaps exist in understanding how landscape structure and precipitation event characteristics influence the amount of stormwater runoff and associated nutrient loads from these complex catchments. Increasing infiltration of stormwater before it enters the sewer network (source control) is hypothesized to better mimic natural hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes compared to more centralized BMPs at sewer outlets such as wet and dry ponds. Rainfall and runoff quality and quantity were monitored in four small (1-5 ha) residential catchments in Maryland to test the efficacy of infiltration-based stormwater management practices in comparison to end-of-pipe BMPs. Results indicated that reduced hydrologic connectivity associated with infiltration-based practices affected the relationship between the magnitude of rainfall events and water yield , but only for small precipitation events: compared to end-of-pipe BMPs, source control was associated with both lower runoff ratios and lower nutrient export per area for a given rainfall event size. We found variability in stormwater runoff responses (water yield, quality, and nutrient loads) was associated with precipitation event size, antecedent rainfall, and hydrologic connectivity as quantified by a modified directional connectivity index

  15. Grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adekalu, K O; Olorunfemi, I A; Osunbitan, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. The effectiveness of using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. Six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agricultural soils in South Western Nigeria were collected, placed on three different slopes, and mulched with different rates of the grass. The surface runoff, soil loss, and apparent cumulative infiltration were then measured under each condition. The results with elephant grass compared favorably with results from previous experiments using rice straw. Runoff and soil loss decreased with the amount of mulch used and increased with slope. Surface runoff, infiltration and soil loss had high correlations (R = 0.90, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively) with slope and mulch cover using surface response analysis. The mean surface runoff was correlated negatively with sand content, while mean soil loss was correlated positively with colloidal content (clay and organic matter) of the soil. Infiltration was increased and soil loss was reduced greatly with the highest cover. Mulching the soils with elephant grass residue may benefit late cropping (second cropping) by increasing stored soil water for use during dry weather and help to reduce erosion on sloping land.

  16. Climate Extremes Events and their Connection with Runoff in the Yellow River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Caihong; Lei, Deyi; He, Huli; Wang, Jijun

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff and their relationship with the extreme values of eight climate indices, based on observational data from 143 meteorological stations and 6 hydrological stations across the basin. The eight core indices selected from the STARDEX projects reflect rather moderate extremes. Statistics methods and GIS technology were be used for analysis on the relationship and distribution characteristics. We analyzed the reason of runoff change and the relationship between the climate extreme events and observed runoff from six hydrological stations. Our results show that the annual and seasonal runoff showed obviously decrease tendency. Sharp decreases of runoff in six hydrological stations occurred in the late 1980s and 1990s. It can be seen that the decrease in runoff was caused by climate change, increased demands for water supply, land use change, etc. And the difference between the magnitude of the increasing and decreasing trends for different indices at different stations suggests that the climate extremes and environment change resulted in a decrease in runoff. The results also show that the shortage of water resources will become more pronounced in the Yellow River Basin with the increased occurrence of climate extremes. The results presented here will help to improve our understanding of the changes to climate extremes, and provide a basis for further investigation.

  17. Impact of agricultural practices on runoff and glyphosate peaks in a small vineyard catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Ballouche, Aziz

    2013-04-01

    The Layon River, a tributary of the Loire River, does frequently not comply with water quality standards because of pesticides. Vineyard is generally denounced. The aim of this project is to explain the transfer of pesticides during runoff events and its interaction with erosion. Pesticides and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations are monitored at the outlet of the vineyards catchment each 2 minutes during floods to follow peaks. The results of three different hydrological years (2009, 2011, 2012) are exposed. The 2.2ha catchment is composed of two main vineyards plots managed by two independent farmers. Mean slopes are of 8% and can reach 40% in terraces. A gauging station has been installed at the end of the slope with a calibrated Venturi channel. The measurement station is composed of (a) an approach channel of 10 meters long for the establishment of a stable water surface, (b) a trapezoidal long-throated flume to assess the flow rate with the water level measured with (c) a bubbler sensor, (d) an automatic rain gauge, (e) an automatic sampler, (f) a modem and (g) a logosens OTT® data logger. 2009 was an average year, 2011 was particularly dry and 2012 particularly wet. Quantities of glyphosate applied were respectively 1087, 645 and 720g. Maximum discharges in the gauging station were 5, 12 and 25L.s-1. Minimum and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in runoff waters were 1-449.1 µg.L-1 in 2009, 0.62-13.6 µg.L-1 in 2011 and 0.1-3.7 µg.L-1 in 2012. Minimum and maximum concentrations of SPM were 14-1261mg.L-1 in 2009, 108- 6454 mg.L-1 in 2011 and 9-1541 mg.L-1 in 2012. While flows, quantities of glyphosate applied and peaks of concentrations observed in 2011 are more important in 2009, SPM generated in the runoff waters are lower than 2011 and 2012, even though 2012 has particularly been a wet year. Also, maximum runoff coefficients are 7% in 2009 and 2011 and 57% in 2012. In fact, this latest explains differences between years better than

  18. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bin; Han, Feng; Lin, Zhongrong; Wang, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was setup to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation.

  19. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Monteiro, Sara C; Beck, Andrew; Coelho, Bonnie Ball; Boxall, Alistair B A; Duenk, Peter W; Kleywegt, Sonya; Lapen, David R; Payne, Michael; Sabourin, Lyne; Li, Hongxia; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2008-06-15

    Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs. PMID:18377955

  20. Agricultural runoff fuels large phytoplankton blooms in vulnerable areas of the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael Beman, J.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Matson, Pamela A.

    2005-03-01

    Biological productivity in most of the world's oceans is controlled by the supply of nutrients to surface waters. The relative balance between supply and removal of nutrients-including nitrogen, iron and phosphorus-determines which nutrient limits phytoplankton growth. Although nitrogen limits productivity in much of the ocean, large portions of the tropics and subtropics are defined by extreme nitrogen depletion. In these regions, microbial denitrification removes biologically available forms of nitrogen from the water column, producing substantial deficits relative to other nutrients. Here we demonstrate that nitrogen-deficient areas of the tropical and subtropical oceans are acutely vulnerable to nitrogen pollution. Despite naturally high nutrient concentrations and productivity, nitrogen-rich agricultural runoff fuels large (54-577km2) phytoplankton blooms in the Gulf of California. Runoff exerts a strong and consistent influence on biological processes, in 80% of cases stimulating blooms within days of fertilization and irrigation of agricultural fields. We project that by the year 2050, 27-59% of all nitrogen fertilizer will be applied in developing regions located upstream of nitrogen-deficient marine ecosystems. Our findings highlight the present and future vulnerability of these ecosystems to agricultural runoff.

  1. Estimation of groundwater contribution in runoff from small agricultural dominated catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Johannes; Jansons, Viesturs; Lagzdiņš, Ainis

    2013-04-01

    Under poor natural drainage condition, agricultural land has to be provided with subsurface drainage systems to discharge excess water from the rootzone, thereby guaranteeing optimal cropping conditions during the growing season, while in addition facilitating land preparation. Subsurface drainage systems can significantly contribute in runoff and nutrient loss generation. A secondary effect of drainage systems is that it reduces surface runoff and thereby erosion and phosphorus loss. In addition to surface and subsurface runoff, a third component, being groundwater, is contributing in runoff. As only information about the total runoff at the catchment outlet is available, uncertainty exists about the contribution of the different flow processes. Agriculture is a main contributor of nutrients and sediments to surface water causing water quality problems. Knowledge about the different pathways of water and hence nutrients and sediments to open water systems is important with respect to the choice of mitigation measures in agricultural dominated catchments. Estimates of groundwater or baseflow contribution (BFI) are often based on the use of digital filters applied to average daily discharge values. When using recommended values for the digital filter, this resulted in BFI of 40 - 50 % when applied to small Norwegian agricultural catchments. When taking the poor natural drainage conditions into consideration in addition to the presence of heavy marine clay deposits at depths greater than 1 - 2 m below soil surface, these values are considered unrealistically high. Deelstra et al (2010) showed that small agricultural catchments can have rather "flashy" runoff behaviour, characterised by large diurnal variations in discharge which also contradicts high baseflow contributions. An approach to obtain a realistic filter parameter for a digital filter has been carried out, based on discharge measurements on a set of small, nested catchments in Norway and further tested in

  2. Trapping runoff, sediment and nutrients at the edge-of-field: Using constructed wetlands to control runoff and improve water quality in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John; Stoate, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Across Europe, many rivers and lakes are polluted. In the UK, the Biodiversity Action Plan estimates that over 70% of lakes are eutrophic. Diffuse pollution from agriculture is currently of extreme concern, but pollution and flood risk can be mitigated by management activities. The use of in-field mitigation options such as reduced tillage has been found to be effective at reducing runoff, sediment and nutrient loss in overland flow, but pollutants can still be lost from hillslopes unchecked via subsurface flow pathways, some of which may contribute very high loads of nutrients to streams. Edge-of-field mitigation approaches, which can tackle both surface and subsurface pathways at locations where they discharge into ditches and streams, therefore have greater potential as runoff control measures than in-field measures alone. In the UK, the implementation, effectiveness and functioning of seven new wetlands constructed at the edges of agricultural fields is currently being assessed. The constructed wetlands, of different designs, which are fed by different flow types and are located on different farm and soil types, are continuously monitored for discharge and turbidity at inlets and outlets, while storm sampling allows assessment of sediment and nutrient transfer into and out of the wetland at times when there is a high risk of pollutant transfer. Pond surveys and sediment sampling will take place annually, and tracer experiments will be carried out in the course of the project. The data will be used to generate information on sediment and nutrient load reductions or wetland effectiveness, wetland sediment and nutrient budgets, and water and sediment residence times. In this paper we present the initial results, including novel high-resolution data from the first monitored events. Early outputs suggest that constructed wetlands which receive surface runoff inputs can retain flood waters and may reduce flood peaks, wetlands built to take drain outfalls may be

  3. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS model for predicting runoff and sediment yield in a small Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Youssef; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel; Giménez, Rafael; Campo, Miguel A.; Del Valle de Lersundi, Jokin

    2010-05-01

    variable was total annual runoff and its temporal evolution during each year. Model performance assessment after calibration was carried out by qualitative (by visual comparison of graphics) and quantitative approaches (using Nash and Sutcliffe's coefficient of efficiency E for monthly values, coefficient of determination R2 and coefficient of residual mass CRM). The initial values of CN, unique for each land use, were modified; in spite of achieving a satisfactory capability in simulating runoff/sediment yield, CN was anyway splitted up, adjusting the values to the main different stages of each crop. In that way, the model performance dramatically improved. Then, the predicted and measured annual average runoff after calibration were respectively 70.17 and 70.78 mm/ha/year, with R2= 0.78 and E = 0.77. However, annual sediment yields and peak flows were over predicted respectively by 42% and 26%. Sediment yield were over estimated especially during dry season and the beginning of wet season where (sometimes) some runoff was predicted even though none was in fact recorded. This suggests that during summer/autumn period the hydrologic component of the model was not able to satisfactorily reproduce the interaction between the drier antecedent conditions/high water holding capacity of soils before any event and the small total volume -though high intensity- of the rainfalls. Regarding model validation, a satisfactory estimation of runoff with E> 0.57 was also obtained. Finally, it can be stated that AnnAGNPS arises as a promising management tool for our agricultural watersheds.

  4. Modeling effectiveness of agricultural BMPs to reduce sediment load and organophosphate pesticides in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyang; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-04-15

    Quantifying effectiveness of agricultural BMPs at the watershed scale is a challenging issue, requiring robust algorithms to simulate not only the agricultural production system but also pollutant transport and fate. This research addresses the challenge to simulate performances of BMPs in reducing organophosphates (OPs) runoff at the watershed scale. The SWAT model is calibrated and validated following a sensitivity analysis combining Latin Hypercube sampling and One-factor-At-a-Time simulation. The calibrated model is then applied in the Orestimba Creek Watershed to simulate BMPs including buffer strips, sediment ponds, vegetated ditches, use reduction, and their combinations. BMP simulation suggested that sediment ponds trap 54-85% of sediment from field runoff, but less than 10% of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Use reduction can reduce pesticide load in a close-to-linear fashion. Effectiveness of vegetated ditches and buffers depends on their physical dimension and vegetation cover. Combining individual BMPs provides enhanced mitigation effects. The combination of vegetated ditches, buffer strips and use reduction decreases diazinon and chlorpyrifos load by over 94%. This study has suggested that the SWAT model reasonably predicts BMP effectiveness at the watershed scale. Results will assist decision making in implementing BMPs to reduce pesticide loads in surface runoff. PMID:21377192

  5. Impacts of urban development on runoff event characteristics and unit hydrographs across warm and cold seasons in high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2015-02-01

    The impacts of urbanization on catchment hydrology are widely studied by comparing how different urban catchments respond to storm events, but rarely by realizing long-term observations of hydrological changes during the construction process at urbanizing small catchments. In this study, the changes occurring in runoff generation were monitored in a developing catchment under construction and in two urban control catchments. As the imperviousness of the developing catchment increased from 1.5% to 37%, significant increases were observed in event runoff depths and peak flows during rainfall-runoff events. At the same time, the only statistically significant changes that were observed for the cold period runoff events were the shorter duration and smaller runoff depths. The effect of urbanization on event runoff dynamics was studied in terms of changes in the instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUH). Negative trends were detected in the gamma parameters of IUHs, which became more consistent across events and produced a sharper shape of the hydrograph as the construction works progressed. Because urban development caused the greatest relative changes in runoff during frequently occurring minor rainfall events, the study results underlined the importance of small storms in urban runoff management for maintaining the predevelopment water balance. During infrequent major rainfall events and the cold period snowmelt events the impacts of urbanization were less pronounced. The impact of urbanization on runoff was best detected based on peak flow rates, volumetric runoff coefficients, or mean runoff intensities. Control catchments were essential to distinguish the hydrological impact caused by catchment characteristics from those caused by changes in the meteorological conditions or season.

  6. Glacier Runoff and Human Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of Export Agriculture in Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, M.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern about the effects of climate change and ensuing glacier shrinkage on water supplies for mountain communities worldwide. The issue is only becoming more complex as researchers seek to quantify glacier contributions to streamflow and to pinpoint when and how much glacier runoff will likely change as a result of future climate change and glacier variation. Additionally, some researchers are beginning to recognize the importance of understanding the human dimensions of glacier retreat to identify which social groups (stakeholders) use glacier runoff and how much they use, as well as what socio-environmental forces affect both water supplies and water use. This presentation examines these societal aspects of glacier runoff to analyze human vulnerability to hydrological changes in Peru's Santa River watershed below the most glaciated tropical mountain range in the world, the Cordillera Blanca. Specifically, it focuses on the billion-dollar export-oriented agricultural industry within the Chavimochic irrigation project, which uses Santa River water to irrigate approximately 80,000 hectares in the coastal desert region. Since the 1980s, Santa River water has allowed Chavimochic to sustain a major export economy, provide jobs in the agro-industry and related services, stimulate human migration, enhance or alter livelihoods, generate hydroelectricity, supply drinking water, and shape urban growth and land use practices. All of these variables are dependent on glacier meltwater from the Cordillera Blanca, especially during the dry season when glaciers provide most of the Santa River's water. In short, hundreds of thousands of people have come to depend on glacier runoff, thus revealing their high level of vulnerability to hydrological fluctuations in a glacier-fed watershed. What's more, people worldwide rely on the asparagus, avocados, and artichokes grown with glacier runoff. Consequently, the export-oriented agriculture, through the "virtual water

  7. Fecal coliform removal in a lightly loaded surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc W; Whritenour, Victoria; Brouillard, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands can be an effective and sustainable method to remove pathogens that pose health risks from agricultural runoff. This study evaluated the removal of fecal coliform (FC) from agricultural runoff in a lightly loaded surface-flow treatment wetland prior to discharge to the Yakima River, Washington State, USA. The 1.6 ha system consisted of a sedimentation basin (1.4 d hydraulic retention time) followed by two wetlands (5-6 d hydraulic retention time). FC in inflow ranged from 100 to 1,000 cfu/100 mL. Mean annual FC log-removal in the sedimentation basin was 0.66 ± 0.17 (mean plus/minus standard deviation; n = 7). However, there was a comparable production of FC within the two wetlands where annual log-removal averaged -0.71 ± 0.39 in the north wetland and -0.57 ± 0.17 in the south wetland. FC removal in the sedimentation basin weakly correlated with turbidity removal (R(2) = 0.13, p < 0.01, n = 61), suggesting that settling was an important FC loss mechanism. FC removal in the wetlands negatively correlated with temperature (R(2) = 0.27-0.33, p < 0.01, n = 26) indicating that survival and/or reproduction was an important FC production mechanism. Muskrat colonization in the wetlands in 2007 and 2008 corresponded with a marked increase in FC in wetland outflow. Results suggest that, regardless of the presence of muskrats, sedimentation basins alone are more effective than a combined sedimentation basin-wetland system in removing FC from dilute agricultural runoff.

  8. Seasonal Dynamics in Runoff Generation, Flowpaths and Phosphorus Mobilization From Reduced-till Agricultural Fields in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; van Esbroeck, C.; Brunke, R.; McKague, K.

    2014-12-01

    Reduced tillage systems used in agriculture have been shown to decrease losses of particulate phosphorus (P), but may increase the risk of dissolved P transport in some landscapes. Most of our knowledge of P losses from agricultural systems is based on observations made during the frost-free season and little is known about winter processes. Given the magnitude of the spring freshet in many regions, it is important to characterize P dynamics during this period. Discharge and P transport in overland flow and subsurface (tile) drainage were monitored at three reduced-till fields in southern Ontario, Canada for 18 months to (1) quantify runoff and P loads from fields; (2) characterize seasonality in the relative contributions of tile drainage and overland flow to runoff and P loads, and (3) demonstrate variable responses among different event types. Transport pathways were active throughout the non-growing season (NGS) and this period accounted for the majority of annual P loads over the study period. Drainage tiles were the dominant hydrologic pathway from fields throughout the study period, but were a small source of P when compared to P loss in overland flow. Overland flow was predominantly observed during winter thaws when ground frost was present. However, the magnitude and speciation of P losses during individual winter events were variable, and, were governed by a combination of antecedent conditions and precipitation characteristics. Given the importance of the NGS to annual P losses, we suggest that management steps should be taken to minimize the risk of losses during this period.

  9. Simulation of rainfall-runoff for major flash flood events in Karachi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Sumaira

    2016-07-01

    Metropolitan city Karachi has strategic importance for Pakistan. With the each passing decade the city is facing urban sprawl and rapid population growth. These rapid changes directly affecting the natural resources of city including its drainage pattern. Karachi has three major cities Malir River with the catchment area of 2252 sqkm and Lyari River has catchment area about 470.4 sqkm. These are non-perennial rivers and active only during storms. Change of natural surfaces into hard pavement causing an increase in rainfall-runoff response. Curve Number is increased which is now causing flash floods in the urban locality of Karachi. There is only one gauge installed on the upstream of the river but there no record for the discharge. Only one gauge located at the upstream is not sufficient for discharge measurements. To simulate the maximum discharge of Malir River rainfall (1985 to 2014) data were collected from Pakistan meteorological department. Major rainfall events use to simulate the rainfall runoff. Maximum rainfall-runoff response was recorded in during 1994, 2007 and 2013. This runoff causes damages and inundation in floodplain areas of Karachi. These flash flooding events not only damage the property but also cause losses of lives

  10. Size distribution of organic matter and associated propiconazole in agricultural runoff material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglan; Riise, Gunnhild; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2003-01-01

    Sorption and desorption characteristics of propiconazole (1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole) to different particle/aggregate-size fractions of agricultural runoff material were investigated. Emphasis was put on clay and colloidal size fractions to evaluate their role as potential sorbents and carriers for this pesticide. The runoff material was separated into size fractions ranging from 2 mm to ca. 15 nm by wet sieving, sedimentation, centrifugation, and membrane ultrafiltration. Each fraction was characterized by its organic C content and C/N ratio. Distinctive sorption properties of clay-sized particles and colloids were investigated. The obtained size fractions differed significantly in their organic C concentration, C/N ratio, and sorption properties to propiconazole. Organic matter was mainly associated in aggregates >2 microm. Binding of propiconazole to this coarse fraction made up 80% of the sorbed propiconazole. The distribution coefficient between solid and aqueous phases increased with decreasing particle size. The colloidal fraction (<0.16 microm) exhibited the highest sorbtivity, with a distribution coefficient of 113 L kg(-1), which was more than four times higher than that in the bulk sample (27 L kg(-1)). The fraction <2 microm represented 8% of the total sample weight, but contributed to 20% of the sorbed propiconazole. Strong hysteresis was observed for the sorption-desorption of propiconazole on the runoff material. Under dilution very little sorbed propiconazole will be released into the water phase. Due to its high sorbtivity and mobility and the strong sorption-desorption hysteresis, particles in the fraction <2 microm can be important carriers of propiconazole in runoff suspensions with high sediment load.

  11. Multiple linear regression models of urban runoff pollutant load and event mean concentration considering rainfall variables.

    PubMed

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall is an important factor in estimating the event mean concentration (EMC) which is used to quantify the washed-off pollutant concentrations from non-point sources (NPSs). Pollutant loads could also be calculated using rainfall, catchment area and runoff coefficient. In this study, runoff quantity and quality data gathered from a 28-month monitoring conducted on the road and parking lot sites in Korea were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR) to develop equations for estimating pollutant loads and EMCs as a function of rainfall variables. The results revealed that total event rainfall and average rainfall intensity are possible predictors of pollutant loads. Overall, the models are indicators of the high uncertainties of NPSs; perhaps estimation of EMCs and loads could be accurately obtained by means of water quality sampling or a long-term monitoring is needed to gather more data that can be used for the development of estimation models.

  12. [Interception Effect of Ecological Ditch on Nitrogen Transport in Agricultural Runoff in Subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Hong-fang; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yi; Zhong, Yuan-chun; He, Yang; Xiao, Run-fin; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-05-15

    Interception effects of an ecological ditch, used to control agricultural non-point source pollution in subtropical China, on nitrogen transport in surface runoff were studied by monthly measuring the runoff volume and concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH₄⁺-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO₃⁻-N) and total nitrogen (TN) at the ditch inlet and outlet from 2013 to 2014. In addition, differences of NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N and TN removal were compared between 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the study ecological ditch worked effectively in N removal with average NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N and TN removal rates of 77.8%, 58.3%, and 48.7%; and their interception rates were 38.4, 59.6, and 171.1 kg · a⁻¹, respectively. The average proportion of NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N in TN was 47.5% at inlet, and 33.6% at outlet, which was significantly lower than that at inlet (P < 0.01). All hydrophytes in the ecological ditch were replaced by Myriophyllum aquaticum in 2014, which led to the increased average NO₃⁻-N and TN removal rates of 30.5% and 18.2%, respectively, Compared to in 2013. The vegetation of Myriophyllum aquaticum was beneficial to the improvement of N interception in ecological ditch. These findings clearly demonstrated that ecological ditch can substantially reduce N loss from surface runoff and be used as an important technique to prevent agricultural non-point N pollution. PMID:27506024

  13. [Interception Effect of Ecological Ditch on Nitrogen Transport in Agricultural Runoff in Subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Hong-fang; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yi; Zhong, Yuan-chun; He, Yang; Xiao, Run-fin; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-05-15

    Interception effects of an ecological ditch, used to control agricultural non-point source pollution in subtropical China, on nitrogen transport in surface runoff were studied by monthly measuring the runoff volume and concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (NH₄⁺-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO₃⁻-N) and total nitrogen (TN) at the ditch inlet and outlet from 2013 to 2014. In addition, differences of NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N and TN removal were compared between 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the study ecological ditch worked effectively in N removal with average NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N and TN removal rates of 77.8%, 58.3%, and 48.7%; and their interception rates were 38.4, 59.6, and 171.1 kg · a⁻¹, respectively. The average proportion of NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N in TN was 47.5% at inlet, and 33.6% at outlet, which was significantly lower than that at inlet (P < 0.01). All hydrophytes in the ecological ditch were replaced by Myriophyllum aquaticum in 2014, which led to the increased average NO₃⁻-N and TN removal rates of 30.5% and 18.2%, respectively, Compared to in 2013. The vegetation of Myriophyllum aquaticum was beneficial to the improvement of N interception in ecological ditch. These findings clearly demonstrated that ecological ditch can substantially reduce N loss from surface runoff and be used as an important technique to prevent agricultural non-point N pollution.

  14. Network for measuring runoff and water erosion in small agricultural cathments in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.; Boulal, H.; Gómez, H.; Vanwalleghem, T.; Pérez-Alcántara, R.; Peña, A.; Ayuso-Muñoz, J. L.; Giráldez, J. V.; Mateos, L.

    2010-05-01

    Water erosion is one of the major environmental threats to sustainability of agricultural production in Souther Spain. In Mediterranean climates, innapropriate soil management in steep or hilly landscapes causes intensive and extensive on-site and off-site damage. However, limited experimental information is available for fully understand the relationship between soil management practices and erosion at varying scales. This communication describes a network of five experimental catchments equipped with runoff and erosion monitoring devices established in the last five years in agricultural areas of Southern Spain. Three of the catchments are of small size (2 to 6.7 ha) and are covered by olive trees, a fourth one, of 20 ha, is cultivated with irrigated field crops, and the fifth catchment is located in an irrigation district where irrigated annual and tree crops coexist covering an area of 316 ha. Monitoring stations consist of a long-throated flume equipped with a untrasonic sensor to measure water depth, an ISCO water sampler, a rain gauge and a datalogger. This communication will present a preliminary comparison of runoff and sediment generated in the catchments during recent years, and it will discuss some of the main problems encountered in the establishment of the network and the future plans for upgrading the monitoring stations and analysing of results.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of Recent Flood Events With Persistent High Surface Runoff From Hydrological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, S.; Hakeem, K. Abdul; Raju, P. V.; Rao, V. V.; Yadav, A.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widespread disasters in India, with an estimated 40Mha of land prone to this natural disaster (National Flood Commission, India). Significant loss of property, infrastructure, livestock, public utilities resulting in large economic losses due to floods are recurrent every year in many parts of India. Flood forecasting and early warning is widely recognized and adopted as non-structural measure to lower the damages caused by the flood events. Estimating the rainfall excess that results into excessive river flow is preliminary effort in riverine flood estimation. Flood forecasting models are in general, are event based and do not fully account for successive and persistent excessive surface runoff conditions. Successive high rainfall events result in saturated soil moisture conditions, favourable for high surface runoff conditions. The present study is to explore the usefulness of hydrological model derived surface runoff, running on continuous times-step, to relate to the occurrence of flood inundation due to persistent and successive high surface runoff conditions. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), a macro-scale hydrological model, was used to simulate daily runoff at systematic grid level incorporating daily meteorological data and land cover data. VIC is a physically based, semi-distributed macroscale hydrological model that represents surface and subsurface hydrologic process on spatially distributed grid cell. It explicitly represents sub-grid heterogeneity in land cover classes, taking their phenological changes into account. In this study, the model was setup for entire India using geo-spatial data available from multiple sources (NRSC, NBSS&LUP, NOAA, and IMD) and was calibrated with river discharge data from CWC at selected river basins. Using the grid-wise surface runoff estimates from the model, an algorithm was developed through a set of thresholds of successive high runoff values in order to identify grids

  16. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (<75 μm) was low, even minus results being recorded, especially for particles smaller than 25 μm. The length of GSs is a key factor in its performance. The WDPs can remove particles of all sizes by sedimentation. In addition, WDPs can improve water quality due to their buffering and dilution capacity during rainfall as well as their water purification ability during dry periods. Overall, the ecological system of GSs coupled with WDPs is an effective system for agricultural runoff pollution control. PMID:26832867

  17. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.

    2009-04-01

    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  18. Loss Modeling with a Data-Driven Approach in Event-Based Rainfall-Runoff Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, L. H. C.

    2012-04-01

    Mathematical models require the estimation of rainfall abstractions for accurate predictions of runoff. Although loss models such as the constant loss and exponential loss models are commonly used, these methods are based on simplified assumptions of the physical process. A new approach based on the data driven paradigm to estimate rainfall abstractions is proposed in this paper. The proposed data driven model, based on the artificial neural network (ANN) does not make any assumptions on the loss behavior. The estimated discharge from a physically-based model, obtained from the kinematic wave (KW) model assuming zero losses, was used as the only input to the ANN. The output is the measured discharge. Thus, the ANN functions as a black-box loss model. Two sets of data were analyzed for this study. The first dataset consists of rainfall and runoff data, measured from an artificial catchment (area = 25 m2) comprising two overland planes (slope = 11%), 25m long, transversely inclined towards a rectangular channel (slope = 2%) which conveyed the flow, recorded using calibrated weigh tanks, to the outlet. Two rain gauges, each placed 6.25 m from either ends of the channel, were used to record rainfall. Data for six storm events over the period between October 2002 and December 2002 were analyzed. The second dataset was obtained from the Upper Bukit Timah catchment (area = 6.4 km2) instrumented with two rain gauges and a flow measuring station. A total of six events recorded between November 1987 and July 1988 were selected for this study. The runoff predicted by the ANN was compared with the measured runoff. In addition, results from KW models developed for both the catchments were used as a benchmark. The KW models were calibrated assuming the loss rate for an average event for each of the datasets. The results from both the ANN and KW models agreed well with the runoff measured from the artificial catchment. The KW model is expected to perform well since the catchment

  19. Classical and generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vijay K.; Ayalew, Tibebu B.; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of the Horton laws for hydrologic variables has greatly lagged behind geomorphology, which began with Robert Horton in 1945. We define the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events, which link self-similarity in network geomorphology with river basin hydrology. Both the Horton laws are tested in the Iowa River basin in eastern Iowa that drains an area of approximately 32 400 km2 before it joins the Mississippi River. The US Geological Survey continuously monitors the basin through 34 stream gauging stations. We select 51 rainfall-runoff events for carrying out the tests. Our findings support the existence of the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows, which may be considered as a new hydrologic discovery. Three different methods are illustrated for estimating the Horton peak-flow ratio due to small sample size issues in peak flow data. We illustrate an application of the Horton laws for diagnosing parameterizations in a physical rainfall-runoff model. The ideas and developments presented here offer exciting new directions for hydrologic research and education.

  20. Classical and generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay K; Ayalew, Tibebu B; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold F

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of the Horton laws for hydrologic variables has greatly lagged behind geomorphology, which began with Robert Horton in 1945. We define the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events, which link self-similarity in network geomorphology with river basin hydrology. Both the Horton laws are tested in the Iowa River basin in eastern Iowa that drains an area of approximately 32 400 km(2) before it joins the Mississippi River. The US Geological Survey continuously monitors the basin through 34 stream gauging stations. We select 51 rainfall-runoff events for carrying out the tests. Our findings support the existence of the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows, which may be considered as a new hydrologic discovery. Three different methods are illustrated for estimating the Horton peak-flow ratio due to small sample size issues in peak flow data. We illustrate an application of the Horton laws for diagnosing parameterizations in a physical rainfall-runoff model. The ideas and developments presented here offer exciting new directions for hydrologic research and education.

  1. Classical and generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay K; Ayalew, Tibebu B; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold F

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of the Horton laws for hydrologic variables has greatly lagged behind geomorphology, which began with Robert Horton in 1945. We define the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events, which link self-similarity in network geomorphology with river basin hydrology. Both the Horton laws are tested in the Iowa River basin in eastern Iowa that drains an area of approximately 32 400 km(2) before it joins the Mississippi River. The US Geological Survey continuously monitors the basin through 34 stream gauging stations. We select 51 rainfall-runoff events for carrying out the tests. Our findings support the existence of the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows, which may be considered as a new hydrologic discovery. Three different methods are illustrated for estimating the Horton peak-flow ratio due to small sample size issues in peak flow data. We illustrate an application of the Horton laws for diagnosing parameterizations in a physical rainfall-runoff model. The ideas and developments presented here offer exciting new directions for hydrologic research and education. PMID:26232981

  2. Development and testing of a distributed urban storm runoff event model with a vector-based catchment delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaguchi, H.; Kawamura, A.; Olsson, J.; Takasaki, T.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryThe recent advances in GIS technology as well as data availability open up new possibilities concerning urban storm runoff modeling. In this paper, a vector-based distributed storm event runoff model - the Tokyo Storm Runoff (TSR) model - is developed and tested for urban runoff analysis using two historical storm events. The set-up of this model is based on urban landscape GIS delineation that faithfully describes the complicated urban land use features in detail. The flow between single spatial elements is based on established hydraulic and hydrological models with equations that describe all aspects of storm runoff generation in an urban environment. The model was set up and evaluated for the small urban lower Ekota catchment in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. No calibration or tuning was performed, but the general model formulation was used with standard parameter values obtained from the literature. The runoff response to two storm events were simulated; one minor event resulting only in a small-scale flood wave and one major event which inundated parts of the catchment. For both events, the simulated water levels closely reproduced the observed ones. For the major event, also the reported inundation area was well described by the model. It was also demonstrated how the model can be used to evaluate the flow conditions in specific components of the urban hydrological system, which facilitates e.g. evaluation of flood-preventive measures.

  3. Identifying Hydrologic Processes in Agricultural Watersheds Using Precipitation-Runoff Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linard, Joshua I.; Wolock, David M.; Webb, Richard M.T.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals applied to agricultural fields will assist in designing the most effective strategies to prevent water-quality impairments. At a watershed scale, the processes controlling the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals are generally understood only conceptually. To examine the applicability of conceptual models to the processes actually occurring, two precipitation-runoff models - the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) - were applied in different agricultural settings of the contiguous United States. Each model, through different physical processes, simulated the transport of water to a stream from the surface, the unsaturated zone, and the saturated zone. Models were calibrated for watersheds in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska. The calibrated sets of input parameters for each model at each watershed are discussed, and the criteria used to validate the models are explained. The SWAT and WEBMOD model results at each watershed conformed to each other and to the processes identified in each watershed's conceptual hydrology. In Maryland the conceptual understanding of the hydrology indicated groundwater flow was the largest annual source of streamflow; the simulation results for the validation period confirm this. The dominant source of water to the Indiana watershed was thought to be tile drains. Although tile drains were not explicitly simulated in the SWAT model, a large component of streamflow was received from lateral flow, which could be attributed to tile drains. Being able to explicitly account for tile drains, WEBMOD indicated water from tile drains constituted most of the annual streamflow in the Indiana watershed. The Nebraska models indicated annual streamflow was composed primarily of perennial groundwater flow and infiltration-excess runoff, which conformed to the conceptual hydrology developed for that watershed. The hydrologic

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Agricultural Runoff and Soil Erosion Using Mathematical Modeling: Applications in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhonditsis, G.; Giourga, C.; Loumou, A.; Koulouri, M.

    2002-09-01

    Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.

  5. Quantitative assessment of agricultural runoff and soil erosion using mathematical modeling: applications in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Arhonditsis, G; Giourga, C; Loumou, A; Koulouri, M

    2002-09-01

    Three mathematical models, the runoff curve number equation, the universal soil loss equation, and the mass response functions, were evaluated for predicting nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricultural watersheds of the Mediterranean region. These methodologies were applied to a catchment, the gulf of Gera Basin, that is a typical terrestrial ecosystem of the islands of the Aegean archipelago. The calibration of the model parameters was based on data from experimental plots from which edge-of-field losses of sediment, water runoff, and nutrients were measured. Special emphasis was given to the transport of dissolved and solid-phase nutrients from their sources in the farmers' fields to the outlet of the watershed in order to estimate respective attenuation rates. It was found that nonpoint nutrient loading due to surface losses was high during winter, the contribution being between 50% and 80% of the total annual nutrient losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. The good fit between simulated and experimental data supports the view that these modeling procedures should be considered as reliable and effective methodological tools in Mediterranean areas for evaluating potential control measures, such as management practices for soil and water conservation and changes in land uses, aimed at diminishing soil loss and nutrient delivery to surface waters. Furthermore, the modifications of the general mathematical formulations and the experimental values of the model parameters provided by the study can be used in further application of these methodologies in watersheds with similar characteristics.

  6. Hydrology of a zero-order Southern Piedmont watershed through 45 years of changing agricultural land use. Part 1. Monthly and seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endale, Dinku M.; Fisher, Dwight S.; Steiner, Jean L.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported runoff from small agricultural watersheds over sufficiently long period so that the effect of different cover types on runoff can be examined. We analyzed 45-yrs of monthly and annual rainfall-runoff characteristics of a small (7.8 ha) zero-order typical Southern Piedmont watershed in southeastern United States. Agricultural land use varied as follows: 1. Row cropping (5-yrs); 2. Kudzu ( Pueraria lobata; 5-yrs); 3. Grazed kudzu and rescuegrass ( Bromus catharticus; 7-yrs); and 4. Grazed bermudagrass and winter annuals ( Cynodon dactylon; 28-yrs). Land use and rainfall variability influenced runoff characteristics. Row cropping produced the largest runoff amount, percentage of the rainfall partitioned into runoff, and peak flow rates. Kudzu reduced spring runoff and almost eliminated summer runoff, as did a mixture of kudzu and rescuegrass (KR) compared to row cropping. Peak flow rates were also reduced during the kudzu and KR. Peak flow rates increased under bermudagrass but were lower than during row cropping. A simple process-based 'tanh' model modified to take the previous month's rainfall into account produced monthly rainfall and runoff correlations with coefficient of determination ( R2) of 0.74. The model was tested on independent data collected during drought. Mean monthly runoff was 1.65 times the observed runoff. Sustained hydrologic monitoring is essential to understanding long-term rainfall-runoff relationships in agricultural watersheds.

  7. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models.

  8. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models. PMID:26895037

  9. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease pesticide transport from tomato and alfalfa fields in California: runoff toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to investigate the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was measured for ...

  10. Runoff and sediment loss responses to rainfall and land use in two agricultural catchments on the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Lu; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Shuhan; Liu, Xianzhao; Liang, Yinli; Zheng, Shiqing

    2001-04-01

    Soil erosion is a severe problem hindering sustainable agriculture on the Loess Plateau of China. Plot experiments were conducted under the natural rainfall condition during 1995-1997 at Wangdongguo and Aobao catchments in this region to evaluate the effects of various land use, cropping systems, land slopes and rainfall on runoff and sediment losses, as well as the differences in catchment responses. The experiments included various surface conditions ranging from bare soil to vegetated surfaces (maize, wheat residue, Robinia pseudoacacia L., Amorpha fruticosa L., Stipa capillata L., buckwheat and Astragarus adsurgens L.). The measurements were carried out on hill slopes with different gradients (i.e. 0 ° to 36 °). These plots varied from 20 to 60 m in length. Results indicated that runoff and erosion in this region occurred mainly during summer storms. Summer runoff and sediment losses under cropping and other vegetation were significantly less than those from ploughed bare soil (i.e. without crop/plant or crop residue). There were fewer runoff and sediment losses with increasing canopy cover. Land slope had a major effect on runoff and sediment losses and this effect was markedly larger in the tillage plots than that in the natural grass and forest plots, although this effect was very small when the maximum rainfall intensity was larger than 58·8 mm/h or smaller than 2·4 mm/h. Sediment losses per unit area rose with increasing slope length for the same land slope and same land use. The effect of slope length on sediment losses was stronger on a bare soil plot than on a crop/plant plot. The runoff volume and sediment losses were both closely related to rainfall volume and maximum intensity, while runoff coefficient was mainly controlled by maximum rainfall intensity. Hortonian overland flow is the dominant runoff process in the region. The differences in runoff volume, runoff coefficient and sediment losses between the catchments are mainly controlled by the

  11. Intra-event variability of Escherichia coli and total suspended solids in urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, D T; Hathaway, J M; Hunt, W F; Deletic, A

    2012-12-15

    Sediment levels are important for environmental health risk assessments of surface water bodies, while faecal pollution can introduce significant public health risks for users of these systems. Urban stormwater is one of the largest sources of contaminants to surface waters, yet the fate and transport of these contaminants (especially those microbiological) have received little attention in the literature. Stormwater runoff from five urbanized catchments were monitored for pathogen indicator bacteria and total suspended solids in two developed countries. Multiple discrete samples were collected during each storm event, allowing an analysis of intra-event characteristics such as initial concentration, peak concentration, maximum rate of change, and relative confidence interval. The data suggest that a catchment's area influences pollutant characteristics, as larger catchments have more complex stormwater infrastructure and more variable pollutant sources. The variability of total suspended solids for many characteristics was similar to Escherichia coli, indicating that the variability of E. coli may not be substantially higher than that of other pollutants as initially speculated. Further, variations in E. coli appeared to be more commonly correlated to antecedent climate, while total suspended solids were more highly correlated to rainfall/runoff characteristics. This emphasizes the importance of climate on microbial persistence and die off in urban systems. Discrete intra-event concentrations of total suspended solids and, to a lesser extent E. coli, were correlated to flow, velocity, and rainfall intensity (adjusted by time of concentrations). Concentration changes were found to be best described by adjusted rainfall intensity, as shown by other researchers. This study has resulted in an increased understanding of the magnitude of intra-event variations of total suspended solids and E. coli and what physical and climatic parameters influence these variations.

  12. Event-Based Runoff Across Changing Land Covers in the Panama Canal Watershed: A Synthesis of Hydrophysical Measurements and Hydrochemical Tracers Using Hydrograph Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, G.; Gardner, C.; Ogden, F. L.; Lyons, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical hydrology is understudied relative to its temperate counterparts and thus presents challenges for understanding catchment runoff behavior undergoing land use change. Combining hydrometric and hydrochemical observations can shed light on potential differences in runoff processes under changing land covers. We compare event-based dual member hydrograph separations across humid tropical lowland forest (142 ha), mixed land use (176 ha) and pasture (36 ha) catchments following two years of monitoring during the seasonal dry to wet season transition. Stable water isotope and electrical conductivity tracer event water fraction estimations agree well during small runoff events, but exhibit different results during a large runoff event with a greater runoff coefficient. Geochemical tracers exhibit event water fraction maximums during hydrograph recessions and a seasonal transition in runoff behavior among all land uses. From these results we identify potential runoff mechanisms in these steep humid tropical catchments under varying land uses.

  13. Effect of Spatial Heterogeneity of Runoff Generation Mechanisms on the Scaling Behavior of Event Runoff Responses in a Natural River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2011-05-26

    This paper investigates the effects of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation processes on the scaling behavior of event runoff responses in a natural catchment, the Illinois River Basin near Tahlequah in Oklahoma. A previous study in this basin had revealed a systematic spatial trend in the relative dominance of different runoff generation mechanisms, with the fraction of total runoff generation due to the subsurface stormflow mechanism shown to increase in the downstream direction, while surface runoff generation by saturation excess showed a corresponding decrease. These trends were attributable to corresponding systematic trends in landscape properties, namely, saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils and topographic slope. Considering the differences in the timing of hillslope responses between the different runoff generation mechanisms, this paper then explores their impacts on the runoff routing responses, including how they change with increasing spatial scale. For this purpose we utilize a distributed, physically based hydrological model, with a fully hydraulic stream network routing component. The model is used to generate instantaneous response functions (IRF) for nested catchments of a range of sizes along the river network, as well as quantitative measures of their shape, e.g., peak and time-to-peak. In order to decipher and separate the effects of landscape heterogeneity from those due to basin geomorphology and hydrologic regime, the model simulations are carried out for three hypothetical cases that make assumptions about regarding landscape properties (uniform, a systematic trend, and heterogeneity plus the trend), repeating these simulations under wet and dry antecedent conditions. The simulations produced expected (consistent with previous theoretical studies) and also somewhat surprising results. For example, the power-law relationship between peak of the IRF and drainage area is shown to be flatter under wet conditions than under dry

  14. Motivating Agriculture Students to Participate in Career Development Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carmen R.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research conducted in agricultural education has revealed a lack of participation among National FFA Organization members. However, of those FFA members who participated in FFA sponsored events; students were most satisfied with their experiences in Career Development Events (CDEs). The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe…

  15. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, V.; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Suárez, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of the temporal variability and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO-3-N), ammonium-N (NH+4-N), total nitrogen-N (TN-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chloride (Cl-) concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetland-streams consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO-3-N (72.3%), even though the mean value of inflow NO-3-N concentrations was above 20 mg l-1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (8.4%), but as sources for NH+4-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetland-streams were capable of removing on average 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO-3-N a day-1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation. NO-3-N retention efficiency followed a seasonal pattern with the highest retention values in summer (June-September). The temporal variability for NO-3-N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the hydrologic retention and the inflow NO-3-N concentration (R2adj=0.815, p<0.01), respectively. No significant regression model was found for TON-N and NH+4-N. Finally, the conservation of these Mediterranean wetland-streams may help to not only improve the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

  16. The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: a review.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza

    2015-02-01

    Pesticides are used in modern agriculture to increase crop yields, but they may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides may enter water bodies through diffuse and point sources, but diffuse sources are probably the most important. Among diffuse pollution, surface runoff and erosion, leaching and drainage represent the major pathways. The most commonly used mitigation techniques to prevent pesticide input into water bodies include edge-of-field and riparian buffer strips, vegetated ditches and constructed wetlands. The first attempts to use wetland macrophytes for pesticide removal were carried out as early as the 1970s, but only in the last decade have constructed wetlands for pesticide mitigation become widespread. The paper summarizes 47 studies in which removal of 87 pesticides was monitored. The survey revealed that constructed wetlands with free water surface are the most commonly used type. Also, it has been identified that removal of pesticides is highly variable. The results of the survey revealed that the highest pesticide removal was achieved for pesticides of the organochlorine, strobilurin/strobin, organosphosphate and pyrethroid groups while the lowest removals were observed for pesticides of the triazinone, aryloxyalkanoic acid and urea groups. The removal of pesticides generally increases with increasing value of KOC but the relationship is not strong.

  17. The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: a review.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza

    2015-02-01

    Pesticides are used in modern agriculture to increase crop yields, but they may pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides may enter water bodies through diffuse and point sources, but diffuse sources are probably the most important. Among diffuse pollution, surface runoff and erosion, leaching and drainage represent the major pathways. The most commonly used mitigation techniques to prevent pesticide input into water bodies include edge-of-field and riparian buffer strips, vegetated ditches and constructed wetlands. The first attempts to use wetland macrophytes for pesticide removal were carried out as early as the 1970s, but only in the last decade have constructed wetlands for pesticide mitigation become widespread. The paper summarizes 47 studies in which removal of 87 pesticides was monitored. The survey revealed that constructed wetlands with free water surface are the most commonly used type. Also, it has been identified that removal of pesticides is highly variable. The results of the survey revealed that the highest pesticide removal was achieved for pesticides of the organochlorine, strobilurin/strobin, organosphosphate and pyrethroid groups while the lowest removals were observed for pesticides of the triazinone, aryloxyalkanoic acid and urea groups. The removal of pesticides generally increases with increasing value of KOC but the relationship is not strong. PMID:25461411

  18. Runoff production in a small agricultural catchment in Lao PDR : influence of slope, land-use and observation scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patin, J.; Ribolzi, O.; Mugler, C.; Valentin, C.; Mouche, E.

    2009-04-01

    We study the surface and sub-surface hydrology of a small agricultural catchment (60ha) located in the Luang Prabang province of Lao PDR. This catchment is representative of the rural mountainous south east Asia. It exhibits steep slopes (up to 100% and more) under a monsoon climate. After years of traditional slash and burn cultures, it is now under high land pressures due to population resettling and environment preservation policies. This evolution leads to rapid land-use changes such as shifting cultivation reduction or growing of teak forest instead of classical crops. This catchment is a benchmark site of the Managing Soil Erosion Consortium since 1998. The international consortium aims to understand the effects of agricultural changes on the catchment hydrology and soil erosion in south east Asia. The Huay Pano catchment is subdivided into small sub-catchments that are gauged and monitored. Differ- ent agricultural practices where tested along the years. At a smaller scale, plot of 1m2 are instrumented to follow runoff and detachment of soil under natural rainfall along the monsoon season. Our modeling work aims to develop a distributed hydrological model integrating experimental data at the different scales. One of the objective is to understand the impact of land-use, soil properties (slope, crust, etc) and rainfall (dry and wet seasons) on surface and subsurface flows. We present here modeling results of the runoff plot experiments (1m2 scale) performed from 2002 to 2007. The plots distribution among the catchment and over the years gives a good representativity of the different runoff responses. The role of crust, slope and land-use on runoff is examined. Finally we discuss how this plot scale will be integrated in a sub-catchment model, with a particular attention on the observed paradox: how to explain that runoff coefficients at the catchment scale are much slower than at the plot scale ?

  19. Transport mechanisms of soil-bound mercury in the erosion process during rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Han, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination by mercury (Hg) is a global environmental issue. In watersheds with a significant soil Hg storage, soil erosion during rainfall-runoff events can result in nonpoint source (NPS) Hg pollution and therefore, can extend its environmental risk from soils to aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, transport mechanisms of soil-bound Hg in the erosion process have not been explored directly, and how different fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) impact transport is not fully understood. This study investigated transport mechanisms based on rainfall-runoff simulation experiments. The experiments simulated high-intensity and long-duration rainfall conditions, which can produce significant soil erosion and NPS pollution. The enrichment ratio (ER) of total mercury (THg) was the key variable in exploring the mechanisms. The main study findings include the following: First, the ER-sediment flux relationship for Hg depends on soil composition, and no uniform ER-sediment flux function exists for different soils. Second, depending on soil composition, significantly more Hg could be released from a less polluted soil in the early stage of large rainfall events. Third, the heavy fraction of SOM (i.e., the remnant organic matter coating on mineral particles) has a dominant influence on the enrichment behavior and transport mechanisms of Hg, while clay mineral content exhibits a significant, but indirect, influence. The study results imply that it is critical to quantify the SOM composition in addition to total organic carbon (TOC) for different soils in the watershed to adequately model the NPS pollution of Hg and spatially prioritize management actions in a heterogeneous watershed.

  20. Soil carbon cycling and sequestration in a seasonally saturated wetland receiving agricultural runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, J. J.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2011-11-01

    The fate of organic carbon (C) lost by erosion is not well understood in agricultural settings. Recent models suggest that wetlands and other small water bodies may serve as important long-term sinks of eroded C, receiving ~30 % of all eroded material in the US. To better understand the role of seasonally-saturated wetlands in sequestering eroded C, we examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of C and sediment accumulation in a 13-year-old constructed wetland used to treat agricultural runoff. The fate of C sequestered within deposited sediment was modeled using point-sampling, remote sensing, and geostatistics. Using a spatially-explicit sampling design, annual net rates of sedimentation and above-ground biomass were measured during two contrasting years (vegetated (2004) vs. non-vegetated (2005)), followed by collection of sediment cores to the antecedent soil layer, representing 13 years of sediment and C accumulation. We documented high annual variation in the relative contribution of endogenous and exogenous C sources, as well as absolute rates of sediment and C deposition. This annual variation, however, was muted in the long-term (13 yr) sediment record, which showed consistent vertical patterns of uniform C distribution (~14 g kg-1) and δ13C signatures in high depositional environments. This was in contrast to low depositional environments which had high levels of surface C enrichment (20-35 g kg-1) underlain by C depleted (5-10 g kg-1) sediments and an increasing δ13C signature with depth indicating increased decomposition. These results highlight the importance of sedimentation in physically protecting soil organic carbon and its role in controlling the long-term C concentration of seasonally-saturated wetland soils. While significant enrichment of surface sediments with endogenous C occurred in newly deposited sediment (i.e., 125 kg m2 in 2004), fluctuating cycles of flooding and drying maintained the long-term C concentration at the same level as

  1. Use of stable nitrogen isotope fractionation to estimate denitrification in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Anne Kristine; Mørkved, Pål Tore

    2008-03-15

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) in the agricultural landscape reduce non-point source pollution through removal of nutrients and particles. The objective of this study was to evaluate if measurements of natural abundance of (15)NO(3)(-) can be used to determine the fate of NO(3)(-) in different types of small CWs treating agricultural runoff. Nitrogen removal was studied in wetland trenches filled with different filter materials (T1--sand and gravel; T3--mixture of peat, shell sand and light-weight aggregates; T8--barley straw) and a trench formed as a shallow pond (T4). The removal was highest during summer and lowest during autumn and winter. Trench T8 had the highest N removal during summer. Measurements of the natural abundance of (15)N in NO(3)(-) showed that denitrification was not significant during autumn/winter, while it was present in all trenches during summer, but only important for nitrogen removal in trench T8. The (15)N enrichment factors of NO(3)(-) in this study ranged from -2.5 to -5.9 per thousand (T3 and T8, summer), thus smaller than enrichment factors found in laboratory tests of isotope discrimination in denitrification, but similar to factors found for denitrification in groundwater and a large CW. The low enrichment factors compared to laboratory studies was attributed to assimilation in plants/microbes as well as diffusion effect. Based on a modified version of the method presented by Lund et al. [Lund LJ, Horne AJ, Williams AE, Estimating denitrification in a large constructed wetland using stable nitrogen isotope ratios. Ecol Engineer 2000; 14: 67-76], denitrification and assimilation were estimated to account for 53 to 99 and 1 to 47%, respectively, of the total N removal during summer. This method is, however, based on a number of assumptions, and there is thus a need for a better knowledge of the effect of plant uptake, microbial assimilation as well as nitrification on N isotopic fractionation before this method can be used to evaluate

  2. Use of stable nitrogen isotope fractionation to estimate denitrification in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Anne Kristine; Mørkved, Pål Tore

    2008-03-15

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) in the agricultural landscape reduce non-point source pollution through removal of nutrients and particles. The objective of this study was to evaluate if measurements of natural abundance of (15)NO(3)(-) can be used to determine the fate of NO(3)(-) in different types of small CWs treating agricultural runoff. Nitrogen removal was studied in wetland trenches filled with different filter materials (T1--sand and gravel; T3--mixture of peat, shell sand and light-weight aggregates; T8--barley straw) and a trench formed as a shallow pond (T4). The removal was highest during summer and lowest during autumn and winter. Trench T8 had the highest N removal during summer. Measurements of the natural abundance of (15)N in NO(3)(-) showed that denitrification was not significant during autumn/winter, while it was present in all trenches during summer, but only important for nitrogen removal in trench T8. The (15)N enrichment factors of NO(3)(-) in this study ranged from -2.5 to -5.9 per thousand (T3 and T8, summer), thus smaller than enrichment factors found in laboratory tests of isotope discrimination in denitrification, but similar to factors found for denitrification in groundwater and a large CW. The low enrichment factors compared to laboratory studies was attributed to assimilation in plants/microbes as well as diffusion effect. Based on a modified version of the method presented by Lund et al. [Lund LJ, Horne AJ, Williams AE, Estimating denitrification in a large constructed wetland using stable nitrogen isotope ratios. Ecol Engineer 2000; 14: 67-76], denitrification and assimilation were estimated to account for 53 to 99 and 1 to 47%, respectively, of the total N removal during summer. This method is, however, based on a number of assumptions, and there is thus a need for a better knowledge of the effect of plant uptake, microbial assimilation as well as nitrification on N isotopic fractionation before this method can be used to evaluate

  3. Modeling pesticide transfer during flood events in an agricultural catchment using the SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boithias, Laurie; Taghavi, Lobat; Oeurng, Chantha; Polard, Thierry; Ferrant, Sylvain; Jean, Séverine; Probst, Jean-Luc; Merlina, Georges; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Pesticide monitoring, understanding of pesticide fate and pollution quantification have become major concerns in Europe since the introduction of the Water Framework Directive in 2000. Pesticides can be transported from agricultural catchments to stream networks in either the soluble or particulate phase, depending on their physicochemical properties (solubility, partition coefficient). Quick flood events therefore have a major impact on molecule transport. This study - part of the EU AguaFlash project (http://www.aguaflash-sudoe.eu/) - examined pesticide load dynamics in both the soluble and particulate phases and attempted to quantify their fluxes from various contributing compartments (surface runoff and subsurface and groundwater flows). The hydrological and water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, 2005 version) was tested at daily time step to assess the fate and transport of two pesticides with a wide range of solubility (Trifluralin and Metolachlor). SWAT was applied on an 1100 km² agricultural catchment (Save catchment, South-west France). The model was calibrated on discharge, suspended sediment, nitrate and pesticide data collected at the catchment outlet from March 2008 to March 2009, with weekly measurements during base flow and daily during flood events. Agricultural management practices (crop rotation, planting date, fertilizers and pesticide application) were entered into the model in a dominant simplifying land use approach (one rotation by sub-basin, same management operation dates throughout the catchment). Calibration for discharge fluctuations and suspended sediment and nitrate concentration variations was satisfactory. SWAT was able to accurately reproduce observed pesticide concentrations during base flows and peaks during flood events, despite the ‘dominant land use' approximation being used and management practices inputs being averaged for the whole catchment. During the simulation period, simulated preferred pathway for

  4. Spatio-temporal patterns in land use and management affecting surface runoff response of agricultural catchments—A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiener, P.; Auerswald, K.; Van Oost, K.

    2011-05-01

    Surface runoff and associated erosion processes adversely affect soil and surface water quality. There is increasing evidence that a sound understanding of spatial-temporal dynamics of land use and management are crucial to understanding surface runoff processes and underpinning mitigation strategies. In this review, we synthesise the effects of (1) temporal patterns of land management of individual fields, and (2) spatio-temporal interaction of several fields within catchments by applying semivariance analysis, which allows the extent and range of the different patterns to be compared. Consistent effects of management on the temporal dynamics of surface runoff of individual fields can be identified, some of which have been incorporated into small-scale hydrological models. In contrast, the effects of patchiness, the spatial organisation of patches with different soil hydrological properties, and the effects of linear landscape structures are less well understood and are rarely incorporated in models. The main challenge for quantifying these effects arises from temporal changes within individual patches, where the largest contrasts usually occur in mid-summer and cause a seasonally varying effect of patchiness on the overall catchment response. Some studies indicate that increasing agricultural patchiness, due to decreasing field sizes, reduces the catchment-scale response to rainfall, especially in cases of Hortonian runoff. Linear structures associated with patchiness of fields (e.g. field borders, ditches, and ephemeral gullies) may either increase or decrease the hydraulic connectivity within a catchment. The largest gap in research relates to the effects and temporal variation of patch interaction, the influence of the spatial organisation of patches and the interaction with linear structures. In view of the substantial changes in the structure of agricultural landscapes occurring throughout the world, it is necessary to improve our knowledge of the influence

  5. What can be learned from combined event runoff and tracer analysis in a semi-arid, data-scarce catchment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Bohte, R.; Mul, M. L.; Bogaard, T. A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological processes in small catchments are not quite understood yet, which is true in particular for catchments in data scarce, semi-arid regions. This is in contrast with the need for a better understanding of water fluxes and the interactions between surface- and groundwater in order to facilitate sustainable water resources management in such environments, where both floods and droughts can result in severe crop loss. In this study, event runoff coefficient analysis and limited tracer data of four small, nested sub-catchments (0.4 - 25.3 km2) in a data scarce, semi-arid region of Tanzania helped to characterize the distinct response of the study catchments and to gain insights into the dominant runoff processes. The estimated event runoff coefficients were very low and did not exceed 0.09. They were found to be significantly related to the 5-day antecedent precipitation totals as well as to base flow. This indicated a close relation to changes in soil moisture and thus potential switches in runoff generation processes. The time scales of the "direct flow" reservoirs, used to compute the event runoff coefficients, were up to one order of magnitude reduced for extreme events, compared to "average" events. This suggested the activation of at least a third flow component, besides base- and direct flow, assumed to be infiltration overland flow. Analysis of multiple tracers highlighted the importance of pre-event water to total runoff, even during intense and high yield precipitation events. It further illustrated the distinct nature of the catchments, in particular with respect to the available water storage, which was suggested by different degrees of tracer damping in the individual streams. The use of multiple tracers subsequently allowed estimating uncertainties in hydrograph separations arising from the use of different tracers. The results highlight the presence of considerable uncertainties, emphasizing the need for multiple tracers in order to avoid

  6. Impact of two different types of El Niño events on runoff over the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, T.; Li, W.; Sun, G.

    2016-01-01

    The responses of river runoff to shifts of large-scale climatic patterns are of increasing concerns to water resource planners and managers for long-term climate change adaptation. El Niño, as one of the most dominant modes of climate variability, is closely linked to hydrologic extremes such as floods and droughts that cause great loss of lives and properties. However, the different impacts of the two types of El Niño, i.e., central Pacific (CP-) and eastern Pacific (EP-)El Niño, on runoff across the conterminous US (CONUS) are not well understood. This study characterizes the impacts of the CP- and EP-El Niño on seasonal and annual runoff using observed streamflow data from 658 reference gaging stations and the NCAR-CCSM4 model. We found that surface runoff responds similarly to the two types of El Niño events in southeastern, central, southern, and western coastal regions, but differently in northeast (NE), Pacific northwest (PNW) and west north central (WNC) climatic zones. Specifically, EP-El Niño events tend to bring above-average runoff in NE, WNC, and PNW throughout the year while CP-El Niño events cause below-than normal runoff in the three regions. Similar findings were also found by analyzing NCAR-CCSM4 model outputs that captured both the CP- and EP-El Niño events, representing the best data set among CMIP5 models. The CCSM4 model simulates lower runoff values during CP-El Niño years than those in EP-El Niño over all of the three climatic regions (NE, PNW, and WNC) during 1950-1999. In the future (2050-2099), for both types of El Niño years, runoff is projected to increase over the NE and PNW regions, mainly due to increased precipitation (P). In contrast, the increase of future evapotranspiration (ET) exceeds that of future P, leading to a projected decrease in runoff over the WNC region. In addition, model analysis indicates that all of the three regions (NE, PNW, and WNC

  7. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  8. In situ measurements of organic matter dynamics during a storm event in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Saraceno, J.; Downing, B. D.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a significant concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts during treatment. Winter storms are important forcing events on the California landscape, but the extent to which they impart rapid changes in DOM and other biogeochemical variables is poorly understood. In situ optical measurements are useful as they can be made autonomously at high temporal resolution, aiding in the quantification of rapid changes in the DOM pool. We collected in situ and discrete samples during a storm event period (Feb 22-March 3, 2008) at the mouth of the 415 km2 agricultural Willow Slough watershed. The watershed is characterized by steep grasslands in the headwaters and agriculture (largely in alfalfa, rice, tomato, grasses and orchard) in the valley. The in situ optical measurements included turbidity, chromophoric DOM fluorescence (cDOM), and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, along with a suite of ancillary parameters. Discharge and turbidity were strongly correlated at peak flow and increased by over two orders of magnitude, while the peak cDOM lagged the peak in turbidity by ten hours. The cDOM values increased by nearly 4 fold and were highly correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (r2=0.97), providing a highly resolved proxy for DOC throughout the flow event. Specific UV absorbance (an indicator of DOM aromaticity) doubled at the DOC peak, while decreases in both the spectral slope (a proxy for DOM molecular weight) and δ13C-DOM during the same period support terrestrially- derived DOM contributions at peak flows. The lag to peak cDOM behind peak discharge presumably reflects the draining of watershed soils and delayed surface runoff of natural and agricultural landscapes. Together, laboratory and in situ data provide insights into the timing and magnitude of changes in DOM quantity and quality during

  9. Multiyear precipitation variations and runoff response in a mixed agricultural grassland watershed in central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate varies seasonally, from year to year, and also from decade to decade and over longer periods of time. One key climate variable that has great impact on land productivity, runoff, soil erosion and water quality is precipitation. Precipitation drives soil moisture, evapotranspiration, biomass...

  10. Data mining methods for predicting event runoff coefficients in ungauged basins using static and dynamic catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loritz, Ralf; Weiler, Markus; Seibert, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Transferring hydrological information into ungauged basin by regionalisation approaches is an ongoing field of research. Usually regionalisation techniques use physical landscape descriptors to transfer either model parameters or hydrological characteristics from a catchment to another. A common problem of these approaches is the high degree of uncertainty associated to their results. One reason is that often solely static (structural) catchment characteristics such as catchment area, physiographic properties or land use data are used for regionalisation. However, it is well known that the hydrological response of a 'natural' system is a complex and a non-linear interaction of its structure, state and forcing. Here it is important to note, that only structure is a static property. State and forcing are highly dynamic when considering the temporal and spatial scale of a rainfall-runoff event. To overcome the limitations associated with 'static' regionalisation techniques we propose a regionalisation technique for event runoff coefficients combining static and dynamic catchment properties. The approach is based on the two data mining algorithms 'random forests' and 'quantile regression forests'. The static catchment characteristics include standard variables such as physiographic properties, land cover and soil data. The dynamic variables include event based properties of the forcing (i.e. rainfall amount, intensity,...) and proxies for the initial state of the catchment (i.e. initial soil moisture). Together with the runoff coefficient these quantities were extracted form hydro-meteorological time series (precipitation, discharge and soil moisture) using an automated rainfall-runoff event detection technique. We tested our method using a set of 60 meso-scale catchments (3.1 to 205,6 km2, covering a range of different geologies and land uses) from Southwest Germany. We randomly separated the catchments in two groups. The first group (30 donor catchments) was used to

  11. Runoff, sediment transport, and water quality in a northern Illinois agricultural watershed before urban development, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, H.E., Jr.; Gray, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study designed to quantify and evaluate changes in runoff and sediment transport attributable to construction activities during urban development of a watershed required identification of pre-construction hydrologic conditions. Data collected before construction on a 2.81 sq m (7.28 sq km) agricultural watershed (upper Spring Creek) near Rockford, IL, show that during a 2-year period ending June 30, 1981, 2,890 tons (2,620 Mg) of suspended sediment were transported from the watershed. Of the 2 ,890 tons (2,620 Mg), 2,690 tons (2,440 Mg) or 93.1 % were transported during a storm in a 46.6-hour period of June 13-14, 1981. Runoff from a 0.031 sq m (0.080 sq km) subbasin (Spring Creek tributary) transported 33.9 tons (30.9 Mg) of suspended sediment during a 3.2-hour storm period on June 13, 1981. Regression models relating storm suspended-sediment yields and peak-water discharge per square mile for upper Spring Creek and Spring Creek tributary have average standard errors of 57 and 24 %, respectively. Trace amounts of currently banned pesticides, including Aldrin and DDT, were detected in streambed material samples. Documented sediment yields, chemical quality, and relations between runoff and sediment discharge provide baseline information for future evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the watershed. (USGS)

  12. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS model for predicting runoff and sediment yield in a small Mediterranean agricultural watershed in Navarre (Spain)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model) is a system of computer models developed to predict non-point source pollutant loadings within agricultural watersheds. It contains a daily time step distributed parameter continuous simulation surface runoff model designed to assis...

  13. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  14. A study of SS size distribution during runoff and fractionation of phosphates depending on soil size in agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sa, S H; Masuda, T; Hosoi, Y

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of the differences and algal-available fractions of P in soils, suspended solids, and bottom sediments have been the main topics of research during the past decade. However, the size distribution and properties of particulate matter in runoff have not been much studied in Japan. Here we study particle size distribution during runoff and the chemical characteristics of P in each soil size fraction and relate them to land use. The temporal variation of particulate sizes during rain events is different in each watershed. Most particles have the size in the range of 10-100 microm. Also, the percentage of BAP in TP as well as percentage of PCOD in SS also varies temporally and spatially during runoff. To investigate how soil particles characteristics depend on land use, soil samples from two watersheds are examined. For particle size distribution and specific gravity, no significant difference among watersheds is found. However, C, N, and P content are indirectly proportional to the particle size, which means smaller particle size results in larger. H2O-extracted P, NH4Cl-extracted P, NAI-P, Apatite-P, Organic-P, and TP contents in each soil particle sample vary depending on particle size, land use, and watershed.

  15. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  16. [Cd Runoff Load and Soil Profile Movement After Implementation of Some Typical Contaminated Agricultural Soil Remediation Strategies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Wei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the strong ability to immobilize and hyperaccumulate some toxic heavy metals in contaminated soils, the biochar, lime and such as hyperaccumulator ramie received increasing interests from crops and environment safety in recent years. Outdoor pot experiment was conducted to compare the impacts of lime and biochar addition in paddy rice treatment, hyperaccumulator ramie and ramie combined with EDTA of plant Phytoremediation methods on soil available Cd dynamics in rainfall runoff and the mobility along soil profile, under both natural acid precipitation and acid soil conditions. The results showed that, biochar addition at a 2% mass ratio application amount significantly increased soil pH, while ramie with EDTA application obviously decreased soil pH compared to ramie monoculture. Within the same rainfall events, water soluble Cd concentration in surface runoff of ramie treatments was significantly higher than those of waterlogged rice treatments, and Cd concentration in runoff was obviously increased after EDTA addition, whereas lime at a 0.3% mass ratio application amount as additive had no obvious impact on soil pH and Cd speciation change, which may be due to the low application amount. During the whole experimental period , water soluble Cd concentration of rainfall runoff in spring was higher than that in summer, showing the same seasonal characteristics in all treatments. Biochar addition could significantly decrease available Cd content in 0-20 cm soil layer and with certain preferable persistency effects, whereas EDTA addition treatment obviously increased available Cd of 0-20 cm soil layer compared to other treatments, and obvious Cd element activation phenomenon in 20-40 cm soil layer was observed after EDTA addition. In conclusion, lime and biochar as environmental and friendly alkaline Cd immobilization materials showed lower environment risk to surface and ground receiving water, but attention should be paid to phytoremediation enhanced with

  17. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T. X.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of <1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and >20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km2 in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km2 in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km2 on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km2 on the woodland plot, 213 t/km2 on the grassland plot, 467 t/km2 on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km2 on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km2 on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  18. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T X

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of <1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and >20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  19. Synthetic- and bio-polymer use for runoff water quality management in irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sojka, R E; Entry, J A; Orts, W J; Morishita, D W; Ross, C W; Horne, D J

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of synthetic- or bio-polymers in irrigation water can nearly eliminate sediment, N, ortho- and total-P, DOM, pesticides, micro-organisms, and weed seed from runoff. These environmentally safe polymers are employed in various sensitive uses including food processing, animal feeds, and potable water purification. The most common synthetic polymer is anionic, high purity polyacrylamide (PAM), which typically provides 70-90% contaminant elimination. Excellent results are achieved adding only 10 ppm PAM to irrigation water, applying 1-2 kg ha(-1) per irrigation, costing 4 dollars - 12 dollars kg(-1). Biopolymers are less effective. Using twice or higher concentrations, existing biopolymers are approximately 60% effective as PAM, at 2-3 times the cost. A half million ha of US irrigated land use PAM for erosion control and runoff protection. The practice is spreading rapidly in the US and worldwide. Interest in development of biopolymer surrogates for PAM is high. If the supply of cheap natural gas (raw material for PAM synthesis) diminishes, industries may seek alternative polymers. Also "green" perceptions and preferences favor biopolymers for certain applications. PMID:15850180

  20. Runoff production in a small agricultural catchment in Lao PDR: influence of slope, land-use and observation scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patin, J.; Ribolzi, O.; Mugler, C.; Valentin, C.; Mouche, E.

    2010-12-01

    After years of traditional slash and burn cultures, the Houay Pano catchment is now under high land pressures due to population resettling and environmental preservation policies. This evolution leads to rapid land-use changes in the uplands, such as fallow time reductions and growing of cash crops as teaks or banana. The catchment is located in the Luang Prabang province, in the north of Lao PDR and was selected in late 1998 as a benchmark site for the Managing Soil Erosion Consortium (MSEC). It is a small (60ha) agricultural catchment representative of the rural mountainous South East Asia : it exhibits steep cultivated slopes (from 2% to more than 110%) under a wet-dry monsoon climate. To understand the partition between runoff and infiltration, data from runoff on 20 plot experiments (1m2) under natural rainfall and with representative slopes and land uses is collected from 2003 to 2009. A simulated rainfall experiment was conducted in 2002 on bare soil plots (1m2) with different antecedent cultures. We investigate the role of crust, slope and land-use on runoff production at different scales. A model accounting for small scale variability is applied to compute the time and space variations of soil infiltrability at the plot scale (1m2) and sub-catchment scale (0.6ha). From the hypothesis of exponentially distributed infiltrabilities at the centimeter scale, we found that infiltration is log-normaly distributed over time for a given land use. The median infiltrability vary from 10mm/h under teak cultures to 150mm/h on plots with fallow. Variations along a year are tribute to many meteorological and human factors.

  1. Monitoring peaks of pesticides during runoff events in a small vineyards catchment to prevent transfers (Loire river, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Duchesne, Jean; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Moguedet, Gérard; Picard-Bonnaud, Françoise; Ballouche, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    The Layon river, a tributary of the Loire river, does frequently not comply with water quality standards because of some high mean day pesticides concentrations. The land use of the Layon catchment, a 1054 km2 catchment, is represented both by vines and yearly crops. Vineyards are located on the hillsides while crops are planted in flat areas. The under way project which first results are presented here aims at identifying the contribution of a small vineyards catchment of 2.2 hectares to the transfer of pesticides during runoff events. In this project, we make three assumptions (1) peaks of pesticides have the highest concentrations, (2) peaks of pesticides have a major impact on both water quality concentrations and environment in general, (3) in this particular catchment with high slopes and a sub-soil oriented as the main slope, runoff plays the main role of the transfer of pesticides. Thus, this project aims (i) to identify peaks of pesticides, (ii) to explain the main causes (hydrology, input quantities, soil conditions, topography), (iii) to predict peaks in function of rainfall forecasting. To answer this problematic, after the delineation of the catchment (Digital Terrain Model obtained with one elevation point each 36 m2), a gauging station has been installed at the outlet of the catchment. This station has been designed not only to monitor the quantities of pesticides transferred during runoff events but also to follow the flow peaks. This station is composed of (a) an approach channel of 12 meters long for the development of uniform and symmetric flow conditions and the establishment of a stable water surface, (b) a trapezoïdal long-throated flume designed with winflume software (www.usbr.gov/wrrl/winflume/) to assess the flow rate with the water level (measured with (c) a bubbler sensor), (d) an automatic rain gauge, (e) an automatic sampler, (f) a modem and (g) a logosens (OTT®) data logger. The rainfall runoffs following pesticides applications in

  2. Agricultural lands are hot-spots for annual runoff polluting the southern Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    PubMed

    Packett, Robert; Dougall, Cameron; Rohde, Ken; Noble, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The world's largest coral reef ecosystem, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), continues to be degraded from land-based pollution. Information about the source of pollutants is critical for catchment management to improve GBR water quality. We report here on an 11-year source to sea study of pollutant delivery in runoff from the Fitzroy River Basin (FRB), the largest GBR catchment. An innovative technique that relates land use to pollutant generation is presented. Study results indicate that maximum pollutant concentrations at basin and sub-catchment scales are closely related to the percentage area of croplands receiving heavy rain. However, grazing lands contribute the majority of the long-term average annual load of most common pollutants. Findings suggest improved land management targets, rather than water quality targets should be implemented to reduce GBR pollution. This study provides a substantial contribution to the knowledge base for the targeted management of pollution 'hot-spots' to improve GBR water quality.

  3. Nitrous oxide and methane emission in an artificial wetland treating polluted runoff from an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo; Tournebize, Julien; Soosaar, Kaido; Chaumont, Cedric; Hansen, Raili; Muhel, Mart; Teemusk, Alar; Vincent, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    An artificial wetland built in 2010 to reduce water pollution in a drained agricultural watershed showed real potential for pesticide and nitrate removal. The 1.2 ha off-shore wetland with a depth of from 0.1 to 1 m intercepts drainage water from a 450 ha watershed located near the village of Rampillon (03°03'37.3'' E, 48°32'16.7'' N, 70 km south-east of Paris, France). A sluice gate installed at the inlet makes it possible to close the wetland during the winter months (December - March), when no pesticides are applied and rainfall events are more frequent. The flow entering the wetland fluctuates from 0 to 120 L/s. The wetland is partially covered by Carex spp., Phragmites australis, Juncus conglomeratus, Typha latifolia and philamentous algae. Since 2011, an automatic water quality monitoring system measures water discharge, temperature, dissolved O2, conductivity pH, NO3- and DOC in both inlet and outlet. In May 2014, an automatic weather station and Campbell Irgason system for the measurement of CO2 and H2O fluxes were installed in the middle of the wetland. In May and November 2014 one-week high frequency measurement campaigns were conducted to study N2O and CH4 fluxes using 6 manually operated opaque floating static chambers and 12 floating automatic dynamic chambers. The latter were operated via multiplexer and had an incubation time of 5 minutes, whereas the gas flow was continuously measured using the Aerodyne TILDAS quantum cascade laser system. During the campaign, the reduction of NO3- concentration was measured in nine reactor pipes. Also, water samples were collected for N2O and N2 isotope analysis, and sediments were collected for potential N2 emission measurements. In May, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 30 days, and the average NO3- concentration decreased from 24 in the inflow to 0 mg/L in the outflow. Methane flux was relatively high (average 1446, variation 0.2-113990 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1), while about 2/3 was emitted via ebullition

  4. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  5. Variability in runoff fluxes of dissolved and particulate carbon and nitrogen from two watersheds of different tree species during intense storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi-Hee; Payeur-Poirier, Jean-Lionel; Park, Ji-Hyung; Matzner, Egbert

    2016-09-01

    Heavy storm events may increase the amount of organic matter in runoff from forested watersheds as well as the relation of dissolved to particulate organic matter. This study evaluated the effects of monsoon storm events on the runoff fluxes and on the composition of dissolved (< 0.45 µm) and particulate (0.7 µm to 1 mm) organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, DON, POC, PON) in a mixed coniferous/deciduous (mixed watershed) and a deciduous forested watershed (deciduous watershed) in South Korea. During storm events, DOC concentrations in runoff increased with discharge, while DON concentrations remained almost constant. DOC, DON and NO3-N fluxes in runoff increased linearly with discharge pointing to changing flow paths from deeper to upper soil layers at high discharge, whereas nonlinear responses of POC and PON fluxes were observed likely due to the origin of particulate matter from the erosion of mineral soil along the stream benches. The integrated C and N fluxes in runoff over the 2-month study period were in the order of DOC > POC and NO3-N > DON > PON. The integrated DOC fluxes in runoff during the study period were much larger at the deciduous watershed (16 kg C ha-1) than at the mixed watershed (7 kg C ha-1), while the integrated NO3-N fluxes were higher at the mixed watershed (5.2 kg N ha-1) than at the deciduous watershed (2.9 kg N ha-1). The latter suggests a larger N uptake by deciduous trees. Integrated fluxes of POC and PON were similar at both watersheds. The composition of organic matter in soils and runoff indicates that the contribution of near-surface flow to runoff was larger at the deciduous than at the mixed watershed. Our results demonstrate different responses of particulate and dissolved C and N in runoff to storm events as a combined effect of tree species composition and watershed specific flow paths.

  6. Ecological responses to simulated agricultural runoff in a riverine backwater wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riverine backwater wetlands within river floodplains provide valuable ecological functions such as acting as filters for suspended sediment, nutrients and pesticides entering from adjacent agricultural fields, as well as habitat and refugia for aquatic biota. A 500 m long, 20 m wide riverine backwa...

  7. Trapping Efficiency of Agricultural Runoff in a Modified Riverine Backwater Wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riverine backwater wetlands within river floodplains have important economic and ecological functions such as acting as filters for suspended sediment, nutrients and pesticides entering from adjacent agricultural fields. These wetlands hydrology can be modified to increase the efficiency of their n...

  8. Runoff and sediment reduction from integration of native prairie filter strips into row-crop agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystems provide multiple benefits including food, fiber, fuel, clean water and air, habitat, carbon sequestration, recreation, and aesthetics. But most agricultural landscapes are managed for only a few of these benefits. This project aimed to evaluate how the integration of diverse perennial...

  9. Combined effects of the fungicide propiconazole and agricultural runoff sediments on the aquatic bryophyte Vesicularia dubyana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglan; Riise, Gunnhild; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Greulich, K; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2005-09-01

    Pesticides, firmly attached to the topsoil, might enter nearby watercourses at periods with high erosive loss of sediments. Therefore, exposure of aquatic organisms to these low mobility pesticides, in many cases, will coincide with a high sediment concentration. In this study, both individual and combined effects of propiconazole and runoff sediment on the aquatic model bryophyte Vesicularia dubyana are studied. Individual exposure to propiconazole induced responses in V. dubyana at rather low concentration levels (approximately 1 microg/L), showing that harmful effects of propiconazole potentially may occur in watercourses draining propiconazole-treated fields. Individual exposure to the sediment size fractions S1 (0.16-2 microm) and S2 (0.03-0.16 microm) caused plant stress at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The coarser fraction S1 showed strong inhibition effects on photosynthesis, probably due to light attenuation. Compared to S1, the suspension with the finer fraction S2 showed lower turbidity, higher nutrient content, and a higher proportion of sediment-bound propiconazole. The combined effects of propiconazole and suspended sediment are dependent on concentrations of sediment and propiconazole. At low sediment concentration (e.g., 100 mg/L), neither S1 nor S2 reduce the toxicity of propiconazole, as only 2% of propiconazole are bound to particles. An increase in sediment concentration decreases the bioavailable concentration of propiconazole; however, at the same time, this increases the turbidity, thereby inhibiting plant photosynthesis.

  10. Determining stressor presence in streams receiving urban and agricultural runoff: development of a benthic in situ toxicity identification evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Custer, Kevin W; Burton, G Allen; Coelho, Ricardo S; Smith, Preston R

    2006-09-01

    Determining toxicity in streams during storm-water runoff can be highly problematic because of the fluctuating exposures of a multitude of stressors and the difficulty of linking these dynamic exposures with biological effects. An underlying problem with assessing storm-water quality is determining if toxicity exists and then which contaminant is causing the toxicity. The goal of this research is to provide an alternative to standard toxicity testing methods by incorporating an in situ toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) approach. A benthic in situ TIE bioassay (BiTIE) was developed for separating key chemical classes of stressors in streams during both low- and high-flow events to help discern between point and nonpoint sources of pollution. This BiTIE method allows for chemical class fractionation through the use of resins, and these resins are relatively specific for removing nonpolar organics (Dowex Optipore), ammonia (zeolite), and polywool (control). Three indigenous aquatic insects, a mayfly (Isonychia spp.), a caddisfly (Hydropsyche spp.), and a water beetle (Psephenus herricki), were placed in BiTIE chambers that were filled with natural substrates. Acute 96-h exposures were conducted at Honey Creek, New Carlisle, Ohio, USA (reference site), and Little Beavercreek, Beavercreek, Ohio, USA (impaired site). At both sites, significant (p < 0.025) stressor responses were observed using multiple species with polywool or no resin (control) treatments exhibiting < 80% survival and resin treatments with >80% survival. The BiTIE method showed stressor-response relationships in both runoff and base flow events during 96-h exposures. The method appears useful for discerning stressors with indigenous species in situ. PMID:16986783

  11. Disproportionately Magnified Sediment Export in Response to Increased Event Runoff: Analysis of Long-term Data from Mountainous Rivers in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Lee, J. Y.; Jien, S. H.; Zehetner, F.; Kao, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania dominates the global land-to-ocean sediment delivery, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970-1989) and a recent stage (1990-2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. In the early stage, 1 km3 runoff could transport sediment of 1.10 Mt. However, the 2x larger runoff now transported 3.38 Mt sediment which is ~3x larger than in the early stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0-99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. This seems the Taiwan's destiny facing high rainfall intensity and having erodible lithology. We are afraid that so far engineering still could not resist the power of nature.

  12. Extreme runoff events of the last 2000 years reconstructed from varved sediments of Lake Mondsee (Upper Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierczynski, Tina; Lauterbach, Stefan; Dulski, Peter; Brauer, Achim; Merz, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The natural occurrence of floods under changing climate conditions is wideley discussed since long and reliable records are missing for the pre-historical time period. Lake sediments are ideal archives for investigating environmental variability on a wide range of timescales down to a sub-annual resolution, thus having a great potential to reconstruct detrital sediment fluxes into the lake caused by runoff events. This study presents a 2000-year record of detrital layers intercalated in a varved sediment succession of pre-alpine Lake Mondsee (47°48'N, 13°23'E). The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS radiocarbon and Cs-137 dating. Overall, 180 detrital layers are detected in the sediments, and two different sediment transport processes have been identified: (i) extreme floods and (ii) debris flows. The deposits of both are well distinguishable by microfacies analysis, µ-XRF element scanning and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Comparing the deposits of the last 30 years to instrumental hydro-climatological data, spring melting caused by "rain-on-snow-events" and heavy summer precipitation are the main triggers of runoff events that induced detrital sediment fluxes to the lake basin. Within the last 2000 years, the average recurrence time of flood layers is less than 11 years. However, flood layer distribution during this time interval is not homogeneous but indicates variable flood activity. More spring and summer flood layers appeared during the coldest phases of the Little Ice Age (LIA) indicating a major role of climatic boundary conditions as flood triggers. In contrast, during the last 200 years flood layers are evenly distributed without pronounced higher flood frequencies. Debris flows deposits are less common than flood layers having a recurrence interval of 90 years. Despite their low numbers, debris flow layers are correlated with periods of higher flood layer frequency, for example during the LIA and the last 200

  13. A finite element model for simulating runoff and soil erosion from mechanically treated agricultural lands: 2. Field validation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, V. N.; Singh, Sita Ram; Sastry, G.; Dhruvanarayana, V. V.

    1994-07-01

    The finite element model for simulation of runoff and soil erosion as developed by Sharda and Singh (this issue) is evaluated using data collected from agricultural land treated with major mechanical soil and water conservation measures, namely, contour bunding, graded bunding, bench terracing, and conservation bench terracing. The simulated and experimentally realized hydrographs and soil loss values are in reasonably good agreement for various measures. Probable reasons for discrepancies between the predicted and observed values are discussed. The model has the potential of being used on a single storm or a continuous basis provided the soil, crop, and climatic parameters are precisely known or estimated for a given location and for the period under consideration. The model logically simulates the effects of flow, topographic, soil, and crop parameters such as antecedent moisture level, roughness coefficient, saturated hydraulic conductivity, slope, depth of impoundment, size of outlet, longitudinal slope of the channel, vertical interval, and cropping management factor. The model is found to be quite sensitive to changes in roughness coefficient, rainfall excess rate, and cover management factor, and hence these parameters need to be assessed carefully in the field. The general applicability of the model as a planning tool for soil conservation measures and the scope for future development are also discussed.

  14. Linkages between coastal runoff and the Florida Keys ecosystem: A study of a dark plume event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Neely, Merrie Beth; Johns, Elizabeth

    2004-08-01

    Using data collected by satellite sensors, rain and river gauges, and ship surveys, we studied the development and wind-driven transport of a dark water plume from near Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to the Dry Tortugas in the Florida Keys in mid-October 2003. MODIS and SeaWiFS imagery showed that the patch contained an extensive (~5,500 km2) phytoplankton bloom that formed originally near the central coast of Florida. The data linked the bloom to high nutrient coastal runoff caused by heavy rainfall in June and August. Total N and P required for the bloom, which may contain some Karenia brevis cells, was estimated to be 2.3 × 107 and 1.5 × 106 moles, respectively. The dark color became increasingly dominated by colored dissolved organic matter, toward the Dry Tortugas, where CDOM absorption coefficients (0.08-0.12 m-1 at 400 nm) were 2-3 times higher than the surrounding shelf waters, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients decreased to negligible levels.

  15. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  16. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  17. Effect of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation mechanisms on the scaling behavior of event runoff responses in a natural river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the effects of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation on the scaling behavior of runoff timing responses. A previous modeling study on the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma had revealed a systematic spatial trend in the relative dominance of different runoff generation mechanisms, attributable to corresponding systematic trends in landscape properties. Considering the differences in the timing of hillslope responses between the different runoff mechanisms, this paper explores their impacts on the catchment-scale runoff routing responses, including how they change with spatial scale. For this purpose we utilize a distributed, physically based hydrological model, with a fully hydraulic stream network routing component. The model is used to generate instantaneous response functions (IRF) for nested catchments of a range of sizes along the river network and quantitative measures of their shape, e.g., peak and time to peak. In order to separate the effects of soil heterogeneity from those due to basin geomorphology, the model simulations are carried out for three hypothetical cases that make assumptions regarding landscape properties (uniform, a systematic trend, and heterogeneity plus the trend), repeating these simulations under wet and dry antecedent conditions. The simulations produced expected and also surprising results. The power law relationship between the peak of the IRF and drainage area is shown to be flatter under wet conditions than under dry conditions, even though the (faster) saturation excess mechanism is more dominant under wet conditions. This result appears to be caused by partial area runoff generation: under wet conditions, the fraction of saturation area is about 30%, while under dry conditions it is less than 10% for the same input of rainfall. This means travel times associated with overland flow (which mostly contributes to the peak and time to peak) are, in fact, longer during wet

  18. The effects of climate change and extreme wildfire events on runoff erosion over a mountain watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Gregory K.; Liu, Mingliang; Barber, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Adam, Jennifer C.

    2016-05-01

    Increases in wildfire occurrence and severity under an altered climate can substantially impact terrestrial ecosystems through enhancing runoff erosion. Improved prediction tools that provide high resolution spatial information are necessary for location-specific soil conservation and watershed management. However, quantifying the magnitude of soil erosion and its interactions with climate, hydrological processes, and fire occurrences across a large region (>10,000 km2) is challenging because of the large computational requirements needed to capture the fine-scale complexities of the land surface that govern erosion. We apply the physically-based coupled Variable Capacity Infiltration-Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP) model to study how wildfire occurrences can enhance soil erosion in a future climate over a representative watershed in the northern Rocky Mountains - the Salmon River Basin (SRB) in central Idaho. While the VIC model simulates hydrologic processes at larger scales, the WEPP model simulates erosion at the hillslope scale by sampling representative hillslopes. VIC-WEPP model results indicate that SRB streamflow will have an earlier shift in peak flow by one to two months under future climate scenarios in response to a declining snowpack under warming temperatures. The magnitude of peak flow increases with each higher severity fire scenario; and under the highest fire severity, the peak flow is shifted even earlier, exacerbating the effects of climate change. Similarly, sediment yield also increases with higher fire severities for both historical and future climates. Sediment yield is more sensitive to fire occurrence than to climate change by one to two orders of magnitude, which is not unexpected given that our fire scenarios were applied basin wide as worst case scenarios. In reality, fires only occur over portions of the basin in any given year and subsequent years' vegetation regrowth reduces erosion. However, the effects of climate

  19. Simulation of torrential rain as a means for assessment of surface runoff coefficients and calculation of recurrent design events in alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markart, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Klebinder, Klaus; Schauer, Thomas; Bunza, Günther

    2010-05-01

    Simulation of heavy rain is an established method for studying infiltration characteristics, runoff and erosion behaviour in alpine catchments. Accordingly for characterization and differentiation of various runoff producing areas in alpine catchments transportable spray irrigation installations for large plots have been developed at the BFW, Department of Natural Hazards and Alpine Timberline, in Innsbruck, Austria. One installation has been designed for assessment of surface runoff coefficients under convective torrential rain with applicable precipitation intensities between 30 and 120 mm*h-1 and a plot size between 50 and 100 m2. The second device is used for simulation of persistent rain events (rain intensity about 10 mm*h-1, plot size: 400-1200 m2). Very reasonable results have been achieved during the comparison with spray irrigations from other institutions (e.g. Bavarian Environmental Agency in Munich) in the field. Rain simulations at BFW are mostly combined with comprehensive additional investigations on land-use, vegetation cover, soil physical characteristics, soil humidity, hydrogeology and other features of the test-sites. This allows proper interpretation of the achieved runoff data. At the moment results from more than 280 rain simulations are available from about 25 catchments / regions of the Eastern Alps at the BFW. Results show that the surface runoff coefficient, when runoff is constant at the test site (φconst) increases only slightly between rain intensities from 30 to 120 mm*h-1 (increment is 6%). Therefore φconst shall be used for assessment of runoff behaviour of runoff contributing areas, because it is less dependent form system conditions than φtot. BFW-data have been consolidated with results of the LfU (Bavarian Environmental Agency in Munich) in a data base and formed the basis for the development of a simple code of practice for assessment of surface runoff coefficients in torrential rain. The manual is freely available under

  20. A multi-criteria parameterisation strategy for the hydrological modelling of storm events in an agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallema, D. W.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    assessed using multi-objective functions related to volume, peak flow, and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient. The last step was a global calibration and validation on 33 events. The results of the calibration of individual events have demonstrated that events can be properly parameterised using the current strategy, assuming that channel exfiltration does not contribute to runoff. It was concluded that the average overland- and channel flow celerity, and the channel infiltration coefficient have remained relatively constant. This study has demonstrated that extensive data collection in combination with a multi-criteria parameterisation strategy is an important tool for calibrating and evaluating hydrological models for agricultural environments.

  1. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2016-02-01

    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide. PMID:26492427

  2. Determination of Curve Number for snowmelt-runoff floods in a small catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejduk, L.; Hejduk, A.; Banasik, K.

    2015-06-01

    One of the widely used methods for predicting flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments is the curve number (CN) method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of US Department of Agriculture. The CN parameter can be computed directly from recorded rainfall depths and direct runoff volumes in case of existing data. In presented investigations, the CN parameter has been computed for snowmelt-runoff events based on snowmelt and rainfall measurements. All required data has been gathered for a small agricultural catchment (A = 23.4 km2) of Zagożdżonka river, located in Central Poland. The CN number received from 28 snowmelt-runoff events has been compared with CN computed from rainfall-runoff events for the same catchment. The CN parameter, estimated empirically varies from 64.0 to 94.8. The relation between CN and snowmelt depth was investigated in a similar procedure to relation between CN and rainfall depth.

  3. Contribution of hydrological data to the understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of F-specific RNA bacteriophages in river water during rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Blandine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Gantzer, Christophe; Ogorzaly, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    Heavy rainfall events were previously reported to bring large amounts of microorganisms in surface water, including viruses. However, little information is available on the origin and transport of viral particles in water during such rain events. In this study, an integrative approach combining microbiological and hydrological measurements was investigated to appreciate the dynamics and origins of F-specific RNA bacteriophage fluxes during two distinct rainfall-runoff events. A high frequency sampling (automatic sampler) was set up to monitor the F-specific RNA bacteriophages fluxes at a fine temporal scale during the whole course of the rainfall-runoff events. A total of 276 rainfall-runoff samples were collected and analysed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays. The results highlight an increase of 2.5 log10 and 1.8 log10 of infectious F-specific RNA bacteriophage fluxes in parallel of an increase of the water flow levels for both events. Faecal pollution was characterised as being mainly from anthropic origin with a significant flux of phage particles belonging to the genogroup II. At the temporal scale, two successive distinct waves of phage pollution were established and identified through the hydrological measurements. The first arrival of phages in the water column was likely to be linked to the resuspension of riverbed sediments that was responsible for a high input of genogroup II. Surface runoff contributed further to the second input of phages, and more particularly of genogroup I. In addition, an important contribution of infectious phage particles has been highlighted. These findings imply the existence of a close relationship between the risk for human health and the viral contamination of flood water.

  4. Phone traffic as a measurement of agricultural events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Samuel; Borondo, Javier; Morales, Alfredo; Losada, Juan Carlos; Tarquis, Ana M.; Benito, Rosa Maria

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by empirical studies of networked systems such as the Internet, social networks, and biological networks, researchers have in recent years developed a variety of techniques and models to help us understand or predict the behaviour of these systems (1). However, it has been recently when global food system has been seen as a complex web of production, processing, storage and transportation opening new challenges in their analysis. Agricultural activities in developing countries remain as important today as in the 1950s implying seasonal workers mobilization. The proliferation of mobile phones (MPs) offers an unprecedented tool to analyze human activity mapping. We would like to mention that in developed countries, the number of MP subscribers has surpassed the total population, with a penetration rate now reaching 121%, whereas in developing countries, it is as high as 90% and continuing to rise (2). As an example, we have analyzed the impact that agricultural activities, such as the growing of groundnut, have on Senegal. To this end we have analyzed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series of the whole of Senegal and spotted the regions where groundnut is grown to identify the time period when this crop growth. By analyzing phone calls at each region of the country we found that a significant fraction of antennas exhibit two well defined peaks of activity corresponding with the begging and end of the growing season. Antennas located on regions identified as growing regions present this pattern. However, other antennas, located in non growing regions, such as Dakar, also present the two peaks pattern pointing out the synchronization between growing regions and key points in cities that emerges from the agricultural activity. References 1. Marta C. González, César A. Hidalgo and Albert-László Barabási (2008) Understanding individual human mobility patterns. Nature 453, 779-78. 2. International Telecommunication Union (2014) World

  5. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  6. Surface runoff in flat terrain: How field topography and runoff generating processes control hydrological connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn M.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2016-03-01

    In flat lowland agricultural catchments in temperate climate zones with highly permeable sandy soils, surface runoff is a rare process with a large impact on the redistribution of sediments and solutes and stream water quality. We examine hydrological data obtained on two field sites in the Netherlands for a period of 1.5 years to give an integrated narrative of surface runoff in this type of catchment. In the monitoring period, seven surface runoff events were observed with a magnitude of 9.8-975 L runoff. Four of these events were classified as saturation excess events, due to a shallow water table. Three of the events occurred under infiltration excess conditions due to rainfall in combination with snowmelt. Though the microtopography of the fields was quite different, they were identical in terms of topographical indicators. Therefore, we analyzed the dynamics of hydrological connectivity on these fields with a numerical model that takes into account routing variability through microtopography and calculated simplified hydrographs and Relative Surface Connection functions from the results. The connectivity dynamics of the fields were different as quantified by these indicators. We found that the dynamics of hydrological connectivity in this low-angle terrain are not just a function of the soil surface meso- and microtopography, but also of the type of surface runoff generating process. This is an important factor to consider when using connectivity functions as an upscaling tool in catchment scale modeling.

  7. Analysis of recurring sinking events of armored tracked vehicles along dirt roads in the agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel

    2013-04-01

    The second (Al-Aqsa) intifada (Arab violent uprising) which erupted across Israel in 2000 eventually led the Israel Defense Forces to deploy armored tracked vehicles (ATVs) (tanks, armored personal carriers, and D-9 bulldozers) within Israel's agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip, following daily attempts by Arab terrorists and guerillas to penetrate Israel. Combat movement of the ATVs was mainly concentrated to dirt roads, between agricultural fields, wherever possible. As a result of semi-arid Mediterranean (climate) winter rains, annually averaging 250 - 350 mm, it was reported that ATVs often sank in muddy terrain. This study investigated what caused ATVs to sink. The main data collected concerning the types of vehicles that sank related to: land-use characteristics, soil type, and daily rainfall. Interviews with commanders were also conducted for additional details. Between the fall and spring, surveys and weekly / bi-weekly field soil cone penetrometer tests were conducted at ten sites with different pedological and land-use characteristics. The loess soils, especially in agricultural fields, were generally found to be conducive to ATV traffic, even shortly after rainstorms of 10-30 mm. However, following several rainfall events exceeding 10 mm, ATVs and tanks regularly sank into local topographic depressions in the undulating landscape. These consisted of short segments of dirt roads where runoff and suspended sediment collected. After the early rains in late fall, tank ruts fossilize and become conduits of concentrated runoff and fine particles eroded by ATV activity during the summer months. Tank track ruts that formed in mud, compacted the soil, drastically altered drainage patterns by directing significant surface flow, and suspended sediment into these depressions, creating "tank-traps" whose trafficability ranged from "untrafficable" to "trafficable with constraints." This study shows that intense, routine, defensive military activity operated

  8. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in precipitation and urban and agricultural storm runoff during January and February 2001 in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zamora, Celia; Kratzer, Charles R.; Majewski, Michael S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2001 in the San Joaquin River Basin was 24 percent less and 3.2 times more than applications in 2000, respectively. A total of 16 sites were sampled during January and February 2001 storm events: 7 river sites, 8 precipitation sites, and 1 urban storm drain. The seven river sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during storm runoff from a total of four storms. The monitoring of storm runoff at a city storm drain in Modesto, California, occurred simultaneously with the collection of precipitation samples from eight sites during a January 2001 storm event. The highest concentrations of diazinon occurred during the storm periods for all 16 sites, and the highest concentrations of chlorpyrifos occurred during weekly nonstorm sampling for the river sites and during the January storm period for the urban storm drain and precipitation sites. A total of 60 samples (41 from river sites, 10 from precipitation sites, and 9 from the storm drain site) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 ?g/L, the concentration being considered by the California Department of Fish and Game as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitats. A total of 18 samples (2 from river sites, 9 from precipitation sites, and 7 from the storm drain site) exceeded the equivalent California Department of Fish and Game guideline of 0.02 ?g/L for chlorpyrifos. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 23.8 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 16.9 pounds active ingredient were transported by four storms, 1.06 pounds active ingredient were transported by nonstorm events, and 5.82 pounds active ingredient were considered to be baseline loads. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 2.17 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 0.702 pound active

  9. Characterizing response of total suspended solids and total phosphorus loading to weather and watershed characteristics for rainfall and snowmelt events in agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven; Brooks, Wesley R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the response of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) to influential weather and watershed variables is critical in the development of sediment and nutrient reduction plans. In this study, rainfall and snowmelt event loadings of TSS and TP were analyzed for eight agricultural watersheds in Wisconsin, with areas ranging from 14 to 110 km2 and having four to twelve years of data available. The data showed that a small number of rainfall and snowmelt runoff events accounted for the majority of total event loading. The largest 10% of the loading events for each watershed accounted for 73–97% of the total TSS load and 64–88% of the total TP load. More than half of the total annual TSS load was transported during a single event for each watershed at least one of the monitored years. Rainfall and snowmelt events were both influential contributors of TSS and TP loading. TSS loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at five watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds, and nearly equal at one watershed. The TP loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at three watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds and nearly equal at three watersheds. Stepwise multivariate regression models for TSS and TP event loadings were developed separately for rainfall and snowmelt runoff events for each individual watershed and for all watersheds combined by using a suite of precipitation, melt, temperature, seasonality, and watershed characteristics as predictors. All individual models and the combined model for rainfall events resulted in two common predictors as most influential for TSS and TP. These included rainfall depth and the antecedent baseflow. Using these two predictors alone resulted in an R2 greater than 0.7 in all but three individual models and 0.61 or greater for all individual models. The combined model yielded an R2 of 0.66 for TSS and 0.59 for TP. Neither the individual nor the combined models were

  10. Large-Scale Simulation of the Effects of Climate Change on Runoff Erosion Following Extreme Wildfire Events Authors: Gould, Adam, Warren, Barber, Wagenbrenner, Robichaud, Wang, Cherkauer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, G.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wang, L.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    -fire characteristics, such as vegetative cover, interrill and rill erodibility factors, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Evaluation of runoff erosion at experimental sites, observed by the U.S. Forest Service, involved using Disturbed WEPP which showed reasonable first post-fire year annual erosion predictions. We evaluated VIC-WEPP by comparing sediment observations downstream of the SRB with simulated yields for both pre and post-fire conditions. Generation of maps showing erosion over the SRB for each of the scenarios show specific areas within the SRB to be high, moderate, or low runoff-induced post-fire erosion regions. Our methodology will enable forest managers in the region to incorporate the impacts of changes in meteorological events on runoff erosion into their strategic management plans.

  11. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  12. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk.

  13. Career Development Event Participation and Professional Development Needs of Kansas Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have shown that agricultural education teachers perceive a need for professional development in Career Development Events (CDEs) preparation, but they did not identify the individual CDEs where training was needed. This study examined the CDEs that Kansas schools were participating in at the district and state levels and the CDEs…

  14. A new device to measure the settling properties of suspended particles : instrumental development and first applications during runoff events in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legoût, Cédric; Wendling, Valentin; Gratiot, Nicolas; Mercier, Bernard; Coulaud, Catherine; Nord, Guillaume; Droppo, Ian; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Most equations describing suspended particle transport balances the settling flux of particles against the turbulent flux of the flow. Although in-situ techniques have been developed to measure settling velocities of suspended particles in coastal areas, floodplain rivers and estuaries, they are not easily transferable to small and meso-scale watersheds. The main limitation lies in the range of concentrations frequently reaching several tens of grams per liter during runoff events. To overcome this instrumental limitation we developed an original System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs (SCAF). An optical settling column, equipped with a vertical array of 16 optical sensors, was used to provide light transmission through a suspension during quiescent settling. It was specifically designed to be inserted in plastic bottles contained in classical sequential samplers, in order to obtain automatic measurements of the suspension immediately after its collection in the river. From the SCAF measurements, we calculate both the particle settling velocity distributions and the propensity of particles to flocculate. The prototypes were tested in laboratory conditions for a wide range of concentrations and material types, leading to consistent measurements with flocculation indices comprised between 0 and 80, respectively for non-cohesive and cohesive materials. First measurements in the field were achieved during runoff events at the outlet of small nested catchments in Lao PDR (MSEC network of environmental observatories) in order to explore the non-conservative behavior of the settling properties of eroded soil aggregates during their transfer.

  15. The impact of soil compaction on runoff - a meta analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogger, Magdalena; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Soil compaction caused by intensive agricultural practices is known to influence runoff processes at the local scale and is often speculated to have an impact on flood events at much larger scales. Due to the complex and diverse mechanisms related to soil compaction, the key processes influencing runoff at different scales are still poorly understood. The impacts of soil compaction are, however, not only investigated by hydrologists, but also by agricultural scientists since changes in the soil structure and water availability have a direct impact on agricultural yield. Results from these studies are also of interest to hydrologists. This study presents a meta analysis of such agricultural studies with the aim to analyse and bring together the results related to runoff processes. The study identifies the most important parameters used to describe soil compaction effects and compares the observed impacts under different climatic and soil conditions. The specific type of agricultural practice causing the soil compaction is also taken into account. In a further step the results of this study shall be used to derive a toy model for scenario analysis in order to identify the potential impacts of soil compaction on runoff processes at larger scales then the plot scale.

  16. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution.

  17. Water-quality data of stormwater runoff from Davenport, Iowa, 1992 and 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, B.D.; Einhellig, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    During 1992 and 1994, stormwater runoff in Davenport, Iowa, was sampled from the following land use types: agricultural and vacant, residential, commercial, parks and wooded areas, and industrial. Grab samples collected within the first hour of the runoff event were analyzed for many constituents including volatile organic compounds. Flow-weighted composite samples, composed from discrete samples collected at 15-minute intervals during the first three hours of the event or until discharge returned to pre-event levels, also were analyzed for many constituents including major ions, nitrogen, phosphorus, metals, total organic carbon, acid/base-neutral organics, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  18. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    PubMed

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p < 0.05) to those from unamended slurry, with no significant difference between treatments. Losses from amended slurry with a TI of 12 h were less than from unamended slurry with a TI of 48 h, indicating that chemical amendment of slurry may be more effective at ameliorating P loss in runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted

  19. Contrasting nutrient mitigation and denitrification potential of agricultural drainage environments with different emergent aquatic macrophytes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remediation of excess nitrogen (N) in agricultural runoff can be enhanced by establishing wetland vegetation but the role of denitrification in N removal is not well understood in drainage ditches. We quantified differences in N retention during experimental runoff events followed by stagnant period...

  20. Agriculture, Settlement, and Abrupt Climate Change: The 4.2ka BP event in Northern Mesopotamia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvet, L.

    2003-12-01

    An abrupt aridification event at 4200 BP has been recorded in 41 paleoclimate proxies in the Old World, from Kilmanjaro, Tanzania to Rajasthan, India, East Asia and the Pacific. This event is particularly well defined for Western Asia, where it has been associated with the abandonment of settlements across the Fertile Crescent and the collapse of states on the Levantine coast and in the dry-farming plains of Northern Mesopotamia, including the Akkadian Empire. Adaptations to climate change are constrained by both local environmental and social factors. Agriculturalists, especially those living in pre-industrial societies, are particularly susceptible to changes in precipitation. The Tell Leilan Regional Survey, which systematically studied sites in a 1650km2 area of Northeastern Syria, records one set of adaptations to this event in an area where dry-farming provided the subsistence base. The survey transect crosses ecotones, from the present 500mm isohyet in the North to the 250mm isohyet in the South, and contains diverse wadi systems, ground water resources, soil profiles, and an ancient marsh/lake-- all of which allow this region to be taken as a microcosm of Northern Mesopotamia. In order to contextualize our study of human response to abrupt climate change, it is necessary to consider how the economic and social systems that were previously in place were transformed by this event. This study attempts to quantify climate change and model its effects on agricultural, pastoral, and settlement systems in Northeastern Syria from 2400-1700 BC. From 2400-2300 BC, optimal climate conditions coincided with the consolidation of an indigenous state. The next century witnessed the Akkadian conquest and imperialization of the Habur plains, which resulted in both the intensification and extensification of agro-production. During the next 300 years, (2200-1900 BC), rainfall plummeted to 70% of the climatic optimum, triggering the abandonment of cities along with their

  1. Simulation of water available for runoff in clearcut forest openings during rain-on-snow events in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Heeswijk, Marijke; Kimball, J.S.; Marks, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Rain-on-snow events are common on mountain slopes within the transient-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest. These events make more water available for runoff than does precipitation alone by melting the snowpack and by adding a small amount of condensate to the snowpack. In forest openings (such as those resulting from clearcut logging), the amount of snow that accumulates and the turbulent- energy input to the snowpack are greater than below forest stands. Both factors are believed to contribute to a greater amount of water available for runoff during rain-on-snow events in forest openings than forest stands. Because increased water available for runoff may lead to increased downstream flooding and erosion, knowledge of the amount of snowmelt that can occur during rain on snow and the processes that control snowmelt in forest openings is useful when making land-use decisions. Snow accumulation and melt were simulated for clearcut conditions only, using an enery- balance approach that accounts for the most important energy and mass exchanges between a snowpack and its environment. Meteorological measurements provided the input for the simulations. Snow accumulation and melt were not simulated in forest stands because interception of precipitation processes are too complex to simulate with a numerical model without making simplifying assumptions. Such a model, however, would need to be extensively tested against representative observations, which were not available for this study. Snowmelt simulated during three rain-on-snow events (measured in a previous study in a clearcut in the transient-snow zone of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon) demonstrated that melt generation is most sensitive to turbulent- energy exchanges between the air and the snowpack surface. As a result, the most important climate variable that controls snowmelt is wind speed. Air temperature, however, is a significant variable also. The wind speeds were light, with a maximum of 3

  2. Uncertainties in data and models to describe event dynamics of agricultural sediment and phosphorus transfer.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Tobias; Quinton, John N; Freer, Jim; Macleod, Christopher J A; Bilotta, Gary S; Brazier, Richard E; Butler, Patricia; Haygarth, Philip M

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical models help to quantify agricultural sediment and phosphorus transfers and to simulate mitigation of pollution. This paper develops empirical models of the dominant sediment and phosphorus event dynamics observed at high resolution in a drained and undrained, intensive grassland field-scale lysimeter (1 ha) experiment. The uncertainties in model development and simulation are addressed using Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation. A comparison of suspended solids (SS) and total phosphorus (TP) samples with a limited number of manual repeats indicates larger data variability at low flows. Quantitative uncertainty estimates for discharge (Q) are available from another study. Suspended solids-discharge (SS-Q) hysteresis is analyzed for four events and two drained and two undrained fields. Hysteresis loops differ spatially and temporally, and exhaustion is apparent between sequential hydrograph peaks. A coherent empirical model framework for hysteresis, where SS is a function of Q and rate of change of Q, is proposed. This is evaluated taking the Q uncertainty into account, which can contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty of model simulations. The model simulates small hysteresis loops well but fails to simulate exhaustion of SS sources and flushing at the onset of events. Analysis of the TP-SS relationship reveals that most of the variability occurs at low flows, and a power-law relationship can explain the dominant behavior at higher flows, which is consistent across events, fields, and pathways. The need for further field experiments to test hypotheses of sediment mobilization and to quantify data uncertainties is identified. PMID:19398511

  3. N : P Stoichiometry in a Forested Runoff during Storm Events: Comparisons with Regions and Vegetation Types

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lanlan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered the most important limiting elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. however, very few studies have focused on which is from forested streams, a bridge between these two systems. To fill this gap, we examined the concentrations of dissolved N and P in storm waters from forested watersheds of five regions in Japan, to characterize nutrient limitation and its potential controlling factors. First, dissolved N and P concentrations and the N : P ratio on forested streams were higher during storm events relative to baseflow conditions. Second, significantly higher dissolved inorganic N concentrations were found in storm waters from evergreen coniferous forest streams than those from deciduous broadleaf forest streams in Aichi, Kochi, Mie, Nagano, and with the exception of Tokyo. Finally, almost all the N : P ratios in the storm water were generally higher than 34, implying that the storm water should be P-limited, especially for Tokyo. PMID:22547978

  4. N : P stoichiometry in a forested runoff during storm events: comparisons with regions and vegetation types.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lanlan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Zhao; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered the most important limiting elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. however, very few studies have focused on which is from forested streams, a bridge between these two systems. To fill this gap, we examined the concentrations of dissolved N and P in storm waters from forested watersheds of five regions in Japan, to characterize nutrient limitation and its potential controlling factors. First, dissolved N and P concentrations and the N : P ratio on forested streams were higher during storm events relative to baseflow conditions. Second, significantly higher dissolved inorganic N concentrations were found in storm waters from evergreen coniferous forest streams than those from deciduous broadleaf forest streams in Aichi, Kochi, Mie, Nagano, and with the exception of Tokyo. Finally, almost all the N : P ratios in the storm water were generally higher than 34, implying that the storm water should be P-limited, especially for Tokyo.

  5. Effect of formal and informal likelihood functions on uncertainty assessment in a single event rainfall-runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourali, Mahrouz; Ghahraman, Bijan; Pourreza-Bilondi, Mohsen; Davary, Kamran

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, DREAM(ZS), Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis combined with both formal and informal likelihood functions, is used to investigate uncertainty of parameters of the HEC-HMS model in Tamar watershed, Golestan province, Iran. In order to assess the uncertainty of 24 parameters used in HMS, three flood events were used to calibrate and one flood event was used to validate the posterior distributions. Moreover, performance of seven different likelihood functions (L1-L7) was assessed by means of DREAM(ZS)approach. Four likelihood functions, L1-L4, Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency, Normalized absolute error (NAE), Index of agreement (IOA), and Chiew-McMahon efficiency (CM), is considered as informal, whereas remaining (L5-L7) is represented in formal category. L5 focuses on the relationship between the traditional least squares fitting and the Bayesian inference, and L6, is a hetereoscedastic maximum likelihood error (HMLE) estimator. Finally, in likelihood function L7, serial dependence of residual errors is accounted using a first-order autoregressive (AR) model of the residuals. According to the results, sensitivities of the parameters strongly depend on the likelihood function, and vary for different likelihood functions. Most of the parameters were better defined by formal likelihood functions L5 and L7 and showed a high sensitivity to model performance. Posterior cumulative distributions corresponding to the informal likelihood functions L1, L2, L3, L4 and the formal likelihood function L6 are approximately the same for most of the sub-basins, and these likelihood functions depict almost a similar effect on sensitivity of parameters. 95% total prediction uncertainty bounds bracketed most of the observed data. Considering all the statistical indicators and criteria of uncertainty assessment, including RMSE, KGE, NS, P-factor and R-factor, results showed that DREAM(ZS) algorithm performed better under formal likelihood functions L5 and L7

  6. Stoichiometric Determination of Nitrate Fate in Agricultural Ecosystems during Rainfall Events

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiyao

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists have found a close relationship between the concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in ecosystems. However, it is difficult to determine the NO3- fate exactly because of the low coefficient in the constructed relationship. In the present paper, a negative power-function equation (r2 = 0.87) was developed by using 411 NO3- data points and DOC:NO3- ratios from several agricultural ecosystems during different rainfall events. Our analysis of the stoichiometric method reveals several observations. First, the NO3- concentration demonstrated the largest changes when the DOC:NO3- ratio increased from 1 to 10. Second, the biodegradability of DOC was an important factor in controlling the NO3- concentration of agricultural ecosystems. Third, sediment was important not only as a denitrification site, but also as a major source of DOC for the overlying water. Fourth, a high DOC concentration was able to maintain a low NO3- concentration in the groundwater. In conclusion, this new stoichiometric method can be used for the accurate estimation and analysis of NO3- concentrations in ecosystems. PMID:25849210

  7. Impact of topography at different scales on ponding and runoff in flat areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn; Bogaart, Patrick; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2014-05-01

    In flat well-drained agricultural terrain, surface runoff is a relatively rare phenomenon, yet an important driver of sediment and nutrient transport. In this environment, periods of intense rainfall, shallow groundwater dynamics and local combinations of meso- and microtopography are the factors that determine whether water in ponds will make it to streams and ditches. We have combined surface runoff measurements at agricultural fields and a new modeling approach to explore the following questions: (i) what rainfall conditions prevail during surface runoff events and (ii) how do flow routes develop during surface runoff events in various types of microtopography? We have collected surface runoff data from two field sites in flat, lowland catchments in the sandy part of the Netherlands. In addition, we developed a dynamic model (FAST-runoff) that simulates redistribution of water over a heterogeneous surface with infiltration and 2-dimensional groundwater flow. The field measurements showed that most surface runoff occurred as saturation excess runoff during long wet periods or during snow melt periods. For both fields, the contributing area during the saturation excess events was large and flow paths long, irrespective of the profoundly different microtopographies. We explored this behaviour with our FAST-Runoff model and found that under saturation excess conditions, meso-topographic features, such as natural depressions or those caused by tillage, gain importance at the expense of the spatial organization of microtopography. Mesotopography affects surface runoff development under saturation excess conditions by actually rerouting ponding water over longer distances. The infiltration of water in mesotopographic depressions can lead to a decrease of the gradient of the groundwater table over a large part of each field, which decreases groundwater flow. In our analyses, the storage and rerouting characteristics of the mesotopography increased the sensitivity of the

  8. The effects of hydraulics, geomorphology, and storm events on metabolism rates in an agricultural river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, B. L.; Harvey, J. W.; McPhillips, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Physical factors such as discharge, geomorphology, and sediment transport strongly influence metabolism rates in agricultural rivers with sparse tree canopies where sunlight is not limiting. These physical processes establish a mosaic of sediment habitats of varying particle sizes, permeabilities, and biological communities that control primary production and respiration rates. In this study, we examined the combined factors of hydraulic conditions, sediment texture, and hyporheic exchange on the spatial and temporal variability of metabolism rates in an agricultural river located in central Iowa. Hydraulic conditions were quantified using field velocity measurements and two-dimensional hydraulic modeling. Sediment texture was assessed using a grid-based survey identifying dominant particle size classes, as well as aerial coverage of green algae and fine benthic organic material. Hyporheic exchange potential was quantified using an effective diffusion scaling relationship based on sediment and flow conditions. Patch-scale metabolism rates varied spatially according to patterns in hydraulic and sediment characteristics, but were of the same order of magnitude as reach-scale gross primary productivity and community respiration measurements. Two discharge-related storm perturbation regimes to the reach-scale metabolism rates were identified using diurnal dissolved oxygen data measured at the study reach over three years. Rainfall events of < 3 cm disrupted the metabolism rates for 1-2 days as a result of increased turbidity, whereas rainfall events of > 3 cm disrupted metabolism rates for several days to weeks due to bed mobilization and the restructuring of the sediment habitats. A combination of hydraulic modeling, habitat mapping, and reach-scale metabolism measurements were used to produce a two-dimensional analysis of a turbidity-related disturbance event that occurred in late fall 2007. Results from this study suggest that physical processes establish, destroy

  9. Application of Stable Isotope in Hydrologic Analysis of a Rainfall-Runoff Event in the Xin'an Jiang River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Yi, P.; Chen, L.; Aldahan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes abundance of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) are very sensitive to environmental changes and can help understand the complex recharges between surface water and groundwater. However, details of variability in the different components of water supply to watersheds are generally missing. We present here evaluation of isotopic changes in small watershed (0.19 km2) in the upstream of Xin'an River, Anhui province, China based on daily sampling of rainfall events and runoff (river and soil water). The δ2H and δ18O of different water sources in the watershed were aimed in order explore interactions between different parts of the hydrological processes. The collected water samples were analyzed for δ2H and δ18O using Picarro L-2120i analyzer at a precision of 1.0 and 0.1 ‰, respectively. The results indicated higher abundance of 2H and 18O in precipitation than those in river. Additionally, the content of the heavy isotopes also decreases in soil water with depth, while surface soil water was enriched because of evaporation. The response of the watershed to the changes in δ2H and δ18O varied, where water in upstream gained more heavy isotopes rapidly, while in the downstream part the enrichment happened after a few days. This feature suggests a different but still strong hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater in the small watershed tested here. Accordingly, variability of δ2H and δ18O should be carefully evaluated on a local scale before application in transport system of large rivers and exchange with groundwater.

  10. Probabilistic rainfall-runoff transformation considering both infiltration and saturation excess runoff generation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Baetz, Brian W.

    2012-06-01

    Many rainfall-runoff models consider only the infiltration excess runoff generation process. The use of green roofs, bio-retention areas, and pervious pavements for urban storm water management purposes requires the modeling of surfaces where both infiltration and saturation excess runoff generation mechanisms need to be considered. Expanded from previous results of probabilistic rainfall-runoff transformation, analytical equations transforming the input rainfall frequency distribution to output runoff frequency distribution are derived to incorporate both runoff generation processes. These analytical equations can be used to calculate the average annual runoff volume and runoff event volume return period. Results from deterministic continuous simulation of various urban surfaces were compared to those from the analytical equations and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The analytical equations are therefore proposed as a complement to continuous simulation models for the modeling of urban catchments where both runoff generation processes occur.

  11. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  12. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-04-03

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff.

  13. Nitrate transport and fluxes during storm-event discharge from a 12 ha tile-drained dryland agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Brooks, E. S.; Smith, J. L.; Orr, C. H.; Evans, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Tile drains shortcut natural soil hydrology and decrease the capacity of soils to buffer water and nutrient fluxes during storm events. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA. found seasonal patterns for nutrient and water fluxes, larger during the winter and smaller during the summer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects storm events have on tile-drain water and nutrient fluxes from a dryland agricultural field. Our first hypothesis is that winter storm events activate shallow soil-water flow paths, resulting in rapid transport of precipitation and younger soil pore-water through the tile-drain system. These storm-event flow paths result in a decrease in tile-drain water electrical conductivity from a baseline of approximately 260 μS/cm to as low as 20 μS/ cm. Data suggest that storm events increase hydraulic conductivities in the upper profile as soil approaches saturation, increasing the contributions of relatively young soil water and possibly current storm-event precipitation to tile-drain discharge. Our second hypothesis is that the observed increase in discharge during storm events does not decrease nitrate concentrations in discharged water, because the storm-event flow paths also transport additional nitrate from the upper soil profile through the tile-drain system. If this hypothesis is correct, during storm events nitrate fluxes should increase, indicating rapid mobilization and potential flushing of soil nutrients through the vadose zone and tile-drain. If nitrate fluxes remain constant during storm events, then decreased tile-drain nitrate concentrations may be caused by the addition of low-nitrate or nitrate-free water. This would suggest that the nitrate leached from the system is present at the depth of the tile-drain and is not transported from near the soil surface to the tile-drain during storm-events, indicating flushing of soil nutrients from the rooting zone is not occurring at these temporal scales

  14. Statistical analysis and modelling of surface runoff from arable fields in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiener, P.; Auerswald, K.; Winter, F.; Disse, M.

    2013-10-01

    Surface runoff generation on arable fields is an important driver of flooding, on-site and off-site damages by erosion, and of nutrient and agrochemical transport. In general, three different processes generate surface runoff (Hortonian runoff, saturation excess runoff, and return of subsurface flow). Despite the developments in our understanding of these processes it remains difficult to predict which processes govern runoff generation during the course of an event or throughout the year, when soil and vegetation on arable land are passing many states. We analysed the results from 317 rainfall simulations on 209 soils from different landscapes with a resolution of 14 286 runoff measurements to determine temporal and spatial differences in variables governing surface runoff, and to derive and test a statistical model of surface runoff generation independent from an a priori selection of modelled process types. Measured runoff was related to 20 time-invariant soil properties, three variable soil properties, four rain properties, three land use properties and many derived variables describing interactions and curvilinear behaviour. In an iterative multiple regression procedure, six of these properties/variables best described initial abstraction and the hydrograph. To estimate initial abstraction, the percentages of stone cover above 10% and of sand content in the bulk soil were needed, while the hydrograph could be predicted best from rain depth exceeding initial abstraction, rainfall intensity, soil organic carbon content, and time since last tillage. Combining the multiple regressions to estimate initial abstraction and surface runoff allowed modelling of event-specific hydrographs without an a priori assumption of the underlying process. The statistical model described the measured data well and performed equally well during validation. In both cases, the model explained 71 and 58% of variability in accumulated runoff volume and instantaneous runoff rate (RSME: 5

  15. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage. PMID:27337888

  16. Evaluating the Mathematics Achievement Levels of Students Participating in the Texas FFA Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edney, Kirk Clowe

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mathematics enrichment activity used to improve the mathematics performance of students relative to participation in the State Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event (CDE) and in mandated assessments. The treatment group (13 schools, 43 students) participated in a…

  17. Effects of different crops and soil managements on runoff for hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, F.; Pieri, L.; Gaspari, N.; Rossi Pisa, P.

    2003-04-01

    Runoff and soil erosion are natural phenomena strongly influenced by agricultural activities. Their main consequences are soil degradation, declining soil fertility, limiting infiltration capacity and water storage and have a strong negative feed-back on agriculture. Runoff prevention and soil conservation on agricultural land have also beneficial effects in reducing flood risk, especially against a background of climate change. In order to limit soil degradation a deep knowledge of all the factors taking part in the runoff process is necessary due to the fact that it occurs under very diverse conditions, depending on interactions between land use, climate, soils and topography. In particular in this study we have focalised our attention on two aspects: firstly we compared various use of agricultural soil, choosing between the most common crops of our region; secondly we studied different hydrological management in order to control the soil loss. The trial was carried out in Ozzano (Bo), Italy, (44^o25'N, 11^o28'E, 200 m a.s.l.) in plots with different slopes (from 0.65% to 17,9%) and tillage directions. Selected crops were wheat, sorghum and alfa alfa, whose rotation allowed the study of increasing vegetation densities, from bare soil, during the wheat-sorghum season, to the alfa alfa complete coverage. In addition we considered also a plot with cherry wood trees situated by the trial site. We examined five years of data with the aim of underlining relationships among vegetation density, plot slope, runoff and rainfall quantity - intensity - erosivity. The first findings show that: the values of runoff in alfa alfa are one order of magnitude lower than in sorghum and wheat, even with high erosive rainfall events. Cherry wood trees covered soil yields runoff amount lower than alfa alfa, since leaves interception of rain drops and the presence of brushwood retard the runoff, confirming the importance of forest cover to limit erosion processes.

  18. Observed impacts of duration and seasonality of atmospheric-river landfalls on soil moisture and runoff in coastal northern California and the role of long-duration atmospheric rivers in creating extreme hydrometeorological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Coleman, T.; Neiman, P. J.; Zamora, R. J.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers are narrow regions in the atmosphere (typically 400 km wide on average) that contain strong low-altitude winds and large water vapor contents, normally found ahead of the cold front in extratropical cyclones. They have been found to be responsible for more than 90% of the merdional water vapor transport in midlatitudes. When they strike coastal mountains on the west sides of continents, they can produce heavy precipitation. This precipitation contributes roughly 25% to 50% of the water supply in the western coastal states of the US during relatively few events annually. When an AR is strong, wide and stalls over a watershed that has moist soils it can produce flooding. The study is enabled by unique hourly observations collected over six years near California's Russian River, and by recent advances in the science of atmospheric rivers (ARs). This study fills key gaps limiting the prediction of ARs and, especially, their impacts by quantifying the duration of AR conditions and the role of duration in modulating hydrometeorological impacts. Precursor soil moisture conditions and their relationship to streamflow are also shown. On the basis of 91 well-observed events during 2004-2010, the study shows that the passage of ARs over a coastal site lasted 20 h on average and that 12% of the AR events exceeded 30 h. Differences in storm-total water vapor transport directed up the mountain slope contribute 74% of the variance in storm-total rainfall across the events and to 61% of the variance in storm-total runoff volume. ARs with double the composite mean duration produced nearly six times greater peak streamflow and more than seven times the storm-total runoff volume. When precursor soil moisture was less than 20%, even heavy rainfall did not lead to significant streamflow. In short, predicting which AR events are likely to produce extreme impacts on precipitation and runoff requires accurate prediction of AR duration at landfall and knowledge of

  19. Watershed comparison beyond rainfall-runoff analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, B. L.; Weiler, M.

    2004-05-01

    Comparing runoff response and runoff generation processes among catchments not only requires rainfall and runoff data, but more importantly, additional process knowledge and tools to quantify similarity/difference. Isotopic hydrograph separation is a well established tool to help elucidate runoff processes, but is a poor tool for quantitative catchment comparison. Unit hydrograph analysis is a good tool to quantify catchment response, but provides little processes information. We developed the TRANSEP model to combine the positive merits of hydrograph separation and unit hydrograph analysis (Weiler et al., 2003, WRR). Application of TRANSEP to measured rainfall runoff events and associated tracer data allows quantification of the runoff response and separation of the runoff response into its event and pre-event water components. In addition, the effective precipitation and the precipitation that reaches the stream can be determined. We applied TRANSEP to two storms in four catchments ranging in size from 2.6 ha to 280 ha size at the Maimai research watersheds (NZ). We demonstrate the performance of TRANSEP in quantifying the tracer response, runoff response, and event water contribution across catchment scale. TRANSEP offers a new approach for quantifying catchment hydrology and comparing watersheds based on runoff processes and response characteristics.

  20. An investigation of roof runoff during rain events at the Royal Military College of Canada and potential discharge to Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David G; Weir, Ron D; White, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Military College of Canada, located on the north eastern shore of Lake Ontario, possesses an abundance of copper roofs and lacks surface water treatment prior to discharge into Lake Ontario. Rainwater, roof runoff and soil samples were collected and analyzed for copper and other parameters. Copper was consistently detected in runoff samples with average concentrations of 3200 +/- 2100 microg/L. Multivariable linear regression analysis for a dependant copper runoff concentration yielded an adjusted R2 value of 0.611, based on an independent variable model using minimum temperature, maximum temperature, total precipitation, and wind speed. Lake water samples taken in the vicinity of storm water outfalls draining areas with copper roofs ranged from 2.0 to 40 microg/L copper. Such data exceed the 2.0 microg/L Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life as outlined by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). Analysis of raw, filtered and digested forms suggested that the majority of copper present in runoff and lake water samples was in a dissolved form. The majority of soils taken in this study displayed copper concentrations below the 63 microg/g CCME residential/parkland land use limits. These findings suggested that ion exchange processes between runoff water and soil do not occur to a sufficient extent to elevate copper levels in soil. It may therefore be concluded that the eventual fate of copper, which is not discharged via storm water outfalls, is lost to the water table and Lake Ontario through the sub-soil. PMID:22125898

  1. Effects of the spatial organization of agricultural management on the hydrological behaviour of a farmed catchment during flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Roger; Voltz, Marc; Andrieux, Patrick

    2002-02-01

    Field limits, tillage practices and ditch networks constitute man-made hydrological discontinuities in farmed catchments, and are expected to influence hydrological response during flood events. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of human impact, especially the existence of tillage practices and ditch network, on flood events. The study area is the farmed catchment of Roujan (0·91 km2) located in Southern France for which a spatially distributed hydrological model, MHYDAS, was developed and tested. The model considers the catchment as a series of interconnected field parts linked to the ditch network. Descriptions are provided for the main model procedures: computation of Hortonian excess rainfall on fields using the Green and Ampt approach, conversion of excess rainfall to surface runoff, interaction between ditch network and groundwater using a simple Darcian model and flood routing through the ditch network using the diffusive wave model. To analyse the role of both tillage practices and the ditch network, two sets of sensitivity analysis of the model were applied. The first set studied the role of tillage practices by comparing the actual spatial distribution of tillage practices on the catchment with three hypothetical scenarios. The second set studied the role of the ditch network by comparing the actual man-made ditch network with a hypothetical drainage network automatically extracted from a digital elevation model. Results show the importance of the role of tillage and the ditch network on the form of the hydrograph, the lag time, the runoff volume and the peak discharge. This technique could also be applied to study the impact of land use change on the hydrological behaviour of the catchment.

  2. Effects of the Spatial Organization of Agricultural Management on the Hydrological Behaviour of a Farmed Catchment During Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, R.; Voltz, M.; Andrieux, P.

    2001-05-01

    Field limits, tillage practices and ditch networks constitute man-made hydrological discontinuities in farmed catchments, and are expected to influence hydrological response during flood events. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of human impact, especially the existence of tillage practices and ditch network, on flood events. The study area is the farmed catchment of Roujan (91 ha) located in Southern France for which a spatially distributed hydrological model, MHYDAS, was developed and tested. The model considers the catchment as a series of interconnected field parts linked to the ditch network. Descriptions are provided for the main model procedures: computation of Hortonian excess rainfall on fields using the Green and Ampt approach, conversion of excess rainfall to surface runoff, interaction between ditch network and groundwater using a simple Darcian model and flood routing through the ditch network using the diffusive wave model. To analyse the role of both tillage practices and the ditch network, two sets of sensitivity analysis of the model were applied. The first set studied the role of tillage practices by comparing the actual spatial distribution of tillage practices on the catchment to three hypothetical scenarios. The second set studied the role of the ditch network by comparing the actual man-made ditch network to a hypothetical drainage network automatically extracted from a Digital Elevation Model. Results show the importance of the role of tillage and the ditch network on the form of the hydrograph, the lag time, the runoff volume and the peak discharge. This technique could also be applied to study the impact of land use change on the hydrological behaviour of the catchment.

  3. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; effects of nutrient management on quality of surface runoff at a small carbonate-rock site near Ephrate, Pennsylvania, 1984-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.W.; Lietman, P.L.; Koerkle, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a study from 1984 to 1990 to determine theeffects of the implementation and practice of nutrient management [an agricultural best-management practice (BMP)] on the quality of surface runoff and ground water at a 55-acre crop and livestock farm in carbonate terrain nearEphrata, Pa. Implementation of nutrient management at Field-Site 2 resulted in application decreases of 33 percent for nitrogen and 29 percent for phosphorus. There wereno significant changes in nitrogen or phosphorusloads for a given amount of runoff from the pre-BMP to the post-BMP periods. However, less than 2 percent of the applied nutrients weredischarged with runoff throughout the study period.After the implementation of nutrient management, statistically significant decreases in concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples occurred at threeof the four wells monitored throughout the pre- and post-BMP periods. The largest decreases in nitrate concentrations occurred at wells where samples hadthe largest nitrate concentrations prior to nutrient management. Changes in nitrogen applications to the contributing areas of five wells were correlated with nitrate concentrations of the well water. The correlations between the timing and amount of applied nitrogen and changes in ground-water quality met the four conditions that are characteristic of a cause-effect relation: an association, consistency, responsiveness, and a mechanism. Changes in ground-water nitrate concentrations lagged behind changes in loading of nitrogen fertilizers (primarily manure) by approximately 4 to 19 months.

  4. Use of Fuzzy rainfall-runoff predictions for claypan watersheds with conservation buffers in Northeast Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anomaa Senaviratne, G. M. M. M.; Udawatta, Ranjith P.; Anderson, Stephen H.; Baffaut, Claire; Thompson, Allen

    2014-09-01

    Fuzzy rainfall-runoff models are often used to forecast flood or water supply in large catchments and applications at small/field scale agricultural watersheds are limited. The study objectives were to develop, calibrate, and validate a fuzzy rainfall-runoff model using long-term data of three adjacent field scale row crop watersheds (1.65-4.44 ha) with intermittent discharge in the claypan soils of Northeast Missouri. The watersheds were monitored for a six-year calibration period starting 1991 (pre-buffer period). Thereafter, two of them were treated with upland contour grass and agroforestry (tree + grass) buffers (4.5 m wide, 36.5 m apart) to study water quality benefits. The fuzzy system was based on Mamdani method using MATLAB 7.10.0. The model predicted event-based runoff with model performance coefficients of r2 and Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient (NSC) values greater than 0.65 for calibration and validation. The pre-buffer fuzzy system predicted event-based runoff for 30-50 times larger corn/soybean watersheds with r2 values of 0.82 and 0.68 and NSC values of 0.77 and 0.53, respectively. The runoff predicted by the fuzzy system closely agreed with values predicted by physically-based Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender model (APEX) for the pre-buffer watersheds. The fuzzy rainfall-runoff model has the potential for runoff predictions at field-scale watersheds with minimum input. It also could up-scale the predictions for large-scale watersheds to evaluate the benefits of conservation practices.

  5. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  6. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  7. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    PubMed

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  8. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  9. Phosphate run-off in the Nevezis River (Lithuania).

    PubMed

    Sileika, Antanas Sigitas; Kutra, Saulius; Berankiene, Laima

    2002-09-01

    The long-term (40 yr) observation results of phosphates-phosphorus concentration and its runoff in the Lithuanian fourth largest river Nevezis are analysed. Amounts and peculiarities of background runoff, agricultural runoff, and point source pollution from towns were studied for various periods. It has been determined that phosphates enter into the river Nevezis mainly from towns (76.5%), from agriculture only up to 16%, and the background runoff for 7.5%. Considerable agricultural influence was observed in 1979-1991, when the phosphate runoff increased to 22 kg P km(-2) a(-1) and formed in 1984 33% of the entire runoff. A relation of the phosphates runoff from agriculture, for the entire study period, was obtained with the number of animals in the river's basin. Since 1990, when the number of animals started to decrease, the runoff of phosphates decreased too. Now the phosphates runoff from agriculture formed only 2% of the entire runoff. Water in the river Nevezis is heavily polluted with phosphate, according to the EU general classification of the water quality of rivers, although the Lithuanian pollution norms for effluents discharging to surface water are not exceeded. Norms for effluents discharging in the rivers from point-sources pollution should be made stricter and the highest permitted ratio between the phosphorus load in the river and its water discharge should be established.

  10. Adapting LISEM to improve modeling of pesticide transfer by runoff and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Jetten, Victor; Van Dijk, Paul; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2013-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion represent major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural lands to aquatic ecosystems. Even if pesticide runoff models have been steadily improved in recent years, they remain only partially successful in correctly predicting pesticides transfers to surface waters. This could be partially explained by the limited ability to integrate (1) the spatial variability of pesticides deposition after application both on target and non-target areas, (2) the impact of rainfall variability within a storm event on the amount of pesticide transport and (3) the partitioning of pesticides between the aqueous and solid phases. The objective of this study is therefore to provide a simple modelling approach for pesticides mobilisation from the near surface soil layer. It may enable to identify the periods and source areas of contamination within a catchment. The Limburg Soil Erosion Model (LISEM) was chosen to develop this new pesticide module. This model is well designed to describe the agricultural landscape components and their impact on the runoff and erosion with high resolution rainfall data. LISEM is a fully distributed hydrological and soil erosion model that provides event-based predictions for agricultural plots and small catchments accounting for plant interception, surface storage in micro-depressions, soil detachment by rainfall, throughfall and runoff and the influence of tractor wheelings and paved roads. LISEM was validated for different soil and land use contexts. A simple mixing layer model was implemented to simulate the pesticide mobilisation at the soil/water interface and the partitioning between the dissolved and sorbed phases. This new model was applied on a 49 ha agricultural catchment with corns and sugar beets (Alsace, France). The output in terms of runoff, erosion and chloroacetanilides transport were compared to the data collected during an entire period of herbicide application from March to August 2012. A

  11. Simulating runoff from an area covered by soil contour ridges using a hydraulic cascade model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slah, Nasri

    2015-04-01

    Runoff agriculture and rainwater harvesting are well known farming techniques that have guaranteed crop production in the arid zone of Tunisia since ancient times. At present, soil contour ridges (banquettes) are the main water and soil conservation used. Actually about one million ha farming land were protected by this technique. Usually, soil contour ridges are designed for a 10-year return period to reduce runoff and erosion in hill-slope catchments. However, the detailed hydraulic function of this technique is still to a major extent unknown. For this purpose a runoff model was developed to simulate the discharge from an upstream system of several soil contour ridges. The model was validated using experimental runoff. The simulated runoff agreed well with observed discharge. The validated model was used to simulate runoff from a system of one to several soil contour ridges in a cascade from a 10-year rainfall event. Practical conclusions are drawn by discussing the spacing and design of the soil contour ridges. Key words: Soil surface management, soil contour ridge, discharge, hydraulic cascade.

  12. SWAT Model Application to Assess the Impact of Intensive Corn‐farming on Runoff, Sediments and Phosphorous loss from an Agricultural Watershed in Wisconsin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential future increase in corn-based biofuel may be expected to have a negative impact on water quality in streams and lakes of the Midwestern US due to increased agricultural chemicals usage. This study used the SWAT model to assess the impact of continuous-corn farming o...

  13. An Internal Evaluation of the National FFA Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event through Analysis of Individual and Team Scores from 1996-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Edward A.; Armbruster, James

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an internal evaluation of the National FFA Agricultural Mechanics Career Development Event (CDE) through analysis of individual and team scores from 1996-2006. Data were analyzed by overall and sub-event areas scores for individual contestants and team event. To facilitate the analysis process scores were…

  14. Erosion processes by water in agricultural landscapes: a low-cost methodology for post-event analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Calligaro, Simone; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the world, agricultural landscapes assume a great importance, especially for supplying food and a livelihood. Among the land degradation phenomena, erosion processes caused by water are those that may most affect the benefits provided by agricultural lands and endanger people who work and live there. In particular, erosion processes that affect the banks of agricultural channels may cause the bank failure and represent, in this way, a severe threat to floodplain inhabitants and agricultural crops. Similarly, rills and gullies are critical soil erosion processes as well, because they bear upon the productivity of a farm and represent a cost that growers have to deal with. To estimate quantitatively soil losses due to bank erosion and rills processes, area based measurements of surface changes are necessary but, sometimes, they may be difficult to realize. In fact, surface changes due to short-term events have to be represented with fine resolution and their monitoring may entail too much money and time. The main objective of this work is to show the effectiveness of a user-friendly and low-cost technique that may even rely on smart-phones, for the post-event analyses of i) bank erosion affecting agricultural channels, and ii) rill processes occurring on an agricultural plot. Two case studies were selected and located in the Veneto floodplain (northeast Italy) and Marche countryside (central Italy), respectively. The work is based on high-resolution topographic data obtained by the emerging, low-cost photogrammetric method named Structure-from-Motion (SfM). Extensive photosets of the case studies were obtained using both standalone reflex digital cameras and smart-phone built-in cameras. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from SfM revealed to be effective to estimate quantitatively erosion volumes and, in the case of the bank eroded, deposited materials as well. SfM applied to pictures taken by smartphones is useful for the analysis of the topography

  15. Transport of suspended sediment and organic carbon during storm events in a large agricultural catchment, southwest France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantha, Oeurng; Sabine, Sauvage; David, Baqué; Alexandra, Coynel; Eric, Maneux; Henri, Etcheber; José-Miguel, Sánchez-Pérez

    2010-05-01

    Intensive agriculture has led to environmental degradation through soil erosion and carbon loss transferred from agricultural land to the stream networks. Suspended sediment transport from the agricultural catchment to the watercourses is responsible for aquatic habitat degradation, reservoir sedimentation, and for transporting sediment associated pollutants (pesticides, nutrient, heavy metals and other toxic substances). Consequently, the temporal transport of suspended sediment (SS), dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) was investigated during 18 months from January 2008 to June 2009 within a large agricultural catchment in southwest France. This study is based on an extensive dataset with high temporal resolution using manual and automatic sampling, especially during 15 flood events. Two main objectives aim at: (i) studying temporal transport in suspended sediment (SS), DOC and POC with factors explaining their dynamics and (ii) analysing the relationships between discharge, SSC, DOC and POC during flood events. The study demonstrates there is a strong variability of SS, POC and DOC during flood events. The SS transport during different seasonal floods varied by event from 513 to 41 750 t; POC transport varied from 12 to 748 t and DOC transport varied from 9 to 218 t. The specific yield of the catchment represents 76 t km-2 y-1 of sediment, 1.8 t km-2 y-1 of POC and 0.7 t km-2 y-1 of DOC, respectively. The POC associated with sediment transport from the catchment accounted for ~2.5% of the total sediment load. Flood duration and flood magnitude are key factors in determining the sediment and organic carbon transport. Statistical analyses revealed strong correlations between total precipitation, flood discharge, total water yield with suspended sediment and organic transport. The relationships of SSC, POC and DOC versus discharge over temporal flood events resulted in different hysteresis patterns which were used to suggest those dissolved and

  16. Using the Sacramento soil moisture accounting model to provide short-term forecasts of surface runoff for daily decision making in nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the timing of fertilizer and manure application is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. When fertilizers and manures are applied at inopportune times (e.g., just prior to a rainfall event that produces surface runoff) the risk of surface water contamination is un...

  17. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Casey D.; Bataille, Clement; Liu, Zhongfang; Ale, Srinivasulu; VanDeVelde, Justin; Roswell, Charles R.; Bowling, Laura C.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryDrainage tiles buried beneath many naturally poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to "short circuit" pools of NO3--laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the mechanisms controlling this regionally pervasive practice of artificial drainage at the field-plot scale, an integrative assessment of the effect of drainage density (i.e., the number of tile drains per unit area) on the transport of nutrients and solutes in streams at the catchment scale is lacking. In this study, we quantified the flux and hydrological pathways of agricultural NO3- and road-salt Cl- from catchments lying within the Wabash River Basin, a major source of NO3- to the Mississippi River. The paired catchments differ primarily in drainage density (70% vs. 31%, by catchment area), with essentially all other agricultural management, land use, and soil drainage characteristics remaining equal. Our study revealed two significant hydrological responses to increased drainage density: (1) more near-surface storm event water (dilute in both NO3- and Cl) was transported early in the storm and (2) higher transport of Cl--laden pre-event soil water relative to shallow groundwater elevated in NO3- occurred later in the storm. These patterns are consistent with a proposed conceptual model in which increased drainage density results in (1) greater transport of soil water to streams and (2) a delayed rise in the water table. With respect to nutrient management implications, these results indicate that increased drainage density impacts subsurface pools of Cl- and NO3- differently, a finding that we propose is linked to soil/ground water dynamics in artificially drained agricultural catchments.

  18. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  19. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices. PMID:26784287

  20. Determining phosphorus release rates to runoff from selected Alberta soils using laboratory rainfall simulation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Charles R; Amrani, Mohamed; Akbar, Muhammad A; Heaney, Danial J; Vanderwel, Douwe S

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural land can cause accelerated eutrophication of surface water bodies. This study evaluated the use of soil test phosphorus (STP) levels to predict dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations in runoff water from agricultural soils using laboratory rainfall simulation. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) to what extent STP concentrations can be used as a basis to predict P losses from Alberta soils and (ii) how extended rainfall simulation run times affected DIP losses. Soil samples collected from a total of 38 field sites, widely scattered throughout the southern half of Alberta, were subjected to rainfall simulation in the laboratory. The STP concentrations were determined using Miller-Axley, Norwest, Kelowna, Modified Kelowna Mehlich-III, and distilled water extraction methods. Each rainfall simulation event lasted for at least 90 min. Runoff samples were collected in time series for the duration of each simulation, during two distinct runoff intervals: (i) for the first 30 min of continuous runoff (T30) and (ii) for 40 min during runoff equilibrium (Teq). For all the STP extractants and both runoff intervals, the relationship with DIP-flow-weighted mean concentration (FWMC) was linear and highly significant with r2 values ranging from 0.74 to 0.96. However, the slopes of the resulting regression lines were, on average, 1.85 times greater for the T30 runoff interval over those computed for the Teq interval. Thus experimental methodology greatly influenced regression parameters, suggesting that more work was needed to verify these relationships under natural conditions. In addition, with many of the r2 values greater than 0.90 there would be little, if any, benefit derived by including soil properties in regression analysis.

  1. Rice Straw Compost as a Soil Amendment for the Reduction of Surface Runoff in Almond Orchards in Glenn County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, C.; McKinney, M.; Brown, D.; Johns, M.

    2004-12-01

    Almond production in the Northern Sacramento Valley is dependant on dormant season pesticide application and fertilizers. However, over the past 10 years there has been increased demand from public and regulatory agencies for farmers to reduce the movement of agricultural chemicals into local water sources. Many pesticides of concern have been detected in California watersheds particularly after runoff producing storm events. Two methods of reducing surface runoff into local waterways are to increase orchard soil infiltration rates, and to use riparian buffers to reduce surface flow velocity or runoff that does occur. Organic rice straw compost was applied in an orchard to examine its effect on soil infiltration and runoff. A rainfall simulator was developed capable of producing a 2.54 cm per hour storm and covering an area roughly 3 meter diameter. Runoff and infiltration are being tested from three orchard cells with the compost addition and three orchard cells without. Infiltration and runoff are also being monitored at three plots in a nearby riparian buffer strip. Runoff samples are being analyzed for nutrients, pH, EC and aqueous carbon content.

  2. Dry-season length and runoff control annual variability in stream DOC dynamics in a small, shallow groundwater-dominated agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, G.; Jaffrezic, A.; Fovet, O.; Gruau, G.; Durand, P.

    2015-10-01

    As a phenomenon integrating climate conditions and hydrological control of the connection between streams and terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources, groundwater dynamics control patterns of stream DOC characteristics (concentrations and fluxes). Influence of intra-annual variations in groundwater level, discharge and climatic factors on DOC concentrations and fluxes were assessed over 13 years at the headwater watershed of Kervidy-Naizin (5 km2) in western France. Four seasonal periods were delineated within each year according to groundwater fluctuations (A: rewetting, B: high flow, C: recession, and D: drought). Annual and seasonal base flow versus stormflow DOC concentrations were defined based on daily hydrograph readings. High interannual variability of annual DOC fluxes (5.4-39.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) indicates that several years of data are required to encompass variations in water flux to evaluate the actual DOC export capacity of a watershed. Interannual variability of mean annual DOC concentrations was much lower (4.9-7.5 mg C L-1), with concentrations decreasing within each year from ca. 9.2 mg C L-1 in A to ca. 3.0 mg C L-1 in C. This indicates an intra-annual pattern of stream DOC concentrations controlled by DOC source characteristics and groundwater dynamics very similar across years. Partial least squares regressions combined with multiple linear regressions showed that the dry season characteristics (length and drawdown) determine the mean annual DOC concentration while annual runoff determines the annual flux. Antagonistic mechanisms of production-accumulation and dilution-depletion combined with an unlimited DOC supply from riparian wetland soils can mitigate the response of stream concentrations to global changes and climatic variations.

  3. Stream-Water Quality during Storm-Runoff Events and Low-Flow Periods in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Fuller, Lori M.

    2007-01-01

    This report, a product of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, describes four water-quality studies in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin from the early 1970's through 2005. All the studies examined water quality of streams in the basin; the most recent studies focused primarily on water quality during high- and low-streamflows. This report explains how storm-runoff and low-flow periods affect water quality in the basin. Included is a summary of stream-water quality findings from the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (1973-95); the National Water-Quality Assessment (1996-98); the Oakland County Land-Use Change study (2001-03); and the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (2004-05).

  4. Temporary variable soil structure and its effect on runoff mechanism on intensively cultivated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Kubicek, Jaroslav; Dostal, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Sediments and nutrients washed out from farmed catchments into rivers and reservoirs are one of the major environmental problems worldwide. Understanding the routing of the precipitated water, its pathways and residence time in the subsurface are important prerequisites for water management, flood and nutrient control. To determine a proper linkage between the surface and subsurface processes one needs to uncover the principles and mechanisms of runoff generation. This is a considerable problem on farmed lands, where soil physical properties vary in time due to agriculture operations, vegetation and other natural processes throughout the grow season. Freshly tilled, well structured soil includes large intra aggregate preferential voids that allow fast infiltration and percolation, while compacted or even crusted soil has very limited infiltration capacity and often exhibits fast surface runoff during storm events. Monitoring of hydrological and hydropedological conditions within plough layer has been done since 2011 on the experimental catchment Nucice, Czech Republic. Based on the first data, we have identified several rainfall-runoff events under different soil conditions that led into increased runoff in the channel. The infiltration and runoff were numerically modelled to obtain preliminary estimates of dominant runoff processes. We used a combination of physically based models S1D and HYPO. In the S1D the dual permeability approach with two coupled Richards equations is used to calculate the infiltration. Simultaneously operating HYPO code simulates a final diffusion wave to model hypodermic runoff. After a proper calibration of the model the results, will supply a basis for a more complex research including the observation and modelling of the solute and particle transport (e.g. phosphorus, nitrogen, colloids) from the farmed hillslopes and catchments. The research has been supported by a postdoctoral grant sponsored by Czech Science Foundation and by

  5. Poultry manure runoff and its influence on fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Dutta, S.; Inamdar, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land application of poultry manure as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer is a common practice in states like Delaware which have a surplus of this animal waste. However, this practice can generate large amounts of labile DOM and nutrients in agricultural runoff that can cause eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. We determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the quality of DOM for a cropland receiving poultry manure in the coastal plain soils of Delaware. Manure was applied at the rate of 9 Mg ha-1 in the spring (March 10) of 2010 to an agricultural field planted in corn. Sampling was performed for surface runoff and soil waters at four landscape positions - field edge, upper and lower riparian zones and the stream. Sampling was conducted for eight storm events, one before manure application and seven after (March through July spanning over 100 days). DOM quality was characterized using spectrofluorometric techniques and the development of a site-specific PARAFAC model. DOC and DIN concentrations in surface runoff ranged from 18.1 to 77.2 mg/l and 4.2 to 22.6 mg/l, respectively. The percent of protein-like and humic-like DOM in surface runoff ranged between 3.9 to 23.5% and 12.3 to 41.6%, respectively. Highest concentrations of DOC and DIN were observed at the field edge and lowest in the stream. Protein-like and humic-like DOM decreased from the field edge to stream in surface runoff and soil waters. Temporally, both humic-like and protein-like DOM showed significant increases in storm runoff following manure application. After manure application, humic-like DOM increased by 70% while protein-like DOM increased by more than 200% in surface runoff indicating elevated content of labile DOM in poultry manure. These concentrations remained high for more than 60 days following manure application. Protein-like DOM was significantly correlated with nitrate-nitrogen (r = 0.43; p < 0

  6. Work More? The 8.2 kaBP Abrupt Climate Change Event and the Origins of Irrigation Agriculture and Surplus Agro-Production in Mesopotamia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, H.

    2003-12-01

    The West Asian archaeological record is of sufficient transparency and resolution to permit observation of the social responses to the major Holocene abrupt climate change events at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 kaBP. The 8.2kaBP abrupt climate change event in West Asia was a three hundred year aridification and cooling episode. During this period rain-fed agriculture, established for over a millennium in northern Mesopotamia, suddenly collapsed. Irrigation agriculture, pastoral nomadism, or migration were the only subsistence alternatives for populations previously supported by cereal dry-farming. Irrigation agriculture was not, however, possible along the northern alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where incised riverbeds were several meters below plain level. Exploitable plain-level levees were only accessible in southern-most alluvial plain, at the head of the present-day Persian Gulf. The archaeological data from this region documents the first irrigation agriculture settlement of the plain during the 8.2 kaBP event. Irrigation agriculture provides about twice the yield of dry-farming in Mesopotamia, but at considerable labor costs relative to dry-farming. With irrigation agriculture surplus production was now available for deployment. But why work more? The 8.2 kaBP event provided the natural force for Mesopotamian irrigation agriculture and surplus production that were essential for the earliest class-formation and urban life.

  7. Contrasting controls on the phosphorus concentration of suspended particulate matter under baseflow and storm event conditions in agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Rawlins, Barry G; Krueger, Tobias; Lézé, Bertrand; Hiscock, Kevin M; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2015-11-15

    Whilst the processes involved in the cycling of dissolved phosphorus (P) in rivers have been extensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms controlling particulate P concentrations during small and large flows. This deficiency is addressed through an analysis of large numbers of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected under baseflow (n=222) and storm event (n=721) conditions over a 23-month period across three agricultural headwater catchments of the River Wensum, UK. Relationships between clay mineral and metal oxyhydroxide associated elements were assessed and multiple linear regression models for the prediction of SPM P concentration under baseflow and storm event conditions were formulated. These models, which explained 71-96% of the variation in SPM P concentration, revealed a pronounced shift in P association from iron (Fe) dominated during baseflow conditions to particulate organic carbon (POC) dominated during storm events. It is hypothesised this pronounced transition in P control mechanism, which is consistent across the three study catchments, is driven by changes in SPM source area under differing hydrological conditions. In particular, changes in SPM Fe-P ratios between small and large flows suggest there are three distinct sources of SPM Fe; surface soils, subsurface sediments and streambed iron sulphide. Further examination of weekly baseflow data also revealed seasonality in the Fe-P and aluminium oxalate-dithionate (Alox-Aldi) ratios of SPM, indicating temporal variability in sediment P sorption capacity. The results presented here significantly enhance our understanding of SPM P associations with soil derived organic and inorganic fractions under different flow regimes and has implications for the mitigation of P originating from different sources in agricultural catchments.

  8. Contrasting controls on the phosphorus concentration of suspended particulate matter under baseflow and storm event conditions in agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Rawlins, Barry G; Krueger, Tobias; Lézé, Bertrand; Hiscock, Kevin M; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2015-11-15

    Whilst the processes involved in the cycling of dissolved phosphorus (P) in rivers have been extensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms controlling particulate P concentrations during small and large flows. This deficiency is addressed through an analysis of large numbers of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected under baseflow (n=222) and storm event (n=721) conditions over a 23-month period across three agricultural headwater catchments of the River Wensum, UK. Relationships between clay mineral and metal oxyhydroxide associated elements were assessed and multiple linear regression models for the prediction of SPM P concentration under baseflow and storm event conditions were formulated. These models, which explained 71-96% of the variation in SPM P concentration, revealed a pronounced shift in P association from iron (Fe) dominated during baseflow conditions to particulate organic carbon (POC) dominated during storm events. It is hypothesised this pronounced transition in P control mechanism, which is consistent across the three study catchments, is driven by changes in SPM source area under differing hydrological conditions. In particular, changes in SPM Fe-P ratios between small and large flows suggest there are three distinct sources of SPM Fe; surface soils, subsurface sediments and streambed iron sulphide. Further examination of weekly baseflow data also revealed seasonality in the Fe-P and aluminium oxalate-dithionate (Alox-Aldi) ratios of SPM, indicating temporal variability in sediment P sorption capacity. The results presented here significantly enhance our understanding of SPM P associations with soil derived organic and inorganic fractions under different flow regimes and has implications for the mitigation of P originating from different sources in agricultural catchments. PMID:26150307

  9. Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Santana, V.; Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Asbjornsen, H.; Kolka, R.; Tomer, M.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryIntensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration, in particular hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, but its effect is still not well understood. Therefore, our objective was to assess the effects of strategic introduction of different amounts and location of native prairie vegetation (NPV) within agricultural landscapes on hydrological regulation. The study was conducted in Iowa (USA), and consisted of a fully balanced, replicated, incomplete block design whereby 12 zero-order ephemeral flow watersheds received four treatments consisting of varying proportions (0%, 10%, and 20%) of prairie vegetation located in different watershed positions (footslope vs. contour strips). Runoff volume and rate were measured from 2008 to 2010 (April-October) with an H-Flume installed in each catchment, and automated ISCO samplers. Over the entire study period, we observed a total of 129 runoff events with an average runoff volume reduction of 37% based on the three treatments with NPV compared to watersheds with row crops. We observed a progressively greater reduction across the 3 years of the study as the perennial strips became established with the greatest differences among treatments occurring in 2010. The differences among the watersheds were attributed mainly to NPV amount and position, with the 10% NPV at footslope treatment having the greatest runoff reduction probably because the portion of NPV filter strip that actually contacted watershed runoff was greater with the 10% NPV at footslope. We observed greater reductions in runoff in spring and fall likely because perennial prairie plants were active and crops were absent or not fully established. High antecedent soil moisture sometimes led to little benefit of the NPV treatments but in general the NPV treatments were

  10. Estimation of Surface Runoff in the Jucar River Basin from Rainfall Data and SMOS Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Leal, Julio A.; Estrela, Teodoro; Fidalgo, Arancha; Gabaldo, Onofre; Gonzalez Robles, Maura; Herrera Daza, Eddy; Khodayar, Samiro; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    Surface runoff is the water that flows after soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the land. When the soil is saturated and the depression storage filled, and rain continues to fall, the rainfall will immediately produce surface runoff. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is widely used for determining the approximate direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event in a particular area. The advantage of the method is its simplicity and widespread inclusion in existing computer models. It was originally developed by the US Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, and documented in detail in the National Engineering Handbook, Sect. 4: Hydrology (NEH-4) (USDA-SCS, 1985). Although the SCS-CN method was originally developed in the United States and mainly for the evaluation of storm runoff in small agricultural watersheds, it soon evolved well beyond its original objective and was adopted for various land uses and became an integral part of more complex, long-term, simulation models. The basic assumption of the SCS-CN method is that, for a single storm, the ratio of actual soil retention after runoff begins to potential maximum retention is equal to the ratio of direct runoff to available rainfall. This relationship, after algebraic manipulation and inclusion of simplifying assumptions, results in the following equation given in USDA-SCS (1985): (P--0,2S)2 Q = (P + 0,8S) where Q is the average runoff (mm), P the effective precipitation (mm) and S is potential maximum retention (mm) after the rainfall event. The study has been applied to the Jucar River Basin area, East of Spain. A selection of recent significant rainfall events has been made corresponding to the periods around 22nd November, 2011 and 28-29 September and 10 October, 2012, from Jucar River Basin Authority rain gauge data. Potential maximum retention values for each point have been assumed as the first

  11. Surface Rainfall-Runoff Analysis Using NRCS Curve Number and Semi-Distributed Model in Urban Watershed of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. K.; Kar, K. K.; Lee, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall-runoff modeling is a basic tool for assessing hydrological processes where natural features (geology and geography) play a pivotal role. Due to global warming, the trends of torrential rainfall and typhoon events have been found to increase spontaneously in Jeju Island of Korea. As such, the island has been shown distinctive hydrologic characteristics. The study therefore, attempts to analyze the diversified rainfall-runoff characteristics of Jeju Island during extreme hydrologic events. The study domain covers mostly the urban areas of island and the most prominent Hancheon Stream which restrains most of its overland runoff during rainfall. For watershed delineation, 30-m resolution's digital elevation model (DEM) generated from contours and 50 years' (1964-2013) historical rainfall data from the Korea meteorological administration (KMA) were used. Furthermore, geo-spatial data collected from the Korean society of agriculture engineers (KSAE) has been used for soil texture and land use classification. Some identical studies implied to predict semi-distributed (e.g. SWAT and WMS) watershed model runoff in the island. However, the significance of this study is that it considers a GIS semi-distributed model to imply NRCS curve number technique and predict accurate results for unique runoff characteristics, by considering high catchment slope. Rainfall data from 2009 to 2013 has been used as baseline information to estimate annual runoff variations, which has been used in the spatial and statistical analyses. The study infers that the simulated runoff percentages varied from 18% to 44%, accounting for the temporal fluctuations of rainfall. Afterwards, to assess the ten year interval relationship between rainfall-runoff, the study uses historical rainfall data of Jeju-si meteorological station and four rainfall station. Lastly, the ongoing rainfall-runoff analysis will be concluded by comparing the runoff result with SWAT model result.Keywords: NRCS curve

  12. Characterizing dry deposition of mercury in urban runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulkerson, M.; Nnadi, F.N.; Chasar, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stormwater runoff from urban surfaces often contains elevated levels of toxic metals. When discharged directly into water bodies, these pollutants degrade water quality and impact aquatic life and human health. In this study, the composition of impervious surface runoff and associated rainfall was investigated for several storm events at an urban site in Orlando, Florida. Total mercury in runoff consisted of 58% particulate and 42% filtered forms. Concentration comparisons at the start and end of runoff events indicate that about 85% of particulate total mercury and 93% of particulate methylmercury were removed from the surface before runoff ended. Filtered mercury concentrations showed less than 50% reduction of both total and methylmercury from first flush to final flush. Direct comparison between rainfall and runoff at this urban site indicates dry deposition accounted for 22% of total inorganic mercury in runoff. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Performance assessment and validation of a paramagnetic particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos in agricultural runoff waters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jonathan J; Chen, Ye Grace; Goh, Kean S

    2007-08-01

    A commercial magnetic particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the insecticide chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate] was evaluated for its specificity, precision, and accuracy, its susceptibility to matrix interferences in agricultural and environmental surface waters, and its comparability to a gas chromatographic/flame photometric (GC/FPD) method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters. Repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy studies show that the kit satisfies current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria for the assessment of analytical methods. Observable matrix effects were found to be present in all of the environmental test waters, with the slopes of calibration curves generated in each of the test matrices deviating from that of the control matrix by as much as 16%. Specificity studies indicate that the chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibody adequately differentiates the target compound from other structurally similar organophosphorus pesticides, with the exception of its methyl analogue. Cross-reactivity with chlorpyrifos-methyl was approximately 37%, while reactivity with diazinon, pyridaphenthion, diclofenthion, bromiphos-ethyl, bromiphos-methyl, pirimiphos-ethyl, and chlorpyrifos oxon ranged from 1.6 to 10.7%. Cross-reactivity with pirimiphos-methyl, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, diethyl phosphate, and diethyl thiophosphate was negligible (<1%). Validation of the paramagnetic particle ELISA format was accomplished using water samples from two monitoring studies that were collected, split, and analyzed directly by ELISA and by GC/FPD. Results of the two analytical methods were then compared using standard t tests, regression analysis, and differences against mean measurement (bias) plots. While the agreement between the two methods was determined to be satisfactory, ELISA exhibits consistent positive bias in environmental matrices. Several preanalysis

  14. Online hydrologic tool to minimize phosphorus loading from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, J. A.; Mullen, M.; Berry, C.; Stedman, R.; Walter, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) from agriculture is an important water contaminant in freshwater systems, and can lead to eutrophication and other water quality problems. Because sources of P from agriculture are diffuse, it is important to facilitate farm-level changes that can be widely implemented at minimal cost to the farmers. Phosphorus in runoff can be reduced if farmers refrain from fertilizing vulnerable areas of their fields when large run-off events are predicted. We have developed an online mapping tool to highlight areas of the landscape that are predicted to generate runoff and potentially contribute nonpoint source contaminants to receiving waters in real-time, as well as for a three day forecast period. Future work will focus on quantifying the uncertainties in the tool, and understanding the social factors involved in use of the tool in the Owasco Lake watershed in NY.

  15. Modeling runoff and erosion risk in a~small steep cultivated watershed using different data sources: from on-site measurements to farmers' perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auvet, B.; Lidon, B.; Kartiwa, B.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Poussin, J.-C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to model runoff and erosion risk in a context of data scarcity, whereas the majority of available models require large quantities of physical data that are frequently not accessible. To overcome this problem, our approach uses different sources of data, particularly on agricultural practices (tillage and land cover) and farmers' perceptions of runoff and erosion. The model was developed on a small (5 ha) cultivated watershed characterized by extreme conditions (slopes of up to 55 %, extreme rainfall events) on the Merapi volcano in Indonesia. Runoff was modelled using two versions of STREAM. First, a lumped version was used to determine the global parameters of the watershed. Second, a distributed version used three parameters for the production of runoff (slope, land cover and roughness), a precise DEM, and the position of waterways for runoff distribution. This information was derived from field observations and interviews with farmers. Both surface runoff models accurately reproduced runoff at the outlet. However, the distributed model (Nash-Sutcliffe = 0.94) was more accurate than the adjusted lumped model (N-S = 0.85), especially for the smallest and biggest runoff events, and produced accurate spatial distribution of runoff production and concentration. Different types of erosion processes (landslides, linear inter-ridge erosion, linear erosion in main waterways) were modelled as a combination of a hazard map (the spatial distribution of runoff/infiltration volume provided by the distributed model), and a susceptibility map combining slope, land cover and tillage, derived from in situ observations and interviews with farmers. Each erosion risk map gives a spatial representation of the different erosion processes including risk intensities and frequencies that were validated by the farmers and by in situ observations. Maps of erosion risk confirmed the impact of the concentration of runoff, the high susceptibility of long steep

  16. Dynamic modeling of contaminant transport with surface runoff and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Non-point source pollution in surface runoff due to agricultural activities presents one of the principal problems in the U.S. Solution to the problem of delivering pollutants is crucial to a non-point abatement program. Mathematical models can serve as tools to relate hydrologic conditions and soil properties to the processes of pollutant transport, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of best management practices in reducing non-point source pollutant load in surface waters. In this study, a dynamic model component is developed to simulate transport of non-point source pollutants, mostly agricultural chemicals, with surface runoff and sediment in agricultural watersheds. Algorithms are developed to route chemicals and infiltrating water through different soil increments assuming complete mixing until time of ponding or initiation of runoff. Once runoff starts, the runoff interacts with a mixing soil layer in a non-uniform fashion and exchange of chemicals takes place between runoff and the mixing soil layer. When runoff storage builds up, it is assumed that a relatively stagnant depth of runoff interacts with the mixing soil layer. This stagnant depth is obtained by applying boundary layer theory. Mass balance equations are used to route chemicals associated with runoff and sediment along the slope lengths for overland and channel flow. Model algorithms are coupled with the hydrologic and sediment transport model RUNOFF to simulate transport of contaminants with surface runoff and sediments in agricultural watersheds. The model performance is evaluated with data ranging from controlled laboratory experiments to watershed scale. The concept of non-uniform mixing is tested with a laboratory data set found in the literature. A total of fifteen runs are made, five for each of the chemicals, nitrate, phosphate, and cyanazine. The model results show good agreements with the observed yields of runoff, sediment, orthophosphate, and ammonium.

  17. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  18. Impact of past and future climate variability and extreme events on carbon loss in European arable agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, Marijn; Khabarov, Nikolay; Beer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Predictions of climate models suggest an increase in climate variability and an increased probability in the occurrence of extreme weather events during this century. The expected increase in variability of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation will impact the productive functions as well as the ecosystem services agricultural systems provide, including the storage of soil organic carbon. Here we use a methodology and specifically tailored climate datasets that were developed in the EU FP7 CARBO-Extreme project to analyze the effect of increased climate variability on long term soil organic carbon sequestration, erosion and crop production in Europe. We quantified the changing impact of extreme events on carbon dynamics and soil organic carbon loss from agricultural soil cultivated with wheat, barley, maize and rye in Europe for the period from 1900-2100. In separate simulations we specifically address the potential losses of soil carbon associated with erosion. We further characterized the effect of CO2 fertilization on crop growth. Preliminary results indicate a growing contribution of extreme weather generally lowering biomass production and crop yields in Europe, albeit with regional variations. This decrease will lead to a relatively lower input of organic matter into the soil and generally lower soil organic carbon stocks. Yet, in areas characterized by relatively drier conditions the decomposition of organic material and thus heterotrophic transpiration is reduced which can result in a net accumulation of soil organic matter. Finally, we attempted to identify the cropland area susceptible to increased carbon loss due to climate extremes by unraveling the relative contribution of the combined spatial fingerprint of physiographic characteristics and climate extremes over Europe.

  19. The impact of future land use scenarios on runoff volumes in the Muskegon River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Duckles, Jonah M; Pijanowski, Bryan C

    2010-09-01

    In this article we compared the response of surface water runoff to a storm event for different rates of urbanization, reforestation and riparian buffer setbacks across forty subwatersheds of the Muskegon River Watershed located in Michigan, USA. We also made these comparisons for several forecasted and one historical land use scenarios (over 140 years). Future land use scenarios to 2040 for forest regrowth, urbanization rates and stream setbacks were developed using the Land Transformation Model (LTM). Historical land use information, from 1900 at 5-year time step intervals, was created using a Backcast land use change model configured using artificial neural network and driven by agriculture and housing census information. We show that (1) controlling the rate of development is the most effective policy option to reduce runoff; (2) establishing setbacks along the mainstem are not as effective as controlling urban growth; (3) reforestation can abate some of the runoff effects from urban growth but not all; (4) land use patterns of the 1970s produced the least amount of runoff in most cases in the Muskegon River Watershed when compared to land use maps from 1900 to 2040; and, (5) future land use patterns here not always lead to increased (worse) runoff than the past. We found that while ten of the subwatersheds contained futures that were worse than any past land use configuration, twenty-five (62.5%) of the subwatersheds produced the greatest amount of runoff in 1900, shortly after the entire watershed was clear-cut. One third (14/40) of the subwatersheds contained the minimum amount of runoff in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when forest amounts were greatest and urban amounts relatively small.

  20. The impact of future land use scenarios on runoff volumes in the Muskegon River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Duckles, Jonah M; Pijanowski, Bryan C

    2010-09-01

    In this article we compared the response of surface water runoff to a storm event for different rates of urbanization, reforestation and riparian buffer setbacks across forty subwatersheds of the Muskegon River Watershed located in Michigan, USA. We also made these comparisons for several forecasted and one historical land use scenarios (over 140 years). Future land use scenarios to 2040 for forest regrowth, urbanization rates and stream setbacks were developed using the Land Transformation Model (LTM). Historical land use information, from 1900 at 5-year time step intervals, was created using a Backcast land use change model configured using artificial neural network and driven by agriculture and housing census information. We show that (1) controlling the rate of development is the most effective policy option to reduce runoff; (2) establishing setbacks along the mainstem are not as effective as controlling urban growth; (3) reforestation can abate some of the runoff effects from urban growth but not all; (4) land use patterns of the 1970s produced the least amount of runoff in most cases in the Muskegon River Watershed when compared to land use maps from 1900 to 2040; and, (5) future land use patterns here not always lead to increased (worse) runoff than the past. We found that while ten of the subwatersheds contained futures that were worse than any past land use configuration, twenty-five (62.5%) of the subwatersheds produced the greatest amount of runoff in 1900, shortly after the entire watershed was clear-cut. One third (14/40) of the subwatersheds contained the minimum amount of runoff in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when forest amounts were greatest and urban amounts relatively small. PMID:20700591

  1. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M C; Quinton, J N; Tyrrel, S F

    2006-01-01

    The large quantities of slurry and manure that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter and nutrients for agriculture. However, the benefits of waste recycling may be partially offset by the risk of water pollution associated with runoff from the fields to which slurry or manure has been applied. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water pollution by faecal coliforms are analysed. Rainfall simulations at a rate of 70 mm h(-1) were conducted in a sandy loam soil packed into soil flumes (2.5m long x 1m wide) at a bulk density of 1400 kg m(-3), with and without cattle slurry manure applied on the surface. For each simulation, sediment and runoff rates were analysed and in those simulations with applied slurry, presumptive faecal coliform (PFC) concentrations in the runoff were evaluated. The application of slurry on the soil surface appeared to have a protective effect on the soils, reducing soil detachment by up to 70% but increasing runoff volume by up to 30%. This practice implies an important source of pollution for surface waters especially if rainfall takes place within a short period after application. The concentrations of micro-organisms (presumptive faecal coliforms (PFCs)) found in water runoff ranged from 1.9 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(6) PFC 100mL(-1), depending on the initial concentration in the slurry, and they were particularly high during the first phases of the rainfall event. The result indicates a strong relationship between the faecal coliforms transported by runoff and the organic matter in the sediment.

  2. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    favourable locations, on a year-long or semi-permanent basis. They exploited, proba- bly more widely, the vegetal food resources of wild cereals and pulses. In Palestine, this culture is called Natufian. In Syria on the Middle Euphrates, the settlement at Tel Abu Hureira displays a first phase of occupation that yielded wild emmer wheat and two-row barley. These wild varieties of cereals are characterized by a brittle rachis of the ear that insures the wide dispersion of the spikelets at maturity. This Phase I came to an end with the abandonment of the site for several hundred years. The following occupation Phase II immediately yields the domesticated form of cereals, which are 1 mainly identified by the non-brittle, solid rachis at maturity. This mutant form makes possible for man to more efficiently collect the seeds with a sickle or a stick. Based on the local 14C dates, the settlement interruption is coeval with the cold, arid Younger Dryas, and the incipience of Phase II is coeval with the Climate Optimum of the early Holocene. It is striking that the domestication of emmer wheat appears to have taken place during the Younger Dryas. This strong climatic shift must somehow have constrained this most fundamental step in the globally earliest emergence of agriculture, that of SW Asia. The accumulation of grain surplus supported the human population increase that eventually led to the earliest emergence of urban civilization in SW Asia. 2

  3. Evaluation of phosphorus source coefficients as predictors of runoff phosphorus concentrations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matt C; White, John W; Coale, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Many states have adopted a P site index (PSI) as a risk assessment tool to determine when P-based nutrient management is required for a given agricultural field. Some PSIs use a weighting factor, the phosphorus source coefficient (PSC), to account for differences in P solubility between organic P sources. Information relating to appropriate values of PSC for various organic P sources is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine PSCs for organic P sources and to examine the relationship between PSCs and P concentrations measured in simulated rainfall runoff. An incubation study was used to calculate PSCs based on the extractability of P from organic P sources (separated and unseparated liquid dairy manure, digested dairy manure, dairy manure solids, poultry litter, and compost) relative to P from triple superphosphate fertilizer. The PSCs from the 14-d incubations were the best predictors of runoff P after 14 d soil equilibration in the runoff boxes. The values for iron-oxide strip phosphorus (FeO-P) PSC ranged from 78% for compost to 28% for poultry litter and were significantly related to runoff DR-P (r(2) = 0.80***) and FeO-P (r(2) = 0.76***) during the 14-d runoff event. Mehlich 3 PSCs ranged from 59% for compost to 30% for unseparated dairy manure and were better predictors of DR-P and FeO-P during the 56-d event (r(2) = 0.73*** and 0.65***, respectively). The results of this study indicate that PSCs based on soil incubations may improve the ability of PSCs to predict the risk of runoff transport, particularly after manure incorporation. PMID:19202029

  4. Urban runoff quality management

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This new manual of practice, jointly produced by the Water Environment Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers, focuses on the protection and enhancement of urban water resources by controlling the transport of constituents into urban waterways by urban stormwater runoff. The manual emphasizes control of constituent discharges, reflecting the fact that chemical and particulate constituents in urban stormwater runoff play a key role in determining the negative effects of that runoff.

  5. Implications of hillslope connectivity for runoff at catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Modelling on the hillslope scale suggests that the connectivity between rainfall and runoff for a semi-arid area may be summarised in a generalised runoff coefficient, and that much of the variability can be encapsulated in a single runoff threshold, which decreases with both slope length and gradient, for given soil characteristics. Runoff response to rainfall is then a highly non-linear function of the runoff threshold, asymptotically tending to 100% rainfall in extreme events. Realistic runoff responses depend on the frequency with which storm rainfalls exceed the runoff threshold. Scaling up to the catchment, storm response depends on the distribution of runoff thresholds around the catchment, and catchment runoff is a balance between runoff generated and channel infiltration losses. On decadal time scales, changes in slope morphology and drainage density will adjust runoff threshold to roughly match dominant storm sizes, so that we may expect higher drainage densities where slopes are steep and soils less permeable and, conversely, we may attempt to estimate runoff thresholds from observed slope morphologies and rainfall statistics.

  6. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    between January and the end of June. Event mean concentrations of suspended sediment in runoff during unfrozen-ground periods were significantly higher (p2= 0.92), indicating that the sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff were likely similar. Analysis of runoff, concentration, and yield data on annual, monthly, and seasonal time scales, when combined with precipitation, soil moisture, soil temperature, and on-farm field-activity information, revealed conditions in which runoff was most likely. The analysis also revealed the effects that field conditions and the timing of field-management activities-most notably, manure applications and tillage-had on the quantity and quality of surface runoff from agricultural fields.

  7. Debris flow dominated alluvial fans in the Australian high country indicate that landscape denudation through the Holocene has been dominated by post-bushfire runoff events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marren, Philip; Nyman, Petter; Kermode, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Bushfires play a major role in shaping landscapes across the globe. Whilst the role of fire in shaping and changing vegetation assemblages is relatively well understood, there is still debate about the significance of fire in driving landscape denudation, relative to other processes, such as major rainfall and flood events and questions remain about the frequency of extreme fire events over longer timescales in response to climate forcing. Studies of post-fire landscape impact of recent bushfires in southeast Australia indicate that where storm events occur shortly after a major bushfire, hillslope erosion is enhanced, due to debris flows and erosion of both primary hillslope sediment and sediment stored in hillslope channel networks. In Australia, knowledge of long-term bushfire frequency is largely derived from pollen and micro-charcoal records in lake-sediment archives and is not directly relevant to resolving questions regarding fire impacts on landscape denudation and sediment transfer. We excavated trenches in four alluvial fans at the base of hillslopes in the high country of northeast Victoria, Australia. This area was burnt by bushfires in 1939 and 2003, and regional climate and hydrology are strongly controlled by El Niño. The trenches were up to 3.5m deep, and in most cases intersected underlying floodplain sediment at the base of the trench, indicating that they provide a full record of sedimentation for that sector of the fan. Fan stratigraphy consisted of sub-horizontal (parallel to the fan surface) units 0.3-0.5m thick, with occasional units 1-1.2m thick, and cross-cutting channelized units. Debris flow deposits accounted for 70-80% of the observed sediments, with water-laid gravels and soil units forming the remainder. Most soil layers were burnt, and most (but not all) debris flow units contained charcoal. A typical stratigraphy consisted of 6-8 debris flow units per fan, with four units containing a fire signature or overlying a burnt soil layer

  8. Identification of runoff generation processes using hydrometric and tracer methods in a meso-scale catchment in Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyaneza, O.; Wenninger, J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding of dominant runoff generation processes in the meso-scale Migina catchment (257.4 km2) in southern Rwanda was improved using analysis of hydrometric data and tracer methods. The paper examines the use of hydrochemical and isotope parameters for separating streamflow into different runoff components by investigating two flood events which occurred during the rainy season "Itumba" (March-May) over a period of 2 yr at two gauging stations. Dissolved silica (SiO2), electrical conductivity (EC), deuterium (2H), oxygen-18 (18O), major anions (Cl- and SO2-4) and major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) were analyzed during the events. 2H, 18O, Cl- and SiO2 were finally selected to assess the different contributing sources using mass balance equations and end member mixing analysis for two- and three-component hydrograph separation models. The results obtained by applying two-component hydrograph separations using dissolved silica and chloride as tracers are generally in line with the results of three-component separations using dissolved silica and deuterium. Subsurface runoff is dominating the total discharge during flood events. More than 80% of the discharge was generated by subsurface runoff for both events. This is supported by observations of shallow groundwater responses in the catchment (depth 0.2-2 m), which show fast infiltration of rainfall water during events. Consequently, shallow groundwater contributes to subsurface stormflow and baseflow generation. This dominance of subsurface contributions is also in line with the observed low runoff coefficient values (16.7 and 44.5%) for both events. Groundwater recharge during the wet seasons leads to a perennial river system. These results are essential for better water resources planning and management in the region, which is characterized by very highly competing demands (domestic vs. agricultural vs. industrial uses).

  9. A framework for managing runoff and pollution in the rural landscape using a Catchment Systems Engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M E; Quinn, P F; Barber, N J; Jonczyk, J

    2014-01-15

    Intense farming plays a key role in increasing local scale runoff and erosion rates, resulting in water quality issues and flooding problems. There is potential for agricultural management to become a major part of improved strategies for controlling runoff. Here, a Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach has been explored to solve the above problem. CSE is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed in turn reducing soil nutrient losses. The Belford catchment (5.7 km(2)) is a catchment scale study for which a CSE approach has been used to tackle a number of environmental issues. A variety of Runoff Attenuation Features (RAFs) have been implemented throughout the catchment to address diffuse pollution and flooding issues. The RAFs include bunds disconnecting flow pathways, diversion structures in ditches to spill and store high flows, large wood debris structure within the channel, and riparian zone management. Here a framework for applying a CSE approach to the catchment is shown in a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford Burn catchment. The framework is based around engagement with catchment stakeholders and uses evidence arising from field science. Using the framework, the flooding issue has been addressed at the catchment scale by altering the runoff regime. Initial findings suggest that RAFs have functioned as designed to reduce/attenuate runoff locally. However, evidence suggested that some RAFs needed modification and new RAFs be created to address diffuse pollution issues during storm events. Initial findings from these modified RAFs are showing improvements in sediment trapping capacities and reductions in phosphorus, nitrate and suspended

  10. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) In an election among any craft or class where three or more... of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, the Board shall authorize a run-off...

  11. 29 CFR 1206.1 - Run-off elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Run-off elections. 1206.1 Section 1206.1 Labor Regulations... LABOR ACT § 1206.1 Run-off elections. (a) In an election among any craft or class where three or more... of the legal votes cast, or in the event of a tie vote, the Board shall authorize a run-off...

  12. Surface Runoff Variability on two Slope Positions and Land Use in Koupendri Catchment, Benin, West Africa: Observation and Modeling using SCS_CN Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuka, C. V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Igué, A. M.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Surface runoff contributes significantly to soil erosion by water which is a serious worldwide problem causing decline in water resources quality, agricultural and forest land productivity, alongside environmental and ecological degradations. A field experiment was carried out on two hillslope (2-7 %) positions (downslope (2.3%), upslope (5.8%)) and two land use types; maize-beans intercrop (MB); fallow shrub-grassland (SG) in Koupendri catchment in north-western part of Benin, West Africa using microplots. The objective was to evaluate the influence of slope positions and land use on surface runoff and their variability, and the ability of Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach to simulate the measured runoff on both slope positions and land use types in Koupendri catchment. Six microplots (1m x 1m) were installed at 0.5m spacing, and on the same soil type in each slope positions and land use giving a total of 24 microplots. Surface runoff was measured after each rain event from September - October, 2014 and major runoff producing rain events were selected for analysis. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in RCBD. The results showed a very low variability (CV= 9%) for measured surface runoff on both slope positions and land use respectively. The surface runoff measured was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the land use with a total surface runoff of 340.1 mm in MB as against 250.3 mm in SG. However, the higher surface runoff depth obtained at the downslope (299.9 mm) compared to the upslope (290.5 mm) was due to shallow soil depth and saturation of the soil downslope but not slope position. Thus, land use must be given greater priority in future surface runoff and soil erosion related studies in the catchment or region. A good simulation (R2= 0.92 - 0.97) of the measured runoff depth was obtained using the SCS-CN approach on both slopes and land use types. A better simulation was obtained under the cultivated plot

  13. ArcCN-Runoff: An ArcGIS tool for generating curve number and runoff maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhan, X.; Huang, M.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The development and the application of ArcCN-Runoff tool, an extension of ESRI@ ArcGIS software, are reported. This tool can be applied to determine curve numbers and to calculate runoff or infiltration for a rainfall event in a watershed. Implementation of GIS techniques such as dissolving, intersecting, and a curve-number reference table improve efficiency. Technical processing time may be reduced from days, if not weeks, to hours for producing spatially varied curve number and runoff maps. An application example for a watershed in Lyon County and Osage County, Kansas, USA, is presented. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combination of geochemical and hydrobiological tracers for the analysis of runoff generating processes in a lowland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Claas; Wu, Naicheng; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Since lowlands are characterised by flat topography and low hydraulic gradients, groundwater inflow has a large influence to streamflow generation in such catchments. In catchments with intense agricultural land use, artificial drainages are often another major contributor to streamflow. They shorten the soil passage and thus change the matter retention potential as well as runoff dynamics of a catchment. Contribution of surface runoff to streamflow is usually less important in volume. However, due to high concentrations of agrochemicals, surface runoff can constitute an important entry pathway into water bodies, especially if strong precipitation events coincide with fertilizer or pesticide application. The DFG funded project "Separating surface runoff from tile drainage flow in agricultural lowland catchments based on diatoms to improve modelled runoff components and phosphorous transport" investigates prevalent processes in this context in a 50 km² lowland catchment (Kielstau, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) with the goal of improving existing models. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) is used in the project to determine the relative importance of groundwater, tile drainage and surface runoff to streamflow at daily time steps. It became apparent that geochemical tracers are suitable for distinguishing surface runoff, but are weak for the separation of tile drainage and groundwater influence. We attribute this to the strong and complex interaction between soil water and shallow groundwater tables in the catchment. Recent studies (e.g. Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013) show the potential of diatoms as indicators for hydrological processes. Since we found diatoms to be suitable for the separation of tile drainage and stream samples (Wu et al., unpublished data) in our catchment, we are able to include diatom derived indices (e.g. density, species moisture indices, diversity indices) as traces in EMMA. Our results show that the inclusion of diatom data in the

  15. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; effects of pipe-outlet terracing on quantity and quality of surface runoff and ground water in a small carbonate-rock basin near Churchtown, Pennsylvania, 1983-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietman, P.L.; Gustafson-Minnich, L. C.; Hall, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Terracing effects on surface-runoff and ground- water quantity and quality were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, during 1983-89 at a 23.1-acre agricultural site in Lancaster County, Pa., as part of the 1982 Rural Clean Water Program. The site, underlain by carbonate rock, was primarily corn and alfalfa fields; the median slope was 6 percent.Normal precipitation is about 42 inches per year. Average annual runoff was 11 percent and ground- water recharge was 37 percent of precipitation.Runoff quantity, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data, ground-water level and nutrient data, and precipitation-quantity data were collected for 21 months prior to, and 58 months after, pipe-outlet terrace construction. Data were analyzed by use of graphical, regression, covariate, cluster, Mann- Whitney Rank Sum test, and double-mass curvetechniques. Terracing changed runoff characteristics. Storm characteristics were similar throughout the study period. However, after terracing, storms producing less than 0.4 inch of precipitation rarely produced runoff. Total-storm discharge as a function of precipitation did not change significantly throughout the range of runoff-producing storms after terracing. Multiple-discharge peaks on hydrographs before terracing did not occur after terracing when hydrographs reflected the stepwisedraining of each terrace through the pipe outlet. After an initial 2-year period of terrace stabilization, suspended-sediment yield in runoff decreased significantly as a function of runoff. This result was expected because terracing decreased runoff energy, and because terrace ponding allowed time for sediment redeposition. Nitrate plus nitrite yields increased proportionally throughout the range of runoff during the post-terracing period relative to the pre- terracing period. After terracing, a combination of increased soil contact time and increased nitrification caused by wetter

  16. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    PubMed

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and <0.22 µm) in runoff water was similar at both scales. KM was predominantly detected below 0.22 μm, whereas CY was mainly detected in the fraction between 0.22 and 0.7 μm. Although KM and CY have similar physicochemical properties and are expected to behave similarly, our results show that their partitioning between two fractions of the dissolved phase differs largely. It is concluded that combined observations of pesticide runoff at both the catchment and the plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  17. An at-grade stabilization structure impact on runoff and suspended sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minks, Kyle R.; Lowery, Birl; Madison, Fred W.; Ruark, Matthew; Frame, Dennis R.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural runoff has received more attention as a major contributor to surface water pollution. This is especially true for the unglaciated area of Wisconsin, given this area's steep topography, which makes it highly susceptible to runoff and soil loss. We evaluated the ability of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS), designed as a conservation practice to reduce the amount of overland runoff and suspended sediment transported to the surface waters of an agricultural watershed. Eight years of storm and baseflow data collected by the US Geological Survey–Wisconsin Water Science Center on a farm in west central Wisconsin were analyzed for changes in precipitation, storm runoff volume, and suspended sediment concentration before and after installation of an AGSS. The agricultural research site was designed as a paired watershed study in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects model analyses were conducted to determine if any statistically significant changes occurred in the water quality parameters before and after the AGSS was installed. Results indicated no significant changes (p = 0.51) in average event precipitation and runoff volumes before and after installation of the AGSS in either the treatment (NW) or control (SW) watersheds. However, the AGSS did significantly reduce the average suspended sediment concentration in the event runoff water (p = 0.02) in the NW from 972 to 263 mg L–1. In addition, particle size analyses, using light diffraction techniques, were conducted on soil samples taken from within the AGSS and adjacent valley and ridge top to determine if suspended sediments were being retained within the structure. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p < 0.001) larger proportion of clay inside the AGSS (37%) than outside (30%). These results indicate that the AGSS was successful in reducing the amount of suspended

  18. The effect of frozen soil on snowmelt runoff at Sleepers River, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.; Chalmers, A.

    1999-01-01

    Soil frost depth has been monitored at the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont since 1984. Soil frost develops every winter, particularly in open fields, but its depth varies from year to year in inverse relation to snow depth. During the 15 years of record at a benchmark mid-elevation open site, the annual maximum frost depth varied from 70 to 390 mm. We empirically tested the hypothesis that frozen soil prevents infiltration and recharge, thereby causing an increased runoff ratio (streamflow/(rain + snowmelt)) during the snowmelt hydrograph rise and a decreased runoff ratio during snowmelt recession. The hypothesis was not supported at the 111 km2 W-5 catchment; there was no significant correlation of the runoff ratio with the seasonal maximum frost depth for either the pre-peak or post-peak period. In an analysis of four events, however, the presence of frost promoted a large and somewhat quicker response to rainfall relative to the no-frost condition, although snow cover caused a much greater time-to-peak regardless of frost status. For six years of flow and frost depth measured at the 59 ha agricultural basin W-2, the hypothesis appeared to be supported. The enhancement of runoff due to soil frost is evident on small plots and in extreme events, such as rain on frozen snow-free soil. In the northeastern USA and eastern Canada, the effect is often masked in larger catchments by several confounding factors, including storage of meltwater in the snowpack, variability in snowmelt timing due to elevational and aspect differences, interspersed forested land where frost may be absent, and the timing of soil thawing relative to the runoff peak.Soil frost depth has been monitored at the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont since 1984. Soil frost develops every winter, particularly in open fields, but its depth varies greatly from year to year in inverse relation to snow depth. During the 15 years of record at a benchmark mid

  19. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  20. Influence of intra-event-based flood regime on sediment flow behavior from a typical agro-catchment of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le-Tao; Li, Zhan-Bin; Wang, He; Xiao, Jun-Bo

    2016-07-01

    The pluvial erosion process is significantly affected by tempo-spatial patterns of flood flows. However, despite their importance, only a few studies have investigated the sediment flow behavior that is driven by different flood regimes. The study aims to investigate the effect of intra-event-based flood regimes on the dynamics of sediment exports at Tuanshangou catchment, a typical agricultural catchment (unmanaged) in the hilly loess region on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Measurements of 193 flood events and 158 sediment-producing events were collected from Tuanshangou station between 1961 and 1969. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering approach, discriminant analysis and One-Way ANOVA were used to classify the flood events in terms of their event-based flood characteristics, including flood duration, peak discharge, and event flood runoff depth. The 193 flood events were classified into five regimes, and the mean statistical features of each regime significantly differed. Regime A includes flood events with the shortest duration (76 min), minimum flood crest (0.045 m s-1), least runoff depth (0.2 mm), and highest frequency. Regime B includes flood events with a medium duration (274 min), medium flood crest (0.206 m s-1), and minor runoff depth (0.7 mm). Regime C includes flood events with the longest duration (822 min), medium flood crest (0.236 m s-1), and medium runoff depth (1.7 mm). Regime D includes flood events with a medium duration (239 min), large flood crest (4.21 m s-1), and large runoff depth (10 mm). Regime E includes flood events with a medium duration (304 min), maximum flood crest (8.62 m s-1), and largest runoff depth (25.9 mm). The sediment yield by different flood regimes is ranked as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime B > Regime C > Regime A. In terms of event-based average and maximum suspended sediment concentration, these regimes are ordered as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime C > Regime B > Regime A. Regimes D and E

  1. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

  2. High pesticide exposure events and central nervous system function among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While acute pesticide poisoning can be associated with persistent adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects, little is known about the effect of episodic and unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) that typically do not result in acute poisoning. The objective of this investigation was to examine the association between HPEEs and CNS function among licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods In 2006–2008, 693 male participants, with no history of a physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning, completed nine neurobehavioral tests to assess memory, motor speed, sustained attention, verbal learning, and visual scanning and processing. Information on HPEEs and pesticide poisonings was obtained from previous AHS interviews. Associations between HPEEs and neurobehavioral outcomes were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results A history of at least one HPEE was reported by 156 (23%) participants. Adverse associations were observed between HPEEs and two of the nine neurobehavioral tests. On a test of visual scanning and processing (Digit-Symbol), participants with HPEEs were 4.2 seconds slower (95% CI: −7.27, −1.11) than those without HPEEs, equivalent to the effect of 3.9 years of age in this population. On a test of visual scanning and motor speed (Sequences A), participants with HPEEs were 2.5 seconds slower (95% CI: −4.53, −0.41) than those without HPEEs, equivalent to the effect of 3.9 years of age. No significant associations were observed between HPEEs and the other neurobehavioral tests. Conclusions HPEEs may contribute to adverse CNS outcomes independent of diagnosed pesticide poisoning. PMID:21927986

  3. Analysis and Modeling of soil hydrology under different soil additives in artificial runoff plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruidisch, M.; Arnhold, S.; Kettering, J.; Huwe, B.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Ok, Y.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of monsoon events during June and July in the Korean project region Haean Basin, which is located in the northeastern part of South Korea plays a key role for erosion, leaching and groundwater pollution risk by agrochemicals. Therefore, the project investigates the main hydrological processes in agricultural soils under field and laboratory conditions on different scales (plot, hillslope and catchment). Soil hydrological parameters were analysed depending on different soil additives, which are known for prevention of soil erosion and nutrient loss as well as increasing of water infiltration, aggregate stability and soil fertility. Hence, synthetic water-soluble Polyacrylamides (PAM), Biochar (Black Carbon mixed with organic fertilizer), both PAM and Biochar were applied in runoff plots at three agricultural field sites. Additionally, as control a subplot was set up without any additives. The field sites were selected in areas with similar hillslope gradients and with emphasis on the dominant land management form of dryland farming in Haean, which is characterised by row planting and row covering by foil. Hydrological parameters like satured water conductivity, matrix potential and water content were analysed by infiltration experiments, continuous tensiometer measurements, time domain reflectometry as well as pressure plates to indentify characteristic water retention curves of each horizon. Weather data were observed by three weather stations next to the runoff plots. Measured data also provide the input data for modeling water transport in the unsatured zone in runoff plots with HYDRUS 1D/2D/3D and SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool).

  4. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  5. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  6. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  7. Rainfall-runoff model parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation on small plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four seasonal rainfall simulations in 2009 and 2010 were applied to a field containing 36 plots (0.75 × 2 m each), resulting in 144 runoff events. In all simulations, a constant rate of rainfall was applied, then halted 60 minutes after initiation of runoff, with plot-scale monitoring of runoff ever...

  8. Hydrologic conditions and water quality in an agricultural area in Kleberg and Nueces Counties, Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Petri, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    During 1996?98, rainfall and runoff were monitored on a 49,680-acre agricultural watershed in Kleberg and Nueces Counties in South Texas. Nineteen rainfall samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, and runoff samples from 29 storms were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and pesticides. Loads of nutrients in rainfall and loads of nutrients and pesticides in runoff were computed. For a 40,540-acre part of the watershed (lower study area), constituent loads entering the watershed in rainfall, in runoff from the upper study area, and from agricultural chemical applications to the lower study area were compared with runoff loads exiting the lower study area. Total rainfall for 1996?98 averaged 25.86 inches per year, which is less than the long-term annual average rainfall of 29.80 inches for the area. Rainfall and runoff during 1996?98 were typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall and runoff interspersed with extreme events. Five individual storms accounted for about 38 percent of the total rainfall and 94 percent of the total runoff. During the 3-year study, the total nitrogen runoff yield from the lower study area was 1.3 pounds per acre per year, compared with 49 pounds per acre per year applied as fertilizer and 3.1 pounds per acre per year from rainfall. While almost all of the fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen was ammonia and nitrate, most of the nitrogen in runoff was particulate organic nitrogen, associated with crop residue. Total nitrogen exiting the lower study area in surface-water runoff was about 2.5 percent of the nitrogen inputs (fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen). Annual deposition of total nitrogen entering the lower study area in rainfall exceeded net yields of total nitrogen exiting the watershed in runoff because most of the rainfall does not contribute to runoff. During the study, the total phosphorus runoff yield from the lower study area was 0.48 pound per acre per year compared with 4.2 pounds per acre per year

  9. Rivers, runoff, and reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, C.J.; Smith, C.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Bartley, J.D.; Maxwell, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of terrigenous sediment in controlling the occurrence of coral reef ecosystems is qualitatively understood and has been studied at local scales, but has not been systematically evaluated on a global-to-regional scale. Current concerns about degradation of reef environments and alteration of the hydrologic and sediment cycles place the issue at a focal point of multiple environmental concerns. We use a geospatial clustering of a coastal zone database of river and local runoff identified with 0.5?? grid cells to identify areas of high potential runoff effects, and combine this with a database of reported coral reef locations. Coastal cells with high runoff values are much less likely to contain reefs than low runoff cells and GIS buffer analysis demonstrates that this inhibition extends to offshore ocean cells as well. This analysis does not uniquely define the effects of sediment, since salinity, nutrients, and contaminants are potentially confounding variables also associated with runoff. However, sediment effects are likely to be a major factor and a basis is provided for extending the study to higher resolution with more specific variables. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Herbicide runoff along highways. 1. Field observations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinjiang; Pedersen, Theresa; Fischer, Michael; White, Richard; Young, Thomas M

    2004-06-15

    Herbicides are widely applied along highways to control roadside vegetation, and surface water is frequently nearby. To determine whether herbicide runoff along highways threatens water quality, a field study was conducted at two sites in northern California for three rainy seasons. The herbicides oryzalin, isoxaben, diuron, glyphosate, and clopyralid were selected for study to include compounds with significant variation in physical/chemical properties. Concentrations of herbicides in runoff were monitored for up to 11 storms following herbicide application, and 24 samples were collected per storm, providing unprecedented temporal detail. Flow-weighted event mean concentrations were calculated for each herbicide in each storm and ranged from below detection limits to 43.13 microg/L for oryzalin. The least soluble compounds, isoxaben and oryzalin, were detected in all storms monitored while the more soluble compounds, diuron and clopyralid, declined to levels below detection limits before monitoring was concluded. Very small amounts of glyphosate were mobilized, but its transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid was detected at higher concentrations, in more storm events, and at greater depth in the soil profile. A first-order model successfully described the declining herbicide concentrations in spray zone soil and in surface runoff for all sites and herbicides. Fitted first-order coefficients were always higher for runoff than for soil, indicating that the herbicide that persists in the source zone becomes less available for runoff as the time since application increases. The percentage of the applied herbicide that was detected in surface runoff over a season ranged from 0.05% to 43.5%, and the most critical variables in controlling the variation were the solubility of the herbicide and the runoff volume. For a given herbicide and site, the most critical factors in determining seasonal herbicide loss to surface water were the timing and intensity of the

  11. Transport of cyazofamid and kresoxim methyl in runoff at the plot and catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Joaquín García Verdú, Antonio; Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2013-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events represent major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. In general, field and catchment studies on pesticide transfer are carried out separately. A study at both scales may enable to improve the understanding of scale effects on processes involved in pesticides transport and to give clues on the source areas within an agricultural catchment. In this study, the transport in runoff of two widely used fungicides, i.e. kresoxim methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY) was assessed in a 43 ha vineyard catchment and the relative contribution of the total fungicides export from one representative plot was evaluated. During an entire period of fungicide application, from May to August 2011, the discharge and loads of dissolved and particle-laden KM and CY were monitored at the plot and catchment scales. The results showed larger export coefficient of KM and CY from catchment (0.064 and 0.041‰ for KM and CY respectively) than from the studied plot (0.009 and 0.023 ‰ for KM and CY respectively). It suggests that the plot margins especially the road network contributed as well to the fungicide loads. This result underlines the impact of fungicide drift on non-target areas. Furthermore, a larger rainfall threshold is necessary at the plot scale to trigger runoff and mobilise pesticides than on the road network. At the plot scale, a rapid dissipation of the both fungicides in the top soil was observed. It highlights that the risky period encompasses the first rainfall events triggering runoff after the applications. At both scales, KM and CY were not detected in suspended solids (i.e. > 0.7 µm). However their partitioning in runoff water differed. 64.1 and 91.8% of the KM load was detected in the dissolved phase (i.e. < 0.22 µm) at the plot and catchment scales respectively, whereas 98.7 and 100% of the CY load was detected in the particulate phase (i.e. between 0.22 and 0.7 µm

  12. Stormwater pollutant runoff: A stochastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Edoardo; Bach, Peter M.; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Since stormwater wash-off of pollutants in urban areas is largely affected by environmental variability, it is very difficult to predict the amount of pollutants transported by stormwater runoff during and after individual rainfall events. We investigated the addition of a random component into an exponential wash-off equation of total suspended solids (TSS) and total nitrogen (TN) to model the variability of runoff pollutant concentrations. The model can be analytically solved to describe the probability distributions of TSS and TN concentrations as a function of increasing runoff depths. TSS data from six Australian catchments and TN data from three of these catchments were used to calibrate the model and evaluate its applicability. Using the results of the model, its potential use to determine the appropriate size of stormwater treatment systems is discussed, stressing how probabilistic considerations should be included in the design of such systems. Specifically, stormwater depths retained by a treatment system should result from a compromise between the recurrence of specific runoff depths and the probability to discharge a target pollutant concentration when such a runoff depth is exceeded.

  13. Runoff generation in a Mediterranean semi-arid landscape: Thresholds, scale, rainfall and catchment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Fabian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Sauter, Martin; Lange, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Surface runoff acts as an integrated response of catchment characteristics and hydrological processes. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, a lack of runoff data has hindered a better understanding of runoff generation processes on the catchment scale, despite the importance of surface runoff as a water resource or flood hazard. Our main aim was to identify and explain differences in catchment runoff reactions across a variety of scales. Over a period of five years, we observed runoff in ephemeral streams of seven watersheds with sizes between 3 and 129 km2. Landuse and surface cover types (share of vegetation, bare soil and rock outcrops) were derived from aerial images by objective classification techniques. Using data from a dense rainfall network we analysed the effects of scale, catchment properties and aridity on runoff generation. Thereby we extracted rainfall and corresponding runoff events from our time-series to calculate event based rainfall characteristics and catchment runoff coefficients. Soil moisture observations provided additional information on antecedent moisture conditions, infiltration characteristics and the evolution of saturated areas. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that the proportion of Hortonian overland flow increases with aridity, we found that in our area the largest share (> 95 %) of runoff is generated by saturation excess overland flow in response to long lasting, rainfall events of high amount. This was supported by a strong correlation between event runoff and precipitation totals. Similar rainfall thresholds (50 mm) for runoff generation were observed in all investigated catchments. No scale effects on runoff coefficients were found; instead we identified up to three-fold runoff coefficients in catchments with larger extension of arid areas, higher percentage of rock outcrops and urbanization. Comparing two headwater catchments with noticeable differences in extent of olive orchards, no difference in runoff generation was

  14. Evaluation of the Soil Conservation Service curve number methodology using data from agricultural plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Mohan; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, R. P.; Meena, P. K.; Chaudhary, Anubhav; Jha, Ranjit Kumar; Shreevastava, Ajit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra

    2016-08-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method, also known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service curve number (NRCS-CN) method, is popular for computing the volume of direct surface runoff for a given rainfall event. The performance of the SCS-CN method, based on large rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) datasets of United States watersheds, is evaluated using a large dataset of natural storm events from 27 agricultural plots in India. On the whole, the CN estimates from the National Engineering Handbook (chapter 4) tables do not match those derived from the observed P and Q datasets. As a result, the runoff prediction using former CNs was poor for the data of 22 (out of 24) plots. However, the match was little better for higher CN values, consistent with the general notion that the existing SCS-CN method performs better for high rainfall-runoff (high CN) events. Infiltration capacity (fc) was the main explanatory variable for runoff (or CN) production in study plots as it exhibited the expected inverse relationship between CN and fc. The plot-data optimization yielded initial abstraction coefficient (λ) values from 0 to 0.659 for the ordered dataset and 0 to 0.208 for the natural dataset (with 0 as the most frequent value). Mean and median λ values were, respectively, 0.030 and 0 for the natural rainfall-runoff dataset and 0.108 and 0 for the ordered rainfall-runoff dataset. Runoff estimation was very sensitive to λ and it improved consistently as λ changed from 0.2 to 0.03.

  15. Storm flow dynamics and loads of fecal bacteria associated with ponds in southern piedmont and coastal plain watersheds with animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storm events that increase hydrologic flow rates can disturb sediments and produce overland runoff in watersheds with animal agriculture, and, thus, can increase surface water concentrations of fecal bacteria and risk to public health. We tested the hypothesis that strategically placed ponds in wate...

  16. Effect of land cover and use on dry season river runoff, runoff efficiency, and peak storm runoff in the seasonal tropics of Central Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogden, Fred L.; Crouch, Trey D.; Stallard, Robert F.; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2013-01-01

    A paired catchment methodology was used with more than 3 years of data to test whether forests increase base flow in the dry season, despite reduced annual runoff caused by evapotranspiration (the “sponge-effect hypothesis”), and whether forests reduce maximum runoff rates and totals during storms. The three study catchments were: a 142.3 ha old secondary forest, a 175.6 ha mosaic of mixed age forest, pasture, and subsistence agriculture, and a 35.9 ha actively grazed pasture subcatchment of the mosaic catchment. The two larger catchments are adjacent, with similar morphology, soils, underlying geology, and rainfall. Annual water balances, peak runoff rates, runoff efficiencies, and dry season recessions show significant differences. Dry season runoff from the forested catchment receded more slowly than from the mosaic and pasture catchments. The runoff rate from the forest catchment was 1–50% greater than that from the similarly sized mosaic catchment at the end of the dry season. This observation supports the sponge-effect hypothesis. The pasture and mosaic catchment median runoff efficiencies were 2.7 and 1.8 times that of the forest catchment, respectively, and increased with total storm rainfall. Peak runoff rates from the pasture and mosaic catchments were 1.7 and 1.4 times those of the forest catchment, respectively. The forest catchment produced 35% less total runoff and smaller peak runoff rates during the flood of record in the Panama Canal Watershed. Flood peak reduction and increased streamflows through dry periods are important benefits relevant to watershed management, payment for ecosystem services, water-quality management, reservoir sedimentation, and fresh water security in the Panama Canal watershed and similar tropical landscapes.

  17. Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is the analysis of damaging frost events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature in the lower atmosphere (at an isobaric level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim of estimating the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa temperature. Compared with near-surface temperature forecasts, temperature forecasts at the level of 850 hPa are less influenced by varying weather conditions or by local topographical features; thus, they constitute a more consistent indicator of the forthcoming weather conditions. The analysis of the daily monetary compensations for insured crop losses caused by weather events in Greece shows that, during the period 1999-2011, frost caused more damage to crop production than any other meteorological phenomenon. Two regions of different geographical latitudes are examined further, to account for the differences in the temperature ranges developed within their ecological environment. Using a series of linear and logistic regressions, we found that minimum temperature (at an 850 hPa level), grouped into three categories according to its magnitude, and seasonality, are significant variables when trying to explain crop damage costs, as well as to predict and quantify the likelihood and magnitude of damaging frost events.

  18. Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze frost damaging events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature at the lower atmosphere (at the pressure level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim to estimate the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa temperature. Compared with near surface temperature forecasts, temperature forecast at the level of 850 hPa is less influenced by varying weather conditions, as well as by local topographical features, thus it constitutes a more consistent indicator of the forthcoming weather conditions. The analysis of the daily monetary compensations for insured crop losses caused by weather events in Greece, during the period 1999-2011, shows that frost is the major meteorological phenomenon with adverse effects on crop productivity in the largest part of the country. Two regions of different geographical latitude are further examined, to account for the differences in the temperature ranges developed within their ecological environment. Using a series of linear and logistic regressions, we found that minimum temperature (at 850 hPa level), grouped in three categories according to its magnitude, and seasonality are significant variables when trying to explain crop damage costs, as well as to predict and quantify the likelihood and magnitude of frost damaging events.

  19. Keeping soil in the field - runoff and erosion management in asparagus crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolomski, Joanna; Simmons, Robert; Rickson, Jane; Hann, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Row crop production (including potatoes, onions, carrots, asparagus, bulbs and lettuce) is regarded as one of the most erosive agricultural cropping systems. This is a result of the many practices involved that increase erosion risk including: fine seedbed preparation, a typically short growing season where adequate ground cover protects the soil, permanent bare soil areas between crops, and often intensive harvesting methods that can damage soil structure and result in soil compaction. Sustained exposure of bare soil coupled with onsite compaction on slightly sloping land results in soil and water issues in asparagus production. Asparagus production is a growing British industry covering > 2000 ha and is worth approximately £30 million yr‑1. However, no tried and tested erosion control measurements currently exist to manage associated problems. Research has recently been undertaken investigating the effectiveness of erosion control measures suitable for asparagus production systems. These consisted of surface applied wheat straw mulch and shallow soil disturbance (< 350 mm) using several tine configurations: a currently adopted winged tine, a narrow with two shallow leading tines, and a modified para-plough. These treatments were tested individually and in combination (straw mulch with each shallow soil disturbance tine configuration) using triplicated field plots situated on a working asparagus farm in Herefordshire, UK. Testing was conducted between May and November 2013. Rainfall-event based runoff and erosion measurements were taken including; runoff volume, runoff rate and total soil loss. Runoff and soil erosion was observed from all treatments. However, the surface application of straw mulch alone out performed each shallow soil disturbance practice. This suggests that runoff and erosion from asparagus production can be reduced using the simple surface application of straw.

  20. Keeping soil in the field - runoff and erosion management in asparagus crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolomski, Joanna; Simmons, Robert; Rickson, Jane; Hann, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Row crop production (including potatoes, onions, carrots, asparagus, bulbs and lettuce) is regarded as one of the most erosive agricultural cropping systems. This is a result of the many practices involved that increase erosion risk including: fine seedbed preparation, a typically short growing season where adequate ground cover protects the soil, permanent bare soil areas between crops, and often intensive harvesting methods that can damage soil structure and result in soil compaction. Sustained exposure of bare soil coupled with onsite compaction on slightly sloping land results in soil and water issues in asparagus production. Asparagus production is a growing British industry covering > 2000 ha and is worth approximately £30 million yr-1. However, no tried and tested erosion control measurements currently exist to manage associated problems. Research has recently been undertaken investigating the effectiveness of erosion control measures suitable for asparagus production systems. These consisted of surface applied wheat straw mulch and shallow soil disturbance (< 350 mm) using several tine configurations: a currently adopted winged tine, a narrow with two shallow leading tines, and a modified para-plough. These treatments were tested individually and in combination (straw mulch with each shallow soil disturbance tine configuration) using triplicated field plots situated on a working asparagus farm in Herefordshire, UK. Testing was conducted between May and November 2013. Rainfall-event based runoff and erosion measurements were taken including; runoff volume, runoff rate and total soil loss. Runoff and soil erosion was observed from all treatments. However, the surface application of straw mulch alone out performed each shallow soil disturbance practice. This suggests that runoff and erosion from asparagus production can be reduced using the simple surface application of straw.

  1. Phosphorus in surface runoff from calcareous arable soils of the semiarid Western United States.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Kay, Mary A; Westermann, Dale T

    2004-01-01

    Management strategies that minimize P transfer from agricultural land to water bodies are based on relationships between P concentrations in soil and runoff. This study evaluated such relationships for surface runoff generated by simulated sprinkler irrigation onto calcareous arable soils of the semiarid western United States. Irrigation was applied at 70 mm h(-1) to plots on four soils containing a wide range of extractable P concentrations. Two irrigation events were conducted on each plot, first onto dry soil and then after 24 h onto wet soil. Particulate P (>0.45 microm) was the dominant fraction in surface runoff from all soils and was strongly correlated with suspended sediment concentration. For individual soil types, filterable reactive P (<0.45 microm) concentrations were strongly correlated with all soil-test P methods, including environmental tests involving extraction with water (1:10 and 1:200 soil to solution ratio), 0.01 M CaCl(2), and iron strips. However, only the Olsen-P agronomic soil-test procedure gave models that were not significantly different among soils. Soil chemical differences, including lower CaCO(3) and water-extractable Ca, higher water-extractable Fe, and higher pH, appeared to account for differences in filterable reactive P concentrations in runoff from soils with similar extractable P concentrations. It may therefore be possible to use a single agronomic test to predict filterable reactive P concentrations in surface runoff from calcareous soils, but inherent dangers exist in assuming a consistent response, even for one soil within a single field. PMID:15356242

  2. Kresoxim methyl deposition, drift and runoff in a vineyard catchment.

    PubMed

    Lefrancq, M; Imfeld, G; Payraudeau, S; Millet, M

    2013-01-01

    Surface runoff and spray drift represent a primary mode of pesticide mobilisation from agricultural land to ecosystem. Though pesticide drift has mainly been studied at small scale (<1 ha), pesticide transports by drift and runoff have rarely been compared in the same agricultural catchment. Here kresoxim methyl (KM) drift during foliar application was evaluated in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Alsace, France), and KM deposition on non-target surfaces was compared to KM runoff. KM was detected on 55% of the collectors and concentration reached 18% of the applied dose (i.e. 1.5 mg m(-2)). Our results indicated that KM soil deposition greatly varied in space and time. The total KM soil deposition in the vineyard plots was estimated by four different interpolation methods (arithmetic mean, Thiessen method, inverse weighting distance and ordinary kriging) and ranged between 53 g and 61 g (5.8 and 6.6% of the total mass applied). The amount of KM drifted on roads was 50 times larger than that in runoff water collected at the outlet of the catchment. Although KM application was carried out under regular operational and climatic conditions, its deposition on non-target surfaces may be significant and lead to pesticide runoff. These results can be anticipated as a starting point for assessing pesticide deposition during spray application and corresponding pesticide runoff in agricultural catchments.

  3. Effect of rainfall intensity and rain drop distribution on runoff and soil erosion on vineyards inter-rows with different soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Ferraris, Stefano; Pitacco, Andrea; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    Vineyard is reported as one of the European agricultural crop where the runoff and soil erosion rates are the highest. In sloping vineyards, in particular, primary roles in determining high runoff and soil erosion rates are played by the alignment of vine-rows along the slope, soil cultivation and management, and traffic of machinery. Runoff and soil erosion processes are deeply related to climate, especially to rainfall intensity and precipitation pattern, along with the soil moisture content and soil surface conditions. Most of the European vineyards are grown in the Mediterranean area, where these aspects assume a specific pattern. A study was carried out to evaluate the role of rainfall intensity and raindrop size in generating runoff and soil erosion in vineyards, in relation to soil management. The study was conducted in the 'Tenuta Cannona Experimental Vine and Wine Centre' of Regione Piemonte, located in the Alto Monferrato hilly vine-growing area (NW Italy). Runoff and soil losses caused by natural rainfall events were monitored on two large (1221 m2) vineyard plots in the period May-November 2014. The plots are managed with different inter-row soil management techniques: tillage (T) and controlled grass cover (GC). An optical disdrometer was installed in the plots. Few rainfall events were observed occurred during summer and autumn, before the grape harvest and the execution of new tillage/mulching operation in autumn, triggering runoff events of different magnitude. For example, a summer storm with 1-min rainfall intensity of about 91 mm h-1gave a negligible amount of runoff (less than 1% of rainfall) in both plots . During a later similar rainfall runoff rates achieved 22% of rainfall and sediment yield of 290 kg ha-1 in the CT plot while it was 2% and 7 kg ha-1 in the GC plot. In the GC plot, in summer and early autumn rainfalls, runoff was less than 2% and sediment yield was lower than 10 kg ha-1. The two plots had a different evolution of the soil

  4. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff samples were collected from 5 experimental green roof test plots on small buildings at the Center for Green Roof Research at Rock Springs, PA during the period from January 2005 through May 2006. Samples were either analyzed in-house for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), T...

  5. Beyond the SCS curve number: A new stochastic spatial runoff approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. S., Jr.; Parolari, A.; McDonnell, J.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method is the standard approach in practice for predicting a storm event runoff response. It is popular because its low parametric complexity and ease of use. However, the SCS-CN method does not describe the spatial variability of runoff and is restricted to certain geographic regions and land use types. Here we present a general theory for extending the SCS-CN method. Our new theory accommodates different event based models derived from alternative rainfall-runoff mechanisms or distributions of watershed variables, which are the basis of different semi-distributed models such as VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL. We introduce a parsimonious but flexible description where runoff is initiated by a pure threshold, i.e., saturation excess, that is complemented by fill and spill runoff behavior from areas of partial saturation. To facilitate event based runoff prediction, we derive simple equations for the fraction of the runoff source areas, the probability density function (PDF) describing runoff variability, and the corresponding average runoff value (a runoff curve analogous to the SCS-CN). The benefit of the theory is that it unites the SCS-CN method, VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL as the same model type but with different assumptions for the spatial distribution of variables and the runoff mechanism. The new multiple runoff mechanism description for the SCS-CN enables runoff prediction in geographic regions and site runoff types previously misrepresented by the traditional SCS-CN method. In addition, we show that the VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL runoff curves may be more suitable than the SCS-CN for different conditions. Lastly, we explore predictions of sediment and nutrient transport by applying the PDF describing runoff variability within our new framework.

  6. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grids of perforated pipe buried beneath many poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to “short circuit” pools of nitrate-laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the ...

  7. Process-oriented Simulation of Runoff Generation on Arable Fields Using a Physically Based Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, F.; Disse, M.

    2011-12-01

    In Germany, aside from technical flood protection and forecasting, modern flood protection strategies include distributed flood control measures. On arable fields these measures comprise of increasing infiltration ability due to different tillage practices such as conservational tillage or no-tillage. Tillage practices have a significant effect on the runoff generation process. Bare soils are prone to forming soil crusts during extreme rainfall events especially on Loessial soils that are abundant in Central European landscapes, and soil crusts promote surface runoff and erosion. Due to the impact of raindrops, the topsoil aggregates are broken and form a layer of a few millimeters to centimeters with very low hydraulic conductivity. One way to describe this process is by using a modified Horton infiltration equation. WaSiM-ETH is a physically based hydrological modeling system developed by SCHULLA (1997) to analyze the spatial and temporal distributed flow processes in complex catchments. In order to investigate the effect of soil crusts on runoff generation on arable fields, WaSiM-ETH was extended by adding a silting module which is able to simulate the process of soil crust formation. It has been shown that sprinkler experiments could be simulated more efficiently with the model extension than with the simulation of runoff generation according to the Mualem-van-Genuchten parameterization. This effect is extended to a lower mesoscale agricultural catchment for a number of different high intensity storm events. Finally, scenario setups show the potential of surface water retention for different tillage practices. Literature: SCHULLA, J. (1997): Hydrologische Modellierung von Flussgebieten zur Abschätzung der Folgen von Klimaänderungen, Dissertation, ETH Zürich, 161. S. (in German) http://www.unibw.de/ifw/WWR-en/forschung-en/einflussbewirtschaftung-en?set_language=en

  8. Variation in PAH patterns in road runoff.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rupak; Furumai, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Beecham, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Twelve particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the first flush regime of road runoff during nine events in Winterthur in Switzerland. The total PAH contents ranged from 17 to 62 μg/g. The PAH patterns measured at different time intervals during the first flush periods were very similar within each event irrespective of variation in suspended solids (SS) concentration within the first flush regime. However, the PAH patterns were different from event to event. This indicates that the environment plays an important role in PAH accumulation in SS. A toxicity identification evaluation approach using a toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) was applied to compare toxicities in the different events. The TEFs were found to be between 8 and 33 μg TEQ g(-1) (TEQ: toxic equivalent concentration). In some cases, two events having similar total PAH contents showed two fold toxicity differences. PMID:23787306

  9. Designing management options to reduce surface runoff and sediment yield with farmers: an experiment in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Adriana; Poussin, Jean-Christophe; Mailhol, Jean-Claude; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Gumiere, Silvio J

    2012-04-15

    To preserve the quality of surface water, official French regulations require farmers to keep a minimum acreage of grassland, especially bordering rivers. These agro-environmental measures do not account for the circulation of water within the catchment. This paper examines whether it is possible to design with the farmers agri-environmental measures at field and catchment scale to prevent soil erosion and surface water pollution. To support this participatory approach, the hydrology and erosion model STREAM was used for assessing the impact of a spring stormy event on surface runoff and sediment yield with various management scenarios. The study was carried out in collaboration with an agricultural committee in an area of south-western France where erosive runoff has a major impact on the quality of surface water. Two sites (A and B) were chosen with farmers to discuss ways of reducing total surface runoff and sediment yield at each site. The STREAM model was used to assess surface runoff and sediment yield under current cropping pattern at each site and to evaluate management scenarios including grass strips implementation or changes in cropping patterns within the catchment. The results of STREAM simulations were analysed jointly by farmers and researchers. Moreover, the farmers discussed each scenario in terms of its technical and economical feasibility. STREAM simulations showed that a 40 mm spring rainfall with current cropping patterns led to 3116 m3 total water runoff and 335 metric tons of sediment yield at site A, and 3249 m3 and 241 metric tons at site B. Grass strips implementation could reduce runoff for about 40% and sediment yield for about 50% at site A. At site B, grass strips could reduce runoff and sediment yield for more than 50%, but changes in cropping pattern could reduce it almost totally. The simulations led to three main results: (i) grass strips along rivers and ditches prevented soil sediments from entering the surface water but did not

  10. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  11. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not known if heavy metal runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the main factors affecting As and Cu concentrations in runoff water from pastures receiving poultry litter applications. Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of the following treatments on metal runoff: (i) aluminum sulfate (alum) additions, (ii) diet modification using phytase or high available phosphorus corn, (iii) fertilizer type, (iv) poultry litter application rate, and (v) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application. Results showed that alum additions to poultry litter significantly decreased As and Cu concentrations in runoff water. Copper concentrations were highest in runoff from poultry litter from birds fed phytase diets compared with other diets; however, this effect may have been a result of wet storage conditions rather than diet. Triple superphosphate applications resulted in the lowest heavy metal concentrations in runoff water among all fertilizer treatments, while normal poultry litter resulted in the highest concentrations. Arsenic and Cu concentrations increased in runoff water as poultry litter application rates increased and decreased with increasing time until the first runoff event. These data indicate that adding alum to poultry litter, a cost-effective best management practice, which also results in lower P runoff and ammonia emissions, may also be an effective tool in reducing metal runoff. PMID:25603088

  12. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  13. Comparing runoff on 11 poorly-gauged headwater catchments using a soft monitoring approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, F.; Crabit, A.; Moussa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Catchments in many parts of the world are either ungauged or poorly gauged, and the dominant processes governing their streamflow response are still poorly understood. The analysis of runoff coefficients provides essential insight into catchment response, particularly if both range of catchments and a range of events are compared. An original soft water level sensor is proposed to characterize rainfall and stream flows on agricultural catchments. This sensor works as a capacitor coupled with a capacitance to frequency converter and measures water level at an adjustable time step acquisition. It was designed to be handy, minimally invasive and optimised in terms of energy consumption and low-cost fabrication so as to multiply its use on several catchments under natural conditions. It was used as a stage recorder to measure water level dynamics in a channel during a runoff event and as a rain gauge to measure rainfall amount and intensity. Innovative work has been performed under controlled experimental conditions to estimate Manning's coefficient values for the different cover types observed in studied streams: non-aquatic vegetations (giant reed, bramble and thistle), grass and coarse granular deposits. The results show that estimates derived using roughness coefficients differ from those previously established for larger streams with aquatic vegetation. Based on these results, water discharge with a given uncertainty and hence runoff volume were estimated at the event and the annual scale. The sensor was tested under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under real conditions in the field. Comparisons of the sensor to reference devices (tipping bucket rain gauge, hydrostatic pressure transmitter limnimeter, Venturi channels, ...) showed accurate results: rainfall intensities and dynamic responses were accurately reproduced and discharges were estimated with an uncertainty usually acceptable in hydrology (Crabit et al., in Sensors 11, 2011). This device were

  14. Sediment P in Agricultural Streams: Response to Land Use and Influence on TP Export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline; Mohamed, Mohamed; Taylor, William

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus export from agricultural streams can be a significant source to downstream water bodies, contributing to eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Sediment in agricultural streams can have very high P concentrations and has been proposed as a significant source of P to the water column though bioavailability can be low. Recent work suggests that sediments can sorb P from point sources such as WWTPs, and release this P during disturbances such as high flow events. However, it is unclear if sediment P responds to increased P application to the landscape, or if it is a significant source of P to annual TP export from agricultural streams. We examined 15 streams in southern Ontario, Canada, in highly agricultural catchments, comparing stream sediment P concentration to sediment geochemistry, P application, runoff, tile drainage, water column TP concentration and TP export. Stream sediment P was well correlated to sediment Fe and C and to tile drainage, and weakly correlated to manure P. This could suggest that sediment P responds to P addition, and may temporarily store P incoming from agricultural sources. Annual TP export was not correlated to stream sediment P concentration but was well correlated with runoff and tile drainage. This suggests P stored in sediment is a minor contributor to annual TP export. Effective agricultural P management strategies include implementing drainage water management, buffer zones etc. in catchments with high runoff and tile drainage.

  15. Nitrogen Losses in Runoff from Row-cropped Watersheds: Environmental Benefits of Native Prairie Filter Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Asbjornsen, H.; Kolka, R. K.; Tomer, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Loss of nitrogen in runoff from agricultural landscapes is a serious problem in the Midwestern United States due to inappropriate/intensive management practices. Among other best management practices, vegetative filter strips have been effectively adopted to reduce pollutant transport with agricultural runoff. In this study, twelve ephemeral watersheds at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Central Iowa were used to evaluate the effectiveness of native prairie filter strips (NPFS) in reducing total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-N (NO3-N) loss from row-cropped watersheds. Small amounts of NPFS were incorporated at different locations within the watersheds in fall 2006 using a balanced incomplete block design. A no-till 2-yr corn-soybean rotation was adopted in nonperennial areas since spring 2007. Each watershed was instrumented with an H-flume, a flow-monitoring device, and an ISCO water sampler in 2007. Runoff samples during the growing season between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed for TN and NO3-N concentrations for each individual rainfall event. The 4-year mean annual TN loss for watersheds with NPFS was 6.9 kg ha-1, approximately 85% lower than TN loss from 100% row-cropped watersheds (47.7 kg ha-1). Mean annual NO3-N loss during the growing season was 4.2 and 1.3 kg ha-1 for the watersheds with and without NPFS, respectively. The results of this study suggest that incorporation of small amounts of NPFS within annual rowcrop systems could greatly reduce TN and NO3-N loss from agricultural watersheds.

  16. Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, B.M.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Young, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water systems and ground water systems are interrelated, farm-management practices need to focus on water quality in both systems. Modifying farm-management practices may raise production costs in some areas. Farmers can reduce runoff losses by reducing input use, implementing soil-conservation practices, and changing land use. Also at issue is who should pay for improving water quality.

  17. Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; data on agricultural organic compounds, nutrients, and sediment in water, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, D.J.; Terrio, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the sampling design and methods and presents data collected to determine the distribution of agricultural organic compounds, nutrients, and sediment in selected areas of the upper Illinois River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Four stations in small watersheds (two urban, two agricultural) were sampled in 1988 and 1989. Seventeen stations in an agricultural subbasin were sampled in 1990. Samples were collected before, during, and after runoff events from late spring to midsummer to determine concentrations of agricultural organic compounds in surface waters resulting from storm runoff, as well as background concentrations. Over 200 water samples were analyzed for agricultural organic compound, nutrient, and suspended-sediment concentrations. The agricultural organic compounds included triazine and chlorophenoxy-acid herbicides, and organo-phosphorus insecticides.

  18. Soil erosion and surface runoff model SMODERP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, P.; Vrana, K.; Dostal, T.

    2012-04-01

    This contribution presents a software tool for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural lands. There is no universal tool to properly describe the origin and the processes related to the surface runoff and sediment transport in different scales. For a design of any technical erosion control measures, that are used to interrupt the surface runoff, it is necessary to identify basic outflow characteristics (discharge, flow volume). Numerical model SMODERP was developed for determination of these characteristics. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering , Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. SMODERP is physically based one-dimensional episodic model that includes the processes of infiltration, surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model has been substantially upgraded and tested in last few years. Especially runoff parameters, time and spatial discretisation were recalibrated and validated. Runoff parameters were recalibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator on five soil types. The parameters were designed for five soil types categories according to content of particles with size up to 0.01 mm (Novak soil classification). The precipitation episodes can be chosen from the attached catalogue or can be designed by a user. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can be used in the assessment erosion risk and in designing of erosion control measures. The model is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We present the new version of the model that includes a new user friendly graphical interface. The research has been supported by the research grants SGS SGS11/148/OHK1/3T/11 "Experimental Research on Rainfall-runoff and Erosion

  19. Regional climate modeling of heat stress, frost, and water stress events in the agricultural region of Southwest Western Australia under the current climate and future climate scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Tom J.; Abbs, Deborah J.; Foster, Ian J.

    2010-05-01

    Heat stress, frost, and water stress events have significant impacts on grain quality and production within the agricultural region (wheat-belt) of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) (Cramb, 2000) and understanding how the frequency and intensity of these events will change in the future is crucial for management purposes. Hence, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (Pielke et al, 1992) (RAMS Version 6.0) is used to simulate the past 10 years of the climate of SWWA at a 20 km grid resolution by down-scaling the 6-hourly 1.0 by 1.0 degree National Center for Environmental Prediction Final Analyses from December 1999 to Present. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as daily rainfall are validated against observations. Simulations of future climate are carried out by down-scaling the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Mark 3.5 General Circulation Model (Gordon et al, 2002) for 10 years (2046-2055) under the SRES A2 scenario using the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) (McGregor and Dix, 2008). The 6-hourly CCAM output is then downscaled to a 20 km resolution using RAMS. Changes in extreme events are discussed within the context of the continued viability of agriculture in SWWA. Cramb, J. (2000) Climate in relation to agriculture in south-western Australia. In: The Wheat Book (Eds W. K. Anderson and J. R. Garlinge). Bulletin 4443. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Gordon, H. B., Rotstayn, L. D., McGregor, J. L., Dix, M. R., Kowalczyk, E. A., O'Farrell, S. P., Waterman, L. J., Hirst, A. C., Wilson, S. G., Collier, M. A., Watterson, I. G., and Elliott, T. I. (2002). The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model [Electronic publication]. Aspendale: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. (CSIRO Atmospheric Research technical paper; no. 60). 130 p McGregor, J. L., and Dix, M. R., (2008) An updated description of the conformal-cubic atmospheric model. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Hamilton, K. and Ohfuchi

  20. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff. PMID:23935444

  1. RAINFALL-RUNOFF MECHANICS FOR DEVELOPED URBAN BASINS, SOUTH FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff data, collected by the US Geological Survey as part of an urban hydrology study in south Florida, were analyzed to find relations between depths of rainfall and basin runoff. Data were collected for about 300 runoff events on four different urban land-use basins - commercial, highway, single-family residential, and apartment. These data were collected from sewers that carried only stormwater runoff. In analyzing the rainfall-runoff data, three types of relations were found. A one-curve, linear relation occurred for the commercial basin that has 98 percent of the basin as hydraulically effective impervious area. A two-curve, intercepted relation occurred for the highway basin - a linear curve for the low and medium events observed and a second-degree curve for high events observed. A two-curve, disjointed relation occurred for the remaining two basins - the residential basin and the apartment basin. This relation also contained a linear curve for low and medium events and a second-degree curve for the high events. However, the two curves do not intersect, but are disjointed.

  2. Effects of hydrology and field management on phosphorus transport in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Buda, Anthony R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Srinivasan, M S; Bryant, Ray B; Feyereisen, Gary W

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural landscapes arise from the interaction of hydrologic, edaphic, and management factors, complicated by their spatial and temporal variability. We monitored sites along two agricultural hillslopes to assess the effects of field management and hydrology on P transfers in surface runoff at different landscape positions. Surface runoff varied by landscape position, with saturation excess runoff accounting for 19 times the volume of infiltration excess runoff at the north footslope position, but infiltration excess runoff dominated at upslope landscape positions. Runoff differed significantly between south and north footslopes, coinciding with the extent of upslope soil underlain by a fragipan. Phosphorus in runoff was predominantly in dissolved reactive form (70%), with the highest concentrations associated with upper landscape positions closest to fields serving as major sources of P. However, the largest loads of P were from the north footslope, where runoff volumes were 24 times larger than from all other sites combined. Loads of P from the north footslope appeared to be primarily chronic transfers of desorbed soil P. Although runoff from the footslope likely contributed directly to stream flow and hence to stream water quality, 27% of runoff P from the upslope sites did not connect directly with stream flow. Findings of this study will be useful for evaluating the critical source area concept and metrics such as the P-Index.

  3. Do upslope impervious surfaces impact the run-on/runoff relationship?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of watersheds previously managed for agricultural uses for commercial and residential uses results in the replacement of pervious soil surfaces with impervious surfaces. Characteristics of runoff generated on new upslope impervious surfaces may differ from runoff generated on the predeve...

  4. Dissolved Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses in Surface Runoff from Claypan Soil Watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source pollution associated with runoff from agricultural fields continues to be a problem in many areas of the Midwest U.S. due to excessive fertilizer application, runoff prone soils, and climatic conditions that produce large thunderstorms during and after spring planting and fertilizer ...

  5. [Research on evaluation of water quality of Beijing urban stormwater runoff].

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei-Qiang; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The natural rainwater and stormwater runoff samples from three underlying surfaces (rooftop, campus road and ring road) were sampled and analyzed from July to October, 2010 in Beijing. Eight rainfall events were collected totally and thirteen water quality parameters were measured in each event. Grey relationship analysis and principal component analysis were applied to assess composite water quality and identify the main pollution sources of stormwater runoff. The results show that the composite water quality of ring road runoff is mostly polluted, and then is rooftop runoff, campus road runoff and rainwater, respectively. The composite water quality of ring road runoff is inferior to V class of surface water, while rooftop runoff, campus road runoff and rainwater are in II class of surface water. The mean concentration of TN and NH4(+)-N in rainwater and runoff is 5.49-11.75 mg x L(-1) and 2.90-5.67 mg x L(-1), respectively, indicating that rainwater and runoff are polluted by nitrogen (N). Two potential pollution sources are identified in ring road runoff: (1) P, SS and organic pollutant are possibly related to debris which is from vehicle tyre and material of ring road; (2) N and dissolved metal have relations with automobile exhaust emissions and bulk deposition.

  6. Characterization of hydrological responses to rainfall and volumetric coefficients on the event scale in rural catchments of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Ayuso, José L.; Casalí, Javier; Cid, Patricio; Dafonte, Jorge; Duarte, Antonio C.; Giménez, Rafael; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena; Gómez, José A.; González-Hidalgo, J. Carlos; Lucía, Ana; Mateos, Luciano; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Schnabel, Susanne; Serrano-Muela, M. Pilar; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Mercedes Taboada-Castro, M.; Taboada-Castro, M. Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of storm rainfall-runoff data is essential to improve our understanding of catchment hydrology and to validate models supporting hydrological planning. In a context of climate change, statistical and process-based models are helpful to explore different scenarios which might be represented by simple parameters such as volumetric runoff coefficient. In this work, rainfall-runoff event datasets collected at 17 rural catchments in the Iberian Peninsula were studied. The objectives were: i) to describe hydrological patterns/variability of the relation rainfall-runoff; ii) to explore different methodologies to quantify representative volumetric runoff coefficients. Firstly, the criteria used to define an event were examined in order to standardize the analysis. Linear regression adjustments and statistics of the rainfall-runoff relations were examined to identify possible common patterns. In addition, a principal component analysis was applied to evaluate the variability among catchments based on their physical attributes. Secondly, runoff coefficients at event temporal scale were calculated following different methods. Median, mean, Hawkinś graphic method (Hawkins, 1993), reference values for engineering project of Prevert (TRAGSA, 1994) and the ratio of cumulated runoff and cumulated precipitation of the event that generated runoff (Rcum) were compared. Finally, the relations between the most representative volumetric runoff coefficients with the physical features of the catchments were explored using multiple linear regressions. The mean volumetric runoff coefficient in the studied catchments was 0.18, whereas the median was 0.15, both with variation coefficients greater than 100%. In 6 catchments, rainfall-runoff linear adjustments presented coefficient of determination greater than 0.60 (p < 0.001) while in 5, it was lesser than 0.40. The slope of the linear adjustments for agricultural catchments located in areas with the lowest annual precipitation were

  7. An assessment of the effects of cell size on AGNPS modeling of watershed runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Bosch, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the changes in simulated watershed runoff from the Agricultural NonPoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model as a function of model input cell size resolution for eight different cell sizes (30 m, 60 m, 120 m, 210 m, 240 m, 480 m, 960 m, and 1920 m) for the Little River Watershed (Georgia, USA). Overland cell runoff (area-weighted cell runoff), total runoff volume, clustering statistics, and hot spot patterns were examined for the different cell sizes and trends identified. Total runoff volumes decreased with increasing cell size. Using data sets of 210-m cell size or smaller in conjunction with a representative watershed boundary allows one to model the runoff volumes within 0.2 percent accuracy. The runoff clustering statistics decrease with increasing cell size; a cell size of 960 m or smaller is necessary to indicate significant high-runoff clustering. Runoff hot spot areas have a decreasing trend with increasing cell size; a cell size of 240 m or smaller is required to detect important hot spots. Conclusions regarding cell size effects on runoff estimation cannot be applied to local watershed areas due to the inconsistent changes of runoff volume with cell size; but, optimal cells sizes for clustering and hot spot analyses are applicable to local watershed areas due to the consistent trends.

  8. Using aquatic vegetation to remediate nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus in simulated runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. ...

  9. Xenobiotic organic compounds in runoff from fields irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Joel A; Yeager, Matt A; Suffet, I H

    2003-02-26

    Investigations of agricultural nonpoint source pollution typically focus on a relatively narrow range of targeted toxic and biostimulatory compounds (e.g., specific pesticides, nutrients). Regular application of numerous other organic compounds to agricultural fields in pesticide formulations, irrigation water, soil amendments, and fertilizers may result in their transport into surface waters via runoff. We examined whether potentially toxic dissolved and particle-associated "nontarget" organic compounds were present in surface runoff from agricultural fields irrigated with disinfected tertiary recycled water or wastewater effluent-dominated streamwater. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of filtered runoff samples revealed the presence of numerous nontarget compounds of potential toxicological significance including pesticide transformation products, pesticide adjuvant chemicals, plasticizers, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care product ingredients. Although the toxicity of many of these compounds is poorly characterized, some may elicit subtle but profound toxicological effects. Agricultural runoff also represented a source of allochthonous natural organic matter to the stream system.

  10. Design and Construction of an Urban Runoff Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Wherley, Benjamin G.; White, Richard H.; McInnes, Kevin J.; Fontanier, Charles H.; Thomas, James C.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A.; Kelly, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    As the urban population increases, so does the area of irrigated urban landscape. Summer water use in urban areas can be 2-3x winter base line water use due to increased demand for landscape irrigation. Improper irrigation practices and large rainfall events can result in runoff from urban landscapes which has potential to carry nutrients and sediments into local streams and lakes where they may contribute to eutrophication. A 1,000 m2 facility was constructed which consists of 24 individual 33.6 m2 field plots, each equipped for measuring total runoff volumes with time and collection of runoff subsamples at selected intervals for quantification of chemical constituents in the runoff water from simulated urban landscapes. Runoff volumes from the first and second trials had coefficient of variability (CV) values of 38.2 and 28.7%, respectively. CV values for runoff pH, EC, and Na concentration for both trials were all under 10%. Concentrations of DOC, TDN, DON, PO4-P, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ had CV values less than 50% in both trials. Overall, the results of testing performed after sod installation at the facility indicated good uniformity between plots for runoff volumes and chemical constituents. The large plot size is sufficient to include much of the natural variability and therefore provides better simulation of urban landscape ecosystems. PMID:25146420

  11. Perfluoroalkyl acids in urban stormwater runoff: influence of land use.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

    2012-12-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and have been reported to have nonpoint sources. In this study, six PFAAs with different chain lengths were monitored in stormwater runoff from seven storm events (2009-2011) at various outfall locations corresponding to different watershed land uses. We found PFAA(s) in 100% of stormwater runoff samples. Monitoring results and statistical analysis show that PFAAs in stormwater runoff from residential areas mainly came from rainfall. On the other hand, non-atmospheric sources at both industrial and commercial areas contributed PFAAs in stormwater runoff. The mass flux of PFAAs from stormwater runoff in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) metropolitan area is estimated to be about 7.86 kg/year. In addition, for the first time, we monitored PFAAs on the particles/debris in stormwater runoff and found high-level PFOS on the particulate matter in runoff collected from both industrial and commercial areas; the levels were so high that the finding could not be explained by the solid-water partitioning or adsorption. PFOS on the particulate matter is suspected to have originated from industrial/commercial products, entering the waste stream as PFOS containing particles.

  12. Temperature dynamics of stormwater runoff in Australia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, J M; Winston, R J; Brown, R A; Hunt, W F; McCarthy, D T

    2016-07-15

    Thermal pollution of surface waters by urban stormwater runoff is an often overlooked by-product of urbanization. Elevated stream temperatures due to an influx of stormwater runoff can be detrimental to stream biota, in particular for cold water systems. However, few studies have examined temperature trends throughout storm events to determine how these thermal inputs are temporally distributed. In this study, six diverse catchments in two continents are evaluated for thermal dynamics. Summary statistics from the data showed larger catchments have lower maximum runoff temperatures, minimum runoff temperatures, and temperature variability. This reinforces the understanding that subsurface drainage infrastructure in urban catchments acts to moderate runoff temperatures. The catchments were also evaluated for the presence of a thermal first flush using two methodologies. Results showed the lack of a first flush under traditional assessment methodologies across all six catchments, supporting the results from a limited number of studies in literature. However, the time to peak temperature was not always coincident with the time to peak flow, highlighting the variability of thermal load over time. When a new first flush methodology was applied, significant differences in temperature were noted with increasing runoff depth for five of the six sites. This study is the first to identify a runoff temperature first flush, and highlights the need to carefully consider the appropriate methodology for such analyses.

  13. Temperature dynamics of stormwater runoff in Australia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, J M; Winston, R J; Brown, R A; Hunt, W F; McCarthy, D T

    2016-07-15

    Thermal pollution of surface waters by urban stormwater runoff is an often overlooked by-product of urbanization. Elevated stream temperatures due to an influx of stormwater runoff can be detrimental to stream biota, in particular for cold water systems. However, few studies have examined temperature trends throughout storm events to determine how these thermal inputs are temporally distributed. In this study, six diverse catchments in two continents are evaluated for thermal dynamics. Summary statistics from the data showed larger catchments have lower maximum runoff temperatures, minimum runoff temperatures, and temperature variability. This reinforces the understanding that subsurface drainage infrastructure in urban catchments acts to moderate runoff temperatures. The catchments were also evaluated for the presence of a thermal first flush using two methodologies. Results showed the lack of a first flush under traditional assessment methodologies across all six catchments, supporting the results from a limited number of studies in literature. However, the time to peak temperature was not always coincident with the time to peak flow, highlighting the variability of thermal load over time. When a new first flush methodology was applied, significant differences in temperature were noted with increasing runoff depth for five of the six sites. This study is the first to identify a runoff temperature first flush, and highlights the need to carefully consider the appropriate methodology for such analyses. PMID:27058133

  14. Using simulated rainfall to evaluate field and indoor surface runoff phosphorus relationships.

    PubMed

    Guidry, A R; Schindler, F V; German, D R; Gelderman, R H; Gerwing, J R

    2006-01-01

    While numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of outdoor rainfall simulations to predict P concentrations in surface runoff, few studies have linked indoor rainfall simulations to P concentrations in surface runoff from agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of indoor rainfall simulation to predict total dissolved P concentrations [TP(<0.45)] in field runoff for four dominant agricultural soils in South Dakota. Surface runoff from 10 residue-free field plots (2 m wide by 2 m long, 2-3% slope) and packed soil boxes (1 m long by 20 cm wide by 7.5 cm high, 2-3% slope) was compared. Surface runoff was generated via rainfall simulation at an intensity of 65 mm h(-1) and was collected for 30 min. Packed boxes produced approximately 24% more runoff (range = 2.8-3.4 cm) than field plots (range = 2.3-2.7 cm) among all soils. No statistical differences in either TP(<0.45) concentration or TP(<0.45) loss was observed in runoff from packed boxes and field plots among soil series (0.17 < P < 0.83). Three of four soils showed significantly more total P lost from packed boxes than field plots. The TP(<0.45) concentration in surface runoff from field plots can be predicted from TP(<0.45) concentration in surface runoff from the packed boxes (0.68 < r(2) < 0.94). A single relationship was derived to predict field TP(<0.45) concentration in surface runoff using surface runoff TP(<0.45) concentration from packed boxes. Evidence is provided that indoor runoff can adequately predict TP(<0.45) concentration in field surface runoff for select soils.

  15. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC.

  16. Runoff and sediment production in a Mediterranean basin under two different land uses after forest maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Edinson; Rallo, Elena; Úbeda, Xavier; Farguell, Joaquim; Outeiro, Luís

    2013-04-01

    This study analyses the influence of two different land uses on the hydrology of the Vernegà experimental basin between the years 1993 and 2012. The basin is located in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and it is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of 688 mm. The study of rainfall distribution shows that the majority occurs during autumn and spring, with a 34% and 25% of total annual rainfall respectively. Surface runoff flows from October to June. In this catchment, flash floods may represent 70% of the total water yield, though they only occur 6% of the time. It is important to emphasize that agricultural practices within the study area have been maintained, which is the contrary to the general trend in Mediterranean rural areas. The introduction of forest management practices between 2003 and 2005 has resulted in important hydrological changes in the watershed: Between 2005 and 2012 an increase of the runoff coefficient has been detected. In Bosc the increase represents 38% while in Campàs is 12% in relation with the 1993-2005 period. Campàs yields a greater total runoff than Bosc as a consequence of a greater catchment surface, greater agricultural surface and the existence of forest roads and forest management practices. Part of this phenomenon may be due to the decrease of interception of rainfall and plant biomass in the forested area of the basin. In relation to the sediment yield, it is concentrated during floods (more than 80%) and there is an increase of available sediment after extraordinary events, as it is the case of October 2005 flood, where the total sediment yield was 7 Tkm¯²yr¯¹ and in November 2005 it was 10 Tkm¯²yr¯¹.

  17. FlowShape: a runoff connectivity index for patched environments, based on shape and orientation of runoff sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegaro, Chiara; Malkinson, Dan; Ursino, Nadia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    The properties of vegetation cover are recognized to be a key factor in determining runoff processes and yield over natural areas. Still, how the actual vegetation spatial distribution affects these processes is not completely understood. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, patched landscapes are often found, with clumped vegetation, grass or shrubs, surrounded by bare soil patches. These two phases produce a sink-source system for runoff, as precipitation falling over bare areas barely infiltrates and rather flows downslope. In contrast, vegetated patches have high infiltrability and can partially retain the runon water. We hypothesize that, at a relatively small scale, the shape and orientation of bare soil patches with respect to the runoff flow direction is a significant for the connectivity of the runoff flow paths, and consequently for runoff values. We derive an index, FlowShape, which is candidate to be a good proxy for runoff connectivity and thus runoff production in patched environments. FlowShape is an area-weighted average of the geometrical properties of each bare soil patch. Eight experimental plots in northern Israel were monitored during 2 years after a wildfire which occurred in 2006. Runoff was collected and measured - along with rainfall depth - after each rainfall event, at different levels of vegetation cover corresponding to post-fire recovery of vegetation and seasonality. We obtained a good correlation between FlowShape and the runoff coefficient, at two conditions: a minimal percentage of vegetation cover over the plot, and minimal rainfall depth. Our results support the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of the two phases (vegetation and bare soil) in patched landscapes dictates, at least partially, runoff yield. The correlation between the runoff coefficient and FlowShape, which accounts for shape and orientation of soil patches, is higher than the correlation between the runoff coefficient and the bare soil percentage alone

  18. Characterization of Stormwater Runoff from a Light Rail Transit Area.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Raja Umer; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Memon, Sheeraz; Sukhbaatar, Chinzorig; Paule, Ma Cristina; Lee, Bum-Yeon; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2015-09-01

    The monitoring of stormwater runoff from Light Rail Transit (LRT) facilities is insufficient in many regions around the world. In this study, runoff quality and quantity were monitored during operational and non-operational LRT phases during 2010-2013. The event mean concentration (EMC) of pollutants showed little statistical variability during both phases. The antecedent dry day (ADD) showed a strong to moderate positive correlation with most pollutant EMCs during the non-operational phase. The existence and magnitude of the first flush from LRT runoff was found to be similar to those from other transportation land uses. The comparison of LRT runoff data with an adjacent road bridge site showed that the pollutant EMC and unit load were 2 to 9 times higher from the road bridge. It was suggested that LRT automated operation and the elevated track makes this transportation mode a viable option for the management of non-point source pollution. PMID:26961476

  19. Characterization of Stormwater Runoff from a Light Rail Transit Area.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Raja Umer; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Memon, Sheeraz; Sukhbaatar, Chinzorig; Paule, Ma Cristina; Lee, Bum-Yeon; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2015-09-01

    The monitoring of stormwater runoff from Light Rail Transit (LRT) facilities is insufficient in many regions around the world. In this study, runoff quality and quantity were monitored during operational and non-operational LRT phases during 2010-2013. The event mean concentration (EMC) of pollutants showed little statistical variability during both phases. The antecedent dry day (ADD) showed a strong to moderate positive correlation with most pollutant EMCs during the non-operational phase. The existence and magnitude of the first flush from LRT runoff was found to be similar to those from other transportation land uses. The comparison of LRT runoff data with an adjacent road bridge site showed that the pollutant EMC and unit load were 2 to 9 times higher from the road bridge. It was suggested that LRT automated operation and the elevated track makes this transportation mode a viable option for the management of non-point source pollution.

  20. Quality of stormwater runoff from an urbanised watershed.

    PubMed

    Cheong, C P

    1991-10-01

    A field monitoring network was set up within the Stamford canal watershed in 1989 to study both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of storm runoff from this urbanised catchment. The data acquisition equipment comprised a continuous recording rain gauge, a water level recorder and an automatic water sampler capable of sampling storm runoff at preset intervals during rainfall events. Water samples were collected after each storm and laboratory tests were carried out on the physical and chemical properties of the storm water. Preliminary findings on the temporal variations of stormwater quality during single storms and the effects of antecedent dry weather period on the quality are presented. The average ranges of some of the significant quality parameters found in the storm runoff were also established. The quality of storm runoff from the catchment under study was found to be of an acceptable level and could potentially be developed as a water catchment area.

  1. [Rainfall intensity effects on nutrients transport in surface runoff from farmlands in gentle slope hilly area of Taihu Lake Basin].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-ling; Zhang, Yong-chun; Liu, Zhuang; Zeng, Yuan; Li, Wei-xin; Zhang, Hong-ling

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of rainfall on agricultural nonpoint source pollution, watershed scale experiments were conducted to study the characteristics of nutrients in surface runoff under different rainfall intensities from farmlands in gentle slope hilly areas around Taihu Lake. Rainfall intensity significantly affected N and P concentrations in runoff. Rainfall intensity was positively related to TP, PO4(3-) -P and NH4+ -N event mean concentrations(EMC). However, this study have found the EMC of TN and NO3- -N to be positively related to rainfall intensity under light rain and negatively related to rainfall intensity under heavy rain. TN and TP site mean amounts (SMA) in runoff were positively related to rainfall intensity and were 1.91, 311.83, 127.65, 731.69 g/hm2 and 0.04, 7.77, 2.99, 32.02 g/hm2 with rainfall applied under light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and rainstorm respectively. N in runoff was mainly NO3- -N and NH4+ -N and was primarily in dissolved form from Meilin soils. Dissolved P (DP) was the dominant form of TP under light rain, but particulate P (PP) mass loss increased with the increase of rainfall intensity and to be the dominant form when the rainfall intensity reaches rainstorm. Single relationships were used to describe the dependence of TN and TP mass losses in runoff on rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, average rainfall intensity and rainfall duration respectively. The results showed a significant positive correlation between TN mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01) and also TP mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01).

  2. Object-Based Land Use Classification of Agricultural Land by Coupling Multi-Temporal Spectral Characteristics and Phenological Events in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Loew, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Crop maps based on classification of remotely sensed data are of increased attendance in agricultural management. This induces a more detailed knowledge about the reliability of such spatial information. However, classification of agricultural land use is often limited by high spectral similarities of the studied crop types. More, spatially and temporally varying agro-ecological conditions can introduce confusion in crop mapping. Classification errors in crop maps in turn may have influence on model outputs, like agricultural production monitoring. One major goal of the PhenoS project ("Phenological structuring to determine optimal acquisition dates for Sentinel-2 data for field crop classification"), is the detection of optimal phenological time windows for land cover classification purposes. Since many crop species are spectrally highly similar, accurate classification requires the right selection of satellite images for a certain classification task. In the course of one growing season, phenological phases exist where crops are separable with higher accuracies. For this purpose, coupling of multi-temporal spectral characteristics and phenological events is promising. The focus of this study is set on the separation of spectrally similar cereal crops like winter wheat, barley, and rye of two test sites in Germany called "Harz/Central German Lowland" and "Demmin". However, this study uses object based random forest (RF) classification to investigate the impact of image acquisition frequency and timing on crop classification uncertainty by permuting all possible combinations of available RapidEye time series recorded on the test sites between 2010 and 2014. The permutations were applied to different segmentation parameters. Then, classification uncertainty was assessed and analysed, based on the probabilistic soft-output from the RF algorithm at the per-field basis. From this soft output, entropy was calculated as a spatial measure of classification uncertainty

  3. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  4. Fecal bacteria and sex hormones in soil and runoff from cropped watersheds amended with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Sharpe, Ronald R

    2006-04-01

    The application of poultry litter to agricultural fields can provide plant nutrients for crops and forage production, but fecal bacteria and the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone are components of litter that can be detrimental to the environment. Our objective was to determine if applications of poultry litter to small watersheds would contribute to the load of fecal bacteria and sex hormones to soil and runoff. We, therefore, investigated the fate and transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol and testosterone from surface applied poultry litter to four small watersheds. Poultry litter was applied to meet the nitrogen requirements of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) in 2000 and grain sorghum [Sorgham bicolor (L.) Moench] in 2001. Neither Salmonella nor Campylobacter were detected in the litter but the fecal indicator bacteria were. The average load of total coliforms,Escherichia coli, and fecal enterococci applied with the litter was 12.2, 11.9, and 12.7 log10 cells ha(−1), respectively. The average load of estradiol and testosterone was 3.1 and 0.09 mg ha(-1), respectively.Runoff events first occurred seven months after the first litter application in 2000, and three weeks after the second application in 2001.Only for the 25 July 2001 runoff event three weeks after the second litter application, were the concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli,and fecal enterococci in runoff greater than background concentrations which were on average 5.2, 1.1, and 2.9 log10 MPN 100 ml(−1),respectively [corrected]. Average background levels of total coliforms, fecal enterococci,and E. coli in surface soil were 8.2, 7.9, and 3.5 log (10) cells kg(−1) soil. At the rate of litter application the concentrations of estradiol and testosterone in the litter did not appear to impact the background levels in the soil and runoff. Because concentrations of sex hormones in litter from other broiler operations are known to be greater than in the litter we applied, further

  5. The Cannona Data Base: long-term field data for studies on soil management impact on runoff and erosion processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Ferraris, Stefano; Opsi, Francesca; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    Long-term data have been collected by IMAMOTER-CNR from field-scale vineyard plots within the Tenuta Cannona Vine and Wine Experimental Centre of Regione Piemonte, which is located in a valuable vine production area in north-western Italy. Since 2000, runoff and soil erosion monitoring has been carried out under natural rainfall conditions on three parallel field plots (75 m long and 16,5 m wide, slope gradient about 15%) that are conducted with different inter-rows soil management techniques (conventional tillage, reduced tillage, controlled grass cover). Experimental plots are part of a 16-hectars experimental vineyard, managed in according to conventional farming for wine production. Recurrent surveys have been carried out in the runoff plots to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the soil bulk density, soil moisture and penetration resistance. The primary intent of the program was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices and tractor traffic on the hydrologic, soil erosion and soil compaction processes in vineyard. The Cannona Data Base (CDB) represents a data collection which is unique in Italy, showing the response of soil to rainfall in terms of runoff and soil erosion over more than a decade. It includes data for more than 200 runoff events and over 70 soil loss events; moreover, periodic measurements for soil physical characteristics are included for the three plots. The CDB can now be accessed via a website supported by the CNR, that is addressed to water and land management researchers and professionals. The CDB is currently used to calibrate a model for runoff and soil erosion prediction in vineyard environment. The CDB website includes a descriptive and informative section, which contains results of over than 10 years of experimental activity, reports and presentations, addressed to enhance the awareness of citizens and stakeholders about land degradation processes and about impacts of different soil management practices

  6. The prediction of runoff flow directions on tilled fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takken, Ingrid; Govers, Gerard; Steegen, An; Nachtergaele, Jeroen; Guérif, Jérome

    2001-07-01

    On tilled fields runoff directions may be affected by tillage induced oriented roughness, causing runoff to flow along tillage lines instead of topographic direction. That this has an important effect on runoff and erosion patterns was already reported [Ludwig et al., Catena 25 (1995); Desmet and Govers, Catena 29 (1997); Souchère et al., J. Hydrol. 206 (1998); Takken et al., Catena 37 (1999)]. However, limited research has been carried out to develop models that can be used to predict whether flow will be in tillage or topographic direction. In this study a wide range of data was collected on runoff patterns observed in an agricultural catchment in the Belgian loess belt. The data show that for more than 75% of the mapped areas on hillslopes the flow was in direction of tillage. The data were analysed to develop two logistic regression models to predict runoff direction. The first model uses topographic slope, the angle between the tillage orientation and aspect direction and the degree of oriented roughness as input. In the second model, the effect of discharge on the flow direction is also considered using unit contributing area as a substitute variable. However, the application of the second model is complicated and error-prone. Furthermore, application of both models to a validation dataset showed only a minor increase in model performance when upslope area is included (95 vs. 93% of correct predictions). Therefore, it may be better to predict flow directions without taking discharge into account. The model without unit contributing area predicted very well the spatial variation of flow directions within a field surveyed by [Desmet and Govers, Catena 29 (1997)]. Including this logistic model in runoff and erosion models will result in much better predictions of runoff and erosion patterns than can be obtained by using the traditional approach of calculating a runoff pattern based on topography only.

  7. Monitoring stream sediment loads in response to agriculture in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Ashley; St-Hilaire, Andre; Courtenay, Simon C; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Increased agricultural land use leads to accelerated erosion and deposition of fine sediment in surface water. Monitoring of suspended sediment yields has proven challenging due to the spatial and temporal variability of sediment loading. Reliable sediment yield calculations depend on accurate monitoring of these highly episodic sediment loading events. This study aims to quantify precipitation-induced loading of suspended sediments on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Turbidity is considered to be a reasonably accurate proxy for suspended sediment data. In this study, turbidity was used to monitor suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and was measured for 2 years (December 2012-2014) in three subwatersheds with varying degrees of agricultural land use ranging from 10 to 69 %. Comparison of three turbidity meter calibration methods, two using suspended streambed sediment and one using automated sampling during rainfall events, revealed that the use of SSC samples constructed from streambed sediment was not an accurate replacement for water column sampling during rainfall events for calibration. Different particle size distributions in the three rivers produced significant impacts on the calibration methods demonstrating the need for river-specific calibration. Rainfall-induced sediment loading was significantly greater in the most agriculturally impacted site only when the load per rainfall event was corrected for runoff volume (total flow minus baseflow), flow increase intensity (the slope between the start of a runoff event and the peak of the hydrograph), and season. Monitoring turbidity, in combination with sediment modeling, may offer the best option for management purposes.

  8. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to

  9. Nutrient losses by surface run-off following the application of organic manures to arable land. 2. Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Jackson, D R; Withers, P J

    2001-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) surface run-off losses were studied following organic manure applications to land, utilising a purpose-built facility on a sloping site in Herefordshire under arable tillage. Different rates and timing of cattle slurry, farm yard manure (FYM) and inorganic nitrogen (N) and P fertiliser were compared, over a 4-year period (1993-97). N losses from the same studies are reported in a separate paper. The application of cattle FYM and, especially slurry, to the silty clay loam soil increased both particulate and soluble P loss in surface water flow. Losses via subsurface flow (30 cm interflow) were consistently much lower than via surface water movement and were generally unaffected by treatment. Increased application of slurry solids increased all forms of P loss via surface run-off; the results suggested that a threshold for greatly increased risk of P losses via this route, as for N, occurred at ca. 2.5-3.0 t/ha solids loading. This approximates to the 50 m3/ha application rate limit suggested for slurry within UK 'good agricultural practice'. The studies also provided circumstantial evidence of the sealing of the soil surface by slurry solids as the major mechanism by which polluting surface run-off may occur following slurry application on susceptible soils. Losses of total and soluble P, recorded for each of the 4 years of experiments, reached a maximum of only up to 2 kg/ha total P (TP), even after slurry applications initiating run-off. Whilst these losses are insignificant in agronomic terms, peak concentrations of P (up to 30,000 micrograms/l TP) in surface water during a run-off event, could be of considerable concern in sensitive catchments. Losses of slurry P via surface run-off could make a significant contribution to accelerated eutrophication on entry to enclosed waters, particularly when combined with high concentrations of NO3(-)-N. Restricting slurry application rates to those consistent with good agronomic practice, and within the

  10. Dioxins and furans urban runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, T.S.; Stenstrom, M.K.; Hayward, D.G.; Stephens, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    Urban runoff samples were collected in a 1-year period in the Santa Monica Bay watershed during both dry and storm periods and analyzed for polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes. Trace concentrations were found in nearly all of the samples collected. During storms polychlorinated dioxin and polychlorinated furan concentrations peaked. The congener and isomer profiles resemble profiles found in lake sediments and rainwater more than they resemble profiles found in urban sources such as dioxins from incinerators or dioxins in contaminated commercial products. Runoff from open land use had lower concentrations than runoff from developed land uses.

  11. Beyond the SCS-CN method: A theoretical framework for spatially lumped rainfall-runoff response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Parolari, A. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Porporato, A.

    2016-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1954, the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method has become the standard tool, in practice, for estimating an event-based rainfall-runoff response. However, because of its empirical origins, the SCS-CN method is restricted to certain geographic regions and land use types. Moreover, it does not describe the spatial variability of runoff. To move beyond these limitations, we present a new theoretical framework for spatially lumped, event-based rainfall-runoff modeling. In this framework, we describe the spatially lumped runoff model as a point description of runoff that is upscaled to a watershed area based on probability distributions that are representative of watershed heterogeneities. The framework accommodates different runoff concepts and distributions of heterogeneities, and in doing so, it provides an implicit spatial description of runoff variability. Heterogeneity in storage capacity and soil moisture are the basis for upscaling a point runoff response and linking ecohydrological processes to runoff modeling. For the framework, we consider two different runoff responses for fractions of the watershed area: "prethreshold" and "threshold-excess" runoff. These occur before and after infiltration exceeds a storage capacity threshold. Our application of the framework results in a new model (called SCS-CNx) that extends the SCS-CN method with the prethreshold and threshold-excess runoff mechanisms and an implicit spatial description of runoff. We show proof of concept in four forested watersheds and further that the resulting model may better represent geographic regions and site types that previously have been beyond the scope of the traditional SCS-CN method.

  12. Runoff generation and re-distribution in logged eucalyptus forests, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croke, Jacky; Hairsine, Peter; Fogarty, Peter

    1999-03-01

    While pristine forests are traditionally regarded as environments with low runoff and low erosion potential, timber harvesting can dramatically affect surface runoff production, with some important consequences for in-stream water quality. A series of large-scale (300 m 2) rainfall simulator experiments on disturbed forest hillslopes, incorporating both snig track (skid trail) and general harvesting areas (GHA), examined runoff generation and redistribution during three sequential simulated storms on 13 sites. The simulated storms represented 30-min rainfall events with recurrence intervals of 2, 10, and 100 y respectively. The 13 sites were selected to represent dominant soil types and ages since disturbance. The snig tracks and GHA are characterised by significantly different soil hydraulic and vegetation properties as reflected in the nature and magnitude of runoff production. Infiltration-excess runoff dominated the snig track areas, while on recently disturbed GHA, runoff was distinctly patchy because of the high degree of spatial variability in saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ks) and degrees of disturbance. Surface runoff from recently constructed snig tracks was an order of magnitude higher than the neighbouring GHA. Relative differences in runoff production between the two areas declined during extreme rainfall events. Infiltration tests also indicated that a change in the processes and rates of runoff persists for at least 5 y after disturbance. The practice of redistributing concentrated snig track runoff at cross banks was most effective for small storms. However, during more extreme events, the volume of snig track runoff increased and flow velocities and transport distances increased as the hillslope became increasingly saturated. The varying ability of the GHA to generate runoff and absorb concentrated flow from the snig track is likely to be critical in predicting both the initial hydrologic response and the recovery of a small catchment from

  13. Synthetic calibration of a Rainfall-Runoff Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, David B.; Westphal, Jerome A.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A method for synthetically calibrating storm-mode parameters for the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is described. Synthetic calibration is accomplished by adjusting storm-mode parameters to minimize deviations between the pseudo-probability disributions represented by regional regression equations and actual frequency distributions fitted to model-generated peak discharge and runoff volume. Results of modeling storm hydrographs using synthetic and analytic storm-mode parameters are presented. Comparisons are made between model results from both parameter sets and between model results and observed hydrographs. Although mean storm runoff is reproducible to within about 26 percent of the observed mean storm runoff for five or six parameter sets, runoff from individual storms is subject to large disparities. Predicted storm runoff volume ranged from 2 percent to 217 percent of commensurate observed values. Furthermore, simulation of peak discharges was poor. Predicted peak discharges from individual storm events ranged from 2 percent to 229 percent of commensurate observed values. The model was incapable of satisfactorily executing storm-mode simulations for the study watersheds. This result is not considered a particular fault of the model, but instead is indicative of deficiencies in similar conceptual models.

  14. Rainfall–runoff model parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation on small plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four seasonal rainfall simulations in 2009 and 2010were applied to a field containing 36 plots (0.75 × 2 m each), resulting in 144 runoff events. In all simulations, a constant rate of rainfall was applied then halted 60min after initiation of runoff, with plot-scale monitoring o...

  15. Land cover controls on summer discharge and runoff solution chemistry of semi-arid urban catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Erika L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRecharge of urban runoff to groundwater as a stormwater management practice has gained importance in semi-arid regions where water resources are scarce and urban centers are growing. Despite this trend, the importance of land cover in controlling semi-arid catchment runoff quantity and quality remains unclear. Here we address the question: How do land cover characteristics control the amount and quality of storm runoff in semi-arid urban catchments? We monitored summertime runoff quantity and quality from five catchments dominated by distinct urban land uses: low, medium, and high density residential, mixed use, and commercial. Increasing urban land cover increased runoff duration and the likelihood that a rainfall event would result in runoff, but did not increase the time to peak discharge of episodic runoff. The effect of urban land cover on hydrologic responses was tightly coupled to the magnitude of rainfall. At distinct rainfall thresholds, roads, percent impervious cover and the stormwater drainage network controlled runoff frequency, runoff depth and runoff ratios. Contrary to initial expectations, runoff quality did not vary in repose to impervious cover or land use. We identified four major mechanisms controlling runoff quality: (1) variable solute sourcing due to land use heterogeneity and above ground catchment connectivity; (2) the spatial extent of pervious and biogeochemically active areas; (3) the efficiency of overland flow and runoff mobilization; and (4) solute flushing and dilution. Our study highlights the importance of the stormwater drainage systems characteristics in controlling urban runoff quantity and quality; and suggests that enhanced wetting and in-stream processes may control solute sourcing and retention. Finally, we suggest that the characteristics of the stormwater drainage system should be integrated into stormwater management approaches.

  16. Spatial and temporal runoff processes in the degraded Ethiopian Highlands: the Anjeni Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayabil, H. K.; Tebebu, T. Y.; Stoof, C. R.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2015-04-01

    As runoff mechanisms in the Ethiopian highlands are not well understood, performance of many soil and water conservation measures is inadequate because of ineffective placement outside the major runoff source areas. To improve understanding of the runoff generating mechanisms in these highlands, we monitored runoff volumes from 24 runoff plots constructed in the 113 ha Anjeni watershed, where historic data of rainfall and stream discharge were available. In addition, we assessed the effectiveness of charcoal and crop rooting depth in reducing runoff, in which we compared the effect of lupine (a deep-rooted crop) to that of barley. Daily rainfall, surface runoff, and root zone moisture content were measured during the monsoon seasons of 2012 and 2013 (with all plots being tilled in 2012, but only barley plots in 2013). In addition, long-term surface runoff (from four plots) and outlet discharge data from the research site (1989-1993) was analyzed and compared with our observations. Results showed that the degree of soil degradation and soil disturbance (tillage) were significant factors affecting plot runoff responses. As expected runoff was greater from more degraded soils, while tilled plots had greater soil storage and thus less runoff. Overall, barley plots produced significantly less runoff than lupine plots. Specifically, considerable difference was observed for smaller rainfall events (ca. <20 mm) in 2013, when lupine plots (non-tilled) resulted in greater runoff than barley plots (tilled). This suggests that plot rainfall-runoff relationships are greatly affected by root-zone storage, which is directly affected by soil degradation and tillage practices.

  17. Nitrogen Runoff Losses during Warm-Season Turfgrass Sod Establishment.

    PubMed

    Wherley, Benjamin G; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A; Stanley, Nina C; Thomas, James C; Fontanier, Charles H; White, Richard H; Dwyer, Phil

    2015-07-01

    Concern exists over the potential loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in runoff from newly established and fertilized lawns. Nutrient losses can be higher from turf when shoot density and surface cover are low and root systems are not fully developed. This study was conducted to evaluate fertilizer source and timing effects on nutrient losses from newly sodded lawns of St. Augustinegrass [ (Walt.) Kuntze]. For each study, 12 33.6-m plots were established on an undisturbed Alfisol having a 3.7% slope. Each plot was equipped with a runoff collection system, instrumentation for runoff flow rate measurement, and automated samplers. A 28-d establishment study was initiated on 8 Aug. 2012 and repeated on 9 Sept. 2012. Treatments included unfertilized plots, fertilized plots receiving 4.88 g N m as urea 6 d after planting, fertilized plots receiving 4.88 g N m as sulfur-coated urea 6 d after planting, and fertilized plots receiving 4.88 g N m as urea 19 d after planting. Runoff events were created by irrigating with 17 mm of water over 27 min. Runoff water samples were collected after every 37.8 L and analyzed for NO-N, NH-N, dissolved organic N (DON), and PO-P. Increases of approximately 2 to 4 mg L NO-N and 8 to 12 mg L PO-P occurred in runoff 1 d after fertilization, which returned to background levels within 7 d. Total fertilizer N lost to runoff was 0.6 to 4.2% of that applied. Delaying fertilizer application until 19 d after planting provided no reduction in nutrient loss compared with a similar application 6 d after planting. Approximately 33% of the N lost in runoff was as DON. This large amount of DON suggests significant N loss from decomposing organic matter may occur during sod establishment. PMID:26437095

  18. Nitrogen Runoff Losses during Warm-Season Turfgrass Sod Establishment.

    PubMed

    Wherley, Benjamin G; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A; Stanley, Nina C; Thomas, James C; Fontanier, Charles H; White, Richard H; Dwyer, Phil

    2015-07-01

    Concern exists over the potential loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in runoff from newly established and fertilized lawns. Nutrient losses can be higher from turf when shoot density and surface cover are low and root systems are not fully developed. This study was conducted to evaluate fertilizer source and timing effects on nutrient losses from newly sodded lawns of St. Augustinegrass [ (Walt.) Kuntze]. For each study, 12 33.6-m plots were established on an undisturbed Alfisol having a 3.7% slope. Each plot was equipped with a runoff collection system, instrumentation for runoff flow rate measurement, and automated samplers. A 28-d establishment study was initiated on 8 Aug. 2012 and repeated on 9 Sept. 2012. Treatments included unfertilized plots, fertilized plots receiving 4.88 g N m as urea 6 d after planting, fertilized plots receiving 4.88 g N m as sulfur-coated urea 6 d after planting, and fertilized plots receiving 4.88 g N m as urea 19 d after planting. Runoff events were created by irrigating with 17 mm of water over 27 min. Runoff water samples were collected after every 37.8 L and analyzed for NO-N, NH-N, dissolved organic N (DON), and PO-P. Increases of approximately 2 to 4 mg L NO-N and 8 to 12 mg L PO-P occurred in runoff 1 d after fertilization, which returned to background levels within 7 d. Total fertilizer N lost to runoff was 0.6 to 4.2% of that applied. Delaying fertilizer application until 19 d after planting provided no reduction in nutrient loss compared with a similar application 6 d after planting. Approximately 33% of the N lost in runoff was as DON. This large amount of DON suggests significant N loss from decomposing organic matter may occur during sod establishment.

  19. The diffuse infiltration of road runoff: an environmental improvement.

    PubMed

    Piguet, Pascal; Parriaux, Aurèle; Bensimon, Michaël

    2008-07-01

    The Laboratory of Engineering and Environmental Geology (GEOLEP) has been mandated by Swiss authorities (Swiss Federal Road Office FedRO) to test a new road runoff management concept. This concept promotes the diffuse infiltration of road runoff into infiltration slopes designed for this purpose. Soils retain particles and contaminants; this lowers the road impact on the environment and simultaneously improves aquifer recharge. This concept has to be adapted to aquifer vulnerability and traffic conditions. Thus, a real-scale experimental station was designed and built in Switzerland to assess the feasibility of this new concept. This station allowed the testing of two lysimeters composed of 80 cm of A and B-horizons. Water and chemical fluxes were measured at the lysimeter bases. Road runoff was sampled in a distinct collector. Infiltration of road runoff into the local aquifer was monitored thanks to six piezometers. Water quality and quantity were therefore measured at each step of the infiltration process. Results provided by 112 natural events showed that soil horizons accommodated road runoff flows. The least favourable conditions for contaminant retention are encountered during thunderstorms, when high concentrations of substances deposited on the road are remobilised within a short time and rapidly percolates through soil horizons. Thus, three artificial events were designed to mimic heavy thunderstorms. Concentrations measured in road runoff notably decreased after soil filtration. Substances with high distribution coefficients Kd (low mobility) had concentrations reduced to lower values (1/1000 to 1/10,000), while those with high mobility retained similar concentrations even after soil filtration. However, these mobile substances exhibited low concentrations in the underlying aquifer due to dilution. This innovative road runoff management concept can thus be readily implemented outside groundwater protection zones where aquifers are slightly vulnerable; it

  20. [Characteristics of surface runoff pollution of Shanghai urban area].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-feng; Li, Tian; Li, He

    2007-07-01

    Sampling and monitoring of surface runoff in Shanghai urban area were carried out during rainy seasons from 2003 to 2005, and pollutographs of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N, TP and TN of 56 rainfall events from 19 sampling sites were analyzed. Discharge processes of runoff pollutants during rain events and relationships of the processes with rainfall characters were discussed, and event mean concentrations (EMCs) were calculated. Probability distribution of EMCs and correlation between EMCs and rain characters were analyzed. Medium event mean concentrations of pollutants in surface runoff of Shanghai urban area are: COD 205, BOD5 68, SS 185, NH4+ -N 3.14,TP 0.40, TN 7.23 (mg/L), which are much higher than those in Paris urban area. The ratio of BOD5 to COD is 0.37, which is very high for surface runoff compared with that of large cities of developed countries. Results show that impervious surface pollution is serious in Shanghai urban area and some measures must be taken to improve urban water environment quality except stormwater separation. PMID:17891947

  1. A field study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs are emerging as practical strategies to improve the environmental quality of cities. However, the impact of green roofs on the storm water quality remains a topic of concern to city planners and environmental policy makers. This study investigated whether green roofs act as a source or a sink of various metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Li and Co), inorganic anions (NO3-, NO2-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cl-, F- and Br-) and cation (NH4+). A series of green roof assemblies were constructed. Four different real rain events and several artificial rain events were considered for the study. Results showed that concentrations of most of the chemical components in runoff were highest during the beginning of rain events and subsided in the subsequent rain events. Some of the important components present in the runoff include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Fe, Al, Cu, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). However, the concentration of these chemical components in the roof runoff strongly depends on the nature of substrates used in the green roof and the volume of rain. Based on the USEPA standards for freshwater quality, we conclude that the green roof used in this study is reasonably effective except that the runoff contains significant amounts of NO3- and PO4(3-).

  2. Runoff generation mechanism at two distinct headwater catchments - isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Michal; Votrubová, Jana; Šanda, Martin; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, Tomáš; Dušek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    Data from two headwater catchments indicate considerably different runoff formation mechanisms. The contributions of different surface and subsurface runoff mechanisms to the catchment discharge formation at these two small forested headwater catchments are studied with help of the natural isotopic signatures of the observed fluxes. The Uhlirska catchment (1.78 sq. km, Jizera Mts., Czech Republic) is situated in headwater area of Cerna Nisa stream. Deluviofluvial granitic sediments in the valley bottom areas (riparian zones/wetlands) are surrounded by gentle hillslopes with shallow soils developed on crystalline bedrock. The Liz catchment (0.99 sq. km, Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic) belongs to hillslope-type catchments without riparian zones situated in headwater area of Volynka River. The soil at Liz is developed on biotite paragneiss bedrock. Autocorrelation analysis of the measured catchment discharge rates reveals different hydrograph characteristics for each of the two catchments. Estimated autocorrelation lengths differ by an order of magnitude. Variations of oxygen-18 isotope concentrations in precipitation, groundwater and streamflow were analyzed. Several significant rainfall-runoff events at each of the two catchments were analyzed in detail. These events exhibit substantial difference in isotopic compositions of event and pre-event water, which facilitates hydrograph separation. Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteretic relationships between the stream discharge and its isotope concentration were identified. Results were confronted with the previously published concepts of the runoff formation at the catchments under study. The research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation, project No. 14-15201J.

  3. The impact of runoff generation mechanisms on the location of critical source areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyon, S.W.; McHale, M.R.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Identifying phosphorus (P) source areas and transport pathways is a key step in decreasing P loading to natural water systems. This study compared the effects of two modeled runoff generation processes - saturation excess and infiltration excess - on total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in 10 catchment streams of a Catskill mountain watershed in southeastern New York. The spatial distribution of runoff from forested land and agricultural land was generated for both runoff processes; results of both distributions were consistent with Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) theory. These spatial runoff distributions were then used to simulate stream concentrations of TP and SRP through a simple equation derived from an observed relation between P concentration and land use; empirical results indicate that TP and SRP concentrations increased with increasing percentage of agricultural land. Simulated TP and SRP stream concentrations predicted for the 10 catchments were strongly affected by the assumed runoff mechanism. The modeled TP and SRP concentrations produced by saturation excess distribution averaged 31 percent higher and 42 percent higher, respectively, than those produced by the infiltration excess distribution. Misrepresenting the primary runoff mechanism could not only produce erroneous concentrations, it could fail to correctly locate critical source areas for implementation of best management practices. Thus, identification of the primary runoff mechanism is critical in selection of appropriate models in the mitigation of nonpoint source pollution. Correct representation of runoff processes is also critical in the future development of biogeochemical transport models, especially those that address nutrient fluxes.

  4. Development of a Small-Scale, High Efficiency Bioremediation System for Removing Nitrate from Nursery Runoff Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate concentrations in runoff water from the nursery ranged from 70 to 253 mg NO3-N/L. An estimated 62 to 67% of the nitrate applied during fertigation events left the production site in runoff water. Irrigation losses during these events accounted for 36 to 49% of the amount applied, with flow r...

  5. Long-term characterization of residential runoff and assessing potential surrogates of fecal indicator organisms.

    PubMed

    Reano, Dane C; Haver, Darren L; Oki, Lorence R; Yates, Marylynn V

    2015-05-01

    Investigations into the microbiological impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies, especially during storm conditions, have yielded general paradigms that influence runoff abatement and control management strategies. To determine whether these trends are present in other runoff sources, the physical, chemical, and microbiological components of residential runoff from eight neighborhoods in Northern and Southern California were characterized over the course of five years. Sampling occurred regularly and during storm events, resulting in 833 data sets. Analysis of runoff data assisted in characterizing residential runoff, elucidating differences between dry and storm conditions, and identifying surrogates capable of assessing microbiological quality. Results indicate that although microbial loading increases during storm events similar to urban runoff, annual microbial loading in these study sites principally occurs during dry conditions (24% storm, 76% dry). Generated artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models assessed surrogate performance by accurately predicting Escherichia coli concentrations from validation data sets (R(2) = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), but required input from other fecal indicator organism (FIO) variables to maintain performance (R(2) = 0.27 and 0.18, respectively, without FIO). This long-term analysis of residential runoff highlights characteristics distinct from urban runoff and establishes necessary variables for determining microbiological quality, thus better informing future management strategies.

  6. [Hydrology and pollution characteristics of urban runoff: Beijing as a sample].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Du, Peng-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Yu, Zheng-Rong; Wang, Rui; Huang, Jin-Liang

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is identification and characterization of hydrological process of urban runoff, as well as concentration variation of pollutants in it. Samples were collected in 4 rainfall events in Beijing from Jun. 2006 to Aug. 2006. Hydrology and pollution of the rainfall-runoff process were analyzed on roof and road. Study results show that the shapes of hydrological curves of runoff, despite for a 5 - 20 min delay and a milder tendency, are similar to rainfall curves. Runoff coefficients of roof are 0.80 - 0.98, while 0.87 - 0.97 of road. Event mean concentrations (EMC) of pollutants are influenced by build-up and wash-off features, which leads to a higher concentration in road runoff than in roof runoff. Major pollutants that excess the water quality standards are COD, TN, and TP. Evident correlations (> 0.1) are found between pollutants. Correlation with particles are higher for COD and SO4(2-) (> 0.5), while lower for nutrients (<0.5). First flush effects (FFE) are found and affected by several factors, such as pollutant variety, types of land covers, and rainfall intensity. FFE are found more intense in SS, more frequently in road runoff, and more difficult to form for COD and nutrients with low rainfall intensity. Therefore, control of first period of runoff would be an effective approach for runoff management in Beijing.

  7. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one...

  8. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one...

  9. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one...

  10. Roofing Materials Assessment: Investigation of Five Metals in Runoff from Roofing Materials.

    PubMed

    Winters, Nancy; Granuke, Kyle; McCall, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    To assess the contribution of five toxic metals from new roofing materials to stormwater, runoff was collected from 14 types of roofing materials and controls during 20 rain events and analyzed for metals. Many of the new roofing materials evaluated did not show elevated metals concentrations in the runoff. Runoff from several other roofing materials was significantly higher than the controls for arsenic, copper, and zinc. Notably, treated wood shakes released arsenic and copper, copper roofing released copper, PVC roofing released arsenic, and Zincalume® and EPDM roofing released zinc. For the runoff from some of the roofing materials, metals concentrations decreased significantly over an approximately one-year period of aging. Metals concentrations in runoff were demonstrated to depend on a number of factors, such as roofing materials, age of the materials, and climatic conditions. Thus, application of runoff concentrations from roofing materials to estimate basin-wide releases should be undertaken cautiously. PMID:26961477

  11. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  12. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area.

  13. Stormwater runoff quality in correlation to land use and land cover development in Yongin, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paule, M A; Memon, S A; Lee, B-Y; Umer, S R; Lee, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Stormwater runoff quality is sensitive to land use and land cover (LULC) change. It is difficult to understand their relationship in predicting the pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce the pollution risk. In this study, the relationship between LULC change and stormwater runoff quality in two separate monitoring sites comprising a construction area (Site 1) and mixed land use (Site 2) was analyzed using geographic information system (GIS), event mean concentration (EMC), and correlation analysis. It was detected that bare land area increased, while other land use areas such as agriculture, commercial, forest, grassland, parking lot, residential, and road reduced. Based on the analyses performed, high maximum range and average EMCs were found in Site 2 for most of the water pollutants. Also, urban areas and increased conversion of LULC into bare land corresponded to degradation of stormwater quality. Correlation analysis between LULC and stormwater quality showed the influence of different factors such as farming practices, geographical location, and amount of precipitation, vegetation loss, and anthropogenic activities in monitoring sites. This research found that GIS application was an efficient tool for monthly monitoring, validation and statistical analysis of LULC change in the study area. PMID:25051467

  14. Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, G; Ketterer, M E; Wilson, C G; Layman, R; Whiting, P J

    2001-08-15

    The downslope transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles remobilized during a spring thunderstorm was studied on both a natural prairie and an agricultural field in southwestern Iowa (U.S.A.). A technique was developed for tagging natural soils with the rare earth elements Eu, Tb, and Ho to approximately 1,000 ppm via coprecipitation with MnO2. Tagged material was replaced in target locations; surficial soil samples were collected following precipitation and runoff; and rare earth element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Diffusion and exponential models were applied to the concentration-distance data to determine particle transport distances. The results indicate that the concentration-distance data are well described by the diffusion model, butthe exponential model does not simulate the rapid drop-off in concentrations near the tagged source. Using the diffusion model, calculated particle transport distances at all hillside locations and at both the cultivated and natural prairie sites were short, ranging from 3 to 73 cm during this single runoff event. This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion. PMID:11529577

  15. Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, G; Ketterer, M E; Wilson, C G; Layman, R; Whiting, P J

    2001-08-15

    The downslope transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles remobilized during a spring thunderstorm was studied on both a natural prairie and an agricultural field in southwestern Iowa (U.S.A.). A technique was developed for tagging natural soils with the rare earth elements Eu, Tb, and Ho to approximately 1,000 ppm via coprecipitation with MnO2. Tagged material was replaced in target locations; surficial soil samples were collected following precipitation and runoff; and rare earth element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Diffusion and exponential models were applied to the concentration-distance data to determine particle transport distances. The results indicate that the concentration-distance data are well described by the diffusion model, butthe exponential model does not simulate the rapid drop-off in concentrations near the tagged source. Using the diffusion model, calculated particle transport distances at all hillside locations and at both the cultivated and natural prairie sites were short, ranging from 3 to 73 cm during this single runoff event. This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion.

  16. Soft Water Level Sensors for Characterizing the Hydrological Behaviour of Agricultural Catchments

    PubMed Central

    Crabit, Armand; Colin, François; Bailly, Jean Stéphane; Ayroles, Hervé; Garnier, François

    2011-01-01

    An innovative soft water level sensor is proposed to characterize the hydrological behaviour of agricultural catchments by measuring rainfall and stream flows. This sensor works as a capacitor coupled with a capacitance to frequency converter and measures water level at an adjustable time step acquisition. It was designed to be handy, minimally invasive and optimized in terms of energy consumption and low-cost fabrication so as to multiply its use on several catchments under natural conditions. It was used as a stage recorder to measure water level dynamics in a channel during a runoff event and as a rain gauge to measure rainfall amount and intensity. Based on the Manning equation, a method allowed estimation of water discharge with a given uncertainty and hence runoff volume at an event or annual scale. The sensor was tested under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under real conditions in the field. Comparisons of the sensor to reference devices (tipping bucket rain gauge, hydrostatic pressure transmitter limnimeter, Venturi channels…) showed accurate results: rainfall intensities and dynamic responses were accurately reproduced and discharges were estimated with an uncertainty usually acceptable in hydrology. Hence, it was used to monitor eleven small agricultural catchments located in the Mediterranean region. Both catchment reactivity and water budget have been calculated. Dynamic response of the catchments has been studied at the event scale through the rising time determination and at the annual scale by calculating the frequency of occurrence of runoff events. It provided significant insight into catchment hydrological behaviour which could be useful for agricultural management perspectives involving pollutant transport, flooding event and global water balance. PMID:22163868

  17. Soft water level sensors for characterizing the hydrological behaviour of agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Crabit, Armand; Colin, François; Bailly, Jean Stéphane; Ayroles, Hervé; Garnier, François

    2011-01-01

    An innovative soft water level sensor is proposed to characterize the hydrological behaviour of agricultural catchments by measuring rainfall and stream flows. This sensor works as a capacitor coupled with a capacitance to frequency converter and measures water level at an adjustable time step acquisition. It was designed to be handy, minimally invasive and optimized in terms of energy consumption and low-cost fabrication so as to multiply its use on several catchments under natural conditions. It was used as a stage recorder to measure water level dynamics in a channel during a runoff event and as a rain gauge to measure rainfall amount and intensity. Based on the Manning equation, a method allowed estimation of water discharge with a given uncertainty and hence runoff volume at an event or annual scale. The sensor was tested under controlled conditions in the laboratory and under real conditions in the field. Comparisons of the sensor to reference devices (tipping bucket rain gauge, hydrostatic pressure transmitter limnimeter, Venturi channels…) showed accurate results: rainfall intensities and dynamic responses were accurately reproduced and discharges were estimated with an uncertainty usually acceptable in hydrology. Hence, it was used to monitor eleven small agricultural catchments located in the Mediterranean region. Both catchment reactivity and water budget have been calculated. Dynamic response of the catchments has been studied at the event scale through the rising time determination and at the annual scale by calculating the frequency of occurrence of runoff events. It provided significant insight into catchment hydrological behaviour which could be useful for agricultural management perspectives involving pollutant transport, flooding event and global water balance.

  18. Microbiological quality of runoff from manure-amended fields as affected by perennial grass buffer strip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Runoff from manure-amended agricultural fields can provide a transmission route for pathogens and fecal indicator organisms to surface waters. Establishment of stiff-stemmed perennial grass hedges along the contours of agricultural fields has been shown to reduce both soil and nutrient ...

  19. [Local sensitivity and its stationarity analysis for urban rainfall runoff modelling].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Huang, Jin-Liang; Du, Peng-Fei; Tu, Zhen-Shun; Li, Qing-Sheng

    2010-09-01

    Sensitivity analysis of urban-runoff simulation is a crucial procedure for parameter identification and uncertainty analysis. Local sensitivity analysis using Morris screening method was carried out for urban rainfall runoff modelling based on Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The results showed that Area, % Imperv and Dstore-Imperv are the most sensitive parameters for both total runoff volume and peak flow. Concerning total runoff volume, the sensitive indices of Area, % Imperv and Dstore-Imperv were 0.46-1.0, 0.61-1.0, -0.050(-) - 5.9, respectively; while with respect to peak runoff, they were 0.48-0.89, 0.59-0.83, 0(-) -9.6, respectively. In comparison, the most sensitive indices (Morris) for all parameters with regard to total runoff volume and peak flow appeared in the rainfall event with least rainfall; and less sensitive indices happened in the rainfall events with heavier rainfall. Furthermore, there is considerable variability in sensitive indices for each rainfall event. % Zero-Imperv's coefficient variations have the largest values among all parameters for total runoff volume and peak flow, namely 221.24% and 228.10%. On the contrary, the coefficient variations of conductivity among all parameters for both total runoff volume and peak flow are the smallest, namely 0.

  20. Factors contributing to unusually low runoff during the period 1962-68 in the Concho River Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Stanley P.

    1972-01-01

    The analyses of rainfall-intensity and runoff data indicate that the basic cause for the relatively low runoff during the period 1962-68 was the lack of high-intensity, long-duration storms rather than any physical changes or agricultural practices in the watershed

  1. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  2. Evaluation of global impact models' ability to reproduce runoff characteristics over the central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Ignazio; Villarini, Gabriele; Prudhomme, Christel; Mallakpour, Iman; Hannah, David M.

    2015-09-01

    The central United States experiences a wide array of hydrological extremes, with the 1993, 2008, 2013, and 2014 flooding events and the 1988 and 2012 droughts representing some of the most recent extremes, and is an area where water availability is critical for agricultural production. This study aims to evaluate the ability of a set of global impact models (GIMs) from the Water Model Intercomparison Project to reproduce the regional hydrology of the central United States for the period 1963-2001. Hydrological indices describing annual daily maximum, medium and minimum flow, and their timing are extracted from both modeled daily runoff data by nine GIMs and from observed daily streamflow measured at 252 river gauges. We compare trend patterns for these indices, and their ability to capture runoff volume differences for the 1988 drought and 1993 flood. In addition, we use a subset of 128 gauges and corresponding grid cells to perform a detailed evaluation of the models on a gauge-to-grid cell basis. Results indicate that these GIMs capture the overall trends in high, medium, and low flows well. However, the models differ from observations with respect to the timing of high and medium flows. More specifically, GIMs that only include water balance tend to be closer to the observations than GIMs that also include the energy balance. In general, as it would be expected, the performance of the GIMs is the best when describing medium flows, as opposed to the two ends of the runoff spectrum. With regards to low flows, some of the GIMs have considerably large pools of zeros or low values in their time series, undermining their ability in capturing low flow characteristics and weakening the ensemble's output. Overall, this study provides a valuable examination of the capability of GIMs to reproduce observed regional hydrology over a range of quantities for the central United States.

  3. Characterization of storm runoff from selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin J.; Reinhart, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect sufficient stormwater water-quality and flow data to document the type, concentration, and event load of selected constituents transported from South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) maintenance yards by stormwater runoff.

  4. Phosphorus losses in simulated rainfall runoff from manured soils of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Volf, Callie A; Ontkean, Gerald R; Bennett, D Rodney; Chanasyk, David S; Miller, Jim J

    2007-01-01

    Manure applied to agricultural land at rates that exceed annual crop nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus in runoff. Manure incorporation is often recommended to reduce phosphorus losses in runoff. A small plot rainfall simulation study was conducted at three sites in Alberta to evaluate the effects of manure rate and incorporation on phosphorus losses. Treatments consisted of three solid beef cattle manure application rates (50, 100, and 200 kg ha(-1) total phosphorus), an unmanured control, and two incorporation methods (nonincorporated and incorporated with one pass of a double disk). Simulated rain was applied to soils with freshly applied and residual (1 yr after application) manure at 70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min of runoff. Soil test phosphorus (STP), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in runoff increased with manure rate for fresh and residual manure. Initial abstraction and runoff volumes did not change with manure rate. Initial abstraction, runoff volumes, and phosphorus concentrations did not change with manure incorporation at Lacombe and Wilson, but initial abstraction volumes increased and runoff volumes and phosphorus concentrations decreased with incorporation of fresh manure at Beaverlodge. Phosphorus losses in runoff were directly related to phosphorus additions. Extraction coefficients (slopes of the regression lines) for the linear relationships between residual manure STP and phosphorus in runoff were 0.007 to 0.015 for runoff TP and 0.006 to 0.013 for runoff DRP. While incorporation of manure with a double disk had no significant effect on phosphorus losses in runoff from manure-amended soils 1 yr after application, incorporation of manure is still recommended to control nitrogen losses, improve crop nutrient uptake, and potentially reduce odor concerns.

  5. Quantifying climate change impacts on runoff of zoonotic pathogens from land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterk, Ankie; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Stergiadi, Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown a correlation between rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks. One of the mechanisms whereby rainfall may cause outbreaks is through an increase in runoff of animal faeces from fields to surface waters. Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by water recreation or drinking-water consumption. Climate changes affect runoff because of increasing winter precipitation and more extreme precipitation events, as well as changes in evaporation. Furthermore, drier summers are leading to longer periods of high soil moisture deficits, increasing the hydrophobicity of soil and consequently changing infiltration capacities. A conceptual model is designed to describe the impacts of climate changes on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, which are both directly and indirectly affecting pathogen loads in the environment and subsequent public health risks. One of the major outcomes was the lack of quantitative data and limited qualitative analyses of impacts of climate changes on pathogen runoff. Quantifying the processes by which micro-organisms are transported from fields to waters is important to be able to estimate such impacts to enable targeted implementation of effective intervention measures. A quantitative model using Mathematica software will be developed to estimate concentrations of pathogens originating from overland flow during runoff events. Different input sources will be included by applying different land-use scenarios, including point source faecal pollution from dairy cows and geese and diffuse source pollution by fertilization. Zoonotic pathogens, i.e. Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter, were selected based on transport properties, faecal loads and disease burden. Transport and survival rates of these pathogens are determined including effects of changes in precipitation but also temperature induced

  6. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures.

    PubMed

    Watts, D B; Way, T R; Torbert, H A

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) would reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss in surface water runoff using a four-row prototype implement. Rainfall simulations were conducted to create a 40-min runoff event in an established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) pasture on soil types common to the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. The Coastal Plain soil type was a Marvyn loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults) and the Piedmont soil type was a Hard Labor loamy sand (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Oxyaquic Kanhapludults). Treatments consisted of surface- and subsurface-applied PL at a rate of 9 Mg ha(-1), surface broadcast-applied commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at the equivalent N (330 kg N ha(-1)) and P (315 kg N ha(-1)) content of PL, and a nonfertilized control. The greatest loss for inorganic N, total N, dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P occurred with the surface broadcast treatments, with CF contributing to the greatest loss. Nutrient losses from the subsurface banded treatment reduced N and P in surface water runoff to levels of the control. Subsurface banding of PL reduced concentrations of inorganic N 91%, total N 90%, DRP 86%, and total P 86% in runoff water compared with surface broadcasted PL. These results show that subsurface band-applied PL can greatly reduce the impact of N and P loss to the environment compared with conventional surface-applied PL and CF practices. PMID:21520749

  7. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon fluxes from an agricultural watershed during consecutive tropical storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caverly, Emma; Kaste, James M.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2013-10-01

    Low-frequency high-magnitude hydrologic events mobilize a disproportionate amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from watersheds, but few studies measure the role of extreme storms in exporting organic carbon from croplands. We use high-resolution measurements of storm runoff to quantify DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes from an agricultural field during consecutive tropical storms that delivered 41 cm of rainfall to the Virginia Coastal Plain. Over a 2 week period, we measured exports of 22 kg DOC ha-1 and 11.3 kg POC ha-1. Ultraviolet absorbance measurements indicate that the aromatic DOC fraction systematically increased as plant-derived aliphatic carbon was depleted during the initial event. Croplands can have event-scale carbon losses that equal or exceed published estimates of annual export for perennial streams draining forested and mixed land use watersheds. We quantify aromatic DOC fractions approaching 50%, indicating that agricultural stormflow can produce a significant load of relatively photoreactive carbon.

  8. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff: Southeast Queensland case study

    SciTech Connect

    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the results of research into the pollutants in runoff from road pavement surfaces following natural rainfall events. Road runoff water quality was monitored at 21 sites centering around Brisbane, in southeast Queensland, Australia. The sites were selected according to traffic volumes, surrounding land use, pavement surface type, ease of access, and commercial vehicle percentage. Bridge sites were chosen for convenience of sample collection and minimized infrastructure modification. First flush grab samplers were permanently installed at each site to collect the first 20 L of runoff from one of the bridge drainage scuppers. The runoff samples were tested for a number of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other physical characteristics. The observed results fall within the ranges of concentrations reported internationally and nationally but do not typically follow the 30,000 average annual daily traffic results reported in the United States. Traffic volumes have not been found to be the best indicator of road runoff pollutant concentrations. Interevent duration has been found to be a statistically significant factor for pollutant concentrations. Sites incorporating exit lanes have recorded higher concentrations of acid-extractable copper and zinc, tending to support the hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentrations of these metals in road runoff. Laser particle sizing has shown that a significant proportion of the sediment found in the runoff is <100 {micro}m. However, these particulates do settle in water within 24 h, under laboratory conditions. This may be due to the presence of heavy metals.

  9. Inundation influences on bioavailability of phosphorus in managed wetland sediments in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Robert; Lizotte, Richard E; Douglas Shields, F; Usborne, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural runoff carries high nutrient loads to receiving waters, contributing to eutrophication. Managed wetlands can be used in integrated management efforts to intercept nutrients before they enter downstream aquatic systems, but detailed information regarding sorption and desorption of P by wetland sediments during typical inundation cycles is lacking. This study seeks to quantify and elucidate how inundation of wetland sediments affects bioavailability of P and contributions of P to downstream systems. A managed wetland cell in Tunica County, Mississippi was subjected to a simulated agricultural runoff event and was monitored for bioavailable phosphorus (water-extractable P [P], Fe-P, and Al-P) of wetland sediments and water level during the runoff event and for 130 d afterward. Inundation varied longitudinally within the wetland, with data supporting significant temporal relationships between inundation and P desorption. Concentrations of P were significantly higher at the site that exhibited variable hydroperiods (100 m) as compared with sites under consistent inundation. This suggests that sites that are inundated for longer periods of time desorb less P immediately to the environment than sites that have periodic or ephemeral inundation. Concentrations of iron oxalate and NaOH-P were significantly higher at the least inundated site as compared with all other sites (F = 5.43; = 0.001) irrespective of time. These results support the hypothesis that increased hydraulic residence time decreases the bioavailability of P in wetland sediments receiving agricultural runoff. This finding suggests that the restoration of wetlands in the mid-southern United States may be hydrologically managed to improve P retention.

  10. Simulation of surface runoff and soil erosion in small watersheds in Northern Ethiopia - application and verification of the SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Roman; Klik, Andreas; Strohmeier, Stefan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of arable land is a major issue in the Ethiopian Highlands. Deforestation leads to ongoing soil erosion during the rainy season and thus the hydrology of a watershed changes as high erosion rates and dense gully networks cause a direct drainage of rain water usable for crop production. The application of hydrological models can provide a link between local watershed characteristics and the generation of runoff and sediment loss in the watershed. Furthermore, they enable the impact assessment of soil conservation measures on these processes. Objective of this study was to apply the SWAT model to two small agricultural used watersheds in Northern Ethiopia to assess the impact of soil conservation measures on surface runoff and soil erosion. The watersheds are two small sub-watersheds of the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed. They are located close to each other with an area of 31 and 41 ha, respectively. 80% of the area is steeper than 10%. In one watershed soil conservation measures (stone bunds and trenches) were implemented in 2011 whereas the other watershed is untreated. Mean annual preciptation is about 1200 mm from which 90% rains between June and September. Soil textures range from clay loam to clay. Land use of both watersheds is similar with appr. 70% of agricultural land and 30% of grassland and open shrubland. Main crops grown are sorghum, teff, faba bean, barley, wheat and chickpea. Since 2011, an automatic weather station as well as weirs are installed in both watersheds to measure runoff. For each erosive event manual samples are taken in addition to a turbidity sensor to monitor sediment yield. Soil and land survey was carried out to derive a soil map and a digital elevation model. A site specific crop rotation was assumed. The SWAT model calibration was performed with measured data from 2012. The results for runoff as well as sediment yield show acceptable to satisfying performance. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency for surface runoff is 0.54 for

  11. Determinants of high pesticide exposure events in the agricultural health cohort study from enrollment (1993-1997) through phase II (1999-2003).

    PubMed

    Payne, K; Andreotti, G; Bell, E; Blair, A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an analysis of the determinants of high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs), which are defined as self-reported incidents of high exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, or other chemicals in the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of private applicators and their spouses residing in North Carolina or Iowa, and commercial applicators residing in Iowa. We examined the risk of HPEEs occurring between enrollment (phase 1: 1993-1997) and follow-up (phase II: 1999-2003) among participants who completed the phase II questionnaire (n=43,149) by calculating hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional-hazard regression. During the followup period, 1,582 HPEEs were reported (3.8%). HPEE risk was significantly higher among Iowa residents, younger participants, those with a hearing deficit, a risk-taking personality, and an HPEE prior to enrollment. Among private applicators (n=30,102), larger farm size, higher frequency and duration of pesticide use, spraying pesticides with open cab windows, using a tractor cab without a charcoal filter, repairing spray equipment, wearing work clothing more than two days without changing, not removing work boots before entering the home, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with significantly higher HPEE risk. Among commercial applicators (n=2326), higher frequency of pesticide use was associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Among spouses (n=10,721), higher frequency of pesticide use, using an application vehicle with a cab, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Our findings indicate that HPEEs were associated with several modifiable pesticide handling procedures that can be targeted in safety training and education. PMID:22900431

  12. Snowmelt Runoff Model in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Takeda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary Japanese snowmelt runoff model was modified so that all the input variables arc of the antecedent days and the inflow of the previous day is taken into account. A few LANDSAT images obtained in the past were effectively used to verify and modify the depletion curve induced from the snow water equivalent distribution at maximum stage and the accumulated degree days at one representative point selected in the basin. Together with the depletion curve, the relationship between the basin ide daily snowmelt amount and the air temperature at the point above are exhibited homograph form for the convenience of the model user. The runoff forecasting procedure is summarized.

  13. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels.

  14. [Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses in Longhong Ravine Basin of Westlake in Rainstorm Runoff].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Jiang, Yi-feng; Wang, Cui-cui; Huang, Xiao-nan; Wu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-15

    In order to understand the non-point source pollution status in Longhong ravine basin of Westlake, the characteristics of nutrient losses in runoff was investigated during three rainstorms in one year. The results showed that long duration rainstorm event generally formed several runoff peaks, and the time of its lag behind the peaks of rain intensity was dependent on the distribution of heavy rainfall. The first flush was related to the antecedent rainfall, and the less rainfall in the earlier period, the more total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia (NH4+ -N) in runoff was washed off. During the recession of runoff, more subsurface runoff would result in a concentration peak of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen (NO3- -N) . The event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff nitrogen had a negative correlation with rainfall, rainfall duration, maximum rain intensity and average rain intensity except for antecedent rainfall, whereas the change in TP EMC showed the opposite trend. The transport fluxes of nutrients increased with an elevation in runoffs, and Pearson analysis showed that the transport fluxes of TN and NO3- -N had good correlations with runoff depth. The average transport fluxes of TP, TN, NH4+ -N and NO3- -N were 34.10, 1195.55, 1006.62 and 52.38 g x hm(-2), respectively, and NO3- -N was the main nitrogen form and accounted for 84% of TN. PMID:27078951

  15. A process based run-off model for paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Rim, Y. N.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    Paving is the most severe impact on soil hydrology in urban areas. Grey box run-off generation models are used in civil engineering e.g. dimensioning of drainage infrastructures. Mostly, maximum run-off is calculated using storm water data and static run-off coefficients. In future, cities need to adapt to heat waves and changing rainfall regimes. This implies a change in the management of urban waters from drainage to use. Static run-off models are not suitable to predict the future runoff availability, because they do not describe the underlying processes of run-off generation. For predictions in a Climate Change context, process based models are needed. In this study we introduce such a process based model. It has been calibrated for two pavement types based on lysimeter measurements. The model describes the run-off coefficient as a function of: rain event intensity, surface storage capacity and the infiltration capacity of the pavement. Thus, the model is able to describes the behavior of impermeable and permeable pavements but also of roof tiles and bare soils. Once calibrated for a pavement, the model can be used to predict dynamic run-off generation for a wide range of rain intensities from the smallest drizzle to the heavy rainfall events and can therefore be employed in tests of future management strategies for urban water.

  16. [Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses in Longhong Ravine Basin of Westlake in Rainstorm Runoff].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Jiang, Yi-feng; Wang, Cui-cui; Huang, Xiao-nan; Wu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-15

    In order to understand the non-point source pollution status in Longhong ravine basin of Westlake, the characteristics of nutrient losses in runoff was investigated during three rainstorms in one year. The results showed that long duration rainstorm event generally formed several runoff peaks, and the time of its lag behind the peaks of rain intensity was dependent on the distribution of heavy rainfall. The first flush was related to the antecedent rainfall, and the less rainfall in the earlier period, the more total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia (NH4+ -N) in runoff was washed off. During the recession of runoff, more subsurface runoff would result in a concentration peak of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen (NO3- -N) . The event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff nitrogen had a negative correlation with rainfall, rainfall duration, maximum rain intensity and average rain intensity except for antecedent rainfall, whereas the change in TP EMC showed the opposite trend. The transport fluxes of nutrients increased with an elevation in runoffs, and Pearson analysis showed that the transport fluxes of TN and NO3- -N had good correlations with runoff depth. The average transport fluxes of TP, TN, NH4+ -N and NO3- -N were 34.10, 1195.55, 1006.62 and 52.38 g x hm(-2), respectively, and NO3- -N was the main nitrogen form and accounted for 84% of TN.

  17. Rainfall timing and poultry litter application rate effects on phosphorus loss in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, P D; Radcliffe, D E; Cabrera, M L

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in runoff from pastures amended with poultry litter may be a significant contributor to eutrophication of lakes and streams in Georgia and other areas in the southeastern United States. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of litter application rate and initial runoff timing on the long-term loss of P in runoff from surface-applied poultry litter and to develop equations that predict P loss in runoff under these conditions. Litter application rates of 2, 7, and 13 Mg ha(-1), and three rainfall scenarios applied to 1- x 2-m plots in a 3 x 3 randomized complete block design with three replications. The rainfall scenarios included (i) sufficient rainfall to produce runoff immediately after litter application; (ii) no rainfall for 30 d after litter application; and (iii) small rainfall events every 7 d (5 min at 75 mm h(-1)) for 30 d. Phosphorus loss was greatest from the high litter rate and immediate runoff treatments. Nonlinear regression equations based on the small plot study produced fairly accurate (r(2) = 0.52-0.62) prediction of P concentrations in runoff water from larger (0.75 ha) fields over a 2-yr period. Predicted P concentrations were closest to observed values for events that occurred shortly after litter application, and the relative error in predictions increased with time after litter application. In addition, previously developed equations relating soil test P levels to runoff P concentrations were ineffective in the presence of surface-applied litter.

  18. Investigating source water Cryptosporidium concentration, species and infectivity rates during rainfall-runoff in a multi-use catchment.

    PubMed

    Swaffer, Brooke A; Vial, Hayley M; King, Brendon J; Daly, Robert; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Monis, Paul T

    2014-12-15

    Protozoan pathogens present a significant human health concern, and prevention of contamination into potable networks remains a key focus for drinking water providers. Here, we monitored the change in Cryptosporidium concentration in source water during high flow events in a multi-use catchment. Furthermore, we investigated the diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes present in the source water, and delivered an oocyst infectivity fraction. There was a positive and significant correlation between Cryptosporidium concentration and flow (ρ = 0.756) and turbidity (ρ = 0.631) for all rainfall-runoff events, despite variable source water pathogen concentrations. Cell culture assays measured oocyst infectivity and suggested an overall source water infectious fraction of 3.1%. No infectious Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis were detected, although molecular testing detected C. parvum in 7% of the samples analysed using PCR-based molecular techniques. Twelve Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified using molecular techniques, and were reflective of the host animals typically found in remnant vegetation and agricultural areas. The inclusion of molecular approaches to identify Cryptosporidium species and genotypes highlighted the diversity of pathogens in water, which originated from various sources across the catchment. We suggest this mixing of runoff water from a range of landuses containing diverse Cryptosporidium hosts is a key explanation for the often-cited difficulty forming strong pathogen-indicator relationships. PMID:25306487

  19. Investigating source water Cryptosporidium concentration, species and infectivity rates during rainfall-runoff in a multi-use catchment.

    PubMed

    Swaffer, Brooke A; Vial, Hayley M; King, Brendon J; Daly, Robert; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Monis, Paul T

    2014-12-15

    Protozoan pathogens present a significant human health concern, and prevention of contamination into potable networks remains a key focus for drinking water providers. Here, we monitored the change in Cryptosporidium concentration in source water during high flow events in a multi-use catchment. Furthermore, we investigated the diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes present in the source water, and delivered an oocyst infectivity fraction. There was a positive and significant correlation between Cryptosporidium concentration and flow (ρ = 0.756) and turbidity (ρ = 0.631) for all rainfall-runoff events, despite variable source water pathogen concentrations. Cell culture assays measured oocyst infectivity and suggested an overall source water infectious fraction of 3.1%. No infectious Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis were detected, although molecular testing detected C. parvum in 7% of the samples analysed using PCR-based molecular techniques. Twelve Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified using molecular techniques, and were reflective of the host animals typically found in remnant vegetation and agricultural areas. The inclusion of molecular approaches to identify Cryptosporidium species and genotypes highlighted the diversity of pathogens in water, which originated from various sources across the catchment. We suggest this mixing of runoff water from a range of landuses containing diverse Cryptosporidium hosts is a key explanation for the often-cited difficulty forming strong pathogen-indicator relationships.

  20. Precipitation and evapotranspiration controls on daily runoff variability in the contiguous United States and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matthew W.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2016-01-01

    Daily runoff variability is an important driver of fluvial erosion but is difficult to incorporate into landscape evolution models due to limited observations and incomplete understanding of hydroclimatic controls on runoff distributions. Prior work in the contiguous U.S. showed how limitations can be overcome when mean runoff is correlated with the shape of the right tail of runoff distributions. However, which probability distribution functions best capture geomorphically important events and whether patterns in the contiguous U.S. transfer to other settings remain important open questions. Our analysis of large hydroclimatic data sets from the contiguous U.S. and Puerto Rico reveals that stretched exponential distributions provide a common probabilistic framework to evaluate daily rainfall and runoff variability. In both settings, daily runoff variability is correlated with the evapotranspiration ratio, aridity index, and the ratio of wet to dry days. Surprisingly, mean storm depth (estimated from average daily precipitation during wet days only) and storm depth variability are uncorrelated with daily runoff variability in either data set. These findings suggest that first-order controls on runoff variability are processes that reduce runoff during intermediate frequency flows rather than processes that enhance the magnitude of rare floods. However, by normalizing local runoff variability by storm depth variability, some correlations collapse onto a single trend for the contiguous U.S. and Puerto Rico, suggesting a secondary role for rainfall variability on runoff variability. Taken together, this analysis provides a rationale for how hydroclimatic controls on runoff variability can be better incorporated into landscape evolution models from readily available data.

  1. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Huang, Jen-Kuo

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude and watershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfall-runoff dynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peak discharge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was first demonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation of the watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak discharge and time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intention of deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast, the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensity without relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity. Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainage area was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate that the scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting to a small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively great drainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scaling relationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  2. Forecasting runoff from Pennsylvania landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying sites prone to surface runoff has been a cornerstone of conservation and nutrient management programs, relying upon site assessment tools that support strategic, as opposed to operational, decision making. We sought to develop simple, empirical models to represent two highly different me...

  3. Stormwater runoff management: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A.

    1994-11-01

    The basic question is related to practicality and cost-effectiveness--that is, are the structural stormwater control devices being installed in many areas of the country actually doing the job for which they are designed? Public works directors for many cites and counties, and stormwater management agencies are involved in developing programs designed to implement best management practices (BMPs). These structures supposedly control chemical contaminants in stormwater runoff from urban areas. Current activities in stormwater quality management have evolved from the EPA`s National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) begun in the 1970s. An extension of that program was established in 1990 to implement the stormwater-related provisions of the 1987 amendments to the Clean Water Act. This article discusses issues of assessing real pollution, i.e., designated beneficial use impairment in receiving waters, that stormwater run-off causes. Without a clear understanding of the pollution caused (or not caused) by runoff, it is obviously not possible to develop technically valid, cost-effective control programs that control pollution to the maximum extent practicable.

  4. Assessment of water quality, road runoff, and bulk atmospheric deposition, Guanella Pass area, Clear Creek and Park Counties, Colorado, water years 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    The Guanella Pass road, located about 40 miles west of Denver, Colorado, between the towns of Georgetown and Grant, has been designated a scenic byway and is being considered for reconstruction. The purpose of this report is to present an assessment of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Guanella Pass area and provide baseline data for evaluation of the effects of the proposed road reconstruction. The data were collected during water years 1995-97 (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1997).Based on Colorado water-quality standards, current surface-water quality near Guanella Pass road was generally acceptable for specified use classifications of recreation, water supply, agriculture, and aquatic life. Streams had small concentrations of dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. An exception was upper Geneva Creek, which was acidic and had relatively large concentrations of iron, zinc, and other trace elements related to acid-sulfate weathering. Concentrations of many water-quality constituents, especially particle-related phases and suspended sediment, increased during peak snowmelt and rainstorm events and decreased to prerunoff concentrations at the end of runoff periods. Some dissolved (filtered) trace-element loads in Geneva Creek decreased during rainstorms when total recoverable loads remained generally static or increased, indicating a phase change that might be explained by adsorption of trace elements to suspended sediment during storm runoff.Total recoverable iron and dissolved zinc exceeded Colorado stream-water-quality standards most frequently. Exceedances for iron generally occurred during periods of high suspended-sediment transport in several streams. Zinc standards were exceeded in about one-half the samples collected in Geneva Creek 1.5 miles upstream from Grant.Lake-water quality was generally similar to that of area streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus ratios calculated for Clear and Duck Lakes indicated that

  5. The evaluation of storm rainfall variability and its influence on runoff response at a catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Davidová, Tereza

    2015-04-01

    Storm rainfall events are usually very dynamic processes which are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. It can influence the catchment response to the event a lot in terms of the shape and volume of response hydrographs. In this contribution, the variability of selected rainfall events is presented. It is assessed in terms of total volumes of precipitation which are an input to rainfall-runoff process. As a source of precipitation information, data from precipitation gauging stations were used which have one hour time step. Additionally, data originated from weather radar were used to describe spatial variability in more detail. Measured reflectivity data were transformed into the values of precipitation intensities which were compared to station data to make a check on the reliability of radar originated data. The assessment was carried out by the comparison of total precipitation to a catchment based on different extent of source data. Precipitation totals were calculated from station data using different methods including Thiessen polygons and different interpolation techniques. As a study area, the catchment of Blanice River was selected. This catchment is located in Central Bohemia Region and smaller part extends beyond it to South Bohemia Region. Its total area to the confluence to Sázava River is 543 km2. In this catchment, agricultural lands predominates but the percentage of forests is also not negligible. The area is in general hilly with important presence of steep slopes. The results of obtained by the analyses carried out show the high importance of the amount of available precipitation data and their quality. Despite the fact that the variability of precipitation can affect the distribution of runoff and consecutively the shape of response hydrograph, it can affect also the accuracy and representativeness of the information provided by point measurements of precipitation by gauges and by weather radars. Acknowledgement The research

  6. Hydrology without hillslopes: runoff controls and pathways on a near-level, engineered landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Halya; Ali, Genevieve

    2015-04-01

    Low relief, artificially drained landscapes like those of the Prairies in south-central Canada have received little consideration in hydrologic study. While topography is generally asserted as the main control of runoff generation, it is unknown whether this is also the case where relief is low, or if in the absence of high relief other landscape characteristics become relatively more influential. To address this knowledge gap, runoff behaviour was analysed via event rainfall-runoff hydrographs and perched water table level at 6 study sites to infer dominant runoff processes and their control factors. Instrumentation was deployed in the Catfish Creek watershed, a 642 km2 near-level, mixed land use and engineered Prairie watershed located 90 km northeast of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Specifically, surface water levels were measured at the outlet of six sub-watersheds while perched water table levels were monitored in riparian areas. At each site, rainfall events were delineated and rainfall-runoff parameters, perched water table maximum rise and antecedent rainfall variables (as surrogates for antecedent moisture conditions or AMCs) were calculated on an event basis. Landscape characteristics, including elevation, slope, and land use and land cover statistics, were also determined for each sub-watershed. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were then carried out including all variables. Rainfall-runoff responses were highly variable across sites. Event hydrographs were generally characterized by short lag times and initial abstractions which correlated moderately to total event rainfall. However, sub-watersheds characteristics did not influence the different hydrograph characteristics recorded across sites. Threshold behaviour was observed only in the two study sub-watersheds of greatest relief. Runoff generation was hypothesized to occur predominantly as Hortonian overland flow, although the dominant runoff process shifted under certain moisture

  7. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    PubMed

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations. PMID:26479195

  8. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    PubMed

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  9. Dairy diet phosphorus and rainfall timing effects on runoff phosphorus from land-applied manure.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Laura P; Jokela, William E; Knapp, Joanne R

    2009-01-01

    Surface-applied dairy manure can increase P concentrations in runoff, which may contribute to eutrophication of lakes and streams. The amount of dietary P fed to dairy cows (Bos taurus) and the timing of a rain event after manure application may further affect runoff P losses. The objective of this study was to examine dietary P supplementation effects on manure and runoff P concentrations from rain events occurring at different time intervals after manure application. Manure from dairy cows fed an unsupplemented low P diet (LP; 3.6 g P kg(-1)) or a diet supplemented with either an inorganic (HIP; 4.4 g P kg(-1)) or an organic (HOP; 4.6 g P kg(-1)) source was hand-applied onto soil-packed pans at 56 wet Mg ha(-1). Thirty min of runoff was collected from simulated rain events (30 mm h(-1)) 2, 5, or 9 d after manure application. Total P (TP) concentrations in runoff from HIP and HOP diet manure from the 2-d rain were 46 and 31% greater than that of the LP diet. Runoff P concentrations from high P diets were numerically higher than that of the LP diet at 5 and 9 d after application, but differences were significant only for dissolved reactive P (DRP) at 5 d. Large decreases in runoff TP (89%) and DRP (65%) concentrations occurred with delay of rainfall from 2 d until 5 d. The proportion of TP as DRP increased as the time between manure application and runoff increased. Results showed that reducing dietary P and extending the time between manure application and a rain event can significantly reduce concentrations of TP and DRP in runoff.

  10. Runoff- and erosion-driven transport of cattle slurry: linking molecular tracers to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2015-10-01

    The addition of cattle slurry to agricultural land is a widespread practise, but if not correctly managed it can pose a contamination risk to aquatic ecosystems. The transport of inorganic and organic components of cattle slurry to watercourses is a major concern, yet little is known about the physical transport mechanisms and associated fluxes and timings of contamination threats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the importance of flow pathway partitioning in the transport (fluxes and timing) of dissolved and particulate slurry-derived compounds with implications for off-site contamination. A series of rainfall-runoff and erosion experiments were carried out using the TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) experimental hillslope facility. The experiments allowed the quantification of the impact of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on nutrient transport from cattle slurry applied to the hillslope, via surface, subsurface and vertical percolated flow pathways, as well as particulate transport from erosion. The dissolved components were traced using a combination of ammonium (NH4+) and fluorescence analysis, while the particulate fraction was traced using organic biomarkers, 5β-stanols. Results showed that rainfall events which produced flashy hydrological responses, resulting in large quantities of surface runoff, were likely to move sediment and also flush dissolved components of slurry-derived material from the slope, increasing the contamination risk. Rainfall events which produced slower hydrological responses were dominated by vertical percolated flows removing less sediment-associated material, but produced leachate which could contaminate deeper soil layers, and potentially groundwater, over a more prolonged period. Overall, this research provides new insights into the partitioning of slurry-derived material when applied to an unvegetated slope and the transport mechanisms by which contamination risks are created.

  11. Runoff- and erosion-driven transport of cattle slurry: linking molecular tracers to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of cattle slurry to agricultural land is a widespread practise, but if not correctly managed it can pose a contamination risk to aquatic ecosystems. The transport of inorganic and organic components of cattle slurry to watercourses is a major concern, yet little is known about the physical transport mechanisms and associated fluxes and timings of contamination threats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the importance of flow pathway partitioning in the transport (fluxes and timing) of dissolved and particulate slurry-derived compounds with implications for off-site contamination. A series of rainfall-runoff and erosion experiments were carried out using the TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) experimental hillslope facility. The experiments allowed the quantification of the impact of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on nutrient transport from cattle slurry applied to the hillslope, via surface, subsurface, and vertical percolated flow pathways, as well as particulate transport from erosion. The dissolved components were traced using a combination of ammonium (NH4+) and fluorescence analysis, while the particulate fraction was traced using organic biomarkers, 5β-stanols. Results showed that rainfall events which produced flashy hydrological responses, resulting in large quantities of surface runoff, were likely to move sediment and also flush dissolved components of slurry-derived material from the slope, increasing the contamination risk. Rainfall events which produced slower hydrological responses were dominated by vertical percolated flows removing less sediment-associated material, but produced leachate which could contaminate deeper soil layers, and potentially groundwater, over a more prolonged period. Overall, this research provides new insights into the partitioning of slurry-derived material when applied to an unvegetated slope and the transport mechanisms by which contamination risks are

  12. Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities that change a watershed can cause adverse impacts to receiving water. Agricultural and urban runoff are the two leading causes of surface-water impairment in the US. When assessing pollutant sources and their effects on aquatic ecosystems, and prior to implementing source controls, it is necessary to define the systems stressors and receptors of exposure. Toxicity assays are a key component to integrative assessments that include habitat (physical), chemical, and indigenous community characterization. Traditional toxicity assay methods and the use of water-quality criteria are often inappropriate because of exposure design and effect assumptions. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed in situ for varying time periods during both low- and high-flow conditions to determine the effect of urban and agricultural runoff. Short-term chronic and acute toxicity of urban and agricultural runoff was then measured in the laboratory and related to in situ test results. Nonpoint-source (NPS) runoff from urban areas was often more acutely toxic to organisms in the laboratory as compared to in situ results. Conversely, toxicity to the organisms was greater at the agricultural site during in situ exposures when compared to laboratory. In situ assays were an essential and integral component of NPS runoff assessments. They provided unique information that complemented laboratory toxicity, habitat, benthic community, and physicochemical characterizations.

  13. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the Board, when an election in which the ballot provided for not less than three choices (i.e., at least...

  14. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the Board, when an election in which the ballot provided for not less than three choices (i.e., at least...

  15. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the Board, when an election in which the ballot provided for not less than three choices (i.e., at least...

  16. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the Board, when an election in which the ballot provided for not less than three choices (i.e., at least...

  17. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the Board, when an election in which the ballot provided for not less than three choices (i.e., at least...

  18. Understanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho Suarez, V. V.; Saraiva Okello, A. M. L.; Wenninger, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2015-10-01

    potentially surface runoff) contributed up to 45 % of total runoff, and deep groundwater contributed up to 84 % of total runoff. A strong correlation for the four studied events was found between the antecedent precipitation conditions and direct runoff. These findings suggest that direct runoff is enhanced by wetter conditions in the catchment that trigger saturation excess overland flow as observed in the hydrograph separations.

  19. Runoff Scale-dependency in Burned Dry Eucalyptus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmaei, L.; Sheridan, G. J.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2015-12-01

    To examine the impact of wildfire on timing and magnitude of extreme hydrologic events, it is essential to quantify the degree of scale-dependency of post-fire hydro-geomorphic processes. Scaling of hydrologic processes has been shown to increase uncertainties unless they are known to have the same spatio-temporal scale or accurate methods of conversion. Hydrological responses at watershed-scale are linked to peak flows and total volume of overland flow hydrographs. At a burned hillslope, both flow generation and transport responsive to hydrographs dynamics, are determined by post-fire hydro-geomorphic factors and their interaction with rainfall events. A hierarchical monitoring approach consisting of paired rainfall-runoff plots and rainguages with different size from point to hillslope scale were installed on a dry eucalyptus hillslope, south east Australia, burned by wildfire January 2013. Scaling effect of overland flow on the burned hillslope was studied with help of event- seasonal- and annual-based rainfall-runoff data in relation to travel distance, contributing area and rainfall patterns. A linear decrease in runoff ratio with slope length was observed for plots with the same width. However, the rate of runoff production declined exponentially for plots with narrower width. Further investigation of vegetation patches, soil moisture, water repellency, and macropores patterns showed no significant differences in soil-surface factors affecting initial infiltration in these plots comparing to the rest of compound. Thus initial infiltration in narrower plots was similar to the rest of plots; however initiated runoff had less chance to reach the outlet. This could be due to higher positive pore pressures in smaller bounded area per length result in higher macropores and matrix infiltration, overcoming water repellency. Measurement also showed that soil in narrower plots was less repellent in downslope, supporting higher transmission loss downslope in these plots

  20. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  1. Scale effects on headwater catchment runoff timing, flow sources, and groundwater-streamflow relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlynn, B.L.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Seibert, J.; Kendall, C.

    2004-01-01

    [1] The effects of catchment size and landscape organization on runoff generation are poorly understood. Little research has integrated hillslope and riparian runoff investigation across catchments of different sizes to decipher first-order controls on runoff generation. We investigated the role of catchment sizes on riparian and hillslope dynamics, based on hydrometric and tracer data observed at five scales ranging from trenched hillslope sections (55-285 m 2) to a 280-ha catchment at Maimai on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The highly organized landscape is comprised of similar headwater catchments, regular geology, steep highly dissected topography, relatively consistent soil depths, and topographically controlled shallow through flow. We found a strong correlation between riparian zone groundwater levels and runoff for the headwaters, whereas the water tables in the valley bottom of the larger catchments were uncorrelated to runoff for 14 months of record. While there was no clear relationship between catchment size and new water contribution to runoff in the two storms analyzed in detail, lag times of tracer responses increased systematically with catchment size. The combination of hydrometric and tracer data allowed assessment of the runoff contributions from different parts of the landscape. Runoff was generated consistently in headwater riparian zones. This agreed also with the observed variations of tracer (18O and silica) responses for the different catchments. During wetter antecedent conditions or during larger events (>30 mm under dry antecedent conditions) hillslope and valley bottom floodplains did contribute to event runoff directly. We propose that analysis of landscape-scale organization and the distribution of dominant landscape features provide a structure for investigation of runoff production and solute transport, especially as catchment-scale increases from headwaters to the mesoscale.

  2. Threshold changes in storm runoff generation at a till-mantled headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detty, J. M.; McGuire, K. J.

    2010-07-01

    A small research watershed in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire was equipped with a spatially distributed instrument network designed to continuously monitor hydrometric responses in the shallow subsurface. We analyzed rainfall events during seasonal wet up from late summer through autumn to investigate the mechanisms of runoff generation and the patterns of rainfall-runoff response at the catchment outlet. Our results show that storm quick flow depths displayed a threshold relationship with two independently measured soil moisture indices: a maximum water table height index and the sum of gross precipitation and antecedent soil moisture. Quick flow depths during events with below-threshold criteria were not significantly correlated with either index, while quick flow depths during events with above-threshold criteria were strongly correlated with both indices (r ≥ 0.98). The effective runoff contributing area (estimated by event runoff ratios) also changed significantly between above- and below-threshold conditions, as did the synchronicity between groundwater fluctuations and streamflow. Below the threshold, we inferred that catchment runoff was generated primarily in the near-stream zones, while above the threshold the contributing area likely expanded laterally onto neighboring hillslopes. Our results show that the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity appeared to increase significantly during runoff events with above-threshold conditions, possibly owing to water tables rising into highly transmissive near-surface soils. We believe the observed threshold pattern may partially be explained as a transmissivity feedback mechanism and/or preferential flows through macropore networks which allowed for a rapid expansion of the runoff contributing area onto hillslopes, resulting in increased runoff yields.

  3. Export of radioactive cesium from agricultural fields under simulated rainfall in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Suka, Yuma; Sakai, Masaru; Nanko, Kazuki; Yen, Jui-Hung; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of rainfall on runoff, soil erosion and consequently on the discharge of radioactive cesium in agricultural fields in Fukushima prefecture using a rainfall simulator. Simulated heavy rainfalls (50 mm h(-1)) generated significant runoff and soil erosion. The average concentration of radioactive cesium (the sum of (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in the runoff sediments was ∼3500 Bq kg(-1) dry soil, more than double the concentrations measured in the field soils which should be considered in studies using the (137)Cs loss to estimate long-term soil erosion. However, the estimated mass of cesium discharged through one runoff event was less than 2% of the cesium inventory in the field. This suggested that cesium discharge via soil erosion is not a significant factor in reducing the radioactivity of contaminated soils in Fukushima prefecture. However, the eroded sediment carrying radioactive cesium will deposit into the river systems and potentially pose a radioactivity risk for aquatic living organisms.

  4. Nutrient mitigation efficiency in agricultural drainage ditches: An influence of landscape properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage systems are integral parts of the agricultural landscapes and have the ability to intercept nutrient loading from runoff to surface water. This study investigated nutrient removal efficiency within replicated experimental conventional and controlled (with weirs) agricultural drainage ditche...

  5. Using Runoff Hydrograph Model for Early Detecting Landslide Dam Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chompuchan, C.; Chen, W. L.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous areas, many studies explored that during extreme rainfall event induced landslide dams failure and consequently caused the catastrophe damage of lives and infrastructures at the downstream of the watershed. The detection of initial landslide dam formation and the estimation of its occurrence position in the upstream were essential to warn the residents and evacuate in advance. The devices currently used, such as wire sensor, geophone sensor, and infrared cameras (CCD) are classified as the post-event type sensor, which only has a shorter response time, and can just hardly satisfy the requirement which people expect from precaution system. To predict disasters earlier and increase response time, this study used the change point derived from comparing theoretical and observing runoff hydrograph. Chishan River watershed was selected as a case study. Grid Rational Algorithm for Predicting Hydrograph (GRAPH), the dynamic rainfall - runoff model, was used to calibrate watershed runoff hydrograph parameter. The landslide dams were simulated at difference distances along the river, and the runoff hydrographs were compared. Then, the rainfall data and landslide dam failure during Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 was verified the model.The result showed that, during the initial landslide dam formation, the observed accumulate and peak flow hydrograph reduced significantly in comparison with theoretical flow. This model can be applied to establish an efficient warning system for debris flow occurring precaution. In addition, this study has been improved for a longer response time by integrating traditional observation system and runoff hydrograph warning systems and can provide to the references of related authorities.

  6. Modeling the effects of tillage management practices on herbicide runoff in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zewei; Vicari, Alberto; Capri, Ettore; Ventura, Francesca; Padovani, Laura; Trevisan, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The need to quantitatively predict pesticide runoff and erosion under cropping system management has gained increasing importance. In Europe, predictive models have not yet been fully validated because of the lack of field data sets. The objective of this study was to validate the capability of PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) 3.12 to predict water runoff, sediment erosion, and associated transport of atrazine (6-chloro-N(2)-ethyl-N(4)-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), terbuthylazine (N(2)-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N(4)-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and metolachlor [2-chloro-6'-ethyl-N-(2-methoxy-l-methylethyl)acet-o-toluidide] under common tillage management practices found in northern Italy. A 2-yr field data set was used to evaluate the model. Results showed that the model could qualitatively simulate significant differences of water runoff, soil erosion, and associated herbicide losses between conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) for a winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cover crop. For MT, water runoff, soil erosion, herbicide losses in water runoff and eroded sediment, and the proportion of herbicide loss via sediment erosion were significantly lower than for CT. The model failed to correctly simulate event-based herbicide concentration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The model usually underestimated pesticide runoff events with high rainfall intensity and low daily precipitation volume, and overestimated runoff events with low intensity and high volume. The main reason was that the description of runoff and erosion processes is rather empirical in the model and not physically based. Moreover, model calculations do not adequately reflect the relationships between soil erosion intensity and chemical concentration in sediment losses, leading to discrepancies between predictions and field observations.

  7. An in-situ field plot study of hillslope runoff connectivity and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Pourfathali Kasmaei, Leila; Langhans, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The critical role of connectivity on the spatial scaling of hillslope surface runoff rates has long been recognised, however experimental data are uncommon, constraining the development of new conceptual models. In this study hillslope runoff from natural rainfall events was measured at 1 minute intervals from a total of 40 runoff plots on burned forested hillslopes varying in length from 0.5m to 16m length on six contrasting soil types between 2010 to 2015. The data universally show the dramatic reduction in per unit area runoff generation with increasing slope length that has been documented frequently from experimental work over the last 80 years. However the new data also show runoff relationships with slope length that are surprising and counter-intuitive. For example, slope length related reductions in runoff volumes per unit contour width (in contrast to runoff volume per unit area) are frequently observed at some threshold slope length, an outcome that is not conceivable based on current conceptual models of infiltration and hillslope runoff generation. In this presentation this unexpected result will be explored and a range of recent field experiments to identify the processes involved will be discussed.

  8. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  9. Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

    2012-12-30

    Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading.

  10. Particle size distribution variance in untreated urban runoff and its implication on treatment selection.

    PubMed

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the particle size distribution (PSD) of sediment in urban runoff assists in the selection of appropriate treatment systems for sediment removal as systems vary in their ability to remove sediment across different particle size fractions. Variation in PSD in runoff from individual urban surfaces both during and across multiple rain events is not well understood and it may lead to performance uncertainty in treatment systems. Runoff PSDs in international literature were compiled to provide a comparative summary of PSDs from different urban surfaces. To further assess both intra-event and inter-event PSD variation, untreated runoff was collected from road, concrete roof, copper roof, and galvanized roof surfaces within an urban catchment exposed to the same rainfall conditions and analysed for PSD and total suspended solids (TSS). Road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper roofs had high initial TSS that reduced to very low levels under steady state conditions. Despite variation in TSS concentrations, the median particle diameter of the TSS was comparable across the surfaces. Intra-event variation was generally not significant, but substantial inter-event variation was observed, particularly for coarser road and concrete roof surfaces. PSD variation for each surface contributed to a wide range in predicted treatment performance and suggests that short-retention treatment devices carry a high performance risk of not being able to achieve adequate TSS removal across all rain events. PMID:26343992

  11. [Effects of slope gradient on slope runoff and sediment yield under different single rainfall conditions].

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Liu, Song-Bo

    2012-05-01

    Based on the field observation data of runoff and sediment yield produced by single rainfall events in runoff plots, this paper analyzed the variation patterns of runoff and sediment yield on the slopes with different gradients under different single rainfall conditions. The differences in the rainfall conditions had little effects on the variation patterns of slope runoff with the gradient. Under the conditions of six different rainfall events in the study area, the variation patterns of slope runoff with the gradient were basically the same, i. e., the runoff increased with increasing gradient, but the increment of the runoff decreased slightly with increasing gradient, which was mainly determined by the infiltration flux of atmospheric precipitation. Rainfall condition played an important role on the slope sediment yield. Generally, there existed a critical slope gradient for slope erosion, but the critical gradient was not a fixed value, which varied with rainfall condition. The critical slope gradient for slope erosion increased with increasing slope gradient. When the critical slope gradient was greater, the variation of slope sediment yield with slope gradient always became larger.

  12. Effect of Urbanization on Storm runoff characteristics in Noyyal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, S.

    2013-05-01

    Industrialization and its associated economic growth are the center of attraction for migrating population to settle down in cities. The FAO report states that, nearly 70% of the population growth is expected to live in urban area by 2050. Consequently, the urbanization cannot be ignored especially in developing countries. This results in excessive land sealing, which influences the changes in natural hydrological regime. In this study, efforts are made to investigate increase in runoff rate and volume due to increase in built-up area with progression of urbanization.Spatially distributed runoff model was developed for the Noyyal watershed, in which, the two major industrialized cities Coimbatore and Tirupur are located. Due to the rapid industrialization, the population and urbanization is increased in the surrounding areas. It was observed that an increase in urbanization is much higher between 1990 and 2008. In particular, the agriculture lands are converted into settlements and industries. The Landuse Land cover change analyses were accomplished by applying a change detection method to a set of Landsat imagery and ancillary data acquired from 1990 to 2008. The land cover of the study region shows an increase in urban area and a corresponding decrease in pervious area. The peak runoff rates are computed by using Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS). The daily rainfall and runoff data are collected from the state Public works department and Central water commission. The results of the study showed that an increase in modeled runoff volume and peak flow is attributed to this change in land cover.

  13. Soil erosion-runoff relationships: insights from laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Amrakh; Warrington, David; Levy, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes and mechanisms affecting runoff generation and subsequent soil erosion in semi-arid regions is essential for the development of improved soil and water conservation management practices. Using a drip type laboratory rain simulator, we studied runoff and soil erosion, and the relationships between them, in 60 semi-arid region soils varying in their intrinsic properties (e.g., texture, organic matter) under differing extrinsic conditions (e.g., rain properties, and conditions prevailing in the field soil). Both runoff and soil erosion were significantly affected by the intrinsic soil and rain properties, and soil conditions within agricultural fields or watersheds. The relationship between soil erosion and runoff was stronger when the rain kinetic energy was higher rather than lower, and could be expressed either as a linear or exponential function. Linear functions applied to certain limited cases associated with conditions that enhanced soil structure stability, (e.g., slow wetting, amending with soil stabilizers, minimum tillage in clay soils, and short duration exposure to rain). Exponential functions applied to most of the cases under conditions that tended to harm soil stability (e.g., fast wetting of soils, a wide range of antecedent soil water contents and rain kinetic energies, conventional tillage, following biosolid applications, irrigation with water of poor quality, consecutive rain simulations). The established relationships between runoff and soil erosion contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing overland flow and soil loss, and could assist in (i) further development of soil erosion models and research techniques, and (ii) the design of more suitable management practices for soil and water conservation.

  14. Understanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, V. V.; Saraiva Okello, A. M. L.; Wenninger, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2015-01-01

    % of total runoff, and deep groundwater contributed up to 84% of total runoff. A strong correlation for the four studied events was found between the antecedent precipitation conditions and direct runoff. These findings suggest that direct runoff is enhanced by wetter conditions in the catchment which trigger saturation excess overland flow as observed in the hydrograph separations.

  15. Stormwater-runoff data for a highway area, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardee, Jack; Miller, Robert A.; Mattraw, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Rainfall, stormwater runoff, and water-quality data are summarized for a highway area near Pompano Beach, Florida. Loads for 21 water-quality constituents were computed for the runoff from 45 storm events between April 1975 and July 1977. The size of the basin is 58.3 acres and 36 percent impervious. Stormwater runoff from urban watersheds represent an unqualified but possibly major source of contaminants to the numerous canals in south Florida. The quantification of the contaminate load from different land-use areas will assist governmental agencies involved with pollution control in evaluating alternative drainage system designs. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Peyton, D P; Healy, M G; Fleming, G T A; Grant, J; Wall, D; Morrison, L; Cormican, M; Fenton, O

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge ("biosolids") and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L(-1), respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded. PMID:26410697

  17. Nutrient, metal and microbial loss in surface runoff following treated sludge and dairy cattle slurry application to an Irish grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Peyton, D P; Healy, M G; Fleming, G T A; Grant, J; Wall, D; Morrison, L; Cormican, M; Fenton, O

    2016-01-15

    Treated municipal sewage sludge ("biosolids") and dairy cattle slurry (DCS) may be applied to agricultural land as an organic fertiliser. This study investigates losses of nutrients in runoff water (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)), metals (copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr)), and microbial indicators of pollution (total and faecal coliforms) arising from the land application of four types of treated biosolids and DCS to field micro-plots at three time intervals (24, 48, 360 h) after application. Losses from biosolids-amended plots or DCS-amended plots followed a general trend of highest losses occurring during the first rainfall event and reduced losses in the subsequent events. However, with the exception of total and faecal coliforms and some metals (Ni, Cu), the greatest losses were from the DCS-amended plots. For example, average losses over the three rainfall events for dissolved reactive phosphorus and ammonium-nitrogen from DCS-amended plots were 5 and 11.2 mg L(-1), respectively, which were in excess of the losses from the biosolids plots. When compared with slurry treatments, for the parameters monitored biosolids generally do not pose a greater risk in terms of losses along the runoff pathway. This finding has important policy implications, as it shows that concern related to the reuse of biosolids as a soil fertiliser, mainly related to contaminant losses upon land application, may be unfounded.

  18. Detection of erosion events using 10Be profiles: example of the impact of agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake Bay area (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valette-Silver, J. N.; Brown, L.; Pavich, M.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1986-01-01

    10Be concentration, total carbon and grain-size were measured in cores collected in undisturbed estuarine sediments of three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These cores were previously studied by Davis [1] and Brush [2,3] for pollen content, age and sedimentation rate. In this work, we compare the results obtained for these various analyses. In the cores, we observed two increases in 10Be concentration concomitant with two major changes in the pollen composition of the sediments. These two pollen changes each correspond to well-dated agricultural horizons reflecting different stages in the introduction of European farming techniques [2]. In the Chesapeake Bay area, the agricultural development, associated with forest clearing, appears to have triggered the erosion, transport, and sedimentation into the river mouths of large quantities of 10Be-rich soils. This phenomenon explains the observed rise in the sedimentation rate associated with increases in agricultural land-use. ?? 1986.

  19. Ratio of basin lag times for runoff and sediment yield processes recorded in various environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, A.

    2015-03-01

    River basin lag time (LAG), defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of the effective rainfall intensity hyetograph and the storm runoff hydrograph, is an important factor in determining the time to peak and the peak value of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH). In the procedure of predicting a sedimentgraph (suspended sediment load as a function of time), the equivalent parameter is the lag time for the sediment yield (LAGs), which is defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of sediment production during a storm event and the observed sedimentgraph at the gauging station. Data of over 150 events recorded in 11 small river catchments (located in Poland, Germany, UK and USA) with a drainage area of 0.02 km2 to 82 km2 have been analysed to estimate the ratio of LAGs/LAG. The ratio, in majority of cases was smaller than 1, and decreased with increase of river basin slope. Special attention is given to the data collected in a small agricultural catchment and also during snowmelt periods, which is located in central Poland.

  20. Simulation of runoff and recharge and estimation of constituent loads in runoff, Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a watershed model (Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN) to simulate runoff and recharge and to estimate constituent loads in surface-water runoff in the Edwards aquifer recharge zone (outcrop) and catchment area in Bexar County, Texas. Rainfall and runoff data collected during 1970?98 from four gaged basins in the outcrop and catchment area were used to calibrate and test the model. The calibration parameters were applied in simulations of the four calibration basins and six ungaged basins that compose the study area to obtain runoff and recharge volumes for 4 years, 1997?2000. In 1997, simulated runoff from the study area was 5.62 inches. Simulated recharge in the study area was 7.85 inches (20 percent of rainfall). In 1998, simulated runoff was 11.05 inches; simulated recharge was 10.99 inches (25 percent of rainfall). In 1999, simulated runoff was 0.66 inch; simulated recharge was 3.03 inches (19 percent of rainfall). In 2000, simulated runoff was 5.29 inches; simulated recharge was 7.19 inches (21 percent of rainfall). During 1997?2000, direct infiltration of rainfall accounted for about 56 percent of the total Edwards aquifer recharge in Bexar County. Streamflow losses contributed about 37 percent of the recharge; flood impoundment contributed 7 percent. The simulated runoff volumes were used with event-mean-concentration data from basins in the study area and from other Bexar County basins to compute constituent loads and yields for various land uses. Annual loads for suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and total lead were consistently largest from undeveloped land and smallest from commercial land or transportation corridors. Annual loads and yields varied with rainfall, with the maximum loads produced in the wettest year (1998) and the minimum loads produced in the driest year (1999).

  1. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  2. Coupling rainfall observations and satellite soil moisture for predicting event soil loss in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todisco, Francesca; Brocca, Luca; Termite, Loris Francesco; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of water soil loss prediction depends on the ability of the model to account for effects of the physical phenomena causing the output and the accuracy by which the parameters have been determined. The process based models require considerable effort to obtain appropriate parameter values and their failure to produce better results than achieved using the USLE/RUSLE model, encourages the use of the USLE/RUSLE model in roles of which it was not designed. In particular it is widely used in watershed models even at the event temporal scale. At hillslope scale, spatial variability in soil and vegetation result in spatial variations in soil moisture and consequently in runoff within the area for which soil loss estimation is required, so the modeling approach required to produce those estimates needs to be sensitive to those spatial variations in runoff. Some models include explicit consideration of runoff in determining the erosive stresses but this increases the uncertainty of the prediction due to the difficulty in parameterising the models also because the direct measures of surface runoff are rare. The same remarks are effective also for the USLE/RUSLE models including direct consideration of runoff in the erosivity factor (i.e. USLE-M by Kinnell and Risse, 1998, and USLE-MM by Bagarello et al., 2008). Moreover actually most of the rainfall-runoff models are based on the knowledge of the pre-event soil moisture that is a fundamental variable in the rainfall-runoff transformation. In addiction soil moisture is a readily available datum being possible to have easily direct pre-event measures of soil moisture using in situ sensors or satellite observations at larger spatial scale; it is also possible to derive the antecedent water content with soil moisture simulation models. The attempt made in the study is to use the pre-event soil moisture to account for the spatial variation in runoff within the area for which the soil loss estimates are required. More

  3. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (p<0.05) and were consistently highest in T1 and lowest in T4. Mean cumulative soil loss reduced by 6.4, 13.3 and 24.4 t ha-1from T2, T3 and T4 respectively compared to sole potato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, p<0.05). Statistically significant linear dependence of runoff and soil loss on surface roughness and crop cover was found in T4 (p<0.05) indicating that this system was highly effective in minimizing soil loss and runoff. Enrichment ratio was on average

  4. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G

    2006-09-01

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg 1(-1). In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg 1(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed. PMID:17067120

  5. Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiying; Haver, Darren; Rust, Michael; Gan, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Intensive residential use of insecticides has resulted in their ubiquitous presence as contaminants in urban surface streams. For pest eradication, urban hard surfaces such as concrete are often directly treated with pesticides, and wind/water can also carry pesticides onto hard surfaces from surrounding areas. This study expanded on previous bench-scale studies by considering pesticide runoff caused by irrigation under dry weather conditions and rain during the wet season, and evaluated the effects of pesticide residence time on concrete, single versus recurring precipitations, precipitation intensity, and concrete surface conditions, on pesticide transferability to runoff water. Runoff from concrete 1 d after pesticide treatment contained high levels of bifenthrin (82 μg/L) and permethrin (5143 μg/L for cis and 5518 μg/L for trans), indicating the importance of preventing water contact on concrete after pesticide treatments. Although the runoff transferability quickly decreased as the pesticide residence time on concrete increased, detectable residues were still found in runoff water after 3 months (89 d) exposure to hot and dry summer conditions. ANOVA analysis showed that precipitation intensities and concrete surface conditions (i.e., acid wash, silicone seal, stamping, and addition of microsilica) did not significantly affect the pesticide transferability to runoff. For concrete slabs subjected to natural rainfalls during the winter wet season, pesticide levels in the runoff decreased as the time interval between pesticide application and the rain event increased. However, bifenthrin and permethrin were still detected at 0.15-0.17 and 0.75-1.15 μg/L in the rain runoff after 7 months (221 d) from the initial treatment. In addition, pesticide concentrations showed no decrease between the two rainfall events, suggesting that concrete surfaces contaminated by pesticides may act as a reservoir for pesticide residues, leading to sustained urban runoff

  6. Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiying; Haver, Darren; Rust, Michael; Gan, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Intensive residential use of insecticides has resulted in their ubiquitous presence as contaminants in urban surface streams. For pest eradication, urban hard surfaces such as concrete are often directly treated with pesticides, and wind/water can also carry pesticides onto hard surfaces from surrounding areas. This study expanded on previous bench-scale studies by considering pesticide runoff caused by irrigation under dry weather conditions and rain during the wet season, and evaluated the effects of pesticide residence time on concrete, single versus recurring precipitations, precipitation intensity, and concrete surface conditions, on pesticide transferability to runoff water. Runoff from concrete 1 d after pesticide treatment contained high levels of bifenthrin (82 μg/L) and permethrin (5143 μg/L for cis and 5518 μg/L for trans), indicating the importance of preventing water contact on concrete after pesticide treatments. Although the runoff transferability quickly decreased as the pesticide residence time on concrete increased, detectable residues were still found in runoff water after 3 months (89 d) exposure to hot and dry summer conditions. ANOVA analysis showed that precipitation intensities and concrete surface conditions (i.e., acid wash, silicone seal, stamping, and addition of microsilica) did not significantly affect the pesticide transferability to runoff. For concrete slabs subjected to natural rainfalls during the winter wet season, pesticide levels in the runoff decreased as the time interval between pesticide application and the rain event increased. However, bifenthrin and permethrin were still detected at 0.15-0.17 and 0.75-1.15 μg/L in the rain runoff after 7 months (221 d) from the initial treatment. In addition, pesticide concentrations showed no decrease between the two rainfall events, suggesting that concrete surfaces contaminated by pesticides may act as a reservoir for pesticide residues, leading to sustained urban runoff

  7. Variations in annual stream hydrograph of montane watershed in northern Thailand: Mid-wet-season shift in runoff response observed in some years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, H.; Wright, E.; Ziegler, A. D.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examined the rainfall-runoff relationship of the 74.2-km2 Mae Sa watershed, a basin with mixed forest, agriculture, and peri-urban land covers in northern Thailand. Mae Sa has a distinct annual streamflow discharge (Q) hydrograph related to the strongly seasonal rainfall (RF) regime characteristic of the Asian monsoon region. Hourly RF observations during 2004-2012 from each of the 11 rain gauges in Mae Sa were adjusted for lag time with respect to Q, based on the time difference between the peak rainfall at the specific station and the peak discharge at the watershed outlet, and then integrated into a daily watershed RF time series. Quickflow (QF) and baseflow (BF) time series were obtained from hygrograph separation using the Sliding Average with Rain Record (SARR) method (Koskelo et al. 2012), with the integrated daily watershed RF and Q as input. The event quickflow runoff coefficient (RC) was calculated as total QF/total RF for each storm event identified by the SARR method. Results suggest a "switch-point" in the rainfall-runoff relationship annual cycle in some years, after which similar RF events generate higher Q than earlier, i.e., an abrupt upward shift in RC is observed. In general, the switch-point occurs in the second half of the wet season from July to August; however, the occurrence and timing of the switch-point varied from year to year during study period. This variability appears to be the result of interannual differences in total RF and the temporal RF patterns. For example, the switch-point in years with average or lower annual RF, such as 2007 and 2010, are more obvious compare to years with higher annual RF, such as 2006 and 2011, in which the RC in the early stage of wet season are already high.

  8. 1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is

  9. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (<0.45μm, 0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  10. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff. PMID:26077503

  11. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff.

  12. Rainfall intensity and phosphorus source effects on phosphorus transport in surface runoff from soil trays.

    PubMed

    Shigaki, Francirose; Sharpley, Andrew; Prochnow, Luis Ignacio

    2007-02-01

    Phosphorus runoff from agricultural fields amended with mineral fertilizers and manures has been linked to freshwater eutrophication. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different rainfall intensities and P sources differing in water soluble P (WSP) concentration on P transport in runoff from soil trays packed with a Berks loam and grassed with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Triple superphosphate (TSP; 79% WSP), low-grade super single phosphate (LGSSP; 50% WSP), North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP; 0.5% WSP) and swine manure (SM; 70% WSP), were broadcast (100 kg total P ha-1) and rainfall applied at 25, 50 and 75 mm h-1 1, 7, 21, and 56 days after P source application. The concentration of dissolved reactive (DRP), particulate (PP), and total P (TP) was significantly (P<0.01) greater in runoff with a rainfall intensity of 75 than 25 mm h-1 for all P sources. Further, runoff DRP increased as P source WSP increased, with runoff from a 50 mm h-1 rain 1 day after source application having a DRP concentration of 0.25 mg L-1 for NCRP and 28.21 mg L-1 for TSP. In contrast, the proportion of runoff TP as PP was greater with low (39% PP for NCRP) than high WSP sources (4% PP for TSP) averaged for all rainfall intensities. The increased PP transport is attributed to the detachment and transport of undissolved P source particles during runoff. These results show that P source water solubility and rainfall intensity can influence P transport in runoff, which is important in evaluating the long-term risks of P source application on P transport in surface runoff.

  13. The role of upland wetlands in modulating snowmelt runoff in the semi-arid Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hevia, Andres; Sproles, Eric; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2016-04-01

    The wetlands, or bofedales, of semi-arid northern central Chile (29°-32°S) provide a critical store of water that modulate spring snowmelt runoff. Water released from bofedales helps sustain flows throughout the dry portions of the year, providing fresh water to downstream residents and a robust tourist, agricultural, and mining economy. In the Río Claro watershed (30°S, 1515 km2, 800m to 5500 m a.s.l.) a series fourteen bofedales have formed at natural choke points in the valley bottoms of the headwater reaches. The highly erosive dynamic of this watershed provides ample sediment, and some of these bofedales are up to 30 m deep. Annual precipitation in the region is limited to 4-6 events annually that fall primarily as snow at elevations above 3500 m. The subsurface storage of the headwaters is limited by the steep terrain of the headwater catchments that are devoid of soils and primarily underlain by granite bedrock. Downstream, irrigated area has increased by 200% between 1985 and 2005, driven by the cultivation of table grapes for export. For over 70 years local water managers have flooded the bodfedales during spring runoff to augment late season flow when irrigation demand peaks. While this low-tech strategy has worked in the past, a recent 8-year drought has raised concerns over long-term water security. We apply geophysical and geographic measurements, water quality, and stable isotopic tracers to calculate the volume of water storage and residence times in the bofedales of Río Claro. This information will be used to evaluate the reliability of the bofedale system as compared to a proposed reservoir in the headwaters of the Río Claro. Additionally, estimating the storage and residence times of the will help reduce uncertainty for modeling efforts currently underway in Río Claro.

  14. Mitigation assessment of vegetated drainage ditches for collecting irrigation runoff in California.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Denton, D L; Cooper, C M; Wrysinski, J; Miller, J L; Reece, K; Crane, D; Robins, P

    2008-01-01

    Widespread contamination of California water bodies by the organophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos is well documented. While their usage has decreased over the last few years, a concomitant increase in pyrethroid usage (e.g., permethrin) (replacement insecticides) has occurred. Vegetated agricultural drainage ditches (VADD) have been proposed as a potential economical and environmentally efficient management practice to mitigate the effects of pesticides in irrigation and storm runoff. Three ditches were constructed in Yolo County, California for a field trial. A U-shaped vegetated ditch, a V-shaped vegetated ditch, and a V-shaped unvegetated ditch were each amended for 8 h with a mixture of diazinon, permethrin, and suspended sediment simulating an irrigation runoff event. Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally and analyzed for diazinon and permethrin concentrations. Pesticide half-lives were similar between ditches and pesticides, ranging from 2.4 to 6.4 h. Differences in half-distances (distance required to reduce initial pesticide concentration by 50%) among pesticides and ditches were present, indicating importance of vegetation in mitigation. Cis-permethrin half-distances in V ditches ranged from 22 m (V-vegetated) to 50 m (V-unvegetated). Half-distances for trans-permethrin were similar, ranging from 21 m (V-vegetated) to 55 m (V-unvegetated). Diazinon half-distances demonstrated the greatest differences (55 m for V-vegetated and 158 m for V-unvegetated). Such economical and environmentally successful management practices will offer farmers, ranchers, and landowners a viable alternative to more conventional (and sometimes expensive) practices. PMID:18268312

  15. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  16. Zeta potential of clay-size particles in urban rainfall runoff during hydrologic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Yeop; Sansalone, John J.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryUrban rainfall-runoff transports a wide spectrum of anthropogenic aqueous complexes and particulate matter (PM). Zeta potential (ξ) as an electrostatic parameter provides an index of destabilization for clay-size particles (<2 μm) transported during hydrologic processes including passage of the runoff hydrograph. However, ξ of PM in urban rainfall-runoff has rarely been studied due to the dynamic and complex hydrologic, physical and chemical nature of rainfall-runoff systems. This study examined a series of rainfall-runoff events captured from a paved source area catchment in Baton Rouge, LA to characterize ξ of clay-size particles. The ξ of clay-size particles was also examined as a function of hydrologic transport with coupled water chemistry variables. Study results indicated that ξ varied from approximately -15 to -30 mV across the hydrograph of each event and generally mimicked the runoff intensity during hydrologic transport. Hydrologic transport results indicate while ξ was inversely correlated to the hydrograph flow rate, this inverse correlation was a function of variations in water chemistry parameters (pH and ionic strength); parameters that were driven by hydrologic flow rate. For each event ξ exhibited hysteretic trends as a function of rainfall-runoff ionic strength and pH during the passage of the hydrograph. Results demonstrate that hydrologic transport played an important role driving both water chemistry and ξ trends for clay-size particles; as well as treatment behavior of rainfall-runoff unit operations and processes.

  17. Characterization and first flush analysis in road and roof runoff in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Gong, Jiping; Sun, Fengyun; Xu, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    As urbanization increases, urban runoff is an increasingly important component of total urban non-point source pollution. In this study, the properties of urban runoff were examined in Shenyang, in northeastern China. Runoff samples from a tiled roof, a concrete roof and a main road were analyzed for key pollutants (total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn). The event mean concentration, site mean concentration, M(V) curves (dimensionless cumulative curve of pollutant load with runoff volume), and mass first flush ratio (MFF30) were used to analyze the characteristics of pollutant discharge and first flush (FF) effect. For all events, the pollutant concentration peaks occurred in the first half-hour after the runoff appeared and preceded the flow peaks. TN is the main pollutant in roof runoff. TSS, TN, TP, Pb, and Cr are the main pollutants in road runoff in Shenyang. There was a significant correlation between TSS and other pollutants except TN in runoff, which illustrated that TSS was an important carrier of organic matter and heavy metals. TN had strong positive correlations with total rainfall (Pearson's r = 0.927), average rainfall (Pearson's r = 0.995), and maximum rainfall intensity (Pearson's r = 0.991). TP had a strong correlation with rainfall intensity (Pearson's r = 0.940). A significant positive correlation between COD and rainfall duration (Pearson's r = 0.902, significance level = 0.05) was found. The order of FF intensity in different surfaces was concrete roof > tile roof > road. Rainfall duration and the length of the antecedent dry period were positively correlated with the FF. TN tended to exhibit strong flush for some events. Heavy metals showed a substantially stronger FF than other pollutant.

  18. Effect of cell sizes on spatial statistics of AGNPS-Simulated Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the properties and statistics of predicted runoff from the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model change with model input data at eight different cell sizes (30 m, 60 m, 120 m, 210 m, 240 m, 480 m, 960 m, and 1920 m). The Little River Wa...

  19. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  20. Natural flood risk management in flashy headwater catchments: managing runoff peaks, timing, water quality and sediment regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve; Ghimire, Sohan; Kenyon, Wendy; Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Stutter, Marc; Watson, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade many European catchments have experienced an unusually high number of flood events. A large number of these events are the result of intense rainfall in small headwater catchments which are dominated by surface runoff generation, resulting in flash flooding of local communities. Soil erosion and related water quality issues, among others, are typically associated with such rapid runoff generation. The hazard of flooding is increasing owing to impacts of changing climatic patterns (including more intense summer storms), intensification of agriculture within rural catchments and continued pressure to build on floodplains. Concurrently, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences in small communities outweigh the potential benefits. Hence, there is a growing interest in more cost effective natural approaches that also have multipurpose benefits in terms of sediment, water quality, and habitat creation. Many catchments in Europe are intensively farmed and there is great potential for agriculture to be part of the solution to flood risk management. Natural flood management (NFM) is the alteration, restoration or use of landscape features with the aim of reducing flood risk by slowing down, storing (and filtering) rapid surface runoff. NFM includes measures such as temporarily storing water in ponds/wetlands, increasing soil infiltration, planting trees on floodplains and within catchments, re-meandering and wood placements in streams/ditches. In this presentation we highlight case studies from densely instrumented research sites across the UK (which could be typical of many European catchments) where NFM measures have been installed in small scale flashy catchments. The presentation will give an overview of the function of these measures in these catchments and how other multiple benefits are being accrued. Study catchments include the headwater catchments of the Bowmont (3 to 8 km2) and Belford Burn (6 km2) catchments. These

  1. Ice sheet runoff and Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian; Wolff, Eric; Fowler, Andrew; Clark, Chris; Evatt, Geoff; Johnson, Helen; Munday, David; Rickaby, Ros; Stokes, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many northern hemisphere climate records, particularly those from around the North Atlantic, show a series of rapid climate changes that recurred on centennial to millennial timescales throughout most of the last glacial period. These Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) sequences are observed most prominently in Greenland ice cores, although they have a global signature, including an out of phase Antarctic signal. They consist of warming jumps of order 10°C, occurring in typically 40 years, followed generally by a slow cooling (Greenland Interstadial, GI) lasting between a few centuries and a few millennia, and then a final rapid temperature drop into a cold Greenland Stadial (GS) that lasts for a similar period. Most explanations for D-O events call on changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength, and the majority of such explanations use changes in freshwater delivery from ice sheets as a trigger. Many have relied on large inputs of freshwater from singular events (such as lake outbursts or iceberg armadas) to push the AMOC into its cold state. However the evidence for such events at the right time in each cycle is sparse. Here we investigate mechanisms that would arise from a change in the rate of ice sheet runoff, which would be a natural feedback from each rapid warming or cooling event. Recent work has suggested that AMOC is most easily disrupted by freshwater delivered through the Arctic. We investigate whether the proposed AMOC changes could have occurred as part of a natural oscillation, in which runoff from the Laurentide ice sheet into the Arctic is controlled by temperature around the North Atlantic. The Arctic buffers the salinity changes, but under warm conditions, high runoff eventually leads to water entering the North Atlantic with low enough salinity to switch AMOC into its weaker state. Under the colder conditions now prevailing, the Arctic is starved of runoff, and the salinity rises until a further switch occurs. Contrary to many

  2. Flood Frequency Analysis Using Continuous Simulation of Catchment Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a substantial effort has been put into the development of new methods for flood frequency analysis (FFA), which would utilize continuous simulation of catchment runoff. Recent trend in FFA is trying to combine the advantages of stochastic weather generators used to generate synthetic time series of meteorological and climatic variables and rainfall-runoff models enabling their transformation to catchment runoff. This approach enables to estimate design floods even in places with short or no historical records of flows at all. This work presents a new methodology for extreme flood estimation, combining a single site stochastic weather generator enabling the generation of daily precipitation amounts and air temperatures and a conceptual lumped rainfall-runoff model. The weather generator takes into account seasonality and complies with the two-part model scheme of Todorovic and Woolhiser (1975), where the precipitation occurrence and amount are generated separately. The model of precipitation amounts generates precipitation amounts for the whole rainfall events. These amounts are further disaggregated into individual days of these events according to a newly proposed method of fragments. In order to avoid a complicated generation of precipitation amounts at multiple sites, the weather generator was used to generate mean areal precipitations and air temperatures calculated using geostatistical methods. The rainfall-runoff model used in the methodology brings an innovative approach of separate simulation of low and extreme flows, which significantly improves the simulation of extreme flows while maintaining a satisfactory simulation of low and medium flows. The newly proposed methodology was used to estimate extreme floods of selected return periods in several mountainous catchments in Slovakia. The results of the analysis showed that the weather generator preserved the selected statistical characteristics of observed precipitation and air

  3. Effect of climate change on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to surface water.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Ankie; Schijven, Jack; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton

    2016-05-15

    Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by, for instance, bathing or drinking-water consumption. An increase in runoff, and associated wash-off of animal faeces from fields, is assumed to contribute to the increase of disease outbreaks during periods of high precipitation. Climate change is expected to increase winter precipitation and extreme precipitation events during summer, but has simultaneously also other effects such as temperature rise and changes in evapotranspiration. The question is to what extent the combination of these effects influence the input of zoonotic pathogens to the surface waters. To quantitatively analyse the impacts of climate change on pathogen runoff, pathogen concentrations reaching surface waters through runoff were calculated by combining an input model for catchment pathogen loads with the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS). Runoff of Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter was evaluated under different climate change scenarios and by applying different scenarios for sources of faecal pollution in the catchments, namely dairy cows and geese and manure fertilization. Model evaluation of these scenarios shows that climate change has little overall impact on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to the surface waters. Even though individual processes like runoff fluxes, pathogen release and dilution are affected, either positively or negatively, the net effect on the pathogen concentration in surface waters and consequently also on infection risks through recreation seems limited. PMID:26986498

  4. Simulation of quantity and quality of storm runoff for urban catchments in Fresno, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, J.R.; Smith, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff models were developed for a multiple-dwelling residential catchment (2 applications), a single-dwelling residential catchment, and a commercial catchment in Fresno, California, using the U.S. Geological Survey Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M-II). A runoff-quality model also was developed at the commercial catchment using the Survey 's Multiple-Event Urban Runoff Quality model (DR3M-qual). The purpose of this study was: (1) to demonstrate the capabilites of the two models for use in designing storm drains, estimating the frequency of storm runoff loads, and evaluating the effectiveness of street sweeping on an urban drainage catchment; and (2) to determine the simulation accuracies of these models. Simulation errors of the two models were summarized as the median absolute deviation in percent (mad) between measured and simulated values. Calibration and verification mad errors for runoff volumes and peak discharges ranged from 14 to 20%. The estimated annual storm-runoff loads, in pounds/acre of effective impervious area, that could occur once every hundred years at the commercial catchment was 95 for dissolved solids, 1.6 for the dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, 0.31 for total recoverable lead, and 120 for suspended sediment. Calibration and verification mad errors for the above constituents ranged from 11 to 54%. (USGS)

  5. Effect of climate change on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to surface water.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Ankie; Schijven, Jack; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton

    2016-05-15

    Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by, for instance, bathing or drinking-water consumption. An increase in runoff, and associated wash-off of animal faeces from fields, is assumed to contribute to the increase of disease outbreaks during periods of high precipitation. Climate change is expected to increase winter precipitation and extreme precipitation events during summer, but has simultaneously also other effects such as temperature rise and changes in evapotranspiration. The question is to what extent the combination of these effects influence the input of zoonotic pathogens to the surface waters. To quantitatively analyse the impacts of climate change on pathogen runoff, pathogen concentrations reaching surface waters through runoff were calculated by combining an input model for catchment pathogen loads with the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS). Runoff of Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter was evaluated under different climate change scenarios and by applying different scenarios for sources of faecal pollution in the catchments, namely dairy cows and geese and manure fertilization. Model evaluation of these scenarios shows that climate change has little overall impact on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to the surface waters. Even though individual processes like runoff fluxes, pathogen release and dilution are affected, either positively or negatively, the net effect on the pathogen concentration in surface waters and consequently also on infection risks through recreation seems limited.

  6. Woody Plant Invasion Changes Soil Water Storage Dynamics And Shifts Runoff Generation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, L.; Zou, C.; Stebler, E.

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration excess and saturation excess are the main runoff generation mechanisms for rangeland watersheds, while the role of subsurface stormflow is highly variable. Climate, topography, vegetation, and edaphic factors determine the runoff generation processes for a given location and a substantial change in any of these factors, either alone or combined, could result in a change in soil water storage dynamics and cause a shift in the runoff generation mechanisms. Three paired experimental watersheds were established in 2010 to quantify the streamflow responses to woody plant invasion into grassland in the South-central Great Plains. Here, we compare the runoff generation mechanisms under both vegetation types using soil water content and surface runoff data from 2011 to 2014. These data were collected every 5-15 minutes during the period experiencing both extremely high and low precipitation events. The objectives of this study include: 1). Understand change in soil moisture content and storage dynamic across the entire soil profile under grassland and woody plant invaded grassland watersheds; 2). Determine the dominant runoff mechanism for each vegetation type; and 3). Illustrate the process which shifts the runoff generation mechanisms. These results are important in understanding the impact of woody plant expansions on altering surface water and groundwater availability and therefore affect water resources sustainability management in the South-central Great Plains.

  7. Soil moisture and precipitation thresholds: implications for hillslope contributions to runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K. J.; Detty, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Subsurface runoff from hillslopes is widely recognized as an important contributor to stream flow generation; however, processes that control how, when, and to what extent hillslopes connect to streams remain unclear. In a small glaciated catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, we instrumented the hydrologic control catchment (WS3) with a distributed well network and a ridge-to-stream transect of soil moisture sensors to continuously monitor shallow groundwater and soil moisture dynamics. Multiple independent measurements of hydraulic conductivity were used to estimate lateral subsurface fluxes through the near-stream aquifer and determine theoretical runoff contributing areas during storm events. We identified a strong threshold relationship between stormflow and the combination of total stored pre-event soil water and gross precipitation as well as the maximum groundwater height during an event. Our results suggest that this threshold represented a significant change in contributing area. Below the threshold, the runoff contributing area was confined to the near-stream zones, while above the threshold, the contributing area expanded laterally onto neighboring hillslopes. The contributing area expansion established a stream/riparian/hillslope connection in each of our instrument transects, which during the dormant season, frequently persisted until the next runoff event. This study emphasizes the importance of soil moisture storage nonlinearities as they relate to spatial and temporal patterns of saturated zone dynamics, hydrologic connectivity, and catchment-scale runoff response.

  8. [Nitrogen and phosphorus composition in urban runoff from the new development area in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Lü, Shu-Cong; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Liu, Ze-Quan; Shan, Bao-Qing

    2012-11-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from two impervious roof and road of the new development area in Beijing, during three rainfall events in an attempt to characterize the urban runoff and determine nitrogen and phosphorus composition. The outcomes are expected to offer the practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff from the studied area presented a strong first flush for all monitored events and constituents. Eighty percent of the total pollutant loads were transported by the first 10 mm flow volume for roof runoff, whereas 80% of the total pollutant loads were discharged by the first 15 mm flow volume for road runoff. Average EMCs of TSS, COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N and TP for roof runoff were 50.2 mg x L(-1), 81.7 mg x L(-1), 6.07 mg x L(-1), 2.94 mg x L(-1), 1.05 mg x L(-1), and 0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. Average EMCs of TSS, COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-)-N and TP for road runoff were 539.0 mg x L(-1), 276.4 mg x L(-1), 7.00 mg x L(-1), 1.71 mg x L(-1), 1.51 mg x L(-1), and 0.61 mg x L(-1), respectively. Moreover, for the roof runoff, the particle-bound fraction was 20.8% for COD, 12.3% for TN, and 49.7% for TP. For road runoff, the particle-bound fraction was 68.6% for COD, 20.0% for TN, and 73.6% for TP. Nitrogen in roof runoff was predominantly dissolved (87.7%), with ammonia (57.6%) and nitrate (22.5%). Nitrogen in road runoff was also predominantly dissolved (80.0%), with ammonia (42.1%) and nitrate (35.0%). These findings can assist the development of effective source control strategies to immobilize dissolved and particulate-bound nitrogen/phosphorus in urban stormwater.

  9. Rainfall-runoff response from urban catchments in humid tropical regions: A case study of Kayu Ara catchment in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, A.; Venneker, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wong, C.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of rainfall-runoff response for urban engineering practices is of pivotal importance, especially for humid tropic areas such as Malaysia where the information is rather limited. In view of this, a rainfall-runoff analysis study was conducted for the 25 km2 urban catchment of Kayu Ara, Kuala Lumpur. Five-minute rainfall and runoff data from 1996 - 2005 were used, from which 146 events were selected for detailed analysis. The relationship between direct runoff and mean areal rainfall provided information on the catchment response. The derived event-based runoff coefficients are useful for catchment comparison, and in particular to understand how different landscapes affect transformation of rainfall into event runoff and to explain the runoff generation mechanism. However, the lack of a standard method for hydrograph separation is a disadvantage, which introduces uncertainty into the analysis and the results and may also complicate comparison with results from other areas. Nevertheless, it is shown that event-based runoff coefficients could improve our understanding of rainfall-runoff response, especially for urban conditions.

  10. Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

    2014-11-01

    Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer ( grace) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  11. Estimating Runoff Using Hydro-Geodetic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeuw, Nico; Lorenz, Christof; Devaraju, Balaji; Tourian, Mohammad J.; Riegger, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald; Bárdossy, András

    2014-09-01

    Given the continuous decline in global runoff data availability over the past decades, alternative approaches for runoff determination are gaining importance. When aiming for global scale runoff at a sufficient temporal resolution and with homogeneous accuracy, the choice to use spaceborne sensors is only a logical step. In this respect, we take water storage changes from Gravity Recovery And Climate Explorer (uc(grace)) results and water level measurements from satellite altimetry, and present a comprehensive assessment of five different approaches for river runoff estimation: hydrological balance equation, hydro-meteorological balance equation, satellite altimetry with quantile function-based stage-discharge relationships, a rudimentary instantaneous runoff-precipitation relationship, and a runoff-storage relationship that takes time lag into account. As a common property, these approaches do not rely on hydrological modeling; they are either purely data driven or make additional use of atmospheric reanalyses. Further, these methods, except runoff-precipitation ratio, use geodetic observables as one of their inputs and, therefore, they are termed hydro-geodetic approaches. The runoff prediction skill of these approaches is validated against in situ runoff and compared to hydrological model predictions. Our results show that catchment-specific methods (altimetry and runoff-storage relationship) clearly outperform the global methods (hydrological and hydro-meteorological approaches) in the six study regions we considered. The global methods have the potential to provide runoff over all landmasses, which implies gauged and ungauged basins alike, but are still limited due to inconsistencies in the global hydrological and hydro-meteorological datasets that they use.

  12. Rainfall-runoff in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area: Measurements, analyses and comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, C.E.; Ward, T.J.; Kelly, T.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years like many other cities in the Southwestern United States. While the US population grew by 37% between the 1970 and 2000 censuses, the growth for Albuquerque was 83%. More people mean more development and increased problems of managing runoff from urbanizing watersheds. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Albuquerque Arroyo Metropolitan Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA) and the City of Albuquerque has maintained a rainfall-runoff data collection program since 1976. The data from measured precipitation events can be used to verify hydrologic modeling. In this presentation, data from a representative gaged watershed is analyzed and discussed to set the overall framework for the rainfall-runoff process in the Albuquerque area. Of particular interest are the basic relationships between rainfall and watershed runoff response and an analysis of curve numbers as an indicator of runoff function. In urbanized areas, four land treatment types (natural, irrigated lawns, compacted soil, and impervious) are used to define surface infiltration conditions. Rainfall and runoff gage data are used to compare curve number (CN) and initial abstraction/uniform infiltration (IA/INF) techniques in an Albuquerque watershed. The IA/INF method appears to produce superior results over the CN method for the measured rainfall events.

  13. Toxicity persistence in runoff and soil from experimental soybean plots following insecticide applications.

    PubMed

    Paracampo, Ariel H; Mugni, Hernán D; Demetrio, Pablo M; Pardi, Martín H; Bulus, Gustavo D; Asborno, Marcelo D; Bonetto, Carlos A

    2012-09-01

    Persistence of toxicity in runoff water and soil was investigated in experimental soybean plots subjected to successive runoff events following pesticide application. Runoff events were produced by irrigation using a sprinkler system. The pesticides applied were cypermethrin and endosulfan, which are widely used in soy production in Argentina. Toxicity tests were performed on two abundant components of the regional fauna, the amphipod Hyalella curvispina and the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus. Runoffs from two pesticide applications were assayed at different stages of the growing season: an early application when the soil was almost bare and a late one close to harvest, when the ground was covered by vegetation and just before soy leaves fell. Toxicity to H. curvispina in runoff ceased almost one month after the early application of the two pesticides, while it persisted for over three months after the late application. Soil toxicity to H. curvispina and runoff toxicity to C. decemmaculatus followed the same pattern. Higher temperatures and solar radiation are likely to have enhanced insecticide degradation after the early application. Lower temperatures and solar radiation in combination with increased organic matter from litter probably contributed to the longer persistence of toxicity recorded after the late application, as compared with the early application. Cypermethrin caused no mortality to C. decemmaculatus after the early application, while endosulfan toxicity persisted for almost four months after the late one. PMID:22575003

  14. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  15. Combined effects of constant versus variable intensity simulated rainfall and reduced tillage management on cotton preemergence herbicide runoff.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy C; Bosch, David D; Webster, Theodore M; Franklin, Dorcas H; Bednarz, Craig W

    2006-01-01

    Pesticide runoff research relies heavily on rainfall simulation experiments. Most are conducted at a constant intensity, i.e., at a fixed rainfall rate; however, large differences in natural rainfall intensity is common. To assess implications we quantified runoff of two herbicides, fluometuron and pendimethalin, and applied preemergence after planting cotton on Tifton loamy sand. Rainfall at constant and variable intensity patterns representative of late spring thunderstorms in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of Georgia (USA) were simulated on 6-m2 plots under strip- (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT) management. The variable pattern produced significantly higher