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Sample records for agricultural soil amendment

  1. Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Sharma, Bhavisha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sengupta, Chandan; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances.

  2. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  3. Impact of woodchip biochar amendment on the sorption and dissipation of pesticide acetamiprid in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Mu, Chang-Li; Gu, Cheng; Liu, Cun; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2011-11-01

    Pyrolysis of vegetative biomass into biochar and application of the more stable form of carbon to soil have been shown to be effective in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, improving soil fertility, and sequestering soil contaminants. However, there is still lack of information about the impact of biochar amendment in agricultural soils on the sorption and environmental fate of pesticides. In this study, we investigated the sorption and dissipation of a neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid in three typical Chinese agricultural soils, which were amended by a red gum wood (Eucalyptus spp.) derived biochar. Our results showed that the amendment of biochar (0.5% (w/w)) to the soils could significantly increase the sorption of acetamiprid, but the magnitudes of enhancement were varied. Contributions of 0.5% newly-added biochar to the overall sorption of acetamiprid were 52.3%, 27.4% and 11.6% for red soil, paddy soil and black soil, respectively. The dissipation of acetamiprid in soils amended with biochar was retarded compared to that in soils without biochar amendment. Similar to the sorption experiment, in soil with higher content of organic matter, the retardation of biochar on the dissipation of acetamiprid was lower than that with lower content of organic matter. The different effects of biochar in agricultural soils may attribute to the interaction of soil components with biochar, which would block the pore or compete for binding site of biochar. Aging effect of biochar application in agricultural soils and field experiments need to be further investigated.

  4. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  5. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural Histories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay amendment on nematode community structure in the soil surrounding roots of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) infected with root-knot nematodes was examined in two greenhouse experiments. Soils were from field plots treated long-term (LT) with yard-waste compost or no yard-waste compost in LT experiment, and from a short-term (ST) agricultural site in ST experiment. Soils collected were either amended or not amended with C. juncea hay. Nematode communities were examined 2 months after squash was inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Amendment increased (P < 0.05) omnivorous nematodes in both experiments but increased only bacterivorous nematodes in ST experiment (P < 0.05), where the soil had relatively low organic matter (<2%). This effect of C. juncea amendment did not occur in LT experiment, in which bacterivores were already abundant. Fungivorous nematodes were not increased by C. juncea amendment in either experiment, but predatory nematodes were increased when present. Although most nematode faunal indices, including enrichment index, structure index, and channel index, were not affected by C. juncea amendment, structure index values were affected by previous soil organic matter content. Results illustrate the importance of considering soil history (organic matter, nutrient level, free-living nematode number) in anticipating changes following amendment with C. juncea hay. PMID:19262764

  6. Characterizing and modeling of extensive atrazine elution tailing for stable manure-amended agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Non-ideal sorption and extensive elution tailing behavior of atrazine was evaluated for an agricultural soil with and without stable manure amendment (10% by weight). A series of laboratory experiments showed that the sorption of atrazine was described by rate-limited, nonlinear reversible processes (Freundlich isotherm) for both non-amended and amended soil. Non-ideal transport of atrazine exhibited extensive low concentration elution tailing due to the most likely organic carbon fraction in the soil. This tailing behavior was more pronounced and extensive for soil with 10% stable-manure amendment. Two-site transport modeling analyses including non-linear sorption and rate-limited sorption-desorption provided a reasonably good match to the atrazine breakthrough curves but were unable to match the long-term concentration tailing, even for non-amended soil. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution function was used to successfully simulate atrazine transport early-time breakthrough and long-term concentration tailing for both non-amended and amended soil conditions.

  7. Carbon amendment and soil depth affect the distribution and abundance of denitrifiers in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M; Khalil, M I; Jahangir, M M R; Lee, C; Cardenas, L M; Collins, G; Richards, K G; O'Flaherty, V

    2016-04-01

    The nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding (nosZ) genes of denitrifying populations present in an agricultural grassland soil were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Samples from three separate pedological depths at the chosen site were investigated: horizon A (0-10 cm), horizon B (45-55 cm), and horizon C (120-130 cm). The effect of carbon addition (treatment 1, control; treatment 2, glucose-C; treatment 3, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on denitrifier gene abundance and N2O and N2 fluxes was determined. In general, denitrifier abundance correlated well with flux measurements; nirS was positively correlated with N2O, and nosZ was positively correlated with N2 (P < 0.03). Denitrifier gene copy concentrations per gram of soil (GCC) varied in response to carbon type amendment (P < 0.01). Denitrifier GCCs were high (ca. 10(7)) and the bac:nirK, bac:nirS, bac:nir (T) , and bac:nosZ ratios were low (ca. 10(-1)/10) in horizon A in all three respective treatments. Glucose-C amendment favored partial denitrification, resulting in higher nir abundance and higher N2O fluxes compared to the control. DOC amendment, by contrast, resulted in relatively higher nosZ abundance and N2 emissions, thus favoring complete denitrification. We also noted soil depth directly affected bacterial, archaeal, and denitrifier abundance, possibly due to changes in soil carbon availability with depth.

  8. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells

    PubMed Central

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the “soil benefit” category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  9. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the "soil benefit" category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed.

  10. Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in agricultural soils amended with different organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Li; Wang, Haizhen; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2015-10-15

    Five organic fertilizers (vermicompost, pig manure, chicken manure, peat and oil residue) were applied to agricultural soils to study their effects on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survival changed greatly after organic fertilizers application, with shorter td values (survival time needed to reach the detection limit of 100 CFU g(-1)) (12.57±6.57 days) in soils amended with chicken manure and the longest (25.65±7.12 days) in soils amended with pig manure. Soil pH, EC and free Fe/Al (hydro) oxides were significant explanatory factors for E. coli O157:H7 survival in the original soils. Soil constituents (minerals and organic matter) and changes in their surface charges with pH increased the effect of soil pH on E. coli O157:H7 survival. However, electrical conductivity played a more important role in regulating E. coli O157:H7 survival in fertilizer-amended soils. This study highlighted the importance of choosing appropriate organic fertilizers in the preharvest environment to reduce food-borne bacterial contamination.

  11. Low occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agricultural soils with and without organic amendment

    PubMed Central

    Deredjian, Amélie; Colinon, Céline; Hien, Edmond; Brothier, Elisabeth; Youenou, Benjamin; Cournoyer, Benoit; Dequiedt, Samuel; Hartmann, Alain; Jolivet, Claudy; Houot, Sabine; Ranjard, Lionel; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Nazaret, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored at a broad spatial scale in French agricultural soils, from various soil types and under various land uses to evaluate the ability of soil to be a natural habitat for that species. To appreciate the impact of agricultural practices on the potential dispersion of P. aeruginosa, we further investigated the impact of organic amendment at experimental sites in France and Burkina Faso. A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach was used to analyze a set of 380 samples selected within the French RMQS (“Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols”) soil library. In parallel, a culture-dependent approach was tested on a subset of samples. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was very rarely detected suggesting a sporadic presence of this bacterium in soils from France and Burkina Faso, whatever the structural and physico-chemical characteristics or climate. When we analyzed the impact of organic amendment on the prevalence of P. aeruginosa, we found that even if it was detectable in various manures (at levels from 103 to 105 CFU or DNA targets (g drywt)−1 of sample), it was hardly ever detected in the corresponding soils, which raises questions about its survival. The only case reports were from a vineyard soil amended with a compost of mushroom manure in Burgundy, and a few samples from two fields amended with raw urban wastes in the sub-urban area of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In these soils the levels of culturable cells were below 10 CFU (g drywt)−1. PMID:24809025

  12. Organic amendments' dissolved organic carbon influences bioavailability of agricultural soil DOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straathof, Angela L.; Chincarini, Riccardo; Hoffland, Ellis; Comans, Rob N. J.

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural soils benefit from additions of organic amendments because they improve soil structure, are a source of plant nutrients, and increase concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC). The latter fuels microbial processes important for plant growth, including nutrient mineralization and the suppression of plant diseases. However, these amendment additions range in quality and quantity of C and little is known about how their properties interact with native soil C and affect turnover. The dissolved pool of SOC (DOC) may be the most important C source for these processes as it is more biologically available and thus relatively easily turned over by the soil microbial biomass. Using a rapid-batch DOC fractionation procedure, we studied the composition of different organic amendments' DOC pools and measured how their additions change the quantity and turnover of soil DOC. Fractions isolated and quantified with this procedure include humic and fulvic acids, hydrophobic neutral and hydrophilic compounds. We hypothesized that these range from biologically recalcitrant to readily available, respectively. Amendments analysed included composts of different source materials and maturation stages collected from two different compost facilities in the Netherlands. Both total DOC concentrations and proportions of the aforementioned fractions ranged highly between composts. Composts cured for >10 days had a lower proportion of hydrophilic C compounds, suggesting that these are the most bioavailable and released as CO2 via microbial activity during maturation. To measure the effects of compost DOC on soil DOC, we extracted the former and added it to a sandy soil in an incubation experiment. The amendment increased soil total DOC, CO2 production from the soil, and the pools of humic and fulvic acids as a proportion of total DOC. Turnover of C from the incubated soil was measured by substrate-induced CO2 production (an indicator of microbial activity) from a 96-well

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  14. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  15. Effect of organic amendments on quality indexes in an italian agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, R.; Rao, M. A.; D'Ascoli, R.; Scelza, R.; Marzaioli, R.; Rutigliano, F. A.; Gianfreda, L.

    2009-04-01

    Intensive agricultural practices can determine a decline in soil fertility which represents the main constraint to agricultural productivity. In particular, the progressive reduction in soil organic matter, without an adequate restoration, may threaten soil fertility and agriculture sustainability. Some soil management practices can improve soil quality by adding organic amendments as alternative to the sole use of mineral fertilizers for increasing plant quality and growth. A large number of soil properties can be used to define changes in soil quality. In particular, although more emphasis has been given in literature to physical and chemical properties, biological properties, strictly linked to soil fertility, can be valid even more sensitive indicators. Among these, soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass may provide an "early warning" of soil quality and health changes. The aim of this work was to study the effect of preventive sterilization treatment and organic fertilization on enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulphatase, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease) and microbial biomass C in an agricultural soil under crop rotation. The study was carried out on an agricultural soil sited in Campania region (South Italy). At the beginning of experiment sterilizing treatments to control soilborne pathogens and weeds were performed by solarization and calcium cyanamide addition to soil. Organic fertilization was carried out by adding compost from vegetable residues, ricin seed exhaust (Rigen) and straw, singly or in association. Three samplings were performed at three different stages of crop rotation: I) September 2005, immediately after the treatments; II) December 2005, after a lettuce cycle; III) January 2007, after peppers and lettuce cycles. The soil sampling followed a W scheme, with five sub-samples for each plot. Soils were sieved at 2 mm mesh and air dried to determine physical and chemical properties; in addition a suitable amount of soils

  16. Biochar soil amendments as a tool for climate change adaptation in PNW agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. L.; Trippe, K. M.; Murphy, B. A.; Beovich, A. V.; Griffith, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Loss of snow pack, changing hydrographs, and increased temperatures and irrigation demands as a result of climate change all threaten to create transformational drought for growers in the Pacific Northwest. One approach for adapting to drought is to improve moisture retention through soil management practices. Recent efforts at the FSCRU to develop on-farm power have produced a biochar from gasification of seed mill waste that may prove useful as a tool for drought adaption. Testing of this biochar revealed that it contains no toxic elements, making it suitable as a soil amendment, and additions of 20 tonnes ha-1 in dryland wheat system showed improved soil moisture and yield increases of 250%. Persistent but weaker impacts were observed in growing years 2 and 3 following the biochar amendments. Here we present results from a series of laboratory and field studies characterizing how grass seed screening biochar, which is produced from a regionally abundant feedstock, impacted soil hydraulic and thermal properties, soil chemistry, and plant growth. Because of the liming qualities of gasified biochar, the greatest growth benefits are likely to be realized in acidified soils, a growing problem in the PNW. Although the persistence of biochar impacts in soil is still unknown, our results indicate that gasified biochar, particularly when utilized as part of a system of on-farm power production, waste reduction, and nutrient recycling, can improve agricultural sustainability in the context of climate change.

  17. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m2 for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  18. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m(2) for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  19. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Santos, Teresa; Palma, Patrícia; Sengo, Joana; Morais, Marie-Christine; Cunha-Queda, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Nine different samples of sewage sludges, composts and other representative organic wastes, with potential interest to be used as agricultural soil amendments, were characterized: municipal sewage sludge (SS1 and SS2), agro industrial sludge (AIS), municipal slaughterhouse sludge (MSS), mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC), agricultural wastes compost (AWC), compost produced from agricultural wastes and sewage sludge (AWSSC), pig slurry digestate (PSD) and paper mill wastes (PMW). The characterization was made considering their: (i) physicochemical parameters, (ii) total and bioavailable heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg), (iii) organic contaminants, (iv) pathogenic microorganisms and (v) stability and phytotoxicity indicators. All the sludges, municipal or other, comply with the requirements of the legislation regarding the possibility of their application to agricultural soil (with the exception of SS2, due to its pathogenic microorganisms content), with a content of organic matter and nutrients that make them interesting to be applied to soil. The composts presented, in general, some constraints regarding their application to soil, and their impairment was due to the existence of heavy metal concentrations exceeding the proposed limit of the draft European legislation. As a consequence, with the exception of AWSSC, most compost samples were not able to meet these quality criteria, which are more conservative for compost than for sewage sludge. From the results, the composting of sewage sludge is recommended as a way to turn a less stabilized waste into a material that is no longer classified as a waste and, judging by the results of this work, with lower heavy metal content than the other composted materials, and without sanitation problems.

  20. Derivation of ecological criteria for copper in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Li, Jumei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yibing; Smolders, Erik; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-12-01

    The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China. Second, a BAF representing the difference in availability between soil Cu added via biosolids and soluble salts was estimated based on long-term biosolid-amended soils, including soils from China. Third, biosolids Cu HC5input values (the input hazardous concentration for 5% of species of Cu from biosolids to soil) as a function of soil properties were derived using the BAF approach. The average potential availability of Cu in agricultural soils amended with biosolids accounted for 53% of that for the same soils spiked with same amount of soluble Cu salts and with a similar aging time. The cation exchange capacity was the main factor affecting the biosolids Cu HC5input values, while soil pH and organic carbon only explained 24.2 and 1.5% of the variation, respectively. The biosolids Cu HC5input values can be accurately predicted by regression models developed based on 2-3 soil properties with coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.889 and 0.945. Compared with model predicted biosolids Cu HC5input values, current standards (GB4284-84) are most likely to be less protective in acidic and neutral soil, but conservative in alkaline non-calcareous soil. Recommendations on ecological criteria for Cu in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agriculture soils may be helpful to fill the gaps existing between science and regulations, and can be useful for Cu risk assessments in soils

  1. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed.

  2. Environmental fate of the herbicide MCPA in agricultural soils amended with fresh and aged de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste.

    PubMed

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Olive oil agrifood industry generates large amounts of waste whose recycling as organic amendment represents an alternative to their disposal. The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the fate of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in Mediterranean agricultural soils was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions was assessed. Four Mediterranean agricultural soils were selected and amended in laboratory with fresh DW and field-aged DW (DW and ADW treatments, respectively). Adsorption capacity increased by factors between 1.18 and 3.59, for the DW-amended soils, and by factor of 4.93, for ADW-amended soil, with respect to unamended soils, when 5% amendment was applied. The DW amendment had inhibitory effect on dehydrogenase activity and slowed herbicide dissipation, whereas the opposite effect was observed in ADW treatments. In the field-amended soil, the amount of MCPA leached was significantly reduced from 56.9% for unamended soil to 15.9% at the 5% rate. However, leaching losses of MCPA increased in the laboratory-amended soils, because of their high water-soluble organic carbon values which could enhance MCPA mobility, especially in the acidic soils. Therefore, the application of DW as organic amendment in Mediterranean agricultural soils could be an important management strategy to reduce MCPA leaching, especially if the organic matter had been previously transformed by ageing processes.

  3. Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Zhao, Xuchen; Tysklind, Mats; Hao, Fanghua

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss.

  4. Trace element biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system of a temperate agricultural soil amended with different biochars.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Buecker, Jannis; Oburger, Eva; Wenzel, Walter W; Enders, Akio; Lehmann, Johannes; Soja, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    Various biochar (BC) types have been investigated as soil amendment; however, information on their effects on trace element (TE) biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system is still scarce. In the present study, we determined aqua-regia (AR) and water-extractable TEs of four BC types (woodchips (WC), wheat straw (WS), vineyard pruning (VP), pyrolyzed at 525 °C, of which VP was also pyrolyzed at 400 °C) and studied their effects on TE concentrations in leachates and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) tissue in a greenhouse pot experiment. We used an acidic, sandy agricultural soil and a BC application rate of 3% (w/w). Our results show that contents and extractability of TEs in the BCs and effectuated changes of TE biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system strongly varied among the different BC types. High AR-digestable Cu was found in VP and high B contents in WC. WS had the highest impact on TEs in leachates showing increased concentrations of As, Cd, Mo, and Se, whereas WC application resulted in enhanced leaching of B. All BC types increased Mo and decreased Cu concentrations in the plant tissue; however, they showed diverging effects on Cu in the leachates with decreased concentrations for WC and WS, but increased concentrations for both VPs. Our results demonstrate that BCs may release TEs into the soil-water-plant system. A BC-induced liming effect in acidic soils may lead to decreased plant uptake of cationic TEs, including Pb and Cd, but may enhance the mobility of anionic TEs like Mo and As. We also found that BCs with high salt contents (e.g., straw-based BCs) may lead to increased mobility of both anionic and cationic TEs in the short term.

  5. Terra Pretas: Charcoal Amendments Influence on Relict Soils and Modern Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricigliano, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Most soils found in the Amazon region are characterized by highly weathered profiles that are incapable of longterm agricultural production. However, small patches of highly fertile relict soil referred to as Terra Pretas, are also found in the Amazon region, and have maintained their integrity for thousands of years. These soils were…

  6. Volatile organic compound emissions from straw-amended agricultural soils and their relations to bacterial communities: A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Wang, Zhe; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming; Dai, Wanhong; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Yonggan; Shi, Chengfei

    2016-07-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from agricultural soil amended with wheat straw and their associations with bacterial communities for a period of 66days under non-flooded and flooded conditions. The results indicated that ethene, propene, ethanol, i-propanol, 2-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone and acetophenone were the 10 most abundant VOCs, making up over 90% of the total VOCs released under the two water conditions. The mean emission of total VOCs from the amended soils under the non-flooded condition (5924ng C/(kg·hr)) was significantly higher than that under the flooded condition (2211ng C/(kg·hr)). One "peak emission window" appeared at days 0-44 or 4-44, and over 95% of the VOC emissions occurred during the first month under the two water conditions. Bacterial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a relative increase of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria but a relative decrease of Acidobacteria with time were observed after straw amendments under the two water conditions. Cluster analysis revealed that the soil bacterial communities changed greatly with incubation time, which was in line with the variation of the VOC emissions over the experimental period. Most of the above top 10 VOCs correlated positively with the predominant bacterial species of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia but correlated negatively with the dominant bacterial species of Actinobacteria under the two water conditions. These results suggested that bacterial communities might play an important role in VOC emissions from straw-amended agricultural soils.

  7. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    contents increased in BC10 treatment, while the K contents were similar in all treatments as well as C/N ratio (around 15). The organic matter content was BC10>BC5>BC0 and the dissolved organic C content was lower than 8.3 g kg-1 for all piles confirming the maturity of compost. The germination test showed a non-toxic effect of all amendments in the species assayed obtaining a germination index between 55% and 80.7% indicating maturity of the amendments evaluated. Our results indicated that the combined use of agricultural wastes and biochar by mean of a co-composting process is a suitable option for generating good quality amendments for improving soil condition and optimizing nutrient cycling at farm scale. Financial support for this research was provided by the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research through FONDECYT 11140508 Project

  8. Organic contaminants in an agricultural soil with a known history of sewage sludge amendments: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, S.R.; Waterhouse, K.S.; Jones, K.C. ); McGrath, S.P. )

    1990-11-01

    The PAH content of soils from a long-term agricultural experiment that received 25 separate sewage sludge applications from 1942 to 1961 is presented along with data from an untreated control plot and a plot that received repeated applications of farmyard manure. Archived plough layer (0-23 cm) soil samples were collected, stored, and processed in the same manner between 1942 and 1984 (i.e., before, during, and after sludge amendments) and samples of the applied sludges were available for analysis. Soil {Sigma} PAH concentrations increased between 1942 and 1960 on the sludge-amended plot and subsequently showed a steady decline. By 1984 the sludge-amended plot still contained over 3 times more {Sigma} PAH than the corresponding control soil. By 1960 {approximately} 70% of the {Sigma} PAH load added in the sludge was unaccounted for; this had increased to nearly 85% by 1984. Some compound-specific trends are apparent in the data; generally, the higher molecular weight PAHs have been more persistent. It is argued that biodegradation and transboundary transfers due to ploughing are the two main loss mechanisms.

  9. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors

  10. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Burkhardt, Mark R; Zaugg, Steven D; Werner, Stephen L; Bossio, Joseph P; Benotti, Mark J

    2008-03-15

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWls, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWls, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWls. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWls present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWls detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 microg/kg), 25 AWls in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 microg/ kg), and 21 AWls in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 microg/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation

  11. Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.

    PubMed

    Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among

  12. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  13. Use of Fe/Al drinking water treatment residuals as amendments for enhancing the retention capacity of glyphosate in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wendling, Laura A; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2015-08-01

    Fe/Al drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), ubiquitous and non-hazardous by-products of drinking water purification, are cost-effective adsorbents for glyphosate. Given that repeated glyphosate applications could significantly decrease glyphosate retention by soils and that the adsorbed glyphosate is potentially mobile, high sorption capacity and stability of glyphosate in agricultural soils are needed to prevent pollution of water by glyphosate. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of reusing Fe/Al WTR as a soil amendment to enhance the retention capacity of glyphosate in two agricultural soils. The results of batch experiments showed that the Fe/Al WTR amendment significantly enhanced the glyphosate sorption capacity of both soils (p<0.001). Up to 30% of the previously adsorbed glyphosate desorbed from the non-amended soils, and the Fe/Al WTR amendment effectively decreased the proportion of glyphosate desorbed. Fractionation analyses further demonstrated that glyphosate adsorbed to non-amended soils was primarily retained in the readily labile fraction (NaHCO3-glyphosate). The WTR amendment significantly increased the relative proportion of the moderately labile fraction (HCl-glyphosate) and concomitantly reduced that of the NaHCO3-glyphosate, hence reducing the potential for the release of soil-adsorbed glyphosate into the aqueous phase. Furthermore, Fe/Al WTR amendment minimized the inhibitory effect of increasing solution pH on glyphosate sorption by soils and mitigated the effects of increasing solution ionic strength. The present results indicate that Fe/Al WTR is suitable for use as a soil amendment to prevent glyphosate pollution of aquatic ecosystems by enhancing the glyphosate retention capacity in soils.

  14. Use of Zeolite with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Amendments to Mitigate Runoff Losses of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Suspended Solids from Agricultural Wastes Applied to Grassed Soils.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Fenton, O

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse pollutant losses containing phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and suspended solids (SS) can occur when agricultural wastes are applied to soil. This study aimed to mitigate P, N, and SS losses in runoff from grassed soils, onto which three types of agricultural wastes (dairy slurry, pig slurry, and dairy-soiled water [DSW]), were applied by combining amendments of either zeolite and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with dairy and pig slurries or zeolite and alum with DSW. Four treatments were investigated in rainfall simulation studies: (i) control soil, (ii) agricultural wastes, (iii) dairy and pig slurries amended with PAC and DSW amended with alum, and (iv) dairy and pig slurries amended with zeolite and PAC and DSW amended with zeolite and alum. Our data showed that combined amendments of zeolite and PAC applied to dairy and pig slurries reduced total P (TP) in runoff by 87 and 81%, respectively, compared with unamended slurries. A combined amendment of zeolite and alum applied to DSW reduced TP in runoff by 50% compared with unamended DSW. The corresponding reductions in total N (TN) were 56% for dairy slurry and 45% for both pig slurry and DSW. Use of combined amendments reduced SS in runoff by 73 and 44% for dairy and pig slurries and 25% for DSW compared with unamended controls, but these results were not significantly different from those using chemical amendments only. The findings of this study are that combined amendments of zeolite and either PAC or alum reduce TP and TN losses in runoff to a greater extent than the use of single PAC or alum amendments and are most effective when used with dairy slurry and pig slurry but less effective when used with DSW.

  15. Effect of different organic amendments on the dissipation of linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil in an agricultural soil incubated for different time periods.

    PubMed

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia

    2014-04-01

    Dissipation kinetics of pesticides belonging to three chemical groups (linuron, diazinon and myclobutanil) was studied in an unamended agricultural soil and in this soil amended with three organic residues: sewage sludge (SS), grape marc (GM) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS). The soils were incubated with the residues outdoors for one and 12 months. Mineralized, extracted and non-extractable fractions were also studied for (14)C-linuron and (14)C-diazinon. The dissipation kinetics was fitted to single first-order or first-order multicompartment models. The dissipation rate (k) decreased in the order diazinon>linuron>myclobutanil, and DT50 values decreased for linuron (1.6-4.8 times) or increased for myclobutanil (1.7-2.6 times) and diazinon (1.8-2.3 times) in the amended soils relative to the unamended soil. The lowest DT50 values for the three pesticides were recorded in GM-amended soil, and the highest values in SMS-amended soil. After 12 months of soil incubation, DT50 values decreased in both the unamended and amended soils for linuron, but increased for the unamended and SMS-amended soil for diazinon and myclobutanil. A certain relationship was observed between the sorption of pesticides by the soils and DT50 values, although it was significant only for myclobutanil (p<0.05). Dissipation mechanism recorded the lowest mineralization of (14)C-pesticides in the GM-soil despite the highest dissipation rate in this soil. The extracted (14)C-residues decreased with incubation time, with increased formation of non-extractable residues, higher in amended soils relative to the unamended soil. Soil dehydrogenase activity was, in general, stimulated by the addition of the organic amendments and pesticides to the soil after one month and 12 months of incubation. The results obtained revealed that the simultaneous use of amendments and pesticides in soils requires a previous study in order to check the environmental specific persistence of these compounds and their

  16. Effects of aluminium water treatment residuals, used as a soil amendment to control phosphorus mobility in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ulén, Barbro; Etana, Ararso; Lindström, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from agricultural soils is a serious environmental concern. Application of aluminium water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) at a rate of 20 Mg ha(-1) to clay soils from central Sweden significantly increased mean topsoil P sorption index (PSI) from 4.6 to 5.5 μmol kg(-1) soil. Mean degree of P saturation in ammonium lactate extract (DPS-AL) significantly decreased from 17 to 13%, as did plant-available P (P-AL). Concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) decreased by 10-85% in leaching water with Al-WTR treatments after exposure of topsoil lysimeters to simulated rain. Soil aggregate stability (AgS) for 15 test soils rarely improved. Three soils (clay loam, silty loam and loam sand) were tested in greenhouse pot experiments. Aluminium-WTR application of 15 or 30 ton ha(-1) to loam sand and a clay loam with P-AL values of 80-100 mg kg(-1) soil significantly increased growth of Italian ryegrass when fertilised with P but did not significantly affect growth of spring barley on any soil. Al-WTR should only be applied to soils with high P fertility where improved crop production is not required.

  17. Saline irrigation and Zn amendment effect on Cd phytoavailability to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a long-term amended agricultural soil: a human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Valdez-González, J C; López-Chuken, U J; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Flores-Banda, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-05-01

    Crops, particularly in the Northeast region of Mexico, have to cope with increasing soil salinization due to irrigation. Chloride (Cl(-)) concentration has been strongly related to enhance cadmium (Cd) uptake by plants due to increased solubility in the soil solution. The effect of irrigation with slightly saline water from a local well was evaluated in this work on the accumulation and translocation of Cd in Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in soil historically amended with stabilized sewage sludge under a regime of phosphorus and zinc fertilization. A factorial pot experiment was conducted with two phosphate fertilizer levels (PF, 0 and 80 kg ha(-1) dry soil, respectively), two Zn levels (0 and 7 kg ha(-1) dry soil), and two sources of water for irrigation deionized water (DW) and slightly saline well water (WW) from an agricultural site. Additionally, a human risk assessment for Cd ingestion from plants was assessed. Results showed that Cl(-) salinity in the WW effectively mobilized soil Cd and increased its phytoavailability. A higher level of Cd was found in roots (46.41 mg kg(-1)) compared to shoots (10.75 mg kg(-1)). Although the total content of Cd in the edible parts of the Swiss chard irrigated with WW exceeded permissible recommended consumption limit, bioavailable cadmium in the aboveground parts of the plant in relation to the total cadmium content was in the range from 8 to 32 %. Therefore, human health risks might be overestimated when the total concentration is taken into account.

  18. Does biochar with organic amendments affect denitrification in an agricultural soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Regine; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl Hanl, Wolfgang; Dunst, Gerald; Kitzler, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In this laboratory experiment we investigated the influence of biochar (BC) application on dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an agricultural soil in Austria. We produced BC at 550°C from fiber sludge and husk, partly enriched with ammonium sulfate and mixed with garden green compost at a 50/50 ratio (w/w). The gleyic Cambisol originates from an experimental site in Kaindorf, Austria. For the incubation experiment we established three different treatments in 2014: K (control plots); T1 (1 % BC-compost mixture) and T2 (0.5 % BC-compost mixture enriched with 175 kg N ha-1). We used the helium gas flow soil core technique to quantify N2 and N2O fluxes simultaneously. Therefore, we incubated soil cores at ambient air temperature (20 and 24°C) at 20 and 50% water filled pore space (WFPS). Results show that before BC addition N2 and N2O fluxes were similar at all treatments. Measurements of pure nitrogen-enriched BC show very high gaseous losses in form of N2 and N2O. Raising temperature promotes N2 production at all treatments. Application of N-enriched BC led to significantly higher N2 fluxes compared to K. N2O fluxes increased significantly at fertilized BC plots (T2) compared to K and T1 at both water contents. Raising WFPS supports higher N2 production at all treatments but lowers N2 fluxes at BC plots.

  19. A study on temporal trends and estimates of fate of Bisphenol A in agricultural soils after sewage sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zulin; Le Velly, Morgane; Rhind, Stewart M; Kyle, Carol E; Hough, Rupert L; Duff, Elizabeth I; McKenzie, Craig

    2015-05-15

    Temporal concentration trends of BPA in soils were investigated following sewage sludge application to pasture (study 1: short term sludge application; study 2: long term multiple applications over 13 years). The background levels of BPA in control soils were similar, ranging between 0.67-10.57 ng g(-1) (mean: 3.02 ng g(-1)) and 0.51-6.58 ng g(-1) (mean: 3.22 ng g(-1)) for studies 1 and 2, respectively. Concentrations in both treated and control plots increased over the earlier sampling times of the study to a maximum and then decreased over later sampling times, suggesting other sources of BPA to both the treated and control soils over the study period. In study 1 there was a significant treatment effect of sludge application in the autumn (p=0.002) although no significant difference was observed between treatment and control soils in the spring. In study 2 treated soils contained considerably higher BPA concentrations than controls ranging between 12.89-167.9 ng g(-1) (mean: 63.15 ng g(-1)). This and earlier studies indicate the long-term accumulation of multiple contaminants by multiple sewage sludge applications over a prolonged period although the effects of the presence of such contaminant mixtures have not yet been elucidated. Fugacity modelling was undertaken to estimate partitioning of Bisphenol A (soil plus sewage: pore water: soil air partitioning) and potential uptake into a range of food crops. While Bisphenol A sorbs strongly to the sewage-amended soil, 4% by mass was predicted to enter soil pore water resulting in significant uptake by crops particularly leafy vegetables (3.12-75.5 ng g(-1)), but also for root crops (1.28-31.0 ng g(-1)) with much lower uptake into cereal grains (0.62-15.0 ng g(-1)). This work forms part of a larger programme of research aimed at assessing the risks associated with the long-term application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils.

  20. Influence of biochar amendments on the sorption-desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor, bentazone and pyraclostrobin pesticides to an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, A; Cox, L; Spokas, K; Hermosín, M C; Cornejo, J; Koskinen, W C

    2014-02-01

    The many advantageous properties of biochar have led to the recent interest in the use of this carbonaceous material as a soil amendment. However, there are limited studies dealing with the effect of biochar on the behavior of pesticides applied to crops. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of various biochars on the sorption-desorption of the herbicides aminocyclopyrachlor (6-amino-5-chloro-2-cyclopropyl-4-pyrimidinacarboxylic acid) and bentazone (3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide) and the fungicide pyraclostrobin (methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl) pyrazol-3-yloxymethil]-N-methoxycarbanilate) to a silt loam soil. Aminocyclopyrachlor and bentazone were almost completely sorbed by the soils amended with the biochars produced from wood pellets. However, lower sorption of the herbicides was observed in the soils amended with the biochar made from macadamia nut shells as compared to the unamended soil, which was attributed to the competition between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the biochar and the herbicides for sorption sites. Our results showed that pyraclostrobin is highly sorbed to soil, and the addition of biochars to soil did not further increase its sorption. Thus, addition of biochars to increase the retention of low mobility pesticides in soil appears to not be necessary. On the other hand, biochars with high surface areas and low DOC contents can increase the sorption of highly mobile pesticides in soil.

  1. Nitrogen and carbon pools in an agricultural soil amended with natural and NH4-enriched K-Chabazite zeolitite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Faccini, Barbara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Massimo, Coltorti

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen and Carbon pools in a reclaimed agricultural soil amended with 5 to 15 Kg m-2 of natural and NH4-enriched (K-Chabazite) zeolitites have been investigated. Zeolitites were enriched by means of static exchange with a swine slurry in a prototype (ZeoLIFE Project, www.zeolife.it). The experimental field is located in the Po Delta plain near Codigoro (Ferrara, Italy), it extends over an area of about 6 ha and it was divided in six parcels. The field has been heavily fertilized with chemical fertilizers and livestock sewage since 1960. Nowadays the area is part of the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (Nitrate Directive 91/676/CEE) and a maximum annual input of 170 Kg-N ha-1 must be respected. With respect to the control parcels, at the end of the agronomic year, sorghum yield was 4% and 14% higher in the parcels treated with natural zeolitite and in that treated with NH4-enriched zeolitite, respectively. This notwithstanding the N fertilizers reduction from 30% in the former to 50% in the latter. Beside the yield improvement, N and C pools are affected by the use of zeolitite and relevant changes have been noticed. i) δ15N ratios in both soil (total and fixed N-NH4 inside the clay interlayer and zeolite exchange sites) and different organs of the sorghum crops show that the N-NH4 stocked in the enriched zeolitite has been transferred to the crops and preferentially stocked in the leaves with respect to the N-NH4 provided by chemical fertilizer. ii) The active role of fixed N-NH4 pool in mineral nutrition of the crops and its replacement can be due to inorganic N fertilizers (Urea and Diammonium Phosphate). This pool in fact decreased during the crops growth, suggesting that it represented an important contribution to the active N pool in the soil. iii) Due to the high N content in this agricultural field, no significant total N decrease was observed during the growing season, which is also responsible for the low C/N ratio in the soil. After the N input from NH4

  2. Evaluation of Poultry Litter Amendment to Agricultural Soils: Leaching Losses and Partitioning of Trace Elements in Collard Greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of trace metals and greenhouse plant growth (Collard greens; Brassica oleracea var. acephala) response studies were conducted in two types of soils with contrasting characteristics amended with varying rates (0 to 24.70 Mg ha-1) of poultry litter (PL) or 1:1 mixture of PL and fly ash (FA). ...

  3. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on nitrogen in a manure-amended sandy agricultural soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-...

  4. Metal uptake by agricultural plant species grown in sludge-amended soil following ecosystem restoration practices

    SciTech Connect

    Peles, J.D.; Barrett, G.W.; Brewer, S.R.

    1996-12-01

    The disposal of municipal sewage sludge is an important environmental problem presently facing society. Because sludge is rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, land application as a fertilizer has been proposed as a cost-effective means of disposal. This method of disposal, however, is frequently the subject of public health concern since municipal sludge may contain heavy metals that potentially could be introduced into the human food chain. This study examined metal concentrations in two agricultural species at a study site where ecosystem restoration practices (liming and tilling) had been conducted for 5 years following 11 years of sludge enrichment. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W; Visser, Johnny H M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment.

  6. Chitin Amendment Increases Soil Suppressiveness toward Plant Pathogens and Modulates the Actinobacterial and Oxalobacteraceal Communities in an Experimental Agricultural Field

    PubMed Central

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W.; Visser, Johnny H. M.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment. PMID:23811512

  7. Agriculture: Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  8. Effects of organic amendments on natural organic matter in bulk soils from an italian agricultural area as assessed by Fast Field Cycling NMR relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Conte, Pellegrino; Alonzo, Giuseppe; Rao, Maria A.

    2010-05-01

    Losses of soil organic carbon often occur in soil because of intensive agricultural practices. This is due both to removal of organic carbon following harvest production and to insufficient inputs of organic amendments. Natural organic matter (NOM) can be a very appropriate material for enhancing organic carbon content in very stressed agricultural soils. In general, NOM plays an important role in environmental matrices due, for example, to its capacity in retaining water, in interacting with organic and inorganic pollutants, and in enhancing nutrient availability to plants. For this reason, the understanding of the mechanisms with which NOM interacts with other chemicals in the environment is of paramount importance. Structural and conformational NOM characteristics can be analysed by high field (HF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy either in the solid or in the liquid state. In both cases, information on the chemical nature of NOM can be achieved. Moreover, relaxometry studies can be also conducted to provide information on the molecular dynamics of natural organic matter. However, HF-NMR relaxometry limitations are related to the strength of the magnetic fields which limits the range of relaxation rates that can be investigated. In fact, high magnetic fields (e.g. ≥108 Hz) reduce the possibilities to observe molecular dynamics at very low frequencies such as those between 106 and 103 Hz. To this aim, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry at low fields and in the fast field cycling (FFC) setup is the most powerful way to retrieve information on the dynamics at low frequencies. Here, FFC-NMR relaxometry studies on soils subjected to different organic amendements are presented. Two farms, in an important agricultural area of Campania Region, Italy, were selected in order to study the effect of different organic amendments on bulk soils. Namely, a compost from municipal solid wastes and wood-wastes (scraps of poplars pruning) were applied in

  9. A new extraction method to assess the environmental availability of ciprofloxacin in agricultural soils amended with exogenous organic matter.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Anaïs; Haudin, Claire-Sophie; Bergheaud, Valérie; Dumény, Valérie; Ferhi, Sabrina; Nélieu, Sylvie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin can be found in soils receiving exogenous organic matter (EOM). Their long-term behavior in EOM-amended soils and their level of biodegradability are not well understood partly due to a lack of methods to estimate their environmental availability. We performed different aqueous extractions to quantify the available fraction of (14)C-ciprofloxacin in soils amended with a compost of sewage sludge and green wastes or a farmyard manure contaminated at relevant environmental concentrations. After minimizing (14)C-ciprofloxacin losses by adsorption on laboratory vessel tubes, three out of eleven different aqueous solutions were selected, i.e., Borax, Na2EDTA and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. During 28 d of incubation, the non-extractable fractions were very high in all samples, i.e., 57-67% of the initial (14)C-activity, and the availability of the antibiotic was very low, explaining its low biodegradation. A maximum of 6.3% of the initial (14)C-activity was extracted from soil/compost mixtures with the Na2EDTA solution, and 7.2% from soil/manure mixtures with the Borax solution. The available fraction level was stable over the incubation in soil/compost mixtures but slightly varied in soil/manure mixtures following the organic matter decomposition. The choice of different soft extractants highlighted different sorption mechanisms controlling the environmental availability of ciprofloxacin, where the pH and the quality of the applied EOM appeared to be determinant.

  10. Effect of pyrochar and hydrochar amendments on the mineralization of the herbicide isoproturon in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Eibisch, Nina; Schroll, Reiner; Fuß, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Carbon (C)-rich, solid products from pyrolysis (pyrochars) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC, hydrochars) are expected to reduce the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of pesticides as side effect of soil addition. To compare effects of different feedstocks (digestate, miscanthus, woodchips) and production processes (pyrolysis at 750°C, HTC at 200°C and 250°C), (14)C-labeled isoproturon (IPU) was applied at 0.75 kg ha(-)(1) to loamy sand amended either with 0.5% or 5% pyrochars or hydrochars, which was then incubated for 50d. Mineralization of IPU was measured as (14)C-CO2 released from soil-char composites. Pore-water and methanol extractable (14)C-IPU was quantified as well as non-extractable (14)C-residues (NER). Furthermore, C mineralization of pyrochars, hydrochars and feedstocks was studied to assess the relationship between IPU bioaccessibility and char decomposability. In pure soil, 8.1% of applied IPU was mineralized after 50d. This was reduced more strongly in pyrochar treatments (81 ± 6% reduction) than in hydrochar treatments (56 ± 25% reduction). Different feedstocks had no significantly different effect when 5% char was added, but their effect was significant and dependent on the production process in 0.5% amendments. Pesticide binding can occur by surface sorption as well as by diffusion and subsequent occlusion in micropores. The latter can be expected to result in high amounts of NER, as it was observed in the pyrochar treatments. Hydrochars were less stable than pyrochars and contained lower amounts of NER. Thus, in hydrochar amended soils, better accessibility of IPU to microbial degradation may be a result of full char decomposition within decades ensuring controlled pesticide degradation.

  11. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haiyang; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Xueying; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat), individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV) under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space) in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0), 200 kg N ha-1 (N200), 250 kg N ha-1 (N250), maize residue plus N200 (MN200), maize residue plus N250 (MN250), wheat residue plus N200 (WN200) and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250). Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O emissions

  12. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianmin; Xie, Yingxin; Jin, Haiyang; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Xueying; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat), individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV) under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space) in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0), 200 kg N ha-1 (N200), 250 kg N ha-1 (N250), maize residue plus N200 (MN200), maize residue plus N250 (MN250), wheat residue plus N200 (WN200) and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250). Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O emissions

  13. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    assessed in a pot experiment. Plant growth was unaffected (wheat) or stimulated (bean) by the amendment addition in the 0.5-3.0% range while the higher amendment rate (i.e. 5.0%) was detrimental for both plant species indicating a phytotoxic effect which could be due to different factors such as an excess of calcium in soil, a suppression of Mg uptake or the higher EC values detected at the highest amendment rate. It is concluded that ground P. lividus endoskeletons have potential as a soil amendment to ameliorate chemical and biological properties of acidic Mediterranean soils. This seems particularly relevant, especially at the lower amendment rates, since for the first time, a sustainable management system is proposed for P. lividus processing waste, which foresees economic value in the sea urchin by-product through its re-use within the agricultural production system.

  14. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  15. Impact of FGD gypsum soil amendment applications on soil and environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for improving soil quality and other environmental benefits. Gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years. It is a soluble source of calcium and sulfur- for crops and has been shown to i...

  16. Influence of an iron-rich amendment on chemical lability and plant (Raphanus sativus L.) availability of two metallic elements (As and Pb) on mine-impacted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Jun Young

    2016-10-01

    Variation of the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of two metallic elements (e.g., As and Pb) on amendment-treated soils was investigated. Four mine-impacted agricultural soils contaminated with both As (174-491 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (116-357 mg kg(-1)) were amended with an iron-rich sludge at the rate of 5 % (w/w). After a 4-, 8-, and 16-week incubation, the extractability of metallic elements was assessed by sequential extraction procedure (SEP; F1-F5). The control without amendment was also run. In amended soils, the labile element mass (i.e., F1 + F2) promptly decreased (15-48 % of As and 5-10 % of Pb) in 4 weeks, but the decrement was continued over 16 weeks up to 70 and 28 % for As and Pb, respectively. The labile mass decrement was quantitatively corresponded with the increment of F3 (bound to amorphous metal oxides). In plant test assessed by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on the 16-week soils, up to 57 % of As and 28 % of Pb accumulation was suppressed and 10-43 % of growth (i.e., shoot/root elongation and fresh weight) was improved. For both the control and amended soils, element uptake by plant was well correlated with their labile soil concentrations (r (2) = 0.799 and 0.499 for As and Pb, respectively). The results confirmed that the iron-rich material can effectively suppress element uptake during R. sativus seedling growth, most likely due to the chemical stabilization of metallic elements in growth medium.

  17. A novel salt-tolerant chitobiosidase discovered by genetic screening of a metagenomic library derived from chitin-amended agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Berini, Francesca; Kielak, Anna Maria; Marinelli, Flavia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Here, we report on the construction of a metagenomic library from a chitin-amended disease-suppressive agricultural soil and its screening for genes that encode novel chitinolytic enzymes. The library, constructed in fosmids in an Escherichia coli host, comprised 145,000 clones containing inserts of sizes of 21 to 40 kb, yielding a total of approximately 5.8 GB of cloned soil DNA. Using genetic screenings by repeated PCR cycles aimed to detect gene sequences of the bacterial chitinase A-class (hereby named chi A genes), we identified and characterized five fosmids carrying candidate genes for chitinolytic enzymes. The analysis thus allowed access to the genomic (fosmid-borne) context of these genes. Using the chiA-targeted PCR, which is based on degenerate primers, the five fosmids all produced amplicons, of which the sequences were related to predicted chitinolytic enzyme-encoding genes of four different host organisms, including Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Sequencing and de novo annotation of the fosmid inserts confirmed that each one of these carried one or more open reading frames that were predicted to encode enzymes active on chitin, including one for a chitin deacetylase. Moreover, the genetic contexts in which the putative chitinolytic enzyme-encoding genes were located were unique per fosmid. Specifically, inserts from organisms related to Burkholderia sp., Acidobacterium sp., Aeromonas veronii, and the chloroflexi Nitrolancetus hollandicus and/or Ktedonobacter racemifer were obtained. Remarkably, the S. maltophilia chiA-like gene was found to occur in two different genetic contexts (related to N. hollandicus/K. racemifer), indicating the historical occurrence of genetic reshufflings in this part of the soil microbiota. One fosmid containing the insert composed of DNA from the N. hollandicus-like organism (denoted 53D1) was selected for further work. Using subcloning procedures, its putative gene for a chitinolytic enzyme was successfully brought to

  18. AMENDING SOILS WITH PHOSPHATE AS MEANS TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils con

  19. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  20. Soil moisture: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milstead, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    A brief tutorial on soil moisture, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil moisture and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.

  1. Fractionation and analysis of veterinary antibiotics and their related degradation products in agricultural soils and drainage waters following swine manure amendment.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Coté, Caroline; Généreux, Mylène; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The fate of antimicrobial active compound residues in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in swine husbandry are of particular interest for their potential toxicity and contribution to antibiotic resistance. The presence of relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds has been reported in agricultural areas but few information is available on their degradation products. Veterinary antibiotics reach terrestrial environments through many routes, including application of swine manure to soils. The objectives of this project were first, to develop an analytical method able to quantify and identify veterinary antibiotics and their degradation products in manure, soil and water samples; and second, to study the distribution of these target compounds in soils and drainage waters. A brief evaluation of their potential toxicity in the environment was also made. In order to achieve these objectives, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for its ability to quantify contaminants with sensitivity and selectivity, and its capacity to identify degradation products. Samples of manure, soil and water came from a long-term experimental site where swine manure containing veterinary antibiotics has been applied for many years. In this study, tetracycline antibiotics were found at several hundred μg L(-1) in the swine manure slurry used for fertilization, several hundred of ng L(-1) in drainage waters and several ng g(-1) in soils, while degradation products were sometimes found at concentrations higher than the parent compounds.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  3. Metal and nanoparticle occurrence in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wang, Yifei; Westerhoff, Paul; Hristovski, Kiril; Jin, Virginia L; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-07-01

    Metals can accumulate in soils amended with biosolids in which metals have been concentrated during wastewater treatment. The goal of this study is to inspect agricultural sites with long-term biosolid application for a suite of regulated and unregulated metals, including some potentially present as commonly used engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Sampling occurred in fields at a municipal and a privately operated biosolid recycling facilities in Texas. Depth profiles of various metals were developed for control soils without biosolid amendment and soils with different rates of biosolid application (6.6 to 74 dry tons per hectare per year) over 5 to 25 years. Regulated metals of known toxicity, including chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, had higher concentrations in the upper layer of biosolid-amended soils (top 0-30 cm or 0-15 cm) than in control soils. The depth profiles of unregulated metals (antimony, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, gold, silver, tantalum, tin, tungsten, and zirconium) indicate higher concentrations in the 0-30 cm soil increment than in the 70-100 cm soil increment, indicating low vertical mobility after entering the soils. Titanium-containing particles between 50 nm and 250 nm in diameter were identified in soil by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. In conjunction with other studies, this research shows the potential for nanomaterials used in society that enter the sewer system to be removed at municipal biological wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in agricultural fields. The metal concentrations observed herein could be used as representative exposure levels for eco-toxicological studies in these soils.

  4. Predicting bioavailability of metals from sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Golui, Debasis; Datta, S P; Rattan, R K; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2014-12-01

    We attempted to develop a protocol for fixing the maximum permissible limit of sludge in agricultural lands based on transfer of metals from sludge-amended soils to human food chain. For this purpose, spinach was grown as a test crop on acid and alkaline soils with graded doses of sludge (0, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, 8.96, 17.9, 35.8, 71.6, 142 and 285 g kg(-1) of soil) in a pot experiment. Biomass yield of spinach was increased due to sludge application in both acid and alkaline soils. Among the chemical extractants, EDTA extracted the highest amount of metals from sludge-amended soil followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and CaCl2. Elevated levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb in spinach were observed due to sludge application over control. Application of sludge was more effective in increasing metal content in spinach grown on acid soil than alkaline soil. Solubility-free ion activity model as a function of pH, organic carbon and extractable metal was far more effective in predicting metal uptake by spinach grown on sludge-amended soils as compared to that of chemical extractants. Risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of metals through consumption of spinach by humans grown on sludge-treated soils was computed for different metals separately. In a 90-day pot experiment, safe rates of sludge application were worked out as 4.48 and 71.6 g kg(-1) for acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  5. Modification to degradation of hexazinone in forest soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Lin, Zhenkun; Wang, Wenwei; Xu, Zhengti; Wang, Xuedong

    2012-01-15

    Influences of one sewage sludge on degradation of hexazinone and formation of its major metabolites were investigated in four forest soils (A, B, C and D), collected in Zhejiang Province, China. In non-amended forest soils, the degradation half-life of hexazinone was 21.4, 30.4, 19.4 and 32.8 days in forest soil A, B, C and D, respectively. Degradation could start in soil A and C without lag period because the two soils had been contaminated by this herbicide for a long time, possibly leading to completion of acclimation period of hexazinone-degrading bacteria. In forest soils amended with sewage sludge, the degradation rate constant increased by 17.3% in soil A, 48.2% in soil B, 8.1% in soil C and 51.6% in soil D, respectively. The higher degradation rates (soil A and C) in non-amended soils accord with the lower rate increase in sewage sludge-amended soils. Under non-sterile conditions, biological mechanism accounted for 51.8-62.4% of hexazinone degradation in four soils. Under sterile conditions, the four soils had the similar chemical degradation capacity for hexazinone. In non-amended soil B, only one metabolite (B) was detected, while two metabolites (B and C) were found in sewage sludge-amended soil B. Similarly situated in agricultural soils, N-demethylation at 6-position of triazine ring, hydroxylation at the 4-positon of cyclohexyl group, and removal of the dimethylamino group with formation of a carbonyl group at 6-position of triazine ring appear to be the principal mechanism involved in hexazinone degradation in sewage sludge-amended forest soils. These data will improve understanding of the actual pollution risk as a result of forest soil fertilization with sewage sludge.

  6. Effect of phosphogypsum amendment on soil physico-chemical properties, microbial load and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Soumya; Mishra, C S K; Guru, B C; Rath, Monalisa

    2011-09-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is produced as a solid waste from phosphatic fertilizer plants. The waste slurry is disposed off in settling ponds or in heaps. This solid waste is now increasingly being used as a calcium supplement in agriculture. This study reports the effectof PG amendmenton soil physico chemical properties, bacterial and fungal count and activities of soil enzymes such as invertase, cellulase and amylase over an incubation period of 28 days. The highest mean percent carbon loss (55.98%) was recorded in 15% PG amended soil followed by (55.28%) in 10% PG amended soil and the minimum (1.68%) in control soil. The highest number of bacterial colonies (47.4 CFU g(-1) soil), fungal count (17.8 CFU g(-1) soil), highest amylase activity (38.4 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) and cellulase activity (38.37 microg g(-1) soil hr(-1)) were recorded in 10% amended soil. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) has been recorded in the activities of amylase and cellulase over the period of incubation irrespective of amendments. Considering the bacterial and fungal growth and the activities of the three soil enzymes in the control and amended sets, it appears that 10% PG amendment is optimal for microbial growth and soil enzyme activities.

  7. Organic wastes as soil amendments - Effects assessment towards soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Mathieu; Chelinho, Sónia; Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Palma, Patrícia; Sousa, José Paulo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago

    2017-05-15

    Using organic wastes, as soil amendments, is an important alternative to landfilling with benefits to soil structure, water retention, soil nutrient and organic matter concentrations. However, this practice should be monitored for its environmental risk due to the frequent presence, of noxious substances to soil organisms. To evaluate the potential of eight organic wastes with different origins, as soil amendments, reproduction tests with four soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Eisenia fetida) were performed using gradients of soil-waste mixtures. Results obtained demonstrated that contaminant concentrations required by current legislation might not be a protective measure for the soil ecosystem, as they do not properly translate the potential toxicity of wastes to soil invertebrates. Some wastes with contaminant loadings below thresholds showed higher toxicity than wastes with contaminants concentrations above legal limits. Also, test organism reproduction was differently sensitive to the selected wastes, which highlights the need to account for different organism sensitivities and routes of exposure when evaluating the toxicity of such complex mixtures. Finally this study shows that when combining chemical and ecotoxicological data, it is possible to postulate on potential sources of toxicity, contributing to better waste management practices and safer soil organic amendment products.

  8. Managing compost stability and amendment to soil to enhance soil heating during soil solarization.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Guo, Hongyun; Claypool, Joshua T; Marshall, Megan N; Perano, Kristen M; Stapleton, James J; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2013-05-01

    Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associated with the decomposition of soil organic matter may increase temperatures during solarization, potentially enhancing solarization efficacy. However, the level of organic matter decomposition (stability) necessary for increasing soil temperature is not well characterized, nor is it known if various amendments render the soil phytotoxic to crops following solarization. Laboratory studies and a field trial were performed to determine heat generation in soil amended with compost during solarization. Respiration was measured in amended soil samples prior to and following solarization as a function of soil depth. Additionally, phytotoxicity was estimated through measurement of germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings in greenhouse assays. Amendment of soil with 10%(g/g) compost containing 16.9 mg CO2/gdry weight organic carbon resulted in soil temperatures that were 2-4 °C higher than soil alone. Approximately 85% of total organic carbon within the amended soil was exhausted during 22 days of solarization. There was no significant difference in residual respiration with soil depth down to 17.4 cm. Although freshly amended soil proved highly inhibitory to lettuce seed germination and seedling growth, phytotoxicity was not detected in solarized amended soil after 22 days of field solarization.

  9. Fly ash-amended compost as a manure for agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.; Sajwan, K.S.; Ghuman, G.S.; James, J.; Chandra, K. )

    1993-11-01

    Homemade organic compost prepared from lawn grass clippings was amended with fine fly ash collected from a coal-fired power plant (SRS 484.D. Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC) to investigate its usefulness as a manure in enhancing nutrient uptake and increasing dry matter yield in selected agricultural crops. Three treatments were compared: five crops (mustard, collard, string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant) were each grown on three kinds of soil: soil alone, soil amended with composted grass clippings, and soil amended with the mixed compost of grass clippings and 20% fly ash. The fly ash-amended compost was found to be effective in enhancing the dry matter yield of collard greens and mustard greens by 378% and 348%, respectively, but string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant did not show any significant increase in dry matter yield. Analysis of the above-ground biomass of these last three plants showed they assimilated high levels of boron, which is phytotoxic; and this may be the reason for their poor growth. Soils treated with fly ash-amended compost often gave higher concentrations than the control for K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, and B in the Brassica crops. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. A proposed NRCS conservation practice standard: Amending soil properties with gypsiferous products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the proposed new NRCS conservation practice standard regarding the use of gypsiferous products in agriculture. Gypsiferous products include gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O), has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years as a soluble source of calcium and sulfur for ...

  11. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments.

  12. Reversible and irreversible sorption of agrochemicals in biochar amended soils: synergistic effects of heavy metals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendment of biochar products from thermochemical waste-to-energy conversion (slow/fast pyrolysis and gasification) of biomass has received considerable interests for both contaminated and agricultural sites. Recalcitrant nature of biochar manifests in their decade-long effectiveness in soil a...

  13. Nitrous oxide fluxes from manure-amended soil under maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, R.; Rochette, P.; Gregorich, E.G.

    1996-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions by agricultural soils are influenced by farming practices. The application of manure to cultivated land modifies soil microbial activity by supplying additional quantities of C and N and changing soil physical and chemical properties. Nitrous oxide fluxes at the surface of a soil under maize (Zea mays L.) amended with dairy cattle manure were measured from April to October 1993 using closed chambers. The manure application rates were 0, 56, and 112 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} corresponding to 0. 170, and 339 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of total N, respectively. Nitrate and NH{sub 4}{sup +} were measured in soil samples obtained at the same time that gas flux measurements were made. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the soil profile were quantified by sampling soil air at depths of 5 and 15 cm using stationary air probes. On the manured plots 67% of the total N{sub 2}O emitted during the growing season occurred during the first 7 wk following manure application. Fluxes of N{sub 2}O occurred in episodes with maxima that ranged from 0.070 mg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} on the soil without manure amendment to 0.171 and 0.494 mg M{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} on soils that had received the low and high rates of manure, respectively. These high fluxes coincided with periods when NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N levels and soil water contents were relatively high. Fluxes were highest the first day after manure application and returned to near pre-application levels 7 d later. This episode was followed by short-lived peaks of N{sub 2}O flux that usually followed periods of rain. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  15. Effects of Biochar amendments on soil chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Humans have been transforming soil composition, both accidentally and purposefully, for centuries. For example, terra preta soils found in Amazonia that are greatly enriched in organic carbon and phosphorus and have enhanced fertility relative to the surrounding depleted oxisols, seem to have been deliberately created by native pre-Colombian Indians through the addition of combusted biomass, or biochar. Biochar amendment has gained attention recently as a way to enhance soil carbon sequestration while increasing soil fertility. It may also have adsorptive properties that are useful for pollution control. Our research examines the chemical and morphological properties of biochar with the goals of understanding the origin of terra preta, as well as how biochar can best be put to use as a soil amendment. Biochar was produced from a range of parent biomass types (hardwoods, softwoods and grasses) and under a range of combustion conditions (250 to 650 oC, under air and N2). Surface areas, determined by gas sorptometry, ranged from 3 to 394 m2g-1 (for N2) and from 129 to 345 m2g-1 (for CO2) and were found to generally increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The pH of the biochars ranged from 1.8 to 4.5, from 6.2 to 8.7, and from 6.2 to 9.2 for the 250, 400, and 650 oC biochars, respectively, and did not vary consistently with parent biomass types. Cation exchange capacity (CEC), determined using K+ exchange, ranged between 5 to 60 cmolc kg-1, higher than most soils, and generally increased with charring temperature. Anion exchange capacity (AEC) was low or undetectable. Lastly, the isoelectric point of the chars, determined using a zeta potential analyzer, ranged from a pH of 1.3 to 1.5, indicating that the biochar surfaces will be predominantly negatively charged in soil solutions. These data are complimentary and show that, when added to soil, biochar, particularly those produced at higher temperatures, would function as a cation exchanger system. The acid

  16. Distribution of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Restoration of degraded soils with organic wastes could be a feasible practice to minimise erosion in the Mediterranean area. Today the use of sewage sludge to improve the nutrient contents of a soil is a common practice. Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of sewage sludge is subject to strict controls within the European Community in relation to total permissible metal concentrations, soil properties and intended use. This study is aimed at ascertaining the chemical partitioning of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with sludge. Five surface soils (0-15 cm) that were polluted as a result of agricultural activities were used in this experiment. The sewage sludge amended soils were selected for diversity of physicochemical properties, especially pH and carbonate content. The soils are classified as non-calcareous and calcareous soils. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb in five sewage sludge amended soils was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible and residual forms. With regard to the mineralogical composition of the soil clay fraction, the mineralogical association found was: illite, kaolinite and chlorite. This paper provides quantitative evidence regarding the form of the association of metals and indirectly of their bioavailability. It can help to explain the process by which metals are eliminated from sewage sludge and also indicate the impact of the use of sludge on agricultural soils, as amendments. Data obtained showed different metal distribution trend among the fractions in sludge-amended soils. Comparison of distribution pattern of metals in sludge-applied soils shows that there is possible redistribution of metals among the different phases. Detailed knowledge of the soil at the application site, especially pH, CEC, buffering capacity

  17. Soil amendments yield persisting changes in the microbial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are sensitive to carbon amendments and largely control the decomposition and accumulation of soil organic matter. In this study, we evaluated whether the type of carbon amendment applied to wheat-cropped or fallow soil imparted lasting effects on the microbial community w...

  18. Soil amino compound and carbohydrate contents influenced by organic amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino compounds (i. e. amino acids and sugars), and carbohydrates are labile organic components and contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and quality. Animal manure and other organic soil amendments are rich in both amino compounds and carbohydrates, hence organic soil amendments might af...

  19. Food Safety Issues: Mineral fertilizers and soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizers and other soil amendments are required to maintain soil fertility, but some may be naturally rich in trace elements, or contaminated. Thus, as part of the overall consideration of using fertilizers and soil amendments, one should consider the levels of trace elements present in relation...

  20. Fuzzy indicator approach: development of impact factor of soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendments have been shown to be useful for improving soil condition, but it is often difficult to make management decisions as to their usefulness. Utilization of Fuzzy Set Theory is a promising method for decision support associated with utilization of soil amendments. In this article a tool ...

  1. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  2. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil.

  3. Potential for Carbon Sequestration using Organic Amendments on Rangeland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2009-12-01

    Managed rangelands represent a geographically large land-use footprint and thus have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil through changes in management practices. Organic amendments are frequently added to agricultural and rangeland soils in an effort to improve fertility and yield, yet little is known about their impact on greenhouse gas dynamics and soil biogeochemical dynamics, especially in rangeland soils. This research aims to explore the effects of organic amendments on soil chemical and physical properties, plant inputs, and soil C and N dynamics in managed rangeland ecosystems. Our research uses field manipulations at two Mediterranean grassland ecosystems replicated within and across bioclimatic zones: the Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) in Browns Valley, CA and the Nicasio Native Grass Ranch in Nicasio, CA. Both sites are dominated by annual grasses and are moderately grazed by cattle. Three replicate blocks at each site contain 60m x 25m treatment plots (organic amendments and control) with 5m buffer strips. Organic amendments were applied at a level of 14 MgC/ha (equivalent to a 1.27cm surface dressing) at the beginning of the wet season (December 2008). During the wet season (October through June), carbon dioxide (CO2) flux was measured weekly using a LI-8100, while fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured biweekly using static flux chambers. During the dry season (June through September), fluxes were measured biweekly and monthly, respectively. Soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) were measured prior to treatment and seven months following treatment at 0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm depths. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously. Changes in oxidative and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities are also being explored. After the first year of management, both sites responded similarly to treatments in both trend and magnitude. For example, at SFREC, total soil

  4. Framework…protocols for evaluation … hazards & controls…application...soil amendments of animal origin on land…grow produce…consumed raw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of manure or soil amendments of animal origin (untreated soil amendments; UTSAs) to agricultural land has been a long-standing practice to maintain or improve soil quality through addition of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Much smaller quantities of these types of UTSAs are ap...

  5. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  6. Pore size distribution of soil near saturation as affected by soil type, land use, and soil amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Wagner, L. E.; Levy, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Storage and flow of water in soil voids, which are related to the size and geometry of the voids and flow rate are usually controlled by the void of the smallest size. Another reason for the complexity of water flow in soils is the intricate nature and change of the soil pores due to the modification of soil structure under different agricultural management and climatic conditions. Shrinking and swelling stresses enhance breakdown of aggregates and to subsequent collapse of pores, thus adversely affecting the movement of water and solutes in the soil. Our objective was to study the role of soil type, nature of cultivation, waste and soil stabilizers application, and soil condition on disturbed soil pore-size distribution, drainable porosity and water holding capacity at near saturation (infiltration porosity) using the high energy moisture characteristic method. In this method, the wetting process of the aggregates is accurately controlled, and the energy of hydration and entrapped air are the main forces responsible for aggregate breakdown. We studied a large number (> 300) of soil samples from different climatic regions varying (i) in their inherent properties (clay mineralogy, dispersion potential, texture, organic matter, Fe and Al oxides content), and; (ii) the conditions prevailing in the soil (water quality, salinity, sodicity, redox potential, type of tillage); and finally that were subjected to the addition of different soil amendments (polymers, gypsum, manure, sludge). The results showed that structural stability and pore size distribution strongly depended on soil type, conditions prevailing in the soil and the type of amendment used. Detailed analyses of the results provided valuable information on inter- and intra- aggregate porosities that may have vital bearing on the understanding of (i) solution transport processes in different soil types under different treatments or with different solute concentration, and (ii) down-profile transport of soil

  7. Soil quality, crop productivity and soil organic matter (SOM) priming in biochar and wood ash amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Eleanor Swain; Chadwick, David; Hill, Paul; Jones, Davey

    2016-04-01

    The application of energy production by-products as soil amendments to agricultural land is rapidly growing in popularity, however the increasing body of literature on primarily biochar but also wood ash have yielded contrary evidence of the range of these soil amendments function sensitivity in soil. This study aims to assess the efficacy of two by-products; biochar and wood ash to provide nutrients to grassland as well as the potential to improve overall soil quality. The study of soil amendments at field scale are scarce, and the agronomic benefits of biochar and wood ash in temperate soils remain unclear. We used replicated field plots with three soil treatments (biochar, wood ash and control) to measure the soil and crop properties over twelve months, including PLFA analysis to quantify the total soil microbial biomass and community structure. After a soil residency of one year, there were no significant differences in soil EC, total N, dissolved organic N (DON), dissolved organic C (DOC), NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations, between biochar amended, wood ash amended and un-amended soil. In contrast, the application of biochar had a significant effect on soil moisture, pH, PO4-P concentrations, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total organic carbon (TOC), whilst the wood ash amendment resulted in an increase in soil pH only. There were no significant treatment effects on the growth performance or nutrient uptake of the grass. In a parallel laboratory incubation study, the effects of biochar and wood ash on soil C priming was explored, in which soil with 14C-labelled native SOC was amended with either biochar or wood ash at the same rate as the field trial. The rates of 14CO2 (primed C) production was measured with a liquid scintillation counter over a 50 day period. The 14CO2 that evolved during decomposition likely originated from conversions in the (microbial) biomass. The results indicated that biochar application did not prime for the loss of native SOC (i.e. there

  8. Evaluation of antibiotic mobility in soil associated with swine-slurry soil amendment under cropping conditions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, C; Flores, C; Caixach, J; Mita, L; Piña, B; Comas, J; Bayona, J M

    2014-11-01

    Interest in identifying pools of antibacterial-resistance genes has grown over the last decade, with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) receiving particular attention. In this paper, a mesoscale study aimed at evaluating the vertical transport of common VAs-namely, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in agricultural soil subjected to drip irrigation-was performed under greenhouse conditions. Accordingly, leachates of cropped and uncropped soil, amended with swine-slurry leading to 19-38 μg kg(-1) (dry mass) antibiotics in the soil, were analyzed over the course of the productive cycle of a lettuce (42 days) with three sampling campaigns (N = 24). High lincomycin (LCM) concentrations (30-39 μg L(-1)) were detected in the leachates collected from the swine-slurry-amended soil. The highest LCM mass recovered in the leachates (30.1 ± 1.63 %) was obtained from cropped experimental units. In addition, the LCM leaching constant and its leaching potential as obtained from the first-order model were higher in the leachates from the cropped experimental units. Lower concentrations of sulfadimethoxine were also detected in leachates and in soil. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline occurred only in soil, which is consistent with high soil interaction.

  9. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ON BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A considerable controversy exists over the biosolid phase (organic or inorganic) responsible for the reduction in phytoavailable Cd in soils amended with biosolids as compared to soils amended with inorganic salts. To test the importance of these two phases, 2 biosolids, 15 bioso...

  10. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  11. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments.

    PubMed

    Ro, K S; Novak, J M; Johnson, M G; Szogi, A A; Libra, J A; Spokas, K A; Bae, S

    2016-01-01

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure application are composting and thermochemical conversion which can destroy pathogens and improve handling and storage. The effect of four forms of swine manure-based soil amendments (raw, compost, hydrochar, and pyrochar) on soil fertility and leachate water quality characteristics of a sandy soil were investigated in soil incubation experiments. All four amendments significantly increased soil carbon, cation exchange capacity and available nutrient contents of the soil. However, hydrochar amended soil leached lower amounts of N, P, and K compared to the other amendments including the control. On the other hand, pyrochar amended soil leached higher concentrations of P and K. Subsequent tests on the hydrochar for K and N adsorption isotherms and surface analysis via XPS suggested that these nutrients were not sorbed directly to the hydrochar surface. Although it is still not clear how these nutrients were retained in the soil amended with hydrochar, it suggests a great potential for hydrochar as an alternative manure management option as the hydrochar can be soil applied while minimizing potential environmental issues from the leaching of high nutrient concentrations to water bodies.

  12. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  13. Reduced nitrification and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in acidic soil amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zong, Haiying; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Adding biochar into soils has potential to manipulate soil nitrification process due to its impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, however, the exact mechanisms underlying the alteration of nitrification process in soils are still not clear. Nitrification in an acidic orchard soil amended with peanut shell biochar (PBC) produced at 400 °C was investigated. Nitrification was weakened by PBC addition due to the decreased NH4(+)-N content and reduced ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) abundance in PBC-amended soils. Adding phenolic compounds (PHCs) free biochar (PBC-P) increased the AOB abundance and the DGGE band number, indicating that PHCs remaining in the PBC likely reduced AOB abundance and diversity. However, PBC addition stimulated rape growth and increased N bioavailability. Overall, adding PBC could suppress the nitrification process and improve N bioavailability in the agricultural soils, and thus possibly mitigate the environmental negative impacts and improving N use efficiency in the acidic soils added with N fertilizer.

  14. Biochar has no effect on soil respiration across Chinese agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Dengxiao; Cheng, Kun; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Afeng; Li, Lianqing; Joseph, Stephen; Smith, Pete; Crowley, David; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2016-06-01

    Biochar addition to soil has been widely accepted as an option to enhance soil carbon sequestration by introducing recalcitrant organic matter. However, it remains unclear whether biochar will negate the net carbon accumulation by increasing carbon loss through CO2 efflux from soil (soil respiration). The objectives of this study were to address: 1) whether biochar addition increases soil respiration; and whether biochar application rate and biochar type (feedstock and pyrolyzing system) affect soil respiration. Two series of field experiments were carried out at 8 sites representing the main crop production areas in China. In experiment 1, a single type of wheat straw biochar was amended at rates of 0, 20 and 40 tha(-1) in four rice paddies and three dry croplands. In experiment 2, four types of biochar (varying in feedstock and pyrolyzing system) were amended at rates of 0 and 20 tha(-1) in a rice paddy under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that biochar addition had no effect on CO2 efflux from soils consistently across sites, although it increased topsoil organic carbon stock by 38% on average. Meanwhile, CO2 efflux from soils amended with 40 t of biochar did not significantly higher than soils amended with 20 t of biochar. While the biochars used in Experiment 2 had different carbon pools and physico-chemical properties, they had no effect on soil CO2 efflux. The soil CO2 efflux following biochar addition could be hardly explained by the changes in soil physic-chemical properties and in soil microbial biomass. Thus, we argue that biochar will not negate the net carbon accumulation by increasing carbon loss through CO2 efflux in agricultural soils.

  15. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  16. Phenylurea herbicide sorption to biochars and agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DAOYUAN; MUKOME, FUNGAI N. D.; YAN, DENGHUA; WANG, HAO; SCOW, KATE M.; PARIKH, SANJAI J.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is increasingly been used as a soil amendment to improve water holding capacity, reduce nutrient leaching, increase soil pH and also as a means to reduce contamination through sorption of heavy metals or organic pollutants. The sorption behavior of three phenylurea herbicides (monuron, diuron, linuron) on five biochars (Enhanced Biochar, Hog Waste, Turkey Litter, Walnut Shell and Wood Feedstock) and an agricultural soil (Yolo silt loam) was investigated using a batch equilibration method. Sorption isotherms of herbicides to biochars were well described by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.93 -- 0.97). The adsorption KF values ranged from 6.94 to 1306.95 mg kg−1 and indicated the sorption of herbicides in the biochars and Yolo soil was in the sequence of linuron > diuron > monuron and walnut shell biochar > wood feedstock biochar > turkey litter biochar > enhanced biochar > hog waste biochar > Yolo soil. These data show that sorption of herbicides to biochar can have both positive (reduced off-site transport) and negative (reduced herbicide efficacy) implications and specific biochar properties, such as H/C ratio and surface area, should be considered together with soil type, agriculture chemical and climate condition in biochar application to agricultural soil to optimize the system for both agricultural and environmental benefits. PMID:26065514

  17. N-C isotopic investigation of a zeolite-amended agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Natali, Claudio; Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a C and N isotopic investigation in the soil-plant system of the ZeoLIFE project experimental field have been carried out. Since many years, natural and NH4-enriched zeolites have been used as soil amendant in agricultural context in order to reduce N losses, increase NUE (Nitrogen Use Efficiency) and crop yield. Nevertheless up to now there are no studies that, using the stable isotopes approach, highlighted the interaction between zeolites and plants in agricultural systems. The main aims of this study is to verify if natural zeolites amendment can enhance chemical fertilization efficiency and if N transfer from NH4-enriched zeolites to plants really occurs. Plants grown following traditional cultivation methods (with no zeolite addition) and plants grown on soils amended with natural and NH4-enriched zeolites (the latter obtained after mixing with pig-slurry with a very high 15N) were compared for two cultivation cycles (maize and wheat). As widely known, plants grown under conventional farming systems (use of chemical fertilizers as urea) and plants grown under organic farming can be discriminated by the isotopic signatures of plant tissues. For both years the main results of the study reveals that plants grown on plots amended with natural zeolites generally have their nitrogen isotopic signature more similar to that of the chemical fertilizers employed during the cultivation with respect to the plants cultivated in the non-amended plot. This suggests an enhanced N uptake by the plant from this specific N source with respect to the non-amended plot. On the other hand, plants grown on NH4-enriched zeolites registered a higher 15N, approaching the pig-slurry isotopic signature, confirming that this material can constitute an N pool for plants at least for two cultivation cycles. The distinct agricultural practices seem to be reflected in the plant physiology as recorded by the carbon discrimination factor (13C) which generally increases

  18. Fate and effect of imidacloprid on vermicompost-amended soils under dissimilar conditions: Risk for soil functions, structure, and bacterial abundance.

    PubMed

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Beguet, Jérèmie; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2017-02-01

    The fate and impact of pesticide on soil depend partly on the agricultural practices, such as prior treatment with pesticide and/or organic amendments. As a means of determining how the previous soil conditions can affect the fate of imidacloprid (IMI) and its effect on soil functions, experiments were made with soil samples, double-amended or not with either vine-shoot (W) or olive cake (O) vermicompost or contaminated or not with IMI. These soil samples, incubated for 3months, were placed in two microcosms (M1 with the pre-amended soils and M2 with the pre-exposed soils), treated with IMI and amended with vermicomposts and then incubated for 3months. The IMI distribution on soil fractions, sorption processes, dissipation kinetics, and biochemical as well as genetic structure and bacterial abundance were determined to assess the fate and impact of IMI on the soil. The addition of W vermicompost to the soil reduced the IMI availability. The dissipation kinetic in soils from M1 and M2 followed, respectively, a single first-order and a double first-order in parallel models. The lowest IMI persistence corresponded to the soil from M2 amended with O-vermicompost with DT50 and DT90 values of 67d and 265d, while in the other soils 90% dissipation required >512d. The vermicomposts-amended contaminated soils increased the dehydrogenase activity by 2- and 4-fold respect the control soils. However, the urease activity decreased due to the IMI influence. The changes in the bacterial community in the contaminated soil amended with O-vermicompost during incubation were correlated with the dissipation rate constant of IMI, suggesting a better tolerance of microorganisms to IMI. Thus, in the soil contaminated with IMI, the amendment with the vermicompost from olive cake can mitigate the impact of this insecticide on soil functions and promote its depuration capability while minimizing environmental risks.

  19. Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: Ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, G; Pro, J; Gómez, N; Babín, M M; Fernández, C; Alonso, E; Tarazona, J V

    2009-05-01

    Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is a current practice in EU. European legislation permits its use when concentrations of metals in soil do not increase above the maximum permissible limits. In order to assess the fate and the effects on representative soil organisms of sewage sludge amendments on agricultural lands, a soil microcosm (multi-species soil system-MS3) experiment was performed. The MS3 columns were filled with spiked soil at three different doses: 30, 60 and 120tha(-1) fresh wt. Seed plants (Triticum aestivum, Vicia sativa and Brassica rapa) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were introduced into the systems. After a 21-d exposure period, a statistically significant increase for Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg concentrations was found for the soils treated with the highest application rate. Dose-related increase was observed for nickel concentrations in leachates. Plants and earthworm metal body burden offer much more information than metal concentrations and help to understand the potential for metal accumulation. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF(plant-soil)) presented a different behavior among species and large differences for BAF(earthworm-soil), from control or sewage-amended soil, for Cd and Hg were found. B. rapa seed germination was reduced. Statistically significant decrease in fresh biomass was observed for T. aestivum and V. sativa at the highest application rate, whereas B. rapa biomass decreased at any application rate. Enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) as well as respiration rate on soil microorganisms were enlarged.

  20. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg-1 was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phospha...

  1. Seasonal and soil-type dependent emissions of nitrous oxide from irrigated desert soils amended with digested poultry manures.

    PubMed

    Posmanik, Roy; Nejidat, Ali; Dahan, Ofer; Gross, Amit

    2017-03-22

    Expansion of dryland agriculture requires intensive supplement of organic fertilizers to improve the fertility of nutrient-poor desert soils. The environmental impact of organic supplements in hot desert climates is not well understood. We report on seasonal emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from sand and loess soils, amended with limed and non-limed anaerobic digestate of poultry manure in the Israeli Negev desert. All amended soils had substantially higher N2O emissions, particularly during winter applications, compared to unammended soils. Winter emissions from amended loess (10-175mgN2Om(-2)day(-1)) were markedly higher than winter emissions from amended sand (2-7mgN2Om(-2)day(-1)). Enumeration of marker genes for nitrification and denitrification suggested that both have contributed to N2O emissions according to prevailing environmental conditions. Lime treatment of digested manure inhibited N2O emissions regardless of season or soil type, thus reducing the environmental impact of amending desert soils with manure digestate.

  2. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  3. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Staats, Kristin E; Arai, Yuji; Sparks, Donald L

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha(-1) of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  4. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  5. Soil degradation and amendment effects on soil properties, microbial communities, and plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, M.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities that disrupt soil properties are fundamentally changing ecosystems. Soil degradation, caused by anthropogenic disturbance can decrease microbial abundance and activity, leading to changes in nutrient availability, soil organic matter, and plant establishment. The addition of amendments to disturbed soils have the potential ameliorate these negative consequences. We studied the effects of soil degradation, via an autoclave heat shock method, and the addition of amendments (biochar and woodchips) on microbial activity, soil carbon and nitrogen availability, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content, and plant growth of ten plant species native to the semi-arid southwestern US. Relative to non-degraded soils, microbial activity, measured via extracellular enzyme assays, was significantly lower for all seven substrates assayed. These soils also had significantly lower amounts of carbon assimilated into microbial biomass but no change in microbial biomass nitrogen. Soil degradation had no effect on plant biomass. Amendments caused changes in microbial activity: biochar-amended soils had significant increases in potential activity with five of the seven substrates measured; woodchip amended soils had significant increases with two. Soil carbon increased with both amendments but this was not reflected in a significant change in microbial biomass carbon. Biochar-amended soils had increases in soil nitrogen availability but neither amendment caused changes in microbial biomass nitrogen. Biochar amendments had no significant effect on above- or belowground plant biomass while woodchips significantly decreased aboveground plant biomass. Results show that soil degradation decreases microbial activity and changes nutrient dynamics, but these are not reflected in changes in plant growth. Amendments provide nutrient sources and change soil pore space, which cause microbial activities to fluctuate and may, in the case of woodchips, increase plant drought

  6. Effect of biochar amendment on tylosin adsorption-desorption and transport in two different soils.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K; Eberhardt, Thomas L; Groom, Les

    2012-01-01

    The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption and transport of tylosin, a macrolide class of veterinary antibiotic, is little known. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and transport of tylosin in forest and agricultural corn field soils amended with hardwood and softwood biochars. Tylosin adsorption was rapid at initial stages, followed by slow and continued adsorption. Amounts of adsorption increased as the biochar amendment rate increased from 1 to 10%. For soils with the hardwood biochar, tylosin adsorption was 10 to 18% higher than that when using the softwood biochar. Adsorption kinetics was well described by Elovich equation ( ≥ 0.921). As the percent of biochar was increased, the rates of initial reactions were generally increased, as indicated by increasing α value at low initial tylosin concentration, whereas the rates during extended reaction times were generally increased, as indicated by decreasing β value at high initial tylosin concentration. A considerably higher amount of tylosin remained after desorption in the corn field soil than in the forest soil regardless of the rate of biochar amendment, which was attributed to the high pH and silt content of the former. The breakthrough curves of tylosin showed that the two soils with biochar amendment had much greater retardation than those of soils without biochar. The CXTFIT model for the miscible displacement column study described well the peak arrival time as well as the maximum concentration of tylosin breakthrough curves but showed some underestimation at advanced stages of tylosin leaching, especially in the corn field soil. Overall, the results indicate that biochar amendments enhance the retention and reduce the transport of tylosin in soils.

  7. Effect of biochar amendments on microbial transport through soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incorporation of biochar into soils had been shown to improve soil fertility, enhance soil sequestration of carbon and decrease the mobility of agrochemicals and heavy metals. Our series of column experiments have shown that in addition to these benefits, biochar amendments can limit bacterial t...

  8. Is current biochar soil study addressing global soil constraints for sustainable agriculture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Genxing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Yan, Ming; Niu, Yaru; Liu, Xiaoyu; van Zwieten, Lukas; Chen, De; Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Li, Lianqing; Joseph, Stephen; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Crowley, David; Filley, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Global soil degradation has been increasingly threatened sustainability of world agriculture. Use of biochar from bio-wastes has been proposed as a global option for its great potential in tackling soil degradation and mitigating climate change in agriculture. For last 10 years, there have been greatly increasing interests in application of charred biomass, more recently termed biochar, as a soil amendment for addressing soil constraints for sustainable agriculture. Biochar soil studies could deliver reliable information for appropriate application of biochar to soils where for sustainable agriculture has been challenged. Here we review the literature of 798 publications reporting biochar soil studies by August, 2015 to address potential gaps in understanding of biochar's role in agriculture. We have found some substantial biases and gaps inherent in the current biochar studies. 1) The majority of published studies were from developed regions where the soils are less constrained and were much more frequent in laboratory and glasshouse pot experiments than field studies under realistic agriculture. 2) The published biochar soil studies have used more often small kiln or lab prepared biochar than commercial scale biochars, more often wood and municipal waste derived biochars than crop straw biochars. Overall, the lack of long-term well designed field studies using biochar produced in commercial processes may have limited our current understanding of biochar's potential to enhance global crop production and climate change mitigation. We have also recommended a global alliance between longer-term research experiments and biochar production facilities to foster the uptake of this important technology at a global scale. Keywords: biochar, soil study, literature review, research gap, global perspective, quantitative assessment, sustainable agriculture

  9. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000-250 μm; 250-53 μm; and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture.

  10. Bacterial Mobilization of Nutrients From Biochar-Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, A; Fox, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendments with biochar to improve soil fertility and increase soil carbon stocks have received some high-level attention. Physical and chemical analyses of amended soils and biochars from various feedstocks are reported, alongside some evaluations of plant growth promotion capabilities. Fewer studies investigated the soil microbiota and their potential to increase cycling and mobilization of nutrients in biochar-amended soils. This review is discussing the latest findings in the bacterial contribution to cycling and mobilizing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in biochar-amended soils and potential contributions to plant growth promotion. Depending on feedstock, pyrolysis, soil type, and plant cover, changes in the bacterial community structure were observed for a majority of the studies using amplicon sequencing or genetic fingerprinting methods. Prokaryotic nitrification largely depends on the availability of ammonium and can vary considerably under soil biochar amendment. However, denitrification to di-nitrogen and in particular, nitrous oxide reductase activity is commonly enhanced, resulting in reduced nitrous oxide emissions. Likewise, bacterial fixation of di-nitrogen appears to be regularly enhanced. A paucity of studies suggests that bacterial mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur is enhanced as well. However, most studies only tested for extracellular sulfatase and phosphatase activity. Further research is needed to reveal details of the bacterial nutrient mobilizing capabilities and this is in particular the case for the mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur.

  11. Adsorption and mobility of linuron in soils as influenced by soil properties, organic amendments, and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Camazano, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Delgado-Pascual, R

    2000-07-01

    Adsorption and mobility of the herbicide linuron (3-3, 4-dichlorophenyl-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) in 35 irrigated soils with organic matter (OM) contents in the 0.43-2.59% range and in four natural soils with OM contents in the 4.16-11.69% range were studied using the batch equilibration technique. The adsorption isotherms were found to conform to the Freundlich adsorption equation. The Freundlich constant, K, and the distribution coefficient, K(d), were seen to be highly significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with the OM content when all soils or only those with an OM content above 2% were considered. There was also a significant correlation of K and K(d) with the OM content (p < 0.05) and of K(d) with the clay and silt plus clay contents (p < 0.1) when the soils with a OM content below 2% were considered. On the basis of the R(f)() values obtained by soil TLC, the pesticide was found to be slightly mobile in 77% and moderately mobile in 23% of the soils studied. The results of the leaching of linuron in soil columns unmodified and modified with two organic agricultural amendments, a city refuse compost, and two surfactants (one of them cationic and the other anionic) revealed that the leaching rate and the mass transfer of the herbicide to water were affected, increasing or decreasing according to the characteristics of the amendments and the doses added. These results also point to the usefulness of selected organic materials and surfactants in the development of physicochemical methods for preventing the pollution of soils, sediments and aquifers by hydrophobic pesticides.

  12. Linear spectral unmixing to monitor crop growth in typical organic and inorganic amended arid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Battay, A.; Mahmoudi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The soils of the GCC countries are dominantly sandy which is typical of arid regions such as the Arabian Peninsula. Such soils are low in nutrients and have a poor water holding capacity associated with a high infiltration rate. Soil amendments may rehabilitate these soils by restoring essential soil properties and hence enable site revegetation and revitalization for crop production, especially in a region where food security is a priority. In this study, two inorganic amendments; AustraHort and Zeoplant pellet, and one organic locally produced compost were tested as soil amendments at the experimental field of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture in Dubai, UAE. The main objective is to assess the remote sensing ability to monitor crop growth, for instance Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), having these amendments, as background with the soil. Three biomass spectral vegetation indices were used namely; NDVI, TDVI and SAVI. Pure spectral signatures of the soil and the three amendments were collected, using a field spectroradiometer, in addition to the spectral signatures of Okra in two growing stages (vegetative and flowering) in the field with a mixed F.O.V of the plant and amended soil during March and May 2015. The spectral signatures were all collected using the FieldSpec® HandHeld 2 (HH2) in the spectral range 325 nm - 1075 nm over 12 plots. A set of 4 plots were assigned for each of the three amendments as follow: three replicates of a 1.5 by 1.5 meter plot with 3kg/m2 of each amendment and 54 plants, one plot as control and all plots were given irrigation treatments at 100% based on ETc. Spectra collected over the plots were inversed in the range of 400-900 nm via a Linear Mixture Model using pure soil and amendments spectral signatures as reference. Field pictures were used to determine the vegetation fraction (in term of area of the F.O.V). Hence, the Okra spectral signatures were isolated for all plots with the three types of amendments. The

  13. Reducing 1,3-dichloropropene emissions from soil columns amended with thiourea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Papiernik, Sharon K; Wang, Qiquan

    2006-04-01

    Soil fumigants are becoming an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, especially in some agricultural areas. In this study, we used thiourea to construct a reactive surface barrier (RSB) at the soil surface for reducing 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) volatilization. The agrochemical thiourea could rapidly transform volatile 1,3-D to nonvolatile products via an SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction. A catalytic mechanism in thiourea-amended soil facilitated the conversion process. A packed soil column system was employed to investigate the emissions and distribution of 1,3-D and optimize the original fumigant emission-reduction strategy. Volatilization of 1,3-D from the soil surface was significantly reduced in columns amended with a thiourea RSB compared with that of bare soil. Volatilization flux and cumulative emissions decreased with increasing thiourea application rate and increasing fumigation depth in packed soil columns. Surface amendment with the RSB did not affect the subsurface distribution of 1,3-D in the soil profile. Combined application of a thiourea RSB and plastic tarps had a synergetic effect in emission control and could eliminate the relatively high fumigant flux that occurs upon tarp disruption. Therefore, this reduced-risk practice was very effective in reducing atmospheric emissions of VOCs from soil treatment with halogenated fumigants.

  14. Enhancing soil sorption capacity of an agricultural soil by addition of three different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Raquel; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of three unmodified organic residues (composted sewage sludge, RO1; chicken manure, RO2; and a residue from olive oil production called 'orujillo', RO3) and a soil to sorb six pesticides (atrazine, lindane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos and endosulfan sulfate) and thereby explored the potential environmental value of these organic residues for mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. Pesticide determination was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process and that Kf values increased with an increase in organic matter (OM) content of the amended soil. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: chlorpyrifos≥endosulfan sulfate>chlorfenvinphos≥lindane>alachlor≥atrazine. The sorption was greater for the most hydrophobic compounds and lower for the most polar ones, as corroborated by a negative correlation between Kf values and solubility. Sorption increased with an increase in organic matter. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon (OC) content. The organic amendment showing the maximum sorption capacity was RO3 in all cases, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2. The order of adsorption capacity of the amendments depended on the pesticide and the organic dosage. In the case of the 10% amendment the order was RO3>RO2>RO1>soil, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2>RO3>RO1>soil, and atrazine, where RO2 and RO3 amendments had the same effect on the soil sorption capacity (RO2≥RO3>RO1>soil).

  15. Ice nucleation properties of agricultural soil dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Isabelle; Funk, Roger; Busse, Jacqueline; Iturri, Antonela; Kirchen, Silke; Leue, Martin; Möhler, Ottmar; Schwartz, Thomas; Sierau, Berko; Toprak, Emre; Ulrich, Andreas; Hoose, Corinna; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil dust particles emitted from agricultural areas contain large amounts of organic material such as fungi, bacteria and plant debris. Being carrier for potentially highly ice-active biological particles, agricultural soil dusts are candidates for being very ice-active as well. In this work, we present ice nucleation experiments conducted in the AIDA cloud chamber. We investigated the ice nucleation efficiency of four types of soil dust from different regions of the world. Results are presented for the immersion freezing and the deposition nucleation mode: all soil dusts show higher ice nucleation efficiencies than desert dusts, especially at temperatures above 254 K. For one soil dust sample, the effect of heat treatments was investigated. Heat treatments did not affect the ice nucleation efficiency which presumably excludes primary biological particles as the only source of the increased ice nucleation efficiency. Therefore, organo-mineral complexes or organic compounds may contribute substantially to the high ice nucleation activity of agricultural soil dusts.

  16. Microbial response to salinity stress in a tropical sandy soil amended with native shrub residues or inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sall, Saïdou Nourou; Ndour, Ndèye Yacine Badiane; Diédhiou-Sall, Siré; Dick, Richard; Chotte, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-15

    Soil degradation and salinization caused by inappropriate cultivation practices and high levels of saltwater intrusion are having an adverse effect on agriculture in Central Senegal. The residues of Piliostigma reticulatum, a local shrub that coexists with crops, were recently shown to increase particulate organic matter and improve soil quality and may be a promising means of alleviating the effects of salinization. This study compared the effects of inorganic fertilizer and P. reticulatum residues on microbial properties and the ability of soil to withstand salinity stress. We hypothesized that soils amended with P. reticulatum would be less affected by salinity stress than soils amended with inorganic fertilizer and control soil. Salinity stress was applied to soil from a field site that had been cultivated for 5 years under a millet/peanut crop rotation when microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community profile, catabolic diversity, microbial activities were determined. Microbial biomass, nitrification potential and dehydrogenase activity were higher by 20%, 56% and 69% respectively in soil with the organic amendment. With salinity stress, the structure and activities of the microbial community were significantly affected. Although the biomass of actinobacteria community increased with salinity stress, there was a substantial reduction in microbial activity in all soils. The soil organically amended was, however, less affected by salinity stress than the control or inorganic fertilizer treatment. This suggests that amendment using P. reticulatum residues may improve the ability of soils to respond to saline conditions.

  17. Short-term changes of metal availability in soil. Part I: comparing sludge-amended with metal-spiked soils.

    PubMed

    Natal-da-Luz, T; Ojeda, G; Costa, M; Pratas, J; Lanno, R P; Van Gestel, C A M; Sousa, J P

    2012-08-01

    Sewage sludge application to soils is regulated by its total metal content. However, the real risk of metals is determined by the fraction that is biologically available. The available fraction is highly related to the strength of metal binding by the matrix, which is a dynamic process. The evaluation of the fate of metals in time can contribute increased accuracy of ecological risk assessment. Aiming to evaluate short-term changes in metal availability when metals were applied to soil directly (metal-spiked) or by way of an organic matrix (sludge-amended), a laboratory experiment was performed using open microcosms filled with agricultural soil. A concentration gradient of industrial sludge (11, 15, 55, and 75 t/ha) that was contaminated predominantly with chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc, or soil freshly spiked with the same concentrations of these metals, were applied on top of the agricultural soil. After 0, 3, 6, and 12 weeks, total (HNO(3) 69 %) and 0.01 M CaCl(2)-extractable metal concentrations in soil and metal content in the percolates were measured. Results demonstrated that comparison between sludge-amended and metal-spiked soils may give important information about the role of sludge matrix on metal mobility and availability in soil. In sludge-amended soils, extractable-metal concentrations were independent of the sludge concentration and did not change over time. In metal-spiked soils, metal extractability decreased with time due to ageing and transport of metals to deeper layers. In general, the sludge matrix increased the adsorption of metals, thus decreasing their mobility in soils.

  18. Knowledge needs, available practices, and future challenges in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Georgina; Whitfield, Mike G.; Cooper, Julia; De Vries, Franciska T.; Collison, Martin; Dedousis, Thanasis; Heathcote, Richard; Roth, Brendan; Mohammed, Shamal; Molyneux, Andrew; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Sutherland, William J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify research needs and identify effective practices for enhancing soil health. This was done by a synopsis of soil literature that specifically tests practices designed to maintain or enhance elements of soil health. Using an expert panel of soil scientists and practitioners, we then assessed the evidence in the soil synopsis to highlight practices beneficial to soil health, practices considered detrimental, and practices that need further investigation. A partial Spearman's correlation was used to analyse the panel's responses. We found that increased certainty in scientific evidence led to practices being considered to be more effective due to them being empirically justified. This suggests that for practices to be considered effective and put into practice, a substantial body of research is needed to support the effectiveness of the practice. This is further supported by the high proportion of practices (33 %), such as changing the timing of ploughing or amending the soil with crops grown as green manures, that experts felt had unknown effectiveness, usually due to insufficiently robust evidence. Only 7 of the 27 reviewed practices were considered to be beneficial, or likely to be beneficial in enhancing soil health. These included the use of (1) integrated nutrient management (organic and inorganic amendments); (2) cover crops; (3) crop rotations; (4) intercropping between crop rows or underneath the main crop; (5) formulated chemical compounds (such as nitrification inhibitors); (6) control of traffic and traffic timing; and (7) reducing grazing intensity. Our assessment, which uses the Delphi technique, is increasingly used to improve decision-making in conservation and agricultural policy, identified practices that can be put into practice to benefit soil health. Moreover, it has enabled us to identify practices that need further research and a need for increased communication between researchers, policy-makers, and

  19. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A

    2015-12-30

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability.

  20. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas.

  1. Comparison of several maturity indicators for estimating phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Danielle N; Horwath, William; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2008-11-01

    Compost can provide a rich organic nutrient source and soil conditioner for agricultural and horticultural applications. Ideal compost amendment rates, however, vary based on starting material and compost maturity or their interaction, and there is little consensus on appropriate methods to gauge maturity. In this study, electrical conductivity, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and carbon mineralization measurements were made on compost-amended soils and compared to phytotoxicity measured as cress (Lepidium sativum) germination. Cress germination in soil and compost mixtures incubated for 8-10 days significantly decreased with increasing electrical conductivity and carbon mineralization rate of the mixture and with carbon mineralization rate and mineralizable carbon associated with the compost. Cress germination was not related to carbon-to-nitrogen ratio or pH of soil and compost mixtures. The electrical conductivity of the soil and compost mixtures significantly decreased with decreasing mineralizable carbon suggesting that compounds contributing to electrical conductivity were present in the compost and decomposed upon soil amendment. The results of this study indicate that measurements of mineralizable carbon and mineralization rate of composts in soil, and electrical conductivity and mineralization rate of soil and compost mixtures, can be used as indicators of compost maturity.

  2. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    PubMed

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems.

  3. Petition for Rulemaking to Amend Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Effective Date

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This petition from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the American Farm Bureau Federation, dated December 21, 2016, asks that the Agency amend the Agricultural Worker Protection Standard by postponing the effective date.

  4. Assessing the chemical and biological accessibility of the herbicide isoproturon in soil amended with biochar.

    PubMed

    Sopeña, Fatima; Semple, Kirk; Sohi, Saran; Bending, Gary

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable current interest in using biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon to mitigate climate change. However, the implications of adding BC to agricultural soil for the environmental fate of pesticides remain unclear. In particular, the effect of biochars on desorption behavior of compounds is poorly understood. This study examined the influence of BC on pesticide chemical and biological accessibility using the herbicide isoproturon (IPU). Soils amended with 1% and 2% BC showed enhanced sorption, slower desorption, and reduced biodegradation of IPU. Addition of 0.1% BC had no effect on sorption, desorption or biodegradation of IPU. However, the mineralization of (14)C-IPU was reduced by all BC concentrations, reducing by 13.6%, 40.1% and 49.8% at BC concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 2% respectively. Further, the ratio of the toxic metabolite 4-isopropyl-aniline to intact IPU was substantially reduced by higher BC concentrations. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extractions were used to estimate the IPU bioaccessibility in the BC-amended soil. Significant correlations were found between HPCD-extracted (14)C-IPU and the IPU desorbed (%) (r(2)=0.8518, p<0.01), and also the (14)C-IPU mineralized (%) (r(2)=0.733; p<0.01) for all BC-amended soils. This study clearly demonstrates how desorption in the presence of BC is intimately related to pesticide biodegradation by the indigenous soil microbiota. BC application to agricultural soils can affect the persistence of pesticides as well as the fate of their degradation products. This has important implications for the effectiveness of pesticides as well as the sequestration of contaminants in soils.

  5. Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.; Moeldrup, P.; Roslev, P. . Environmental Engineering Lab.)

    1999-08-01

    Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial mineralization activity was described well by first-order kinetics, whereas mineralization in long-term incubations was described better by fractional power kinetics. The mineralization activity was much lower in the late phase presumably due to a decline in the bioavailability of DEHP caused by diffusion-limited desorption. The initial DEHP mineralization rate in sludge-amended soil varied between 3.7 and 20.3 ng of DEHP (g dw)[sup [minus]1]d[sup [minus]1] depending on incubation conditions. Aerobic DEHP mineralization was 4--5 times faster than anaerobic mineralization, DEHP mineralization in sludge-amended soil was much more temperature sensitive than was DEHP mineralization in soil without sludge. Indigenous microorganisms in the sewage sludge appeared to dominate DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. It was estimated that > 41% of the DEHP in sludge-amended soil will have escaped mineralization after 1 year. In the absence of oxygen, > 68% of the DEHP will not be mineralized within 1 year. Collectively, the data suggest that a significant fraction of the DEHP in sludge-amended soils may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.

  6. Biochar soil amendment for environmental and agronomic benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Char(coal), and a broader term black carbon (that includes soot) has long been recognized as a normal environmental (including soil) constituent resulting from fire and industrial activities. Biochar soil amendment has received global interests as a tool for carbon sequestration in conjunction with...

  7. A spatial multicriteria decision making tool to define the best agricultural areas for sewage sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Passuello, Ana; Cadiach, Oda; Perez, Yolanda; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Sewage sludge amendment on agricultural soils has recently become a practice of heightened interest, as a consequence of sewage sludge production increase. This practice has benefits to soil and crops, however it may also lead to environmental contamination, depending on the characteristics of the fields. In order to define the suitability of the different agricultural fields to receive sewage sludge, a spatial tool is proposed. This tool, elaborated in GIS platform, aggregates different criteria regarding human exposure and environmental contamination. The spatial tool was applied to a case study in the region of Catalonia (NE of Spain). Within the case study, each step of the tool development is detailed. The results show that the studied region has different suitability degrees, being the appropriate areas sufficient for receiving the total amount of sewage sludge produced. The sensitivity analysis showed that "groundwater contamination", "distance to urban areas", "metals concentration in soil" and "crop type" are the most important criteria of the evaluation. The developed tool successfully tackled the problem, providing a comprehensive procedure to evaluate agricultural land suitability to receive sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer. Also, the tool implementation gives insights to decision makers, guiding them to more confident decisions, based on an extensive group of criteria.

  8. Resource amendments influence density and competitive phenotypes of Streptomyces in soil.

    PubMed

    Schlatter, Daniel; Fubuh, Alfred; Xiao, Kun; Hernandez, Dan; Hobbie, Sarah; Kinkel, Linda

    2009-04-01

    Carbon from plant rhizospheres is a source of energy for soil microbial communities in native habitats. Soil amendments have been used as a means for deliberately altering soil community composition in agricultural soils to enhance plant health. However, little information is available in agricultural or natural soils on how specific carbon compounds or quantities influence soil microbial communities. Streptomyces are important soil saprophytes noted for their ability to produce antibiotics and influence plant health. To explore how specific types and amounts of carbon compounds influence Streptomyces in soil, glucose, cellulose, and lignin were added alone and in combination with six other carbon substrates of varying complexity to mesocosms of native prairie soil for 9 months at amounts equivalent to natural inputs from plants. Estimated culturable population densities, antibiotic inhibitory phenotypes, and resource utilization profiles were examined for Streptomyces communities from each treatment. The type and quantity of carbon compounds influenced densities, proportions, antibiotic phenotypes, and substrate utilization profiles of Streptomyces. Cellulose and lignin inputs produced the largest Streptomyces densities. Also, Streptomyces communities receiving high-resource inputs were more inhibitory whereas those receiving low-resource inputs used substrates more efficiently. Knowledge of how the availability and quantity of particular carbon compounds influences Streptomyces communities and their function, specifically resource use and inhibitory phenotypes, may be helpful in understanding the roles of resource availability in Streptomyces community dynamics and the potential of Streptomyces to suppress pathogens and enhance plant fitness in native and agricultural soils.

  9. Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

    2000-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

  10. Biodegradability of a polyacrylate superabsorbent in agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Wilske, Burkhard; Bai, Mo; Lindenstruth, Beate; Bach, Martin; Rezaie, Zahra; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) are used, inter alia, as soil amendment to increase the water holding capacity of soils. Biodegradability of soil conditioners has become a desired key characteristic to protect soil and groundwater resources. The present study characterized the biodegradability of one acrylate based SAP in four agricultural soils and at three temperatures. Mineralisation was measured as the (13)CO₂ efflux from (13)C-labelled SAP in soil incubations. The SAP was either single-labelled in the carboxyl C-atom or triple-labelled including additionally the two C-atoms interlinked in the SAP backbone. The dual labelling allowed estimating the degradation of the polyacrylate main chain. The (13)CO₂ efflux from samples was measured using an automated system including wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Based on single-labelled SAP, the mean degradation after 24 weeks varied between 0.45% in loamy sand and 0.82% in loam. However, the differences between degradation rates in different soils were not significant due to a large intra-replicate variability. Similarly, mean degradation did not differ significantly between effective temperature regimes of 20° and 30 °C after 12 weeks. Results from the triple-labelled SAP were lower as compared to their single-labelled variant. Detailed results suggest that the polyacrylate main chain degraded in the soils, if at all, at rates of 0.12-0.24 % per 6 months.

  11. Modeling fungicides mobility in undisturbed vineyard soil cores unamended and amended with spent mushroom substrates.

    PubMed

    Marín-Benito, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Cruz, María Sonia; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Mamy, Laure

    2015-09-01

    The performance of the pesticide fate model PRZM to predict the fate of two fungicides, penconazole and metalaxyl, and the major metabolite of metalaxyl (CGA-62826), in amended and unamended vineyard soils was tested from undisturbed soils columns experiments. Three different treatments were tested in two soils: control soil (unamended), and soil amended with fresh or composted spent mushroom substrates, which correspond to common agricultural practices in Spain. Leaching experiments were performed under non-saturated flow conditions. The model was parameterized with laboratory and literature data, and using pedotransfer functions. It was first calibrated for water flow against chloride breakthrough curves. The key parameter was the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (DISP). No leaching of penconazole, the most hydrophobic fungicide, was observed. It remained in the top 0-8 cm of the column. In any case, simulations were highly correlated to the experimental results. On the contrary, metalaxyl and its metabolite were consistently found in the leachates. A calibration step of the Kd of metalaxyl and CGA-62826 and of DISP for CGA-62826 was necessary to obtain good prediction of the leaching of both compounds. PRZM generally simulated acceptable metalaxyl vertical distribution in the soil profiles although results were overestimated for its metabolite. Nevertheless, PRZM can be reasonably used to assess the leaching (through breakthrough curves) and vertical distribution of fungicides in amended soils, knowing their DISP values.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in earthworms from soil amended with sewage sludge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Chaney, R.L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Metal concentrations in soil may be elevated considerably when metal-laden sewage sludge is spread on land. Metals in earthworms (Lumbricidae) from agricultural fields amended with sewage sludge and from experimental plots were examined to determine if earthworms are important in transferring metals in soil to wildlife. Earthworms from four sites amended with sludge contained significantly (P . < 0.05) more Cd (12 times), Cu (2.4 times), Zn (2.0 times), and Pb (1.2 times) than did earthworms from control sites, but the concentrations detected varied greatly and depended on the particular sludge application. Generally, Cd and Zn were concentrated by earthworms relative to soil, and Cu, Pb, and Ni were not concentrated. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in earthworms were correlated (P < 0.05) with those in soil. The ratio of the concentration of metals in earthworms to the concentration of metals in soil tended to be lower in contaminated soil than in clean soil. Concentrations of Cd as high as 100 ppm (dry wt) were detected in earthworms from soil containing only 2 ppm Cd. These concentrations are considered hazardous to wildlife that eat worms. Liming soil decreased Cd concentrations in earthworms slightly (P < 0.05) but had no discernible effect on concentrations of the other metals studied. High Zn concentrations in soil substantially reduced Cd concentrations in earthworms.

  13. Short-term effect of the soil amendments activated carbon, biochar, and ferric oxyhydroxide on bacteria and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Jensen, John; Jakob, Lena; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Hartnik, Thomas; Henriksen, Thomas; Okkenhaug, Gudny; Martinsen, Vegard; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-08-06

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secondary ecotoxicological effects of soil amendment materials that can be added to contaminated soils in order to sequester harmful pollutants. To this end, a nonpolluted agricultural soil was amended with 0.5, 2, and 5% of the following four amendments: powder activated carbon (PAC), granular activated carbon, corn stover biochar, and ferric oxyhydroxide powder, which have previously been proven to sequester pollutants in soil. The resulting immediate effects (i.e., without aging the mixtures before carrying out tests) on the springtail Folsomia candida, the earthworm species Aporectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, a suite of ten prokaryotic species, and a eukaryote (the yeast species Pichia anomalia) were investigated. Reproduction of F. candida was significantly increased compared to the unamended soil when 2% biochar was added to it. None of the treatments caused a negative effect on reproduction. All amendments had a deleterious effect on the growth of A. caliginosa when compared to the unamended soil, except the 0.5% amendment of biochar. In avoidance tests, E. fetida preferred biochar compared to all other amendments including the unamended soil. All amendments reduced the inhibition of luminescence to V. fischeri, i.e., were beneficial for the bacteria, with PAC showing the greatest improvement. The effects of the amendments on the suite of prokaryotic species and the eukaryote were variable, but overall the 2% biochar dose provided the most frequent positive effect on growth. It is concluded that the four soil amendments had variable but never strongly deleterious effects on the bacteria and invertebrates studied here during the respective recommended experimental test periods.

  14. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  15. Determination of the potential for release of mercury from combustion product amended soils: Part 1 - Simulations of beneficial use

    SciTech Connect

    Mae Sexauer Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George C. Fernandez

    2008-05-15

    This paper describes a project that assessed the potential for mercury (Hg) release to air and water from soil amended with combustion products to simulate beneficial use. Combustion products (ash) derived from wood, sewage sludge, subbituminous coal, and a subbituminous coal-petroleum coke mixture were added to soil as agricultural supplements, soil stabilizers, and to develop low permeability surfaces. Hg release was measured from the latter when intact and after it was broken up and mixed into the soil. Air-substrate Hg exchange was measured for all materials six times over 24 hr, providing data that reflected winter, spring, summer, and fall meteorological conditions. Dry deposition of atmospheric Hg and emission of Hg to the atmosphere were both found to be important fluxes. Measured differences in seasonal and diel (24 hr) fluxes demonstrated that to establish an annual estimate of air-substrate flux from these materials data on both of these time steps should be collected. Air-substrate exchange was highly correlated with soil and air temperature, as well as incident light. Hg releases to the atmosphere from coal and wood combustion product-amended soils to simulate an agricultural application were similar to that measured for the unamended soil, whereas releases to the air for the sludge-amended materials were higher. Hg released to soil solutions during the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure for ashamended materials was higher than that released from soil alone. On the basis of estimates of annual releases of Hg to the air from the materials used, emissions from coal and wood ash-amended soil to simulate an agricultural application could simply be re-emission of Hg deposited by wet processes from the atmosphere; however, releases from sludge-amended materials and those generated to simulate soil stabilization and disturbed low-permeability pads include Hg indigenous to the material. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties.

  17. Nitrous oxide production from soils amended with biogas residues and cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, J; Odlare, M; Pell, M

    2013-07-01

    The amount of residues generated from biogas production has increased dramatically due to the worldwide interest in renewable energy. A common way to handle the residues is to use them as fertilizers in crop production. Application of biogas residues to agricultural soils may be accompanied with environmental risks, such as increased NO emission. In 24-d laboratory experiments, NO dynamics and total production were studied in arable soils (sandy, clay, and organic) amended with one of two types of anaerobically digested biogas residues (BR-A and BR-B) generated from urban and agricultural waste and nondigested cattle slurry (CS) applied at rates corresponding to 70 kg NH-N ha. Total NO-N losses from the sandy soil were higher after amendment with BR-B (0.32 g NO-N m) than BR-A or CS (0.02 and 0.18 g NO-N m, respectively). In the clay soil, NO-N losses were very low for CS (0.02 g NO-N m) but higher for BR-A and BR-B (0.25 and 0.15 g NO-N m, respectively). In the organic soil, CS gave higher total NO-N losses (0.31 g NO-N m) than BR-A or BR-B (0.09 and 0.08 g NO-N m, respectively). Emission peaks differed considerably between soils, occurring on Day 1 in the organic soil and on Days 11 to 15 in the sand, whereas in the clay the peak varied markedly (Days 1, 6, and 13) depending on residue type. In all treatments, NH concentration decreased with time, and NO concentration increased. Potential ammonium oxidation and potential denitrification activity increased significantly in the amended sandy soil but not in the organic soil and only in the clay amended with CS. The results showed that fertilization with BR can increase NO emissions and that the size is dependent on the total N and organic C content of the slurry and on soil type. In conclusion, the two types of BR and the CS are not interchangeable regarding their effects on NO production in different soils, and, hence, matching fertilizer type to soil type could reduce NO emissions. For instance, it could be

  18. Contaminant immobilization and nutrient release by biochar soil amendment: roles of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-08-01

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and releasing essential nutrients like sulfur. Information is currently lacking in how aging impacts the integrity of biochars as soil amendment for both agricultural and environmental remediation purposes. Major contributors to biochar aging in soils are: sorption of environmental constituents, especially natural organic matter (NOM), and oxidation. To investigate the impact of NOM and organic fractions of chars, we employed broiler litter-derived chars and steam-activated carbons that underwent varying degrees of carbonization, in the presence and absence of NOM having known carboxyl contents. For aging by oxidation, we employed phosphoric acid activated carbons that underwent varying degrees of oxidation during activation. The results suggest that the organic fractions of biochars, and NOM having high carboxyl contents can mobilize Cu(II) retained by alkaline soil. Base treatment of broiler litter-derived char formed at low pyrolysis temperature (350 degrees C) improved the immobilization of all heavy metals investigated, and the extent of immobilization was similar to, or slightly greater than pecan shell-derived phosphoric acid activated carbons. Portions of total sulfur were released in soluble form in soil amended with broiler litter-derived carbons, but not pecan shell-derived phosphoric acid activated carbons.

  19. The feasibility of planting on stabilized sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.W.; Poon, C.S.

    1999-05-01

    The feasibility of growing plants on stabilized anaerobically-digested sludge from a local secondary sewage treatment plant (STP) and stabilized chemically-modified sludge from a pilot chemically-assisted primary treatment plant were studied. Apropyron elongatum (tall wheat grass) was used in this research study. A sandy soil obtained locally was amended by the addition of the lime/pulverized fuel ash (PFA) stabilized sewage sludge at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 g/kg. The total shoot yield of the grass harvested from the amended soil was significantly higher than that of the natural soil. The optimum application rates that achieved the highest yield for digested sludge and chemically-modified sludge-amended soils were 50 g/kg and 25 g/kg, respectively. Applying the stabilized digested sludge to the soil reduced Zn, Cr, and P but increased Cu, Cd, N, and K concentrations in the root tissues of the grass. The Ni, Cr, B, and K concentrations in the shoot were increased with the addition of stabilized digested sludge amended soil. For the chemically-modified sludge samples, the concentrations of the metal conaminants as well as the nutrient levels of the crops (both in the shoot and root tissues) grown in the stabilized amended soil were increased as compared to the control. However, all the trace metal concentrations in the crop were below stipulated toxicity levels. The experimental results indicate that it is feasible to plant on a mixture of natural soil and stabilized sewage sludge provided the dosage applied is carefully controlled.

  20. Optimization of typical diffuse herbicide pollution control by soil amendment configurations under four levels of rainfall intensities.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Wei, Peng; Hao, Fanghua; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-06-15

    Herbicides are a main source of agricultural diffuse pollution due to their wide application in tillage practices. The aim of this study is to optimize the control efficiency of the herbicide atrazine with the aid of modified soil amendments. The soil amendments were composed of a combination of biochar and gravel. The biochar was created from corn straw with a catalytic pyrolysis of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The leaching experiments under four rainfall conditions were measured for the following designs: raw soil, soil amended with gravel, biochar individually and together with gravel. The control efficiency of each design was also identified. With the designed equipment, the atrazine content in the contaminant load layer, gravel substrate layer, biochar amendment layer and soil layer was measured under four types of rainfall intensities (1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h and 10.00 mm/h). Furthermore, the vertical distribution of atrazine in the soil sections was also monitored. The results showed that the herbicide leaching load increased under the highest rainfall intensity in all designs. The soil with the combination of gravel and biochar provided the highest control efficiency of 87.85% on atrazine when the additional proportion of biochar was 3.0%. The performance assessment under the four kinds of rainfall intensity conditions provided the guideline for the soil amendment configuration. The combination of gravel and biochar is recommended as an efficient method for controlling diffuse herbicide pollution.

  1. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  2. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study. PMID:27835687

  3. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    soil sample and quantified spectrophotometrically using a Nanodrop ND-1000. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out in order to evaluate the significant differences in SMCs activity between all soil matrices. To associate the SMCs responses to the tracers of distinct agricultural farming systems, data were further explored under Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Biomarkers responses were combined into a stress index (IBR), described by Beliaeff & Burgeot (2002). Results/Discussion: All SMCs parameters displayed significant differences between agricultural soils and reference soils, except for metabolic quotient and RNA to DNA ratio (p<0.05), revealing that SMCs are suitable bioindicators of agricultural soil quality in volcanic soils. No significant differences were found for the soil basal respiration and acid phosphatase among the farming systems, suggesting that soils amendments (a cross farming practice) are a stressing factor disrupting local SMCs activities. The PCA analysis revealed that lithium is the priority metal affecting the SMCs responses in conventional farming systems. The IBR values indicated that soils ecosystem health between farming systems are ranked as: organic (4.96) > traditional (12.94) > conventional (17.28) (the higher the value, the worse the soil health status). Conclusion: Results support the soil microbial toolbox as suitable bioindicators of metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils, highlighting the importance of integrated biomarker-based strategies for the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" in Andosols.

  4. Soil amendment affects Cd uptake by wheat - are we underestimating the risks from chloride inputs?

    PubMed

    Dahlin, A Sigrun; Eriksson, Jan; Campbell, Colin D; Öborn, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    Many parts of the world are investigating the efficacy of recycling nutrient resources to agriculture from different industry and domestic sectors as part of a more circular economy. The complex nature of recycled products as soil amendments coupled to the large diversity of soil types and their inherent properties make it difficult to optimize the benefits and minimize the risks from potentially toxic elements often present in recycled materials. Here we investigated how wheat grain cadmium (Cd) concentration was affected by soil amendments, namely human urine and biogas digestate compared to traditional farm manures and mineral fertilizers. We show that Cl(-) inadvertently added to soils with e.g. urine or biogas digestate strongly increased crop Cd concentrations, largely by mobilizing inherent soil Cd. This resulted in wheat grain Cd levels that could result in exceeding recommended WHO limits for dietary intake. This was evident even in soils with low inherent Cd content and when Cd inputs were low. The future of a circular economy that helps to underpin global food security needs to ensure that the effects of applying complex materials to different types of agricultural land are fully understood and do not jeopardize food safety.

  5. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  6. Effect of ageing on the availability of heavy metals in soils amended with compost and biochar: evaluation of changes in soil and amendment properties.

    PubMed

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2016-10-01

    Remediation strategies using soil amendments should consider the time dependence of metal availability to identify amendments that can sustainably reduce available pollutant concentrations over time. Drying-wetting cycles were applied on amendments, soils and soil + amendment mixtures, to mimic ageing at field level and investigate its effect on extractable Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations from three contaminated soils. The amendments investigated were municipal waste organic compost and biochars. The amendments, soils and mixtures were characterised by their physicochemical properties at different ageing times. The amendments were also characterised in terms of sorption capacity for Cd and Cu. The sorption capacity and the physicochemical properties of the amendments remained constant over the period examined. When mixed with the soils, amendments, especially the compost, immediately reduced the extractable metals in the soils with low pH and acid neutralisation capacity, due to the increase in pH and buffering capacity of the mixtures. The amendments had a relatively minor impact on the metal availability concentrations for the soil with substantially high acid neutralisation capacity. The most important changes in extractable metal concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiments, ageing having a minor effect on metal concentrations when compared with the initial effect of amendments.

  7. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  8. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  9. Multiple storm event impacts on epikarst storage and transport of organic soil amendments in South-Central Kentucky.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The groundwater in agricultural karst areas is susceptible to contamination from organic soil amendments and pesticides. During major storm events of winter and spring 2011, dye traces were initiated using sulphorhodamine-B, fluorescein and eosine in a known groundwater recharge area where manure wa...

  10. Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC > TCS > AHTN > HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS.

  11. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: Biochars are a soil amendment produced from lignocellulosic and manure feedstocks. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments because of differences in their physical and chemical properties. Biochar could deliver more effective service as a soil amendment if its chemis...

  12. Nutrient and toxic element soil concentrations during repeated mineral and compost fertilization treatments in a Mediterranean agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Saviello, Giovanni; Alfani, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural soils of semi-arid Mediterranean areas are often subjected to depletion of their chemical, physical, and biological properties. In this context, organic fertilization, in addition to providing nutrients for a longer time in respect to mineral fertilization, improves many other characteristics related to soil fertility. Moreover, the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers may promote a more sustainable crop production. However, a concern on the long-term use of organic fertilizers arises in relation to the possible accumulation of toxic elements in soil and their transfer to human beings. For this reason, a long-term study on nutrient and toxic element total concentrations and availabilities during fertilization treatments was carried out. In particular, mineral NPK fertilized soils, soils amended with biowaste compost, soils amended with biowaste compost plus mineral nitrogen, and unfertilized soils were analyzed for 11 chemical elements. The results highlighted that temporal variations in total and bioavailable concentrations of both nutrients and toxic elements, occurring also in unfertilized soils, are wider than those related to fertilization treatments. Anyway, soil amendments with biowaste compost, alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers, reduce Cu bioavailability but improve K, Fe, Mn, and Zn availabilities, excluding at the same time a long-term accumulation in soil. Total and bioavailable toxic element concentrations (apart from available Cd) do not vary in relation to fertilization treatments.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC SPECIATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LEAD IN PHOSPHATE AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The immobilization of Pb in contaminated soils as pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3CI, OH, F] through the addition of various phosphate amendments has gained much attention in the remediation community. However, it is difficult to fully determine the specia...

  14. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  15. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  16. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  17. Rhizosphere Environment and Labile Phosphorus Release from Organic Waste-Amended Soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Thanh H.

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and biofertilizers are primary sources of nutrients for organic crop production. However, soils treated with large amounts of nutrient-enriched manure have elevated phosphorus (P) levels in regions of intensive animal agriculture. Surpluses occurred in these amended soils, resulting in large pools of exchangeable inorganic P (Pi) and enzyme-labile organic P (Po) that averaging 30.9 and 68.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Organic acids produced during crop residue decomposition can promote the complexation of counter-ions and decouple and release unbound Pi from metal and alkali metal phosphates. Animal manure and cover crop residues also contain large amounts of soluble organic matter, and likely generate similar ligands. However, a high degree of heterogeneity in P spatial distribution in such amended fields, arising from variances in substrate physical forms ranging from slurries to dried solids, composition, and diverse application methods and equipment. Distinct clusters of Pi and Po were observed, where accumulation of the latter forms was associated with high soil microbial biomass C and reduced phosphomonoesterases' activity. Accurate estimates of plant requirements and lability of soil P pools, and real-time plant and soil P sensing systems are critical considerations to optimally manage manure-derived nutrients in crop production systems. An in situ X-ray fluorescence-based approach to sensing canopy and soil XRFS-P was developed to improve the yield-soil P relationship for optimal nutrient recommendations in addition to allowing in-the-field verification of foliar P status.

  18. Natural attenuation of toxic metal phytoavailability in 35-year-old sewage sludge-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yiping; Li, Zhian; Mcbride, Murray B

    2016-04-01

    Toxic heavy metals persist in agricultural soils and ecosystem for many decades after their application as contaminants in sewage sludge and fertilizer products This study assessed the potential long-term risk of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in land-applied sewage sludge to food crop contamination. A sewage sludge-amended soil (SAS) aged in the field more than 35 years was used in a greenhouse pot experiment with leafy vegetables (lettuce and amaranth) having strong Cd and Zn accumulation tendencies. Soil media with variable levels of available Cd, Zn, and Cu (measured using 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction) were prepared by diluting SAS with several levels of uncontaminated control soil. Despite long-term aging in the field, the sludge site soil still retains large reserves of heavy metals, residual organic matter, phosphorus, and other nutrients, but its characteristics appear to have stabilized over time. Nevertheless, lettuce and amaranth harvested from the sludge-treated soil had undesirable contents of Cd and Zn. The high plant uptake efficiency for Cd and Zn raises a concern regarding the quality and safety of leafy vegetables in particular, when these crops are grown on soils that have been amended heavily with sewage sludge products at any time in their past.

  19. Transport of agricultural contaminants through karst soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Karst landscapes are common in many agricultural regions in the US. Well-developed karst landscapes are characterized by shallow soils, sinkholes, sinking streams, underground conduits, and springs. In these landscapes surface runoff is minimal and most recharge enters the subsurface relatively quic...

  20. Soil Macronutrient Sensing for Precision Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destru...

  1. Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil.

    PubMed

    Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Tian, Guanglong; Naidu, Ravi; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha

    2013-11-01

    Globally, substantial quantities of organic amendments (OAs) such as plant residues (3.8×10(9) Mg/yr), biosolids (10×10(7) Mg/yr), and animal manures (7×10(9) Mg/yr) are produced. Recycling these OAs in agriculture possesses several advantages such as improving plant growth, yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity. Nevertheless, OA applications hold some disadvantages such as nutrient eutrophication and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in GHG emission (carbon dioxide- CO2, methane- CH4, and nitrous oxide- N2O). Though CH4 and N2O are emitted in less quantity than CO2, they are 21 and 310 times more powerful in global warming potential, respectively. Although there have been reviews on the role of mineral fertilizer application on GHG emission, there has been no comprehensive review on the effect of OA application on GHG emission in agricultural soils. The review starts with the quantification of various OAs used in agriculture that include manures, biosolids, and crop residues along with their role in improving soil health. Then, it discusses four major OA induced-GHG emission processes (i.e., priming effect, methanogenesis, nitrification, and denitrification) by highlighting the impact of OA application on GHG emission from soil. For example, globally 10×10(7) Mg biosolids are produced annually which can result in the potential emission of 530 Gg of CH4 and 60 Gg of N2O. The article then aims to highlight the soil, climatic, and OA factors affecting OA induced-GHG emission and the management practices to mitigate the emission. This review emphasizes the future research needs in relation to nitrogen and carbon dynamics in soil to broaden the use of OAs in agriculture to maintain soil health with minimum impact on GHG emission from agriculture.

  2. Fly ash application in nutrient poor agriculture soils: impact on methanotrophs population dynamics and paddy yields.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2013-03-01

    There are reports that the application of fly ash, compost and press mud or a combination thereof, improves plant growth, soil microbial communities etc. Also, fly ash in combination with farmyard manure or other organic amendments improves soil physico-chemical characteristics, rice yield and microbial processes in paddy fields. However, the knowledge about the impact of fly ash inputs alone or in combination with other organic amendments on soil methanotrophs number in paddy soils is almost lacking. We hypothesized that fly ash application at lower doses in paddy agriculture soil could be a potential amendment to elevate the paddy yields and methanotrophs number. Here we demonstrate the impact of fly ash and press mud inputs on number of methanotrophs, antioxidants, antioxidative enzymatic activities and paddy yields at agriculture farm. The impact of amendments was significant for methanotrophs number, heavy metal concentration, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymatic activities and paddy yields. A negative correlation was existed between higher doses of fly ash-treatments and methanotrophs number (R(2)=0.833). The content of antioxidants and enzymatic activities in leaves of higher doses fly ash-treated rice plants increased in response to stresses due to heavy metal toxicity, which was negatively correlated with rice grain yield (R(2)=0.944) and paddy straw yield (R(2)=0.934). A positive correlation was noted between heavy metals concentrations and different antioxidant and enzymatic activities across different fly ash treated plots.The data of this study indicate that heavy metal toxicity of fly ash may cause oxidative stress in the paddy crop and the antioxidants and related enzymes could play a defensive role against phytotoxic damages. We concluded that fly ash at lower doses with press mud seems to offer the potential amendments to improving soil methanotrophs population and paddy crop yields for the nutrient poor agriculture soils.

  3. Organic waste amendments effect on zinc fraction of two soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, L.M.

    1999-10-01

    Organic soil amendments can ameliorate metal toxicity to plants by redistributing metals to less available fractions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic amendments on Zn distribution among soil fractions. Two soils were amended with five organic waste materials (some of which contained Zn) or commercial humic acid with and without 400 mg kg{sup {minus}1} Zn, incubated, and fractionated using a sequential extraction technique. Where no Zn was added most of the metals were in the residual fraction. Commercial compost, poultry litter, and industrial sewage sludge increased Zn in the exchangeable (EXC), organic (OM), and manganese oxide (MnOx) fractions due to Zn in the materials. Spent mushroom compost (SMC) redistributed Zn from the EXC fraction to the MnOx fraction for the coarse-textured soil. Where Zn was added, most of the metal was in the EXC and OM fractions. The SMC and humic acid lowered Zn in the EXC fraction and increased Zn in the other fractions. Effects of the organic materials on Zn in soil fractions were more evident for the sandy soil dominated by quartz in the clay than for the finer-textured soil dominated by kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. It was concluded that organic materials high in Zn can increase Zn in the EXC, OM, and MnOx fractions where the soil is not contaminated and others such as SMC and HA can lower the potential availability of Zn in contaminated soils by redistributing it from the EXC to less soluble fractions.

  4. The effect of lignite on nitrogen mobility in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids and urea.

    PubMed

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Clough, Tim J; Carlton, Anna; Gough, Kelsi; Dickinson, Nicholas; Horswell, Jacqui; Sherlock, Robert R; Clucas, Lynne; Robinson, Brett H

    2016-02-01

    Lignite has been proposed as a soil amendment that reduces nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from soil. Our objective was to determine the effect of lignite on nitrogen (N) fluxes from soil amended with biosolids or urea. The effect of lignite on plant yield and elemental composition was also determined. Batch sorption and column leaching experiments were followed by a lysimeter trial where a low fertility soil was amended with biosolids (400 kg N/ha equivalent) and urea (200 kg N/ha equivalent). Treatments were replicated three times, with and without lignite addition (20 t/ha equivalent). Lignite did not reduce NO3(-) leaching from soils amended with either biosolids or urea. While lignite decreased NO3(-) leaching from an unamended soil, the magnitude of this effect was not significant in an agricultural context. Furthermore, lignite increased cumulative N2O production from soils receiving urea by 90%. Lignite lessened the beneficial growth effects of adding biosolids or urea to soil. Further work could investigate whether coating urea granules with lignite may produce meaningful environmental benefits.

  5. Environmental fate of the fungicide metalaxyl in soil amended with composted olive-mill waste and its biochar: An enantioselective study.

    PubMed

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Pignatello, Joseph J; Cox, Lucía; Hermosín, María C; Celis, Rafael

    2016-01-15

    A large number of pesticides are chiral and reach the environment as mixtures of optical isomers or enantiomers. Agricultural practices can affect differently the environmental fate of the individual enantiomers. We investigated how amending an agricultural soil with composted olive-mill waste (OMWc) or its biochar (BC) at 2% (w:w) affected the sorption, degradation, and leaching of each of the two enantiomers of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl. Sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers was higher on BC (Kd ≈ 145 L kg(-1)) than on OMWc (Kd ≈ 22 L kg(-1)) and was not enantioselective in either case, and followed the order BC-amended>OMWc-amended>unamended soil. Both enantiomers showed greater resistance to desorption from BC-amended soil compared to unamended and OMWc-amended soil. Dissipation studies revealed that the degradation of metalaxyl was more enantioselective (R>S) in unamended and OMWc-amended soil than in BC-amended soil. The leaching of both S- and R-metalaxyl from soil columns was almost completely suppressed after amending the soil with BC and metalaxyl residues remaining in the soil columns were more racemic than those in soil column leachates. Our findings show that addition of BC affected the final enantioselective behavior of metalaxyl in soil indirectly by reducing its bioavailability through sorption, and to a greater extent than OMWc. BC showed high sorption capacity to remove metalaxyl enantiomers from water, immobilize metalaxyl enantiomers in soil, and mitigate the groundwater contamination problems particularly associated with the high leaching potential of the more persistent enantiomer.

  6. Mobility of selected trace elements in Mediterranean red soil amended with phosphogypsum: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kassir, Lina Nafeh; Darwish, Talal; Shaban, Amin; Ouaini, Naim

    2012-07-01

    Soil amendment by phosphogypsum (PG) application becomes of increasing importance in agriculture. This may lead, however, to soil, plant, and groundwater contamination with trace elements (TEs) inherently present in PG. Monitoring of selected TEs (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) distribution and mobility in a Mediterranean red soil profile has been performed in soil parcels applied with PG over a 16-month period. Concentrations were measured in soil and plant samples collected from various depth intervals at different points in time. TEs sequential extraction was performed on soil and PG samples. Results showed soil profile enrichment peaked 5 months after PG application for Cd, and 12 months for Pb, Zn, and Cu. Rainwater, pH, total organic carbon, and cationic exchange capacity were the main controlling factors in TEs accumulation in soils. Cd was transferred to a soil depth of about 20 cm. Zn exhibited mobility towards deeper layers. Pb and Cu were accumulated in around 20-55-cm-deep layers. PG increased the solubility of the studied TEs; PG-applied soils contained TEs bound to exchangeable and acid-soluble fractions in higher percentages than reference soil. Pb, Zn, and Cu were sorbed into mineral soil phases, while Cd was mainly found in the exchangeable (bio-available) form. The order of TEs decreasing mobility was Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu. Roots and leaves of existed plants, Cichorium intybus L., accumulated high concentrations of Cd (1-2.4 mg/kg), exceeding recommended tolerable levels, and thus signifying potential health threats through contaminated crops. It was therefore recommended that PG should be applied in carefully established, monitored, and controlled quantities to agricultural soils.

  7. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a soil amended with biochars and other sorbents.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alegria; Cox, Lucia; Spokas, Kurt A; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, M Carmen; Cornejo, Juan; Koskinen, William C

    2011-12-14

    Biochar, the solid residual remaining after the thermochemical transformation of biomass for carbon sequestration, has been proposed to be used as a soil amendment, because of its agronomic benefits. The effect of amending soil with six biochars made from different feedstocks on the sorption and leaching of fluometuron and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) was compared to the effect of other sorbents: an activated carbon, a Ca-rich Arizona montmorillonite modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium organic cation (SA-HDTMA), and an agricultural organic residue from olive oil production (OOW). Soil was amended at 2% (w/w), and studies were performed following a batch equilibration procedure. Sorption of both herbicides increased in all amended soils, but decreased in soil amended with a biochar produced from macadamia nut shells made with fast pyrolysis. Lower leaching of the herbicides was observed in the soils amended with the biochars with higher surface areas BC5 and BC6 and the organoclay (OCl). Despite the increase in herbicide sorption in soils amended with two hardwood biochars (BC1 and BC3) and OOW, leaching of fluometuron and MCPA was enhanced with the addition of these amendments as compared to the unamended soil. The increased leaching is due to some amendments' soluble organic compounds, which compete or associate with herbicide molecules, enhancing their soil mobility. Thus, the results indicate that not all biochar amendments will increase sorption and decrease leaching of fluometuron and MCPA. Furthermore, the amount and composition of the organic carbon (OC) content of the amendment, especially the soluble part (DOC), can play an important role in the sorption and leaching of these herbicides.

  8. Bioavailability Of Arsenic In Arsenical Pesticide-Amended Soils: Preliminary Greenhouse Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Sarkar, D.; Khairom, A.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Long-term application of arsenical pesticides in agricultural lands has resulted in high levels of arsenic (As). Conversion of former agricultural lands to residential areas has resulted in increased human contact with soil As. Soil ingestion from incidental hand-to-mouth activity by children is now a very important issue in assessing human health risk associated with exposure to arsenical pesticide-applied former agricultural soils. Human health risk from direct exposure to soil As via hand to mouth action is restricted only to those fractions of As in the soil that are available to the human gastrointestinal system. Thus this study aimed at addressing the issue of soil variability on As bioavailability as a function of soil physiochemical properties in a dynamic interaction between soils, water and plants and pesticides. In the current greenhouse study two soils with drastically different chemical characteristics w.r.t As reactivity (Immokalee-low As retention potential and Millhopper-high As retention potential) and one pesticide (sodium arsenate) were used. Soils were amended with sodium arsenate at two rates representing the high and low ends of As contamination, generally representative of Superfunds site conditions: 675 and 1500 mg/kg As. Rice (Oryza sativa) was used as the test crop. Sequential digestion to estimate in-vitro As in the stomach phase and the intestinal phase was employed on soils sampled at 4 times: 0-time, after 3 mo, 6 mo and 9 mo of soil-pesticide equilibration. In-vitro bioavailability experiments were also performed with the same soils in order to obtain an estimate of the amount of As that would be absorbed to the intestinal linings in simulated systems. Following the greenhouse study, selective in-vivo bioavailability studies using As-contaminated soils will be conducted on male and female mice to correlate in-vitro results with the in-vivo data. Treatments will consist of a soil group (As in soil), a positive control group (only As

  9. Effect of coal fly ash-amended organic compost as a manure for agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ghuman, G.S.; Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Chandra, K.; Sajwan, K. )

    1991-04-01

    Coal-fired electric power plants generate large quantities of fly ash as a byproduct. In continuation of previous studies on the utilization of fly ash as an amendment to organic compost for use as a manure for agricultural crops, the authors have now determined the effects of this manure on the yield and uptake of selected elements by several plants including collard green, corn, mustard green, bell pepper, egg plant, and climbing beans. An amended compost containing 30-40% fly ash with a compost:soil ratio of 1:3 was found to be most effective to enhance the yield and nutrient uptake of most of the plants. At 20% fly ash level, no increase in yield of any of the above crops was observed. The uptake of K, Mg, Mn, and P was increased in most plants. Boron which is known to be detrimental to the growth of plants above certain level was also found to be increased in plants nourished with the manure.

  10. Lead in Urban Soils: A Real or Perceived Concern for Urban Agriculture?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sally L; Chaney, Rufus L; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M

    2016-01-01

    Urban agriculture is growing in cities across the United States. It has the potential to provide multiple benefits, including increased food security. Concerns about soil contamination in urban areas can be an impediment to urban agriculture. Lead is the most common contaminant in urban areas. In this paper, direct (soil ingestion via outdoor and indoor exposure) and indirect (consumption of food grown in Pb-contaminated soils) exposure pathways are reviewed. It is highly unlikely that urban agriculture will increase incidences of elevated blood Pb for children in urban areas. This is due to the high likelihood that agriculture will improve soils in urban areas, resulting in reduced bioavailability of soil Pb and reduced fugitive dust. Plant uptake of Pb is also typically very low. The exceptions are low-growing leafy crops where soil-splash particle contamination is more likely and expanded hypocotyl root vegetables (e.g., carrot). However, even with higher bioaccumulation factors, it is not clear that the Pb in root vegetables or any other crops will be absorbed after eating. Studies have shown limited absorption of Pb when ingested with food. Best management practices to assure minimal potential for exposure are also common practices in urban gardens. These include the use of residuals-based composts and soil amendments and attention to keeping soil out of homes. This review suggests that benefits associated with urban agriculture far outweigh any risks posed by elevated soil Pb.

  11. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., when applied at rates above 300 kg N/ha. Additional available carbon must be provided with urea to permit soil microorganisms to metabolize excess N and avoid phytotoxic effects. There is a direct relation between the amount of "protein" N in organic amendments and their effectiveness as nematode population suppressants. Most nematicidal amendments are oil cakes, or animal excrements containing 2-7% (w:w) N; these materials are effective at rates of 4-10 t/ha. Organic soil amendments containing mucopolysaccharides (e.g., mycelial wastes, chitinous matter) are also effective nematode suppressants. PMID:19294153

  12. Effects of Organic Amendments and Tillage on Soil Microorganisms and Microfauna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of organic amendment and tillage on the soil food web at two depths in a field experiment was investigated. Over a three-year period, field plots received seasonal organic amendments, and the amendments were either incorporated into the soil (tilled) or not (no-till) as part of a tomato:...

  13. Root Induced Heterogeneity In Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, C.; Gabai, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Furman, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we investigate the role of plant induced heterogeneity on water dynamics in agricultural soils. We conducted three experiments in two sites (one still ongoing) in which a trench was excavated in the root zone of an orchard and the subsurface, to a depth of over 1 m, was instrumented in high resolution with water content, water potential and temperature sensors. High temporal resolution monitoring of soil state was carried for over a year, period that included natural (Mediterranean) climate boundary forcing. In addition, sprinkler, flood, and spray irrigation boundary conditions were forced for short time periods to explore the infiltration process under these conditions. One site was an Avocado orchard planted in red sandy soil while the other, still on-going, is in a grape vineyards irrigated by tap and treated wastewater, planted over alluvial clayey soil. In the vineyard, we are comparing soil irrigated with fresh water to soil irrigated with treated waste water for more than 10 years. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena. First, the role of plant roots is clearly seen as the major roots act as a conduit for water (and solute), providing a fast bypass of the upper soil. Further, we identified different regions of the subsurface that apparently were of the same texture, but in practice presented very different hydraulic properties. Second, the role of these roots depends on the boundary conditions. That is, the root bypass acts differently when soil is flooded than when flow is strictly unsaturated. As expected, simulation of the experimental results show good fit only if the domain heterogeneity of soil properties was incorporated. Results for the clayey soils were not available at time of abstract submission.

  14. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

  15. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Cubadda, Francesco; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg(-1)) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  16. Atrazine leaching from biochar-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Delwiche, Kyle B; Lehmann, Johannes; Walter, M Todd

    2014-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is used extensively throughout the United States, and is a widespread groundwater and surface water contaminant. Biochar has been shown to strongly sorb organic compounds and could be used to reduce atrazine leaching. We used lab and field experiments to determine biochar impacts on atrazine leaching under increasingly heterogeneous soil conditions. Application of pine chip biochar (commercially pyrolyzed between 300 and 550 °C) reduced cumulative atrazine leaching by 52% in homogenized (packed) soil columns (p=0.0298). Biochar additions in undisturbed soil columns did not significantly (p>0.05) reduce atrazine leaching. Mean peak groundwater atrazine concentrations were 53% lower in a field experiment after additions of 10 t ha(-1) acidified biochar (p=0.0056) relative to no biochar additions. Equivalent peat applications by dry mass had no effect on atrazine leaching. Plots receiving a peat-biochar mixture showed no reduction, suggesting that the peat organic matter may compete with atrazine for biochar sorption sites. Several individual measurement values outside the 99% confidence interval in perched groundwater concentrations indicate that macropore structure could contribute to rare, large leaching events that are not effectively reduced by biochar. We conclude that biochar application has the potential to decrease peak atrazine leaching, but heterogeneous soil conditions, especially preferential flow paths, may reduce this impact. Long-term atrazine leaching reductions are also uncertain.

  17. Biochar: A soil amendment worth considering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a fine-grained, carbon enriched product created when biomass (e.g. wood waste, manures) is burned at relatively low temperatures (less than 1300oF) and under an anoxic (lack of oxygen) atmosphere. The benefits of biochar addition to soils have long since been recognized. Amazonian dark ...

  18. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  19. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  20. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment on soil biology and system resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  1. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  2. The use of soil organic amendments: an old practice in a changing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavatta, C.; Cavani, L.; Sciubba, L.; Marzadori, C.

    2012-04-01

    The annual production of organic wastes in the so called "developed countries" reaches many decades of tons per year. These wastes are of agro-industrial and municipal origin, mainly in solid or semi-solid form and are rich in organic carbon, macro (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium) and micronutrients. On the other hand, soils, especially in the Mediterranean area, are often subjected to severe degradation processes accompanied by a decline of soil organic matter content which adversely affects soil fertility. The use of organic amendments allows restoring soil organic matter content and its physical, chemical and biological functions. Therefore the agricultural use of organic wastes, especially if properly processed such as after composting processes, could be an interesting way to convert a waste into a resource by supplying organic matter and nutrients to cultivated and degraded soils according to an ecological approach. However, organic wastes may contain contaminants, such as heavy metals, patogens and organic pollutants, so they must be processed in order to obtain chemical stabilization and biological maturation of the organic matter. The aim of this work was to look into the list of organic amendments the opportunity of agronomical reuse together with to discuss the possible presence of contaminants that should be regulated in the EU fertiliser legislation. At the same time to identify the contaminants that need to be controlled in fertilisers to ensure a sufficient level of protection of human health and the environment without entailing disproportionate compliance costs for the society.

  3. To what extent are soil amendments useful to control Verticillium wilt?

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Nieves

    2009-08-01

    The genus Verticillium includes several species that attack economically important crops throughout the world. The control of Verticillium spp. becomes especially difficult when they form microsclerotia that can survive in the field soil for several years. It has been common practice to fumigate soil with chemicals such as methyl bromide and/or chloropicrin to control soil-borne fungal pathogens. Other chemicals that are used against Verticillium spp. are the antifungal antibiotic aureofungin, the fungicides benomyl, captan, carbendazim, thiram, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin and the plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, the potential risks involved in applying phytochemicals to crop plants for both the environment and human health, together with their limited efficacy for controlling Verticillium-induced diseases, support the need to find alternatives to replace their use or improve their efficacy. Soil amendment with animal or plant organic debris is a cultural practice that has long been used to control Verticillium spp. However, today the organic farming industry is becoming a significant player in the global agricultural production scene. In this review, some of the main results concerning the efficacy of several soil amendments as plant protectors against Verticillium spp. are covered, and the limitations and future perspectives of such products are discussed in terms of the control of plant diseases.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a vineyard soil amended with grape marc vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Vineyard soils in many areas suffer from low organic matter contents, which can be the cause of negative effects such as increasing the risk of erosion, so the use of organic amendments must be considered a good agricultural practice. Even more, if grape marc is recycled as a soil amendment in the vineyards, benefits from a good waste management strategy are also obtained. In the present study, a grape marc from the wine region of Valdeorras (north-west Spain) was used for the production of vermicompost, and this added to a vineyard soil of the same area in a laboratory study. Mixtures of soil and grape marc vermicompost (2 and 4%, dry weight) were incubated for ten weeks at 25°C and the mineralization of C and N studied. The respiration data were fitted to a first-order kinetic model. The rates of grape marc vermicompost which should be added to the vineyard soil in order to maintain the initial levels of organic matter were estimated from the laboratory data, and found to be 1.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if the present mean temperature is considered) and 2.1 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if a 2°C increment in temperature is considered), amounts which could be obtained recycling the grape marc produced in the exploitation.

  5. Impact of biochar amendment on soil water soluble carbon in the context of extreme hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyuan; Griffin, Deirdre E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Scow, Kate M

    2016-10-01

    Biochar amendments to soil have been promoted as a low cost carbon (C) sequestration strategy as well as a way to increase nutrient retention and remediate contaminants. If biochar is to become part of a long-term management strategy, it is important to consider its positive and negative impacts, and their trade-offs, on soil organic matter (SOM) and soluble C under different hydrological conditions such as prolonged drought or frequent wet-dry cycles. A 52-week incubation experiment measuring the influence of biochar on soil water soluble C under different soil moisture conditions (wet, dry, or wet-dry cycles) indicated that, in general, dry and wet-dry cycles increased water soluble C, and biochar addition further increased release of water soluble C from native SOM. Biochar amendment appeared to increase transformation of native SOM to water soluble C, based on specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) and C stable isotope composition; however, the increased amount of water soluble C from native SOM is less than 1% of total biochar C. The impacts of biochar on water soluble C need to be carefully considered when applying biochar to agricultural soil.

  6. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  7. Application of different organic amendments in a gasoline contaminated soil: effect on soil microbial properties.

    PubMed

    Tejada, M; Gonzalez, J L; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C

    2008-05-01

    The effects of four organic wastes, including cotton gin crushed compost (CC), poultry manure (PM), sewage sludge (SS) and organic municipal solid waste (MSW) on some biological properties of a Xerollic Calciorthid soil polluted with gasoline at two loading rates (5% and 10%) were studied in an incubation experiment. Three hundred grams of sieved soil (<2mm) were polluted with gasoline and mixed with PM at a rate of 10%, CC at a rate of 17.2%, SS at a rate of 23.1%, or MSW at a rate of 13.1%, applying to the soil the same amount of organic matter with each organic amendment. An unamended soil, non polluted (C) and polluted with gasoline at 5% (G1) and 10% (G2) rate were used as reference. Soil samples were collected after 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 d of incubation and analyzed for microbial biomass carbon, respiration and dehydrogenase, urease, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities. At the end of the incubation period, soil biological properties were higher in organic amended soils than in C, G1 and G2 treatments. In particular, soil microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase, urease, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities increased 87.1%, 92.9%, 88.7%, 93.2%, 78.2% and 85.3%, respectively for CC-amended soils respect to G2, 85.7%, 82.3%, 87.3%, 92.2%, 76.7% and 83.6%, respectively for PM-amended soils; 82%, 90%, 84.8%, 89.9%, 74.1% and 80%, respectively for SS-amended soils; and 71.3%, 78.3% 26.2%, 38.2%, 79.7% and 88.6%, respectively for MSW-amended soils. Since the adsorption capacity of gasoline was higher in CC than the PM, SS and MSW-amended soils, it can be concluded that the addition of organic wastes with higher humic acid concentration is more beneficial for remediation of soils polluted with gasoline.

  8. Misrepresentation and amendment of soil moisture in conceptual hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Although many conceptual models are very effective in simulating river runoff, their soil moisture schemes are generally not realistic in comparison with the reality (i.e., getting the right answers for the wrong reasons). This study reveals two significant misrepresentations in those models through a case study using the Xinanjiang model which is representative of many well-known conceptual hydrological models. The first is the setting of the upper limit of its soil moisture at the field capacity, due to the 'holding excess runoff' concept (i.e., runoff begins on repletion of its storage to the field capacity). The second is neglect of capillary rise of water movement. A new scheme is therefore proposed to overcome those two issues. The amended model is as effective as its original form in flow modelling, but represents more logically realistic soil water processes. The purpose of the study is to enable the hydrological model to get the right answers for the right reasons. Therefore, the new model structure has a better capability in potentially assimilating soil moisture observations to enhance its real-time flood forecasting accuracy. The new scheme is evaluated in the Pontiac catchment of the USA through a comparison with satellite observed soil moisture. The correlation between the XAJ and the observed soil moisture is enhanced significantly from 0.64 to 0.70. In addition, a new soil moisture term called SMDS (Soil Moisture Deficit to Saturation) is proposed to complement the conventional SMD (Soil Moisture Deficit).

  9. Amending Jasper County, Missouri soils with biochar and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abandoned mines and the residuals from mining across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. Many soils in the Tri-State-Mining District (TSMD), located where Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma meet, have been affected by the residuals of historic lead and zinc mining. Here we describe a research collaboration between ORD and Region 7 to investigate the use of customized soil amendments, which will include biochar, as a tool to provide both soil remediation and reestablishment of a soil-stabilizing native plant community at sites in the TSMD. Biochar is a charcoal-like, carbon-rich, porous by-product of thermal pyrolysis or gasification. A benefit of using biochar is the ability to engineer its properties to correspond to specific soil remediation needs. Specifically, it has properties that make it well suited for use in remediating mine soils and reestablishing vegetation, with studies indicating that biochar can complex and immobilize heavy metals. This is of critical importance for mining influenced sites. However, the optimized biochar properties for the remediation of acidic mine soils are not yet fully known. Biochar can be produced to have a range of pH values, depending upon feedstock and pyrolysis or gasification conditions, and post-production activation. Therefore, this material may be used as a liming agent to raise soil pH. Additionally, some biochars have been shown to improve soil water holding capacities and

  10. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  11. Multivariate regulation of soil CO2 and N2 O pulse emissions from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liyin L; Grantz, David A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-03-01

    Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes to (i) temperature, (ii) soil water content as percent water holding capacity (%WHC), (iii) substrate availability throughout, and (iv) multiple soil drying and rewetting (DW) events. Each of these factors and their interactions exerted effects on GHG emissions over a range of four (CO2 ) and six (N2 O) orders of magnitude. Maximal CO2 and N2 O fluxes were observed in environments combining intermediate %WHC, elevated temperature, and sufficient substrate availability. Amendments of C and N and their interactions significantly affected CO2 and N2 O fluxes and altered their temperature sensitivities (Q10 ) over successive DW cycles. C amendments significantly enhanced CO2 flux, reduced N2 O flux, and decreased the Q10 of both. N amendments had no effect on CO2 flux and increased N2 O flux, while significantly depressing the Q10 for CO2 , and having no effect on the Q10 for N2 O. The dynamics across DW cycles could be attributed to changes in soil microbial communities as the different responses to wetting events in specific group of microorganisms, to the altered substrate availabilities, or to both. The complex interactions among parameters influencing trace gas fluxes should be incorporated into next generation earth system models to improve estimation of GHG emissions.

  12. Isolation and evaluation of potent Pseudomonas species for bioremediation of phorate in amended soil.

    PubMed

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Jindal, Vikas; Mandal, Kousik

    2015-12-01

    Use of phorate as a broad spectrum pesticide in agricultural crops is finding disfavor due to persistence of both the principal compound as well as its toxic residues in soil. Three phorate utilizing bacterial species (Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 4.3, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.2) were isolated from field soils. Comparative phorate degradation analysis of these species in liquid cultures identified Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 to cause complete metabolization of phorate during seven days as compared to the other two species in 13 days. In soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil), Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 resulted in active metabolization of phorate by between 94.66% and 95.62% establishing the same to be a potent bacterium for significantly relieving soil from phorate residues. Metabolization of phorate to these phorate residues did not follow the first order kinetics. This study proves that Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 has huge potential for active bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils.

  13. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  14. Approximating Phosphorus Leaching from Agricultural Organic Soils by Soil Testing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Zhang, T Q; Kessel, C; Tan, C S; O'Halloran, I P; Wang, Y T; Speranzini, D; Van Eerd, L L

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus applied to soils in excess of crop requirement could create situations favorable to P enrichment in subsurface flow that contributes to eutrophication of surface water. This pathway of P loss can be more severe in muck (i.e., organic) soils where agricultural production is intensive. This study evaluated the suitability of various environmental and agronomic soil P tests initially designed for mineral soils to predict dissolved reactive P (DRP) in subsurface flow from organic soils. Intact soil columns were collected from 44 muck soils in Ontario to provide a wide range of soil test P levels. A lysimeter leaching study was conducted by evenly adding water in an amount equivalent to 5 mm of rainfall. The leachate DRP concentration was linearly related to soil water-extractable P and CaCl-extractable P with values of 0.90 and 0.93, respectively, and to Bray-1 P and FeO-impregnated filter paper extractable P in a split-line model with a change point. Mehlich-3 P and Olsen P, a method recommended for agronomic P calibration in Ontario, were not related to leachate DRP concentration. All P sorption index (PSI) based degree of P saturation (DPS) values were closely related to leachate DRP in split-line models, with the DPS indices expressed as Bray-1 P/PSI and FeO-P/PSI having the highest correlation with leachate DRP concentration. Because it is desirable from practical and economic standpoints that the environmental risk assessment shares the same soil test with agronomic P calibration, the two PSI-based DPS indices as presented can be considered as environmental risk indicators of DRP subsurface loss from organic soils.

  15. Remediation of PAHs in a saline-alkaline soil amended with wastewater sludge and the effect on dynamics of C and N.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Marsch, R; Espinosa-Victoria, D; Thalasso, F; Hidalgo Lara, M E; Munive, A; Luna-Guido, M L; Dendooven, L

    2008-08-25

    Contamination of soil with hydrocarbons occurs frequently and organic material, such as sludge, is often applied to accelerate their dissipation. Little is known, however, how sludge characteristics affect removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from alkaline-saline soil. Soil of the former lake Texcoco with pH 9 and electrolytic conductivity 7 dS m(-1) was contaminated with phenanthrene and anthracene and amended with sludge, sterilized sludge, sludge adjusted to maintain pH in contaminated soil or glucose plus an inorganic N and P source while emission of CO2 and concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, extractable P, phenanthrene and anthracene were monitored in an aerobic incubation experiment of 112 days. An agricultural soil from Acolman treated in the same way served as control. Contaminating the Texcoco soil increased emission of CO2 significantly, but not in the Acolman soil. After 112 days, the largest concentration of anthracene and phenanthrene was found in the Acolman soil added with glucose and the lowest in the sludge-amended soil. The largest concentration of anthracene in the Texcoco soil was found in soil added with sterile sludge and the lowest in the sludge-amended soil. The largest concentration of phenanthrene in the Texcoco soil was found in the glucose-amended soil and the lowest in the sludge-amended soil. It was found that addition of sludge removed more phenanthrene, but not anthracene from soil compared to the unamended contaminated soil, glucose inhibited dissipation of PAHs while microorganisms in the sludge contributed to their removal, and adjustment of soil pH had no effect. Organic material can be used to accelerate removal of hydrocarbons from soil, but the effect is controlled by soil type, contaminant and organic material characteristics.

  16. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices.

  17. Dynamics and characterization of soil organic matter in mine soils sixteen years after amendment with native soil, sawdust, and sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Bendfeldt, E.S.; Burger, J.A.; Daniels, W.L.; Feldhake, C.M.

    1999-07-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important indicator of soil quality and site productivity. Organic amendments may be a means for ameliorating mine soils and other soils that have been depleted of organic matter. In 1982, a mined site was amended with seven different surface treatments: a control, 30 cm of native soil, 112 Mg/ha sawdust, and municipal sewage sludge (SS) at rates of 22, 56, 112, and 224 Mg/ha. Four replicates of each treatment were installed as a randomized complete block design. Each replicate was subsequently split according to vegetation type: pitch x loblolly pine hybrid (Pinus rigda x taeda) trees and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Soil analyses of composite samples indicated that organic amendments initially improved C and N status of the mine soils, but after 16 years their levels converged to that of the control treatment. Tree volume and biomass were used as indices of the effects of organic matter content 16 years after initial amendment. Individual tree volumes of the sawdust and 22, 56, 112 Mg/ha. SS treatments retained 18 to 26% more volume than the control. Overall, forage production was the same among treatments. Organic amendments improved initial soil fertility for crop establishment, but it appears that they will have little or no long-lasting effect on plant productivity.

  18. Soil management of copper mine tailing soils--sludge amendment and tree vegetation could improve biological soil quality.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Verónica; Covelo, Emma F; Kandeler, Ellen

    2013-07-01

    Mine soils at the depleted copper mine in Touro (Northwest Spain) are physico-chemically degraded and polluted by chromium and copper. To increase the quality of these soils, some areas at this mine have been vegetated with eucalyptus or pines, amended with sludges, or received both treatments. Four sites were selected at the Touro mine tailing in order to evaluate the effect of these different reclamation treatments on the biological soil quality: (1) Control (untreated), (2) Forest (vegetated), (3) Sludge (amended with sludges) and (4) Forest+Sludge (vegetated and amended). The new approach of the present work is that we evaluated the effect of planting trees or/and amending with sludges on the biological soil quality of mine sites polluted by metals under field conditions. The addition of sludges to mine sites recovered the biological quality of the soil, while vegetating with trees did not increase microbial biomass and function to the level of unpolluted sites. Moreover, amending with sludges increased the efficiency of the soil's microbial community to metabolize C and N, which was indicated by the decrease of the specific enzyme activities and the increase in the ratio Cmic:Nmic (shift towards predominance of fungi instead of bacteria). However, the high Cu and Cr concentrations still have negative influence on the microorganisms in all the treated soils. For the future remediation of mine soils, we recommend periodically adding sludge and planting native legume species.

  19. Quality of trace element contaminated soils amended with compost under fast growing tree Paulownia fortunei plantation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Xiong, J; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

    2014-11-01

    The use of fast growing trees could be an alternative in trace element contaminated soils to stabilize these elements and improve soil quality. In this study we investigate the effect of Paulownia fortunei growth on trace element contaminated soils amended with two organic composts under semi-field conditions for a period of 18 months. The experiment was carried out in containers filled with tree different soils, two contaminated soils (neutral AZ and acid V) and a non contaminated soil, NC. Three treatments per soil were established: two organic amendments (alperujo compost, AC, and biosolid compost, BC) and a control without amendment addition. We study parameters related with fertility and contamination in soils and plants. Paulownia growth and amendments increased pH in acid soils whereas no effect of these factors was observed in neutral soils. The plant and the amendments also increased organic matter and consequently, soil fertility. Positive results were also found in soils that were only affected by plant growth (without amendment). A general improvement of "soil biochemical quality" was detected over time and treatments, confirming the positive effect of amendments plus paulownia. Even in contaminated soils, except for Cu and Zn, trace element concentrations in leaves were in the normal range for plants. Results of this mid-term study showed that Paulownia fortunei is a promising species for phytoremediation of trace element polluted soils.

  20. Effects of conventional and no-tillage soil management and compost and sludge amendment on soil CO2 fluxes and microbial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gil, Juan Carlos; Haller, Isabel; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; Polo, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    Soil management exerts a significant influence on the dynamic of soil organic matter, which is a key issue to enhance soil quality and its ecological functions, but also affects to greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration processes. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of soil management (conventional deep-tillage and no-tillage) and the application of two different organic amendment -thermally-dry sewage sludge (TSL) and municipal waste compost (MWC)- on soil CO2 fluxes and microbial activities in a long-term field experiment under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 t ha-1 prior to sowing a barley crop. The experiment was conducted on an agricultural soil (Calcic Luvisol) from the experimental farm "La Higueruela" (Santa Olalla, Toledo). Unamended soils were used as control in both conventional and no-tillage management. During the course of the experiment, soil CO2 fluxes, microbial biomass C (MBC) and enzyme activities involved in the biogeochemical cycles of C, N and P were monitored during 12 months. The results obtained during the experiment for soil CO2 fluxes showed a great seasonal fluctuation due to semi-arid climate conditions. Overall, conventional deep-tillage soils exhibited higher CO2 fluxes, which was particularly larger during the first hours after deep-tillage was performed, and smaller MBC content and significantly lower dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and BAA protease activities than no-tillage soils. Both MWC and TSL amendments provoked a significant increase of CO2 fluxes in both conventional and no-tillage soils, which was larger in TSL amended soils and particularly in no-tillage soils. The application of these organic amendments also enhanced MBC content and the overall enzyme activities in amended soils, which indicate a global revitalization of soil microbial metabolism in response to the fresh input of organic compounds that are energy

  1. Soil macronutrient sensing for precision agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Jin; Sudduth, Kenneth A; Hummel, John W

    2009-10-01

    Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destructive quantification of soil properties, including nutrient levels, has been possible with optical diffuse reflectance sensing. Another approach, electrochemical sensing based on ion-selective electrodes or ion-selective field effect transistors, has been recognized as useful in real-time analysis because of its simplicity, portability, rapid response, and ability to directly measure the analyte with a wide range of sensitivity. Current sensor developments and related technologies that are applicable to the measurement of soil macronutrients for SSCM are comprehensively reviewed. Examples of optical and electrochemical sensors applied in soil analyses are given, while advantages and obstacles to their adoption are discussed. It is proposed that on-the-go vehicle-based sensing systems have potential for efficiently and rapidly characterizing variability of soil macronutrients within a field.

  2. Influence of Herbicide Triasulfuron on Soil Microbial Community in an Unamended Soil and a Soil Amended with Organic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Pose-Juan, Eva; Igual, José M.; Sánchez-Martín, María J.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of organic amendments and pesticides on a soil microbial community has garnered considerable interest due to the involvement of microorganisms in numerous soil conservation and maintenance reactions. The aim of this work was to assess the influence on a soil microbial community of the simultaneous application of the herbicide triasulfuron at three doses (2, 10, and 50 mg kg-1), with an organic amendment [sewage sludge (SS) or green compost (GC)]. Dissipation kinetics, soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and respiration, and the profile of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) extracted from the soil, were determined in unamended (S) soil and amended (S+SS and S+GC) ones. Triasulfuron dissipation followed the single first-order kinetics model. Half-life (DT50) values were higher in the amended soils than in the unamended one for the 10 and 50 mg kg-1 doses. The dissipation rates were lower in the S+GC soil for the three herbicide doses applied. In general, soil biomass, DHA and respiration values increased in SS- and GC-amended soils compared to the unamended one. DHA values decreased (S and S+SS) or increased (S+GC) with the incubation time of soil with herbicide at the different doses applied. Respiration values increased with the herbicide doses applied and decreased with the incubation time, although maximum values were obtained for soils treated with the highest dose after 70 days of incubation. PLFA analysis indicated different effects of triasulfuron on the soil microbial community structure depending on the organic amendments. While the increasing triasulfuron doses resulted in deeper alterations in the S soil, the time after triasulfuron application was the most important variation in the S+SS and S+GC soils. The overall results indicate that the soil amendment has an effect on herbicide dissipation rate and the soil microbial community. Initially, a high dose of triasulfuron had detrimental effects on the soil microbial community

  3. Transport of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and microspheres in biochar-amended soils with different textures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar amendment has been shown to affect bacterial transport in soils. The effect of soil texture on the transport of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in soils amended with 2 % poultry litter or pine chip biochars pyrolyzed under two temperatures (350 and 700 'C...

  4. Considerations for sampling contaminants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Sampling agricultural soils for contaminants is relatively new. Existing standard sampling protocols used for the evaluation of soil nutrients are likely insufficient for contaminants. The main reasons are the very low analyte levels and differences in heterogeneity between nutrients and contaminants. To evaluate the adequacy of existing sampling protocols or to develop new protocols, a systematic scientific approach is needed. This approach begins with the development of the Sample Quality Criteria followed by a realistic understanding of the properties of the material to be sampled, most notably its heterogeneity. The Sample Quality Criteria and material properties are inputs into the Theory of Sampling. With these inputs, the Theory of Sampling can be used to determine the specifics of the sampling protocol (e.g., mass, number of increments, tool selection) that must be implemented to control error to reliably estimate the concentration of the analyte(s) of interest. Development of sampling protocols in this manner will ensure sample representativeness and therefore improve data equivalency among various parties involved. This is the only way to provide a sound technical basis for defensible decision making to ensure increased safety of food and feed, specifically with respect to contaminants in agricultural soils.

  5. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  6. Changes in bacterial community structure of agricultural land due to long-term organic and chemical amendments.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Rehman, Ateequr; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-08-01

    Community level physiological profiling and pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V1-V2 16S rRNA gene region were used to characterize and compare microbial community structure, diversity, and bacterial phylogeny from soils of chemically cultivated land (CCL), organically cultivated land (OCL), and fallow grass land (FGL) for 16 years and were under three different land use types. The entire dataset comprised of 16,608 good-quality sequences (CCL, 6,379; OCL, 4,835; FGL, 5,394); among them 12,606 sequences could be classified in 15 known phylum. The most abundant phylum were Proteobacteria (29.8%), Acidobacteria (22.6%), Actinobacteria (11.1%), and Bacteroidetes (4.7%), while 24.3% of the sequences were from bacterial domain but could not be further classified to any known phylum. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes were found to be significantly abundant in OCL soil. On the contrary, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were significantly abundant in CCL and FGL, respectively. Our findings supported the view that organic compost amendment (OCL) activates diverse group of microorganisms as compared with conventionally used synthetic chemical fertilizers. Functional diversity and evenness based on carbon source utilization pattern was significantly higher in OCL as compared to CCL and FGL, suggesting an improvement in soil quality. This abundance of microbes possibly leads to the enhanced level of soil organic carbon, soil organic nitrogen, and microbial biomass in OCL and FGL soils as collated with CCL. This work increases our current understanding on the effect of long-term organic and chemical amendment applications on abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial community inhabiting the soil for the prospects of agricultural yield and quantity of soil.

  7. Use of oily waste organics as amendment to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, R.E.; Taboada, M.A.; Rodriguez, D.; Caso, O.; Portal, R.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of oily waste organics (OWO) from petroleum wells used as amendment in soils of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) was studied. The soil in Tierra del Fuego is dominated by a xeric heath community of very little forage value for sheep. In a pot experiment, applying OWO as a band 2 cm below the soil surface decreased water evaporation, increased the soil temperature by 15%, and decreased the growth of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) by 29% with respect to the control. In another pot experiment, OWO was mixed with soil, fertilized with N and P, and incubated for 0, 18, 39, and 75 days at 4 and 30 C. Incubation increased the population of nitrifier bacteria in soil only when OWO was applied at 0 or 10%; at 20% nitrifier bacteria were depressed. Fertilization increased the growth of orchard grass and overcame any depressive effect of OWO on shoot yield. In a third experiment, the percentage of germination of orchard seeds was not affected by adding up to 40% of OWO, although the addition of OWO depressed root elongation rate. In a field experiment, adding OWO between rows of potato plants increased soil water content and total potato yield.

  8. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  9. Combining agricultural practices key to elevating soil microbial activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of soil health is an emerging topic in applied ecology, specifically as it pertains to the agriculture, which utilizes approximately 40% of earth’s land. However, rigorous quantification of soil health and the services provided by soil organisms to support agriculture production (e.g., n...

  10. Soil microbial response to tetracycline in two different soils amended with cow manure.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Luigi; Pusino, Alba; Garau, Giovanni; Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Pinna, Maria Vittoria

    2016-03-01

    High amounts of antibiotics are introduced in the soil environment by manure amendment, which is the most important spreading route in soil, with a potential ecotoxicological impact on the environment. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the tetracycline (Tc) bioavailability in a clay and in a sandy soil, and (b) to evaluate the effects of the Tc and cow manure on the structure and function of soil microbial communities. Clay and sandy soils were spiked with Tc at the concentrations of 100 and 500 mg Tc kg(-1) soil, and were amended or not with cow manure. The clay soil showed greater Tc sorption capacity and bioavailable Tc was between 0.157 and 4.602 mg kg(-1) soil. Tc dose and time-dependent effects on soil microbial communities were investigated by fluorescein diacetate activity, phospholipid fatty acids analysis, as well as by Biolog community level physiological profile and microbial counts at 2, 7 and 60 days after Tc and/or manure addition. The added Tc caused detrimental effect on the microbial activity and structure, particularly in the short term at the highest concentrations. However, the Tc effect was transient' it decreased after 7 days and totally disappeared within 60 days. Cow manure shifted the bacterial structure in both soils, increased the microbial activity in clay soil and contributed to recover the microbial structure in Tc-spiked manure treatments.

  11. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  12. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Simůnek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils.

  13. Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Properties and Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties and soil carbon sequestration, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties as well as soil carbon sequestration. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates and the amount of soil carbon storage.

  14. Monitoring changes in soil carbon resulting from intensive production, a non-traditional agricultural methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2013-03-01

    New Mexico State University and a group of New Mexico farmers are evaluating an innovative agricultural technique they call Intensive Production (IP). In contrast to conventional agricultural practice, IP uses intercropping, green fallowing, application of soil amendments and soil microbial inocula to sequester carbon as plant biomass, resulting in improved soil quality. Sandia National Laboratories role was to identify a non-invasive, cost effective technology to monitor soil carbon changes. A technological review indicated that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) best met the farmers objectives. Sandia partnered with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to analyze farmers test plots using a portable LIBS developed at LANL. Real-time LIBS field sample analysis was conducted and grab samples were collected for laboratory comparison. The field and laboratory results correlated well implying the strong potential for LIBS as an economical field scale analytical tool for analysis of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  15. Metal and nanoparticle occurrence in biosolids - amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 40% of the 7 million dry tons of municipal biosolids produced annually in the US are applied to soils for disposal nutrient enrichment. The goal of this study is to prospect agricultural sites with long-term biosolids application for a suite of metals, some of which are regulated and o...

  16. Antimony (Sb) contaminated shooting range soil: Sb mobility and immobilization by soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Amstätter, Katja; Lassen Bue, Helga; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Henriksen, Thomas; Mulder, Jan

    2013-06-18

    Antimony (Sb) in lead bullets poses a major environmental risk in shooting range soils. Here we studied the effect of iron (Fe)-based amendments on the mobility of Sb in contaminated soil from shooting ranges in Norway. Untreated soil showed high Sb concentrations in water extracts from batch tests (0.22-1.59 mg L(-1)) and soil leachate from column tests (0.3-0.7 mg L(-1)), occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Sorption of Sb to different iron-based sorbents was well described by the Freundlich equation (Fe2(SO4)3, log KF = 6.35, n = 1.51; CFH-12 (Fe oxyhydroxide), log KF = 4.16-4.32, n = 0.75-0.76); Fe(0) grit, log KF = 3.26, n = 0.47). These sorbents mixed with soil (0.5 and 2% w/w), showed significant sorption of Sb in batch tests (46-92%). However, for Fe2(SO4)3 and CFH-12 liming was also necessary to prevent mobilization of lead, copper, and zinc. Column tests showed significant retention of Sb (89-98%) in soil amended with CFH-12 (2%) mixed with limestone (1%) compared to unamended soil. The sorption capacity of soils amended with Fe(0) (2%) increased steadily up to 72% over the duration period of the column test (64 days), most likely due to the gradual oxidation of Fe(0) to Fe oxyhydroxides. Based on the experimental results, CFH-12 and oxidized Fe(0) are effective amendments for the stabilization of Sb in shooting range soils.

  17. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Gregoria; de Imperial, Rosario Miralles; Torrijos, Manuel; Delgado, Mar; Rodriguez, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Soil amendments based on crop nutrient requirements are considered a beneficial management practice. A greenhouse experiment with maize seeds (Zea mays L.) was conducted to assess the inputs of metals to agricultural land from soil amendments. Maize seeds were exposed to a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (50 Mg ha(-1)) and NPK fertilizer (33 g plant(-1)) amendments considering N plant requirement until the harvesting stage with the following objectives: (1) determine the accumulation of total and available metals in soil and (2) know the uptake and ability of translocation of metals from roots to different plant parts, and their effect on biomass production. The results showed that MSW compost increased Cu, Pb and Zn in soil, while NPK fertilizer increased Cd and Ni, but decreased Hg concentration in soil. The root system acted as a barrier for Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg, so metal uptake and translocation were lower in aerial plant parts. Biomass production was significantly enhanced in both MSW and NPK fertilizer-amended soils (17%), but also provoked slight increases of metals and their bioavailability in soil. The highest metal concentrations were observed in roots, but there were no significant differences between plants growing in amended soil and the control soil. Important differences were found for aerial plant parts as regards metal accumulation, whereas metal levels in grains were negligible in all the treatments.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  19. Reclamation of disturbed soil by amending the minesoil and placement of glacial till over minesoil

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.G.; Tucker, M.; Coble, A.D.; Johannsen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 1977 Federal Surface Mining Control and Mining Reclamation Act (Public Law 95-87) was passed to establish a balance among protection of the environment, maintaining agriculture productivity, and the need for coal as an essential source of energy. This research was undertaken to: (a) evaluate glacial till as a plant growth material for restoring productivity; (b) evaluate routine soil tests to predict fertility status of disturbed land; (c) evaluate grass and grass-legume mixtures for restoring productivity to mined lands; and (d) compare water plant filter sludge and agricultural lime as an amendment for acid minesoil. Glacial till required only P fertilization to restore production of tall fescue, tall fescue plus birdsfoot trefoil, and orchardgrass plus birdsfoot trefoil to the level of the representative undistrubed soil. Relative yield, within each forage group, was calculated by using the average of the top 25% individual plot yields as the maximum yield. Productivity of the minesoil was not returned to the premining level during the 2 years of this study. Water plant filter sludge (93.7% CaCO/sub 3/ equivalent, <200 mesh) was more effective in the short term reduction of minesoil acidity than was agricultural lime. Results from this research show the importance of material selection for covering the acidic coal overburden to insure a high success in returning productivity of distrubed soil. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Role of phosphogypsum and NPK amendments on the retention or leaching of metals in different soils.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Kazpard, Véronique; Wazne, Mahmoud; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on metal mobility in the subsurface. The metals investigated originated from disposed industrial waste byproducts and from agrochemicals spread over the farmlands. Soil column tests can provide insights into leaching of metals to underlying water compartments. The findings of this study can be used for prevention strategies and for setting risk assessment approaches to land-use and management, and soil and water quality and sustainability. Soils collected from an industrial (IS) watershed and an agricultural (AQ) hydrographic basin were used in soil column leaching experiments. The soil samples were characterized for mineralogy, functional groups, grain size, surface charge, soil type, porosity, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) along with elemental composition. Varying concentrations of phosphogypsum industrial waste or agrochemical (NPK fertilizer) was then added to the surface of the packed columns (n = 28). The columns were subjected to artificial rain over a period of 65 days. Leachates were collected and analyzed for dissolved Na(+), K(+), and Cd(2+) throughout the experimental period, whereas residual Cd content in the subsurface soil was measured at the end of the experiment. Physicochemical characterization indicated that the AQ soil has a higher potential for metal retention due to its fine clay texture, calcareous pH, high organic matter content and CEC. Metal release was more prominent in the IS soil indicating potential contamination of the surrounding soil and water compartments. The higher metal release is attributed to soil physicochemical characteristics. High calcium concentrations of phosphogypsum origin is expected to compete for adsorbed bivalent elements, such as Cd, resulting in their release. The physicochemical characteristics of the receiving media should be taken into consideration when planning land-use in order to achieve

  1. Amending metal contaminated mine soil with biochars to sequester metals and improve plant growth cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous mine spoil sites in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that contain highly acidic, heavy metal-laden soils, which limits establishment of a soil-stabilizing plant cover. Biochars may be a suitable soil amendment to reduce toxic metals, improve soil fertility, soil wa...

  2. INFLUENCE OF AN ORGANIC WASTE USED AS SOIL AMENDMENT ON TRIAZINE HERBICIDE SORPTION AND AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we have studied the influence of an organic waste generated in the olive oil mill process, used as soil amendment, on atrazine and terbuthylazine sorption and availability in soil. The soils studied were two sandy soils with different origin, Spain and Minnesota and the effect of soil a...

  3. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  4. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  5. Effect of irrigation on the survival of total coliforms in three semiarid soils after amendment with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    García-Orenes, F; Roldán, A; Guerrero, C; Mataix-Solera, J; Navarro-Pedreño, J; Gómez, I; Mataix-Beneyto, J

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludges are increasingly used in soil amendment programmes, although not without risk since they contain, among other potential hazards, high concentrations of total coliform bacteria. In this paper we have studied the effect of irrigation on the survival of total coliforms in three semiarid degraded soils with different agricultural practices. Fresh sewage sludge was added at 50 g kg(-1) soil, and incubated in both the presence and absence of irrigation. The absence of irrigation led to a sharp decrease in the number of total coliforms in all soils, with the bacteria disappearing in 40 days. Irrigation produced a substantial initial increase in the number of coliforms in the three soils, although after 80 days there was none growing in any of the soils. The results showed that there were significant differences in the survival of coliform bacteria due to the presence or absence of irrigation.

  6. As(V)/Cr(VI) retention on un-amended and waste-amended soil samples: competitive experiments.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana M; Conde-Cid, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on simultaneous arsenic and chromium pollution, we used batch-type experiments to study As(V)/Cr (VI) competitive sorption on soil samples, pyritic material, mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, as well as on binary mixtures (50 % mussel shell and 50 % another material-oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste), and on forest and vineyard soil samples and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha(-1) of mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste. Equal As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations (0 to 6 mmol L(-1)) were added to the individual materials, binary mixtures, and 48 t ha(-1) amended materials. The individual forest soil sample, pyritic material, and oak ash showed clearly higher As(V) sorption, whereas Cr(VI) sorption was higher on pine bark. Sorption was up to 50 % higher for As(V) than for Cr(VI) on the forest soil sample, oak ash, and pyritic material, while pine bark sorbed 95 % more Cr(VI). Regarding binary mixtures, the presence of mussel shell increased As(V) sorption on pine bark and Cr(VI) sorption on hemp waste. As regards the amendments, in the case of the forest soil sample, the amendments with oak ash and mussel shell increased As(V) sorption, while pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption; in the vineyard soil sample, the mussel shell amendment increased As(V) sorption; in the pyritic material, pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption. These results could be useful to appropriately manage the soils and individual or mixed by-products assayed when As(V) and Cr(VI) pollution occurs.

  7. Biochar Amendment to the Soil Surface Reduces Fumigant Emissions and Enhances Soil Microorganism Recovery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guoqing; Ashworth, Daniel J; Gan, Jay; Yates, Scott R

    2016-02-02

    During soil fumigation, it is ideal to mitigate soil fumigant emissions, ensure pest control efficacy, and speed up the recovery of the soil microorganism population established postapplication. However, no current fumigant emission reduction strategy can meet all these requirements. In the present study, replicated soil columns were used to study the effect of biochar derived from rice husk (BR) and green waste (BG) applied to the soil surface on 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) emissions and soil gas distribution, and on microorganism population re-establishment. Relative to fumigated bare soil (no emission reduction strategy), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) treatments, BR gave dramatic emission reductions for both fumigants with no obvious emission peak, whereas BG was very effective only for 1,3-D. With BR application, the concentration of fumigant in the soil gas was higher than in the bare soil and ATS treatment. After the soil column experiment, mixing the BR with the fumigated soil resulted in higher soil respiration rates than were observed for HDPE and ATS treatments. Therefore, biochar amendment to the soil surface may be an effective strategy for fumigant emission reduction and the recovery of soil microorganism populations established postapplication.

  8. Biochar and compost as amendments in copper-enriched vineyard soils - stabilization or mobilization of copper?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Gerhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Wimmer, Bernhard; Bell, Stephen; Chamier Glisczinski, Julia; Pardeller, Georg; Dersch, Georg; Rosner, Franz; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an important ingredient for several fungicides that have been used in agriculture. For organic viticulture, several diseases as e.g. downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) can only be antagonized with Cu-containing fungicides. This long-lasting dependence on Cu-fungicides has led to a gradual Cu enrichment of vineyard soils in traditional wine-growing areas, occasionally exceeding 300 mg/kg. Although these concentrations do not affect the vines or wine quality, they may impair soil microbiological functions in the top soil layer or the root growth of green cover plants. Therefore measures are demanded that reduce the bioavailability of copper, thereby reducing the ecotoxicological effects. The use of biochar and compost as soil amendment has been suggested as a strategy to immobilize Cu and reduce the exchangeable fractions. This study consisted of lab and greenhouse experiments that were designed to test the sorption and desorption behavior of copper in vineyard soils with or without biochar and/or compost as soil amendment. Slightly acidic soils (pH<6) showed a clearer biochar-induced immobilization of copper with biochar than neutral or alkaline soils. The analyses of leachate waters of microlysimeter experiments showed that the biochar effects were more evident for a reduction of the ionic form Cu2+ than for total soluble copper, even in alkaline soils. Biochar modified with citric or tartaric acid did not significantly decrease the solubility of copper based on total dissolved concentrations although CEC was higher than in unmodified biochar. Treatments consisting of compost only or that had an equal amount of compost and biochar rather had a mobilizing effect on biochar. Sorption experiments with different DOC concentrations and biochar, however, showed a positive effect on copper sorption. Apparently in vineyard soils the predisposition to form organic-Cu-complexes may outbalance the binding possibilities of these complexes to biochar, occasionally

  9. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  10. EFFECT OF BIOSOLIDS ON PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF CD IN LONG-TERM AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  11. EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS ON SORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR OF CADMIUM IN BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  12. Antibiotic resistance genes in manure-amended soil and vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Qiao, Min; Chen, Zheng; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-12-15

    Lettuce and endive, which can be eaten raw, were planted on the manure-amended soil in order to explore the influence of plants on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil, and the occurrence of ARGs on harvested vegetables. Twelve ARGs and one integrase gene (intI1) were detected in all soil samples. Five ARGs (sulI, tetG, tetC, tetA, and tetM) showed lower abundance in the soil with plants than those without. ARGs and intI1 gene were also detected on harvested vegetables grown in manure-amended soil, including endophytes and phyllosphere microorganisms. The results demonstrated that planting had an effect on the distribution of ARGs in manure-amended soil, and ARGs were detected on harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil, which had potential threat to human health.

  13. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  14. Field dissipation and risk assessment of typical personal care products TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie; Peng, Feng-Jiao

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial agents triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) and synthetic musks AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are widely used in many personal care products. These compounds may release into the soil environment through biosolid application to agricultural land and potentially affect soil organisms. This paper aimed to investigate accumulation, dissipation and potential risks of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils of the three field trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan and Shandong) with three treatments (CK: control without biosolid application, T1: single biosolid application, T2: repeated biosolid application every year). The one-year monitoring results showed that biosolids application could lead to accumulation of these four chemicals in the biosolid-amended soils, with the residual concentrations in the following order: TCC>TCS>AHTN>HHCB. Dissipation of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in the biosolid-amended soils followed the first-order kinetics model. Half-lives for TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB under the field conditions of Shandong site were 191, 258, 336 and 900 days for T1, and 51, 106, 159 and 83 days for T2, respectively. Repeated applications of biosolid led to accumulation of these personal care products and result in higher ecological risks. Based on the residual levels in the trial sites and limited toxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC and TCS, while low-medium risks for AHTN and HHCB.

  15. Degradation of phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by indigenous and inoculated microorganisms in sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Roslev, P.; Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.

    1998-12-01

    The metabolism of phthalic acid (PA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) in sludge-amended agricultural soil was studied with radiotracer techniques. The initial rates of metabolism of PA and DEHP were estimated to be 731.8 and 25.6 pmol/g (dry weight) per day, respectively. Indigenous microorganisms assimilated 28 and 17% of the carbon in [{sup 14}C]PA and [{sup 14}C]DEHP, respectively, into microbial biomass. The rates of DEHP metabolism were much greater in sludge assays without soil than in assays with sludge-amended soil. Mineralization of [{sup 14}C]DEHP to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} increased fourfold after inoculation of sludge and soil samples with DEHP-degrading strain SDE 2. The elevated mineralization potential was maintained for more than 27 days. Experiments performed with strain SDE 2 suggested that the bioavailability and mineralization of DEHP decreased substantially in the presence of soil and sludge components. The microorganisms metabolizing PA and DEHP in sludge and sludge-amended soil were characterized by substrate-specific radiolabelling, followed by analysis of {sup 14}C-labelled phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids ({sup 14}C-PLFAs).

  16. Short-term effects on soil properties and wheat production from secondary paper sludge application on two Mediterranean agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Rato Nunes, J; Cabral, F; López-Piñeiro, A

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the potential use of SPS as a fertilizer, amendment and/or liming agent for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two representative Mediterranean agricultural soils, a Cambic Arenosol (cmAR) and a Cromic Cambisol (crCM) were used. Treatments included four sludge rates ranging from 0 to 40 g kg(-1) (equivalent of 0, 38, 88 and 120 Mg ha(-1)). A significant increment in soil pH, organic carbon, N total, available P and exchangeable K were observed in both soils. Sludge application significantly increased N and decreased Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations in wheat. Wheat grain yields were reduced by 33% and 37% when 120 Mg SPS ha(-1) was applied to cmAR and crCM soils, respectively, due apparently to unavailability of Mg. However, straw yields, with much lower Mg requirements, increased significantly with SPS rates. Secondary pulp mill sludge seems to be a potential source of organic matter, N, P, K and a potential soil amendment liming agent for acid soils, when appropriate supplemental fertilizer was provided. For grain crops grown in these soils, addition of Mg is required for proper nutrient balance.

  17. The Temperature Dependence of Soil Moisture Characteristics of Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh, Amir

    1990-01-01

    limits the speed of measurement for typical agricultural soils to about 12-14 hours for each main branch over the potential range 0 to -2000 cm. (2) Although the stripper tensiometer can operate with soil air presures greater than 2 atmospheres gauge, the tensiometer contact problem appears likely to limit the range, at least for certain soils.

  18. Two years of gaseous emissions from contrasting soils amended with organic and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, D. E.; Chantigny, M. H.; Rochette, P.; Angers, D. A.; Rieux, C.; Vanasse, A.

    2012-04-01

    Animal manures are often used as a source of nitrogen (N) for agriculture; however impacts of amendment type on N2O production may vary. In this study, N2O emissions from two soil types with contrasting texture and carbon (C) content (a silty clay mixed frigid dystric eutrudept and a sandy loam mixed frigid typic dystrudept) were measured for two years under a cool, humid climate. Treatments consisted of a no N control (CTL), calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), poultry manure (PM), liquid cattle manure (LCM), or liquid swine manure (LSM). The N sources were surface applied and immediately incorporated at 90 kg N ha-1 before seeding of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Leaching losses of N were also measured using zero-tension lysimeters located at approximately 0.35 m depth. Cumulative growing season N2O-N emissions from the silty clay ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 and were slightly lower in CTL plots than in the fertilized plots (P = 0.067). The mean N2O emission factors ranged from 2.0 to 4.4% of added N with no difference among treatments. Emissions of N2O from the sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, with greatest emissions following PM application (P < 0.001). The N2O emission factor from sandy loam plots amended with PM was 1.7%, more than double that of the other treatments (0.3 to 0.9%), likely because of the high C content of the PM. On the silty clay the yield-based N2O emissions (g N2O-N kg-1 grain yield N) were similar between treatments; while on the sandy loam, they were greatest when amended with PM. Annual N leaching losses averaged 28.7 kg ha-1 for the silty clay and 19.6 kg ha-1 for the sandy loam and were similar for all amendment types suggesting that off-site N2O emissions will also be similar amongst treatments. Preliminary data indicate that overwinter N2O emissions from sandy loam plots were consistently greater when amended with pig slurry compared with unamended soils, and that these overwinter losses may exceed

  19. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil.

    PubMed

    Obrycki, John F; Scheckel, Kirk G; Basta, Nicholas T

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg(-1) was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1.5, 0.4 M glycine solution or a pH 2.5 solution with organic acids. PRSTM-probe data found soluble Pb increased 10-fold in acidic conditions compared to circumnetural pH conditions. In acidic conditions (p = 3-4), TSP treated soils increased detected P 10-fold over untreated soils. Bone meal application did not increase PRSTM-probe detected P, indicating there may have been insufficient P to react with Pb. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested a 10% increase in pyromorphite formation for the TSP treated soil only. Treatments increased soil electrical conductivity above 16 mS cm(-1), potentially causing a new salinity hazard. This study used a novel approach by combining the human ingestion endpoint, PRSTM-probes, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate treatment efficacy. PRSTM-probe data indicated potentially excess Ca relative to P across incubation steps that could have competed with Pb for soluble P. More research is needed to characterize soil solutions in Pb contaminated urban soils to identify where P treatments might be effective and when competing cations, such as Ca, Fe, and Zn may limit low rate P applications for treating Pb soils.

  20. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil

    SciTech Connect

    Obrycki, John F.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Basta, Nicholas T.

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg-1 was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1.5, 0.4 M glycine solution or a pH 2.5 solution with organic acids. PRSTM-probe data found soluble Pb increased 10-fold in acidic conditions compared to circumnetural pH conditions. In acidic conditions (p = 3-4), TSP treated soils increased detected P 10-fold over untreated soils. Bone meal application did not increase PRSTM-probe detected P, indicating there may have been insufficient P to react with Pb. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested a 10% increase in pyromorphite formation for the TSP treated soil only. Treatments increased soil electrical conductivity above 16 mS cm-1, potentially causing a new salinity hazard. This study used a novel approach by combining the human ingestion endpoint, PRSTM-probes, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate treatment efficacy. PRSTM-probe data indicated potentially excess Ca relative to P across incubation steps that could have competed with Pb for soluble P. More research is needed to characterize soil solutions in Pb contaminated urban soils to identify where P treatments might be effective and when competing cations, such as Ca, Fe, and Zn may limit low rate P applications for treating Pb soils.

  1. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  2. Soil conservation under climate change: use of recovery biomasses on agricultural soil subjected to the passage of agricultural machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergonzoli, S.; Beni, C.; Servadio, P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass administration is a good practice to preserve the soil fertility in climate change conditions. A test regarding the use of compost derived by wine distillation residues was conducted in the coastal area sited west of Rome, on a sandy soil in continuous cropping with carrot, two cycles per year, with a consequent deep environmental impact. The soil was fertilized with different systems: T = unfertilized soil; F = fertigation 200 kg N ha-1; FC = fertigation 100 kg N ha-1 plus half agronomic dose of compost 4 t ha-1; C2 = double compost dose 16 t ha-1; C4 = quadruple compost dose 32 t ha-1. The functional qualities of the soil, subjected to the passage of agricultural machineries, were determined through the following parameters: bulk density, shear strength, water infiltration rate, organic matter and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity. At the summer harvest, yield of carrots, their sugar content, firmness and nutrients concentration were determined. The plots only amended (C2 and C4), compared to other treatments, presented lower bulk density (1.36 and 1.28 Mg m-3 respectively), higher shear strength (9 and 8 kPa respectively), as well as increased hydraulic conductivity. In these treatments (C2 and C4), in addition, occurred a higher content of organic matter (0.95 and 1.07% respectively) and nitrogen (0.11 and 0.12% respectively) and increased CEC (541 and 556 respectively) respect to the T treatment that was 521 meq 100g-1. In plots T and F, the organic matter content was reduced at the end of the field test. The yield of carrots increased in FC, C2, and C4, compared to the other treatments. In plots C4, however, morphological changes were induced in approximately 30% of tap-roots, due to the excessive compost dose. In treatments C2 and C4 was observed a reduction of the concentration of Na in the roots, as opposed to the higher concentration of Ca and K and trace elements. The administration of compost has also induced the increase of soluble

  3. Long-term use of biosolids as organic fertilizers in agricultural soils: potentially toxic elements occurrence and mobility.

    PubMed

    Marguí, E; Iglesias, M; Camps, F; Sala, L; Hidalgo, M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) may hinder a more widespread application of biosolids in agriculture. At present, the European Directive 86/278/CEE limit the total concentrations of seven metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg) in agricultural soils and in sewage sludges used as fertilizers but it has not taken into consideration the potential impacts of other emerging micropollutants that may be present in the biosolids as well as their mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation and mobility of 13 elements (including regulated metals and other inorganic species) in agricultural soils repeatedly amended with biosolids for 15 years. Firstly, three digestions programs using different acid mixtures were tested to evaluate the most accurate and efficient method for analysis of soil and sludge. Results demonstrated that sewage sludge application increased concentrations of Pb and Hg in soil, but values did not exceed the quality standard established by legislation. In addition, other elements (As, Co, Sb, Ag, Se and Mn) that at present are not regulated by the Spanish and European directives were identified in the sewage sludge, and significant differences were found between Ag content in soils amended with biosolids in comparison with control soils. This fact can be related to the increasing use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products due to their antibacterial properties. Results from the leaching tests show up that, in general, the mobility degree for both regulated and non-regulated elements in soils amended with biosolids was quite low (<10 %).

  4. Organic amendment effects on the transformation and fractionation of aluminum in acidic sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was attempted to evaluate the transformation of aluminum (Al) in an acidic sandy soil amended with composts (yard waste, yard + municipal waste, GreenEdge®, and synthetic humic acid), based on soil Al fractionation by single and sequential extraction. The compost amendment significantly i...

  5. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars contain an assemblage of organic and inorganic compounds; they can be used as an amendment for carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments, however, because of differences in their chemical composition. In this study, we demonstrate how bio...

  6. Potential effects of vinasse as a soil amendment to control runoff and soil loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbavi, Z.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.

    2016-02-01

    Application of organic materials are well known as environmental practices in soil restoration, preserving soil organic matter and recovering degraded soils of arid and semiarid lands. Therefore, the present research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of vinasse, a byproduct mainly of the sugar-ethanol industry, on soil conservation under simulated rainfall. Vinasse can be recycled as a soil amendment due to its organic matter content. Accordingly, the laboratory experiments were conducted by using 0.25 m2 experimental plots at 20 % slope and rainfall intensity of 72 mm h-1 with 0.5 h duration. The effect of vinasse was investigated on runoff and soil loss control. Experiments were set up as a control (with no amendment) and three treated plots with doses of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 L m-2 of vinasse subjected to simulated rainfall. Laboratory results indicated that vinasse at different levels could not significantly (P > 0.05) decrease the runoff amount and soil loss rate in the study plots compared to untreated plots. The average amounts of minimum runoff volume and soil loss were about 3985 mL and 46 g for the study plot at a 1 L m-2 level of vinasse application.

  7. Introduction to biochar as an agricultural and environmental amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This introductory chapter justifies and outlines biochar for current and potential agricultural and environmental applications. Biochar is fine-grained, recalcitrant charcoal made from heating vegetative biomass, bones, manure solids, and other plant-derived organic residues in an oxygen-free or oxy...

  8. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  9. Microbial communities in pyrene amended soil-compost mixture and fertilized soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Iris K U; Duarte, Márcia; Pathmanathan, Jananan; Miltner, Anja; Brüls, Thomas; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are distributed ubiquitously in the environment and form metabolites toxic to most organisms. Organic amendment of PAH contaminated soil with compost and farmyard manure has proven to be efficient for PAH bioremediation mediated by native microorganisms, even though information on the identity of PAH degraders in organic-amended soil is still scarce. Here we provide molecular insight into the bacterial communities in soil amended with compost or farmyard manure for which the degradation mass balances of (13)C-labeled pyrene have been recently published and assess the relevant bacterial genera capable of degrading pyrene as a model PAH. We performed statistical analyses of bacterial genera abundance data based on total DNA and RNA (for comparison) extracted from the soil samples. The results revealed complex pyrene degrading communities with low abundance of individual degraders instead of a limited number of abundant key players. The bacterial degrader communities of the soil-compost mixture and soil fertilized with farmyard manure differed considerably in composition albeit showing similar degradation kinetics. Additional analyses were carried out on enrichment cultures and enabled the reconstruction of several nearly complete genomes, thus allowing to link microcosm and enrichment experiments. However, pyrene mineralizing bacteria enriched from the compost or unfertilized soil-compost samples did not dominate pyrene degradation in the soils. Based on the present findings, evaluations of PAH degrading microorganisms in complex soil mixtures with high organic matter content should not target abundant key degrading species, since the specific degraders may be highly diverse, of low abundance, and masked by high bacterial background.

  10. Rapid transport and transformation of phosphorus species during the leaching of poultry manure amended soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Courtney; Cade-Menun, Barbara; Liu, Corey; Hill, Jane

    2015-04-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from soils due to leaching is a major concern in heavily fertilized agricultural regions. The mobility and transformation of P species will depend on the source of manure fertilizer, leaching regime, and the extent of soil P saturation within the soil profile. We investigate spatial and temporal changes in the distribution of P species within a poultry manure-amended soil at two depths (0-5, 10-15 cm) as well as leachate P fractions during 10 weeks of leaching. Leachate P was primarily composed of dissolved fractions (soluble reactive P; dissolved unreactive P) and reached a maximum in the fourth week of leaching. In soils, the degree of P saturation (80%) and water extractable P (9 mg kg-1) were also greatest in week 4. 31P NMR spectra of the 0-5 cm depth indicate that surface soils were most similar to the poultry manure in week 4. During peak leaching, the proportion of orthophosphate (OrthoP) at the soil surface (0-5 cm; 80%) was greater than that from the lowest depth (10-15 cm; 72%), which contained relatively larger proportions of monoester-(17%) and diester-P classes (10%). Poultry manure likely contributed to the mobile pool of P species, including OrthoP, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (myo-IHP), and nucleic acids. The appearance of neo- and D-chiro-IHP, as well as phospholipid signals during the leaching period indicate possible short-term (<10 week) contributions of organic P to the generation and leaching of OrthoP, under P-saturated conditions. Further work is needed to determine how fertilization and leaching will affect the mobility and transformation of P species across a wider range of soil types. Keywords: Phytate, organic phosphorus, degree of phosphorus saturation, soil, leachate, poultry manure

  11. Extractability and Bioavailability of Pb and As in Historically Contaminated Orchard Soil: Effects of Compost Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Margaret; Yiping, Tai; Ping, Zhuang; McBride, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. PMID:23474982

  12. Extractability and bioavailability of Pb and As in historically contaminated orchard soil: effects of compost amendments.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Margaret; Tai, Yiping; Zhuang, Ping; McBride, Murray B

    2013-06-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron.

  13. Amending soils with phosphate as means to mitigate soil lead hazard: a critical review of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Scheckel, Kirk G; Diamond, Gary L; Burgess, Michele F; Klotzbach, Julie M; Maddaloni, Mark; Miller, Bradley W; Partridge, Charles R; Serda, Sophia M

    2013-01-01

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils conducted in humans and animal models. Practical implementation issues, such as criteria and methods for evaluating efficacy, and potential effects of phosphate on mobility and bioavailability of co-contaminants in soil are also discussed.

  14. Using marble wastes as a soil amendment for acidic soil neutralization.

    PubMed

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Oztas, Taskin; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2014-01-15

    One of the most important factors limiting plant growth is soil pH. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of marble waste applications on neutralization of soil acidity. Marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) were applied to an acid soil at different rates and their effectiveness on neutralization was evaluated by a laboratory incubation test. The results showed that soil pH increased from 4.71 to 6.36 and 6.84 by applications of MCW and MQW, respectively. It was suggested that MQW and MCW could be used as soil amendments for the neutralization of acid soils and thus the negative impact of marble wastes on the environment could be reduced.

  15. Biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaw Y; Su, Lai M; Chang, Bea V

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phenanthrene and pyrene in compost and compost-amended soil. The degradation rates of the two PAHs were phenanthrene>pyrene. The degradation of PAH was enhanced when the two PAHs were present simultaneously in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) individually enhanced PAH degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned 2-50 microm, 50-105 microm, 105-500 microm, and 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAH degradation rates. However, when the different compost fractions were added to soil, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAH degradation. Of the micro-organisms isolated from the soil-compost mixtures, strains S1, S2, and S8, which were identified as Arthrobacter nicotianae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bordetella Petrii, respectively, demonstrated the best degradation ability.

  16. P losses in soil columns amended with compost and digestate from municipal solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Albacete, Marta; Cartagena, M. Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Sludge's, manures and compost applied to agricultural soils in high quantities and long-term application to increase crop productivity, result in accumulation of soil phosphorous (P). Soluble P is directly available to algae (Sonzogni et al., 1982) and thus particularly relevant to water quality degradation. Transport of P from agricultural soils to surface waters has been linked to eutrophication in fresh water and estuaries (Sharpley and Lemunyon, 1998). Almost 50% of stored water in Spain is degraded by eutrophication processes that cause the proliferation of algae and other organisms and a decrease in oxygen content (Environmental Profile of Spain 2005). Fertilizers and biodegradable wastes application rates in agriculture are based on nitrogen requirements. This results in a P supply that is in excess of crops needs since the ratio of P to N in waste use to be greater than required by plants (Smith, 1995). While surface runoff is an important pathway of phosphorus losses from agricultural lands, significant losses can also occur via leaching thought soils. Leaching tests are important for assessing the risk of release of potential pollutants from biodegradable wastes into groundwater or surface water. Percolation tests also get information about the interaction of organic waste with soils. The study was conducted according to the percolation leaching test CEN/TS 14405 "Characterization of waste-Leaching behavior test- Up-flow percolation test" with three different soils mixed with organic wastes from msw (compost and digestato) and an inorganic fertilizer (NaH2PO4). Each soil was amended with the P sources at rates of 100 kg P ha-1. Leachates were collected and analyzed for each column for dissolved reactive P by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP) following USEPA Method 3050A digestion (USEPA, 1995). The fact that P sorption capacity (Xmax, PSI) of the soils was determined using Langmuiŕs isotherms and the P forms from organic

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals in a long-term poultry waste-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.X.; Kingery, W.L.; Selim, H.M.; Gerard, P.D.

    2000-03-01

    Various metals are added to poultry diets to facilitate weight increase and disease prevention. The large amounts of poultry waste produced annually are dispersed intensively over relatively small areas of land, resulting in accumulations that pose potential environmental risks to the surface and groundwater. The focus of this study was to assess the distribution of heavy metals among various solid-phase fractions in soil profiles from a 25-year poultry waste-amended soil. Copper and Zn accumulated close to the soil surface where the total amounts of Cu and Zn in waste-amended soils were significantly higher than in nonamended soils. The total metal concentrations in amended soils were not critically high. Copper in the amended soil was present mostly in the organic matter (OM) fraction (46.9%), whereas Zn was found in the easily reducible oxide (ERO) fraction (47.3%). This suggests that the Cu and Zn in this long-term amended soil are potentially bioavailable and mobile. The authors observed the mobility of Zn through much of the soil profile of the long-term waste-amended soil. Zinc in this soil profile was found primarily in forms of the residual (RES) and crystalline iron oxide bound (CryFe) fractions, followed by the organic matter-bound and exchangeable (EXC) fractions.

  18. Effects of water treatment residuals and coal combustion byproduct amendments on properties of a sandy soil and impact on crop production – A pot experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of coal combustion (such as fly ash: FA), livestock industry (such as chicken manure: CM, or animal manure, etc), or water treatment residuals (such as sewage sludge: SS, or incinerated sewage sludge: ISS) can be used as amendments to agricultural soils, provided that these byproducts (ap...

  19. Survival and persistence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils amended with animal manure in a greenhouse environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA's), including dairy cattle, poultry litter, and horse manure, play an important role in agriculture but may contain pathogens that can contaminate raw or ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable crops that are consumed raw. Proposed FDA standards include a 90- or 120-day inte...

  20. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0

  1. Effects of N-ammonoxidized lignins amendment on N availability and soil fertility: An incubation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María De la Rosa, José; López-Martín, María; Liebner, Falk; Knicker, Heike

    2013-04-01

    The shift towards a biobased economy will probably generate the application of bioenergy by-products and charred residues to the soil as either amendments or fertilizers. The process of ammonoxidation (application of gaseous oxygen and aqueous ammonia under ambient pressure breaks down aromatic lignin moieties and introduces N in the form of urea, amides and amines), converts lignin, a major by-product of the pulp and paper industry, or other ligneous materials into artificial humic matter (N-lignin). The use of N-ammonoxidized lignin as soil improvers is in theory an economically viable solution, especially interesting for agricultural areas of Mediterranean countries, in which additional factors such as water shortage and fires contribute to declining N availability by lowering nutrient diffusion, litter input or sequestration of N in charred structures. However, limited research has been done to determine how this will influence C and N dynamics and soil fertility. Therefore we performed pot experiments in which a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown on a typical Andalusian soil (chromic Luvisol) after amendment of N-lignins highly enriched in 15N (Sarkanda and Indulin ammonoxidized lignins) for 75 days. For comparison, the incubation was also carried out on soils fertilized with 15NO3 and unfertilized (control). The application of ammonoxidized lignins altered the pH and electrical conductivity of the soil. At higher concentrations a retardation of seed germination was evidenced, an observation that needs further considerations before N-enriched technical lignins can be applied in agriculture. After 75 days, the plant shoots from the pots amended with15N-Indulin and 15N-Sarkanda accumulated 8% and 20%, respectively of the initial 15N (15N0). The N was efficiently sequestered from fast release or leaching and most of 15N0 remained in the soil (64%) in the 15N-Indulin pots. In contrast, the 15N-Sarkanda pots showed a lower efficiency in the N

  2. Impact of an intensive management on soil biochemical and biological properties in an agricultural soil of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, R.; D'Ascoli, R.; Rao, M. A.; Marzaioli, R.; Rutigliano, F. A.; Gianfreda, L.

    2009-04-01

    An intensive management of agricultural soils is widely carried out to increase vegetation productivity. Nevertheless, the large use of machineries, chemical fertilizers and pesticides can often cause, in time, a substantial decline in soil fertility by affecting soil physical and chemical properties and, in turn, growth and activity of soil microbial community. In fact, alteration in soil structure, nutrient losses and, in particular, changes in quality and quantity of soil organic matter are some of the principal soil degradation processes deriving from an intensive agricultural management that can affect, in different ways, soil biochemical and biological properties. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of intensive management on agricultural soils by measuring soil physical, chemical and biochemical/biological properties. The use of appropriate indicators as quantitative tools could allow to assess soil quality. Moreover, although soil physical and chemical properties have received great attention, soil biochemical/biological properties, such as enzyme activities and microbial biomass, functionally related properties involved in the nutrient cycles, can be considered as sensitive indicators of soil quality and health changes because, they show a faster turn over compared to soil organic matter. Our attention was focused on the Plane of Sele river (Campania region, Italy), an area characterized by an intensive agriculture and greenhouse cultures. Twenty-five farms were chosen, with the aid of regional soil map, in order to get soils with different physical and chemical properties. As common trait, the selected farms, all with greenhouse cultures, used no organic amendments but only mineral compounds to fertilize soils. Moreover, to better understand the impact of intensive agricultural practices on soil of each farm, control soils from orchards or uncultivated plots were chosen. In each farm soil samples were collected in three different plots

  3. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (a...

  4. Accumulation and translocation of metals in soil and different parts of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the accumulation and translocation of metals in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in soil amended with up to 100 % sewage sludge. Significant (p < 0.01) changes to soil characteristics were observed. The maximum growth of P. vulgaris was noted in the treatment with 40 % of sewage sludge. Metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in P. vulgaris after sewage sludge amendment where Fe > Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb. The translocation for Fe and Zn was in the order of leaves > shoot > root > fruits, for Cd, shoot > root > leaves > fruits, for Cu and Pb shoot > leaves > root > fruits and for Cr root > shoot > leaves > fruits of P. vulgaris. All accumulated metal concentrations except Cd in the fruit were below the FAO/WHO standard limits. Thus, the amendment of agricultural soil by sewage sludge might be feasible. However, a regular monitoring of metal levels in agricultural products is recommended to prevent their accumulation in the food chain.

  5. Phosphorus leaching in manure-amended Atlantic Coastal Plain soils.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jennifer S; Coale, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    Targeting the sources of phosphorus (P) and transport pathways of drainage from agricultural land will assist in the reduction of P loading to surface waters. Our research investigated the vertical movement of P from dairy manure and broiler litter through four Atlantic Coastal Plain soils. A randomized split-plot design with two main-plot tillage treatments (no tillage [NT] and chisel tillage [CH]) and five manure P rate split-plot treatments was used at each location. The split-plot P rates were 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Four consecutive years of manure application began at all sites 5 yr before sampling. Soils were sampled to a depth of 150 cm from each split plot in seven depth increments and analyzed for soil test phosphorus (STP), water-extractable soil phosphorus (WSP), and degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The DPS of the 0- to 15-cm depths confirmed that at the 100 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) application rate, all sites exceeded the threshold for P saturation (30%). At depths greater than 30 cm, DPS was typically below the 30% saturation threshold. The DPS change points ranged from 25 to 34% for the 0- to 90-cm depths. Our research concluded that the risk of P leaching through the matrix of the Atlantic Coastal Plain soils studied was not high; however, P leaching via macropore bypass may contribute to P loss from these soils.

  6. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  7. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  8. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS

  9. The mechanisms and relative importance of abiotic and biological processes for VOC loss from sludge amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    The presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sewage sludge has been a cause of increasing concern due to the possible risk to human health and the environment when sludge is applied to agricultural soils. Sludge application to agricultural land in the UK is expected to increase as a result of restrictions on alternative disposal routes and also increasingly stringent wastewater treatment requirements. Few studies have examined the fate and behavior of VOCs in sewage sludge amended soils and those reported have used spiked sludge rather than investigating the behavior of VOCs resident in the sludge itself. This study was designed to evaluate the behavior of aromatic VOCs (namely toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene) in unspiked sewage sludge amended soils and assess the relative importance and mechanisms of abiotic and biological loss processes. This was undertaken by adding sewage sludge to sterilized and unsterilized soil in closed and open systems. Results indicated that abiotic loss processes, primarily volatilization, were most important for the removal of VOCs. Initial rate of VOC loss was similar in all systems. After 65 days a residual VOC soil concentration remained which was apparently dependent on the conditions within the system.

  10. How the type of pyrogenic organic matter determines the SOM quality in amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Morangues, Lur; Arias-Gonzalez, Ander

    2016-04-01

    Charred biomass can be used as an organic amendment and to enhance the C sink capacity of soils. There are two types of by-products containing pyrogenic OM that could be used to improve in agricultural or forestry, biochar and wood ash. Due to their different heating conditions under which it is produced (pyrolysis, combustion and different temperatures, feedstocks,..), the properties of this pyrogenic OM might be highly variable, which could affect the SOM quality and the C sink capacity of the amended soil. The purpose of this study was to assess how SOM quality is influenced by pyrogenic organic matter with different degree of carbonization. Biochar and bottom wood ash were added to two Atlantic forest soils (Pinus radiata, 12 °C, 1200 mm) with different texture, clayey loam and sandy loam. The experiment consisted in a randomized block trials, in which different doses of biochar (0, 3, 9, 18 Mh ha-1) and wood ash (0, 1.5, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha-1) were added. The Biochar applied (pH: 9.8; C: 87 %) was produced by the pyrolysis of Myscanthus sp. at 450°C in a Pyreg® pyrolysis unit. The bottom wood ash (pH: 10.6; C: 30 %) was produced by combustion in a biomass power plant. The aromatization/carbonization was lightly higher in biochar than in wood ash. This latter by-product, in addition to the black carbon, it also contained mineral ash, as well as unburnt or lightly charred plant biomass. The evolution of soil chemical and SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and 13C CPMAS NMR. These techniques were applied in bulk samples and also in fractions of different densityes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration and soil microbial community. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving the highest doses of biochar and wood ash, specially in the clay loam soil. SOM in the treated soils displayed a

  11. Effects of inorganic and organic amendment on soil chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial community and soil quality in yellow clayey soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanjun; Rong, Qinlei; Zhou, Wei; Liang, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of external organic and inorganic components on soil fertility and quality is essential for improving low-yielding soils. We conducted a field study over two consecutive rice growing seasons to investigate the effect of applying chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus green manure (NPKG), NPK plus pig manure (NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS) on the soil nutrient status, enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S cycling, microbial community and rice yields of yellow clayey soil. Results showed that the fertilized treatments significantly improved rice yields over the first three experimental seasons. Compared with the NPK treatment, organic amendments produced more favorable effects on soil productivity. Notably, the NPKM treatment exhibited the highest levels of nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), activities of most enzymes and the microbial community. This resulted in the highest soil quality index (SQI) and rice yield, indicating better soil fertility and quality. Significant differences in enzyme activities and the microbial community were observed among the treatments, and redundancy analysis showed that MBC and available N were the key determinants affecting the soil enzyme activities and microbial community. The SQI score of the non-fertilized control (0.72) was comparable to that of the NPK (0.77), NPKG (0.81) and NPKS (0.79) treatments but significantly lower compared with NPKM (0.85). The significant correlation between rice yield and SQI suggests that SQI can be a useful to quantify soil quality changes caused by different agricultural management practices. The results indicate that application of NPK plus pig manure is the preferred option to enhance SOC accumulation, improve soil fertility and quality, and increase rice yield in yellow clayey soil.

  12. Effects of inorganic and organic amendment on soil chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial community and soil quality in yellow clayey soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanjun; Rong, Qinlei; Zhou, Wei; Liang, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of external organic and inorganic components on soil fertility and quality is essential for improving low-yielding soils. We conducted a field study over two consecutive rice growing seasons to investigate the effect of applying chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus green manure (NPKG), NPK plus pig manure (NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS) on the soil nutrient status, enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S cycling, microbial community and rice yields of yellow clayey soil. Results showed that the fertilized treatments significantly improved rice yields over the first three experimental seasons. Compared with the NPK treatment, organic amendments produced more favorable effects on soil productivity. Notably, the NPKM treatment exhibited the highest levels of nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), activities of most enzymes and the microbial community. This resulted in the highest soil quality index (SQI) and rice yield, indicating better soil fertility and quality. Significant differences in enzyme activities and the microbial community were observed among the treatments, and redundancy analysis showed that MBC and available N were the key determinants affecting the soil enzyme activities and microbial community. The SQI score of the non-fertilized control (0.72) was comparable to that of the NPK (0.77), NPKG (0.81) and NPKS (0.79) treatments but significantly lower compared with NPKM (0.85). The significant correlation between rice yield and SQI suggests that SQI can be a useful to quantify soil quality changes caused by different agricultural management practices. The results indicate that application of NPK plus pig manure is the preferred option to enhance SOC accumulation, improve soil fertility and quality, and increase rice yield in yellow clayey soil. PMID:28263999

  13. Degradation of Phthalate and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate by Indigenous and Inoculated Microorganisms in Sludge-Amended Soil

    PubMed Central

    Roslev, Peter; Madsen, Peter L.; Thyme, Jesper B.; Henriksen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    The metabolism of phthalic acid (PA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in sludge-amended agricultural soil was studied with radiotracer techniques. The initial rates of metabolism of PA and DEHP (4.1 nmol/g [dry weight]) were estimated to be 731.8 and 25.6 pmol/g (dry weight) per day, respectively. Indigenous microorganisms assimilated 28 and 17% of the carbon in [14C]PA and [14C]DEHP, respectively, into microbial biomass. The rates of DEHP metabolism were much greater in sludge assays without soil than in assays with sludge-amended soil. Mineralization of [14C]DEHP to 14CO2 increased fourfold after inoculation of sludge and soil samples with DEHP-degrading strain SDE 2. The elevated mineralization potential was maintained for more than 27 days. Experiments performed with strain SDE 2 suggested that the bioavailability and mineralization of DEHP decreased substantially in the presence of soil and sludge components. The microorganisms metabolizing PA and DEHP in sludge and sludge-amended soil were characterized by substrate-specific radiolabelling, followed by analysis of 14C-labelled phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (14C-PLFAs). This assay provided a radioactive fingerprint of the organisms actively metabolizing [14C]PA and [14C]DEHP. The 14C-PLFA fingerprints showed that organisms with different PLFA compositions metabolized PA and DEHP in sludge-amended soil. In contrast, microorganisms with comparable 14C-PLFA fingerprints were found to dominate DEHP metabolism in sludge and sludge-amended soil. Our results suggested that indigenous sludge microorganisms dominated DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. Mineralization of DEHP and PA followed complex kinetics that could not be described by simple first-order equations. The initial mineralization activity was described by an exponential function; this was followed by a second phase that was described best by a fractional power function. In the initial phase, the half times for PA and DEHP in sludge-amended

  14. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  15. Nitrogen loss from windblown agricultural soils in the Columbia Plateau

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion of agricultural soils can degrade both air quality and soil productivity in the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest United States. Soils in the region contain fine particles that, when suspended, are highly susceptible to long range transport in the atmosphere. Nitrogen (N) associ...

  16. Can biosolids reduce wind erosion of agricultural soils?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of biosolids to agricultural land has the potential to improve soil health and crop production. In addition, organic material contained in biosolids may enhance biological activity, retention of soil water, and soil aggregation. Thus, there is a likelihood that biosolids applied to s...

  17. Study of the effects of urban organic residues on the distribution of culturable actinomycetes in a Tunisian agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Mokni-Tlili, Sonia; Jaoua, Leila; Murano, Fumio; Jedidi, Naceur; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to identify a collection of actinomycetes isolates and to study the influence of amendment [municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and farmyard manure (FM)] on their distribution in agricultural soil. For this purpose, a phenotypic and molecular characterization of 226 isolates collected from soil (with and without amendment) and 55 isolates from MSWC and FM was developed. The phenotypic study showed that the majority of strains isolated belong to the genus Streptomyces. By using the 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (restriction digest using six enzymes AluI, HhaI, MspI, TaqI, RsaI and HaeIII), two clusters were found: Streptomyces, dominant genus and Amycolatopsis, followed by Nocardioides. This result agreed with phylogeny revealed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The number of these actinomycetes in soil increased with FM or MSWC application. The studied soil is a potential source for isolation of actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces, and the application of organic amendment to the soil appeared to have an impact on the diversity of actinomycetes. Amendment of the soil with MSWC and FM significantly increased the number of actinomycetes due to the contribution of bacteria originally contained in biowastes and/or by stimulation of the endogenous soil micro-organisms.

  18. Nitrate capture and slow release in biochar amended compost and soil

    PubMed Central

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar) was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h) extractions (“slow release”). In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention. We used composts produced from mixed manures amended with three contrasting biochars prior to aerobic composting and a loamy soil that was amended with biochar three years prior to analysis and compared both to non-biochar amended controls. Composts were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C and 65°C, after sterilization, after treatment with H2O2, after removing biochar particles or without any modification. Soils were extracted with 2 M KCl at 22°C. Ammonium was continuously released during the extractions, independent of biochar amendment and is probably the result of abiotic ammonification. For the pure compost, nitrate extraction was complete after 1 h, while from biochar-amended composts, up to 30% of total nitrate extracted was only released during subsequent extraction steps. The loamy soil released 70% of its total nitrate amount in subsequent extractions, the biochar-amended soil 58%. However, biochar amendment doubled the amount of total extractable nitrate. Thus, biochar nitrate capture can be a relevant contribution to the overall nitrate retention in agroecosystems. Our results also indicate that the total nitrate amount in biochar amended soils and composts may frequently be underestimated. Furthermore, biochars could prevent nitrate loss from agroecosystems and may be developed into slow-release fertilizers to reduce global N

  19. Arsenic(V) adsorption-desorption in agricultural and mine soils: Effects of organic matter addition and phosphate competition.

    PubMed

    Arco-Lázaro, Elena; Agudo, Inés; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2016-09-01

    High total and bioavailable concentrations of As in soils represent a potential risk for groundwater contamination and entry in the food chain. The use of organic amendments in the remediation of As-contaminated soils has been found to produce distinct effects on the solubility of As in the soil. Therefore, knowledge about As adsorption-desorption processes that govern its solubility in soil is of relevance in order to predict the behaviour of this element during these processes. In this paper, the objective was to determine As adsorption and desorption in four different soils, with and without compost addition, and also in competition with phosphate, through the determination of sorption isotherms. Batch experiments were carried out using three soils affected differently by previous mining activity of the Sierra Minera of La Unión-Cartagena (SE Spain) and an agricultural soil from Segovia province (central Spain). Adsorption was higher in the mining soils (and highest in the acidic one) than in the agricultural soils, although the latter were not affected negatively by organic matter or phosphate competition for sorption sites. The results show that As adsorption in most soils, both with and without compost, fitted better a multimolecular layer model (Freundlich), whereas As adsorption in competition with P fitted a monolayer model (Langmuir). Moreover, the use of compost and phosphate reduced the adsorption of As in the mining soils, while in the agricultural soils compost increased their low adsorption capacity. Therefore, the use of compost can be a good option to favour As immobilisation in soils of low adsorption, but knowledge of the soil composition will be crucial to predict the effects of organic amendments on As solubility in soils and its associated environmental risk.

  20. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide removal by ground granulated blast furnace slag amended soil.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mengyao; Leung, Anthony Kwan; Ng, Charles Wang Wai

    2017-05-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) amended soil has been found able to remove gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, how H2S is removed by GGBS amended soil and why GGBS amended soil can be regenerated to remove H2S are not fully understood. In this study, laboratory column tests together with chemical analysis were conducted to investigate and reveal the mechanisms of H2S removal process in GGBS amended soil. Sulfur products formed on the surface of soil particle and in pore water were quantified. The test results reveal that the reaction between H2S and GGBS amended soil was a combined process of oxidation and acid-base reaction. The principal mechanism to remove H2S in GGBS amended soil was through the formation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), elemental sulfur and thiosulfate. Soil pH value decreased gradually during regeneration and reuse cycles. It is found that the AVS plays a significant role in H2S removal during regeneration and reuse cycles. Adding GGBS increased the production of AVS and at the same time suppressed the formation of elemental sulfur. This mechanism is found to be more prominent when the soil water content is higher, leading to increased removal capacity.

  1. The effect of biochar amendment on the soil microbial community - PLFA analyses and 13C labeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watzinger, A.; Feichtmair, S.; Rempt, F.; Anders, E.; Wimmer, B.; Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Horacek, M.; Zehetner, F.; Kloss, S.; Richoz, S.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of biochar amendment on plant growth and on the chemical / physical soil characteristics are well explored but only few studies have investigated the impact on soil microorganisms. The response of the soil microbial community to biochar amendment was investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis in (i) a large scale pot experiment, (ii) a small scale pot experiment using 13C labeled biochar and (iii) an incubation study using 13C labeled biochar. In the large scale pot experiment, three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four different types of biochar were investigated. In total, 25 treatments with 5 replicates each were set up and monitored over a year. The results from the pot experiments showed no significant influence of biochar amendment on the total microbial biomass in the first 100 days after biochar addition. However, discriminant analysis showed a distinction of biochar and control soils as well as a strong effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the microbial composition. The effect of biochar was dependent on the type of soil. In the Planosol, some PLFAs were affected positively, especially when adding biochar with a low pyrolysis temperature, in the first month. In the long term, microbial community composition altered. Growth of fungi and gram negative bacteria was enhanced. In the Chernozem, PLFAs from various microbial groups decreased in the long term. Variability in the incubation study was low. Consequently, many PLFAs were significantly affected by biochar amendment. Again, in the Planosol, gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and, after 2 weeks, gram positive bacteria increased under biochar amendment whereas in the chernozem total microbial biomass and gram positive bacteria were negatively affected in the long term. The 13C labeling studies confirmed the low degradability of the biochar, i.e. no alteration of the content and the δ13C in the soil organic matter within 100 days

  2. Ecotoxicity evaluation of an amended soil contaminated with uranium and radium using sensitive plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, M. M.; Lopes, J.; Magalhães, M. C. F.; Santos, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the centre-north granitic regions of Portugal, during the twenty century radium and uranium were exploited from approximately 60 mines. The closure of all uranium mines, in 2001, raised concerns regarding the possible chemical and radiological effects on the inhabitants health around the mine areas. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of organic amendments and organic hydroxiapatite in the ecotoxicity reduction of agricultural soils contaminated with uranium and radium, by germination and growth tests of two sensitive plants (Lactuca sativa L. and Zea mays L.). Pot experiments, under controlled conditions, were undertaken during two months of incubation at 70% of the soil water-holding capacity. Fluvisol from Urgeiriça region containing large concentration of Utotal (635 mg/kg) and 226Ra (2310 Bq/kg) was used. The soil available fraction, extracted with ammonium acetate, corresponds to 90% and 25% of total concentration of Utotal and 226Ra, respectively. Fine ground bone (FB) and sheep manure (OM) single or mixtures were used as amendments. Four treatments, plus control were carried out in triplicate: (A) soil+40 Mg/ha of FB; (B) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM; (C) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+40 Mg/ha of FB; (D) soil+70 Mg/ha of OM+20 Mg/ha of FB. After the incubation moist soils were kept at 4-5 °C and subsamples were used for leachates extraction following DIN 38414-S4 method. Maize and lettuce seeds were sown in filter paper moistened with the leachates aqueous solutions and in the moist soil for germination and growth tests. Seedlings after three days of germination were used for growth tests in hydroponic, during seven days, using the leachates. Five seeds per replicate were used. Soil presented: pH(H2O)=5.15, EC=7.3 µS/cm; and Corgnic=12.5 g/kg. After two months of incubation soil pH increased to a maximum of 6.53 in amended samples, and EC showed a dramatic increase when compared to the control (0.398 dS/m), from 1.5 dS/m (treatment-A) to 4.7 d

  3. Evolution of organic matter fractions after application of co-compost of sewage sludge with pruning waste to four Mediterranean agricultural soils. A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lomas, A L; Delgado, G; Párraga, J; Delgado, R; Almendros, G; Aranda, V

    2010-10-01

    The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (<5), the higher temperature favoured mineralization but not humification, whereas the low temperature maintained the SOC levels and even increased the HA/FA ratio. In these soils the moment of addition of organic amendment should be decided depending on the effect intended. On the other hand, the lower the SOC

  4. Climatic and agricultural drivers of soil erosion in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion was the most frequently identified driver of land degradation across a selection of global research sites within the DESIRE-EU project. The PESERA model was adopted in the project to upscale field results and consider the potential biophysical impact both with and without stakeholder selected sustainable land management (SLM) technologies in place. The PESERA model was combined with the DESMICE economic model and focussed on forecasting the regional effects of combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. The PESERA-DESMICE approach is further developed in the WAHARA project to consider the potential of a range of water harvesting technologies to improve biophysical conditions. Modelling in the WAHARA project considers detail of water harvesting technologies at the study site scale through to a coarser application at the continental scale with the latter being informed by the detail provided by study site observations an approach adopted in DESIRE-EU. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario at both scales in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. This paper considers the continental scale and focuses on estimating the impact of in-situ water harvesting technologies across Africa under current and future agricultural and climate pressure. PESERA is adopted in this continental application as it implicitly considers the impact of land-use and climate and can be readily amended to simulate in-situ WHT. Input data for PESERA; land use, management (crop type and planting dates), soil data and topography are derived from global data resources. Climate data for present and future scenarios are available through the QUEST-GSI initiative, where future scenarios are based on the outputs of seven GCM's.

  5. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials.

  6. Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in premixed sewage sludge than premixed chicken manure. Total cabbage and broccoli yields obtained from SS and CM mixed soil were both greater than those obtained from no-mulch (bare) soil. Concentration of Ni in cabbage leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF <1), while BAF values were >1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.

  7. National markets for organic waste-derived fertilizers and soil amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Pierzynski, G.M.; Pepperman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has seen enormous growth in the U.S. in the recycling of organic waste materials like sewage sludge, manures, yard waste, solid waste and various industrial wastes. This has been prompted by real or perceived shortages of landfill capacity, state and federal regulations favoring beneficial use of organic wastes, and public support for recycling. Use of fertilizers and soil amendments derived from these wastes has been stimulated by favorable supply-side economics, a shift to organic/sustainable agriculture, and water quality concerns that favor slow-release nutrient sources. This paper summarizes the properties and beneficial use attributes of the various wastes and their derived products, markets for these materials, and constraints/strategies for market penetration.

  8. Potential effects of vinasse as a soil amendment to control runoff and soil loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbavi, Z.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.

    2015-07-01

    Application of organic materials are well known as environmental practices in soil restoration, preserving soil organic matter and recovering degraded soils of arid and semiarid lands. So, the present research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of vinasse, on soil conservation under simulated rainfall. Vinasse can be recycled as a soil amendment due to its organic matter. Accordingly, the laboratory experiments were conducted by using 0.25 m2-experimental plots at 20 % slope and rainfall intensity of 72 m h-1 with 0.5 h duration. The effect of three rates of vinasse at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 L m-2 was investigated on runoff and soil loss control. Laboratory results indicated that vinasse at different levels could nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) decrease the runoff amount and soil loss rate in the study plots compared to untreated plots except 1.5 L m-2 which nonsignificantly increased the runoff volume. Also, the results indicated that the soil loss amount at the vinasse application rate of 1 L m-2 was the least. The average amounts of minimum runoff volume and soil loss were about 3985 mL and 46 g for the study plot at 1 L m-2 level of vinasse application.

  9. Radical change of Zn speciation in pig slurry amended soil: Key role of nano-sized sulfide particles.

    PubMed

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Legros, Samuel; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Pinheiro, Adilson; Le Bars, Maureen; Levard, Clément; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; da Veiga, Milton; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects. Nevertheless, long-term field studies assessing Zn speciation in the organic waste matrix, as well as within the soil after manure application, are lacking. This study was designed to fill this gap. Using SEM-EDS and XAS analysis, we reported the following new results: (i) ZnS made up 100% of the Zn speciation in the pig slurry (the highest proportion of ZnS ever observed in organic waste); and (ii) ZnS aggregates were about 1-μm diameter (the smallest particle size ever reported in pig slurry). Moreover, the pig slurry containing ZnS was spread on the soil over an 11-year period, totaling 22 applications, and the resulting Zn speciation within the amended soil was analyzed. Surprisingly, ZnS, i.e. the only species responsible for a nearly 2-fold increase in the Zn concentration within the amended soil, was not detected in this soil. Based on SEM-EDS and XAS observations, we put forward the hypothesis that Zn in the pig slurry consisted of nano-sized ZnS crystallites that further aggregated. The low stability of ZnS nanoparticles within oxic and complex environments such as the studied soil was the key explanation for the radical change in pig slurry-borne Zn speciation after long-term amendments.

  10. Biochar as possible long-term soil amendment for phytostabilisation of TE-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Charlotte; Christl, Iso; Schulin, Rainer; Evangelou, Michael W H

    2016-09-01

    Soils contaminated by trace elements (TEs) pose a high risk to their surrounding areas as TEs can spread by wind and water erosion or leaching. A possible option to reduce TE transfer from these sites is phytostabilisation. It is a long-term and cost-effective rehabilitation strategy which aims at immobilising TEs within the soil by vegetation cover and amendment application. One possible amendment is biochar. It is charred organic matter which has been shown to immobilise metals due to its high surface area and alkaline pH. Doubts have been expressed about the longevity of this immobilising effect as it could dissipate once the carbonates in the biochar have dissolved. Therefore, in a pot experiment, we determined plant metal uptake by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) from three TE-contaminated soils treated with two biochars, which differed only in their pH (acidic, 2.80; alkaline, 9.33) and carbonate (0.17 and 7.3 %) content. Root biomass was increased by the application of the alkaline biochar due to the decrease in TE toxicity. Zinc and Cu bioavailability and plant uptake were equally reduced by both biochars, showing that surface area plays an important role in metal immobilisation. Biochar could serve as a long-term amendment for TE immobilisation even after its alkalinity effect has dissipated.

  11. Global Warming Potential from early phase decomposition of soil organic matter amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter amendments to soil are widely used as a method of enhancing nutrient availability for crops or grassland. Amendments such as composted manure or greenwaste also have the co-benefits of potentially increasing soil carbon (C) stocks (DeLonge et al., 2013) and diverting organic waste from landfills or manure lagoons. However, application of organic matter amendments can also stimulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study we determined how the chemical quality of organic matter amendments affected soil C and N content and GHG emissions during early stage decomposition. California grassland soils were amended with six different amendments of varying C and N content including three composts and three feedstocks (goat and horse bedding and cattle manure). Amendments and soils were incubated in the laboratory for 7 weeks; GHG fluxes were measured weekly. The three feedstocks emitted significantly more GHGs than the composted materials. With the exception of cow manure, N content of the amendment was linearly correlated with global warming potential emitted (R2= 0.66, P <0.0001). C:N ratios were not a significant predictor of GHG emissions. Cow manure stimulated a net loss of C (or C equivalents) in the mineral soil, as expected. However, greenwaste compost also surprisingly resulted in net C losses, while goat bedding, horse bedding, and the other compost were either C neutral or a slight net C sink at the end of the incubation. Ongoing analyses are examining the fate of the C incorporated from the amendment to the soil as occluded or free light fraction, as well as N mineralization rates. Our data suggest that N content of organic matter amendments is a good predictor of initial GHG emissions. The study also indicates that composting greenwaste with N-rich bedding and manure can result in lower GHG emissions and C sequestration compared to the individual uncomposted components.

  12. Effect of sludge-amendment or nutrient addition on the biodegradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soil.

    PubMed

    Perrin-Ganier, C; Schiavon, F; Morel, J L; Schiavon, M

    2001-08-01

    Adding sludge to agricultural soil results in added organic matter, nutrients and metallic and/or organic pollutants. These components may modify the behaviour of pesticides in the soil. We monitored possible changes in the degradation of the herbicide isoproturon (production of CO2 and degradation products) in soil amended with sludge, heavy metals or nitrogen and phosphorus. The treated and control soils were incubated under controlled conditions for 60 days. The nitrogen and phosphorus had the greatest effect on isoproturon degradation, independent of the presence of pollutants. Mineralisation of the herbicide to CO2 was slow and seemed to be linked to a fast degradation and to the accumulation of a complex degradation product that was neither catabolized nor adsorbed, 4,4'-diisopropylazobenzene. This degradation pathway also produced smaller amounts of non-extractable residues. Sewage sludge had no significant effect on isoproturon degradation, despite a large increase of organic matter mineralisation (factor 2).

  13. Biochar soil amendment: Impact of soil types on heavy metal sorption-desorption behaviors and repeated nutrient leaching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on soil types, properties of chars especially pH and leachable organic/inorganic components can have varying impacts when used as a soil amendment. We have investigated sorption-desorption behaviors of metal contaminant of concern in shooting ranges and urban soils (Cu), nutrient supply (...

  14. Impacts of wastewater sludge amendments in restoring nitrogen cycle in p-nitrophenol contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sagban, F Olcay Topac

    2011-01-01

    The possible impacts on nitrogen-cycle in a p-nitrophenol (PNP) polluted soil and the effectiveness of wastewater sludge amendments in restoring nitrification potential and urease activity were evaluated by an incubation study. The results indicated that PNP at 250 mg/kg soil inhibited urease activity, nitrification potential, arginine ammonification rate and heterotrophic bacteria counts to some extents. After exposure to PNP, the nitrification potential of the tested soil was dramatically reduced to zero over a period of 30 days. Based on the findings, nitrification potential was postulated as a simple biochemical indicator for PNP pollution in soils. Nitrogen-cycling processes in soils responded positively to the applications of wastewater sludges. A sludge application rate of 200 tons/ha was sufficient for successful biostimulation of these nitrogen processes. The microbial activities in sludge-amended, heavy PNP-polluted soils seemed to recover after 30-45 days, indicating the effectiveness of sludge as a useful soil amendment.

  15. Dissolved organic matter dynamic and resident microbiota evolution in soil amended with fresh and composted olive mill wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Massaccesi, Luisa; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Nasini, Luigi; Proietti, Primo

    2013-04-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastes represents a problem of environmental relevance particularly in the Mediterranean countries where olive oil is mostly produced. Among the several valorisation and recycling methods proposed, interesting for its operational simplicity and convenience is land spreading, either directly or after composting. However, the agriculture use of the water-saturated husk produced by the new two-phase oil extraction systems may be hampered by its consistency and its high content of phenolic compounds, which may finally lead to phytotoxicity. Humid husk may indeed modify the dynamic of soil organic matter (SOM) and the structure and function of microbial communities. On the other hand, organic amendments are known to positively affect SOM fractions, particularly by increasing the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which may eventually lead to an increase in microbial activity. The aim of this work was to investigate, during a 90-day field trial, the modifications in soil DOM composition and the effects on the soil microbiota induced by a humid husk, obtained from a new generation two-phase oil extraction plant, spread in an olive orchard either as a fresh amendment or after a composting process. With respect to the control, the soil amended with either fresh or composted husk showed an increase in water extractable organic carbon (WEOC). Interestingly, while during the first 30 days the soil amended with the composted husk showed a WEOC content higher than the one amended with the fresh husk, after that time only in the latter the WEOC remained significantly higher than in the control. The total content of phenolic compounds showed a similar trend, with the only difference that their concentration in the soil amended with both treatments remained higher than the control for the entire trial. Similarly, both treatments induced an increase in soil reducing sugars, with an higher effect observed in the soil amended with

  16. How can soil organic carbon stocks in agriculture be maintained or increased?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Axel; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    CO2 emissions from soils are 10 times higher than anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil burning with around 60 Pg C a-1. At the same time around 60 Pg of carbon is added to the soils as litter from roots and leaves. Thus, the balance between both fluxes is supposed to be zero for the global earth system in steady state without human perturbations. However, the global carbon flux has been altered by humans since thousands of years by extracting biomass carbon as food, feed and fiber with global estimate of 40% of net primary productivity (NPP). This fraction is low in forests but agricultural systems, in particular croplands, are systems with a high net exported carbon fraction. Soils are mainly input driven systems. Agricultural soils depend on input to compensate directly for i) respiration losses, ii) extraction of carbon (and nitrogen) and depletion (e.g. via manure) or indirectly via enhances NPP (e.g. via fertilization management). In a literature review we examined the role of biomass extraction and carbon input via roots, crop residues and amendments (manure, slurry etc.) to agricultural soil's carbon stocks. Recalcitrance of biomass carbon was found to be of minor importance for long-term carbon storage. Thus, also the impact of crop type on soil carbon dynamics seems mainly driven by the amount of crop residuals of different crop types. However, we found distinct differences in the efficiency of C input to refill depleted soil C stocks between above ground C input or below ground root litter C input, with root-C being more efficient due to slower turnover rates. We discuss the role of different measures to decrease soil carbon turnover (e.g. decreased tillage intensity) as compared to measures that increase C input (e.g. cover crops) in the light of global developments in agricultural management with ongoing specialization and segregation between catch crop production and dairy farms.

  17. Agriculture Canada Central Saskatchewan Vector Soils Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Rostad, Harold

    2000-01-01

    This data set consists of GIS layers that describe the soils of the BOREAS SSA. These original data layers were submitted as vector data in ARC/INFO EXPORT format. These data also include the soil name and soil layer files, which provide additional information about the soils. There are three sets of attributes that include information on the primary, secondary, and tertiary soil type within each polygon. Thus, there is a total of nine main attributes in this data set.

  18. Application of MCPA herbicide on soils amended with biostimulants: short-time effects on soil biological properties.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; García-Martínez, Ana M; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we studied in the laboratory the effect of MCPA herbicide at a rate of 1.5lha(-1) (manufactures rate recommended) on biological properties of a Plagic Antrosol amended with four biostimulants (WCDS, wheat condensed distillers soluble; PA-HE, hydrolyzed poultry feathers; CGHE, carob germ enzymatic extract; and RB, rice bran extract). Seven hundred grams of soil were mixed with WCDS at a rate of 10%, CGHE at a rate of 4.7%, PA-HE at a rate of 4.3%, and RB at a rate of 4.4%, respectively, in order to applying the same amount of organic matter to the soil (16.38 g organic matter). An unamended polluted and amended non-polluted soil were used as control. For all treatments, the soil ergosterol, dehydrogenase, urease, and phosphatase activities were measured at two incubation times (0 and 60 d). The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles in all treatments were determined at the beginning and end of the incubation period. The results indicated that at the end of the incubation period and compared with the control soil, the dehydrogenase, urease and phosphatase activities and ergosterol decreased 39.3%, 20%, 15.7% and 56.5%, respectively in the non-organic amended polluted soil. The application of organic matter to unpolluted soil increased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB, followed by PA-HE, WCDS and CGHE. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the enzymatic activities and ergosterol content. However, this decrease was lower than for the non-amended herbicide polluted soil. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the adsorption capacity of humic substances are responsible for less inhibition of these enzyme activities and soil ergosterol. The 16S rDNA-DGGE profiles indicated that herbicide did not negatively affect soil bacterial biodiversity.

  19. Degradation of alachlor in natural and sludge-amended soils, studied by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and HPLC-MS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Lacorte, Silvia

    2005-11-30

    Alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] is an herbicide used worldwide. The relative rates of disappearance of alachlor, the formation kinetics of alachlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), and the formation of other degradation products in two different soils (a soil with natural organic matter and a sludge-amended soil) has been studied. For such a purpose, soil samples were spiked with alachlor at 2.5 mg kg(-1), concentration generally applied in agricultural soils, and were submitted to sunlight, simulating natural field conditions. Extracts were analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC-MS in scan mode. A good correlation was observed between both techniques, and HPLC-MS allowed the determination of two eluting peaks corresponding to the two stereoisomeric forms of alachlor ESA. Degradation of alachlor in the two soils followed first-order kinetics. Half-life in the natural soil was 4.2 +/- 0.1 days, and half-life in the sludge-amended soil was 5.8 +/- 0.8 days. The higher half-life observed in the sludge-amended soil was attributed to the higher sorption of alachlor to this soil compared to the natural soil. The degradation of alachlor in both soils gave rise to the production of alachlor ESA. Its concentration increased during the incubation period, and after 27 days, its concentration was about 0.59 mg kg(-1) in the natural soil and 0.37 mg kg(-1) in the sludge-amended soil. The other two alachlor transformation products were identified using GC-MS, and the abundance of these degradation products increased while alachlor was degraded.

  20. How agricultural management shapes soil microbial communities: patterns emerging from genetic and genomic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Amanda; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is a predominant land use and thus a large influence on global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances, climate, and human health. If we are to produce food, fiber, and fuel sustainably we must maximize agricultural yield while minimizing negative environmental consequences, goals towards which we have made great strides through agronomic advances. However, most agronomic strategies have been designed with a view of soil as a black box, largely ignoring the way management is mediated by soil biota. Because soil microbes play a central role in many of the processes that deliver nutrients to crops and support their health and productivity, agricultural management strategies targeted to exploit or support microbial activity should deliver additional benefits. To do this we must determine how microbial community structure and function are shaped by agricultural practices, but until recently our characterizations of soil microbial communities in agricultural soils have been largely limited to broad taxonomic classes due to methodological constraints. With advances in high-throughput genetic and genomic sequencing techniques, better taxonomic resolution now enables us to determine how agricultural management affects specific microbes and, in turn, nutrient cycling outcomes. Here we unite findings from published research that includes genetic or genomic data about microbial community structure (e.g. 454, Illumina, clone libraries, qPCR) in soils under agricultural management regimes that differ in type and extent of tillage, cropping selections and rotations, inclusion of cover crops, organic amendments, and/or synthetic fertilizer application. We delineate patterns linking agricultural management to microbial diversity, biomass, C- and N-content, and abundance of microbial taxa; furthermore, where available, we compare patterns in microbial communities to patterns in soil extracellular enzyme activities, catabolic profiles, inorganic nitrogen pools, and nitrogen

  1. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N2O and CH4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al(3+) toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N2O and CH4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH4 emissions and, under CT, abate N2O emissions.

  2. Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

    2013-01-01

    The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research.

  3. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization and straw amendment on soil microbial biomass and soil functions after heat stress].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Shi; Liu, Man-Qiang; Jiao, Jia-Guo; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2013-02-01

    A 60-day incubation experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization (N), rice straw amendment (R), and their combination (RN) on the changes of soil microbial biomass and soil functions (basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration, and straw decomposition) after heat stress (40 degrees C for 18 h). Heat stress tended to promote the soil microbial biomass and soil functions, but the effects were weak and transient. Either with or without heating, treatment R and especially RN could greatly stimulate soil microbial biomass, basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration and straw decomposition, as compared to no straw amendment and with nitrogen fertilization alone, but the parameters in treatment N had less change, and even, presented a decreasing trend. It was suggested that straw amendment and its combination with nitrogen fertilization could improve soil functions in natural conditions or after environmental stress.

  4. Chromium fractionation and plant availability in tannery-sludge amended soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allué, Josep; Moya Garcés, Alba; Bech, Jaume; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The leather industry represents an important economic sector in both developed and developing countries. Chromium tanning is the major process used to obtain high quality leather. Within the REACH regulation the use of Cr, especially CrVI, in the tanning process is under discussion in Europe. High Cr concentration in shoes and other Cr-tanned leather products can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive population. Moreover, the high Cr concentration is the major limiting factor for the use of tannery sludge as a source of organic matter in agricultural soils. Interest in Cr, however is not limited to its potential toxic effects. Chromium III is used as a dietary supplement because there are reports, but also controversy, about the positive effects of Cr III in glucose tolerance and type-2 diabetes. Adequate intake levels for Cr by the diet have been established between 25 and 35 µg/day for adult females and males, respectively. Sufficient supply of Cr III by the diet is preferable to the use of CrIII-salt based dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to investigate whether Cr from tannery sludge-amended soil is available to Trigonella foenum-graecum plants, a plant used both as a spice and as a medicinal herb, because of its hypoglucemic effects. For this purpose clay loam soil (pH 7.8) was sieved (2mm) and thoroughly mixed with tannery sludge from a depuration station (Igualadina Depuració i Recuperació S.L., Igualada, Barcelona, Spain). The sludge had a Cr concentration of 6,034mg kg-1 and a 0.73 % of NH4-nitrogen. All the Cr was in the form of CrIII. Three treatments were disposed. Control soil receiving no sludge, a 60 mg kg-1 Cr treatment (10 g fresh sludge kg-1 soil) and a 120 mg kg-1 Cr treatment (20 g fresh sludge kg-1 soil). Control soil and the soil treated with 10g kg-1 sludge received NPK fertilizer in the form of ammonium sulfate, superfosfate, and KCl to rise the N,P, and K concentrations to similar levels to those achieved in the

  5. Dynamics of communities of bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in response to simazine attenuation in agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rui; Wang, Zhao; Xie, Shuguang

    2014-02-15

    Autochthonous microbiota plays a crucial role in natural attenuation of s-triazine herbicides in agricultural soil. Soil microcosm study was carried out to investigate the shift in the structures of soil autochthonous microbial communities and the potential degraders associated with natural simazine attenuation. The relative abundance of soil autochthonous degraders and the structures of microbial communities were assessed using quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), respectively. Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community was also characterized using clone library analysis. Soil autochthonous microbiota could almost completely clean up simazine (100 mg kg(-1)) in 10 days after herbicide application, indicating a strong self-remediation potential of agricultural soil. A significant increase in the proportion of s-triazine-degrading atzC gene was found in 6 days after simazine amendment. Simazine application could alter the community structures of total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). AOA were more responsive to simazine application compared to AOB and bacteria. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups either at the initial stage after simazine amendment or at the end stage of herbicide biodegradation, but Actinobacteria predominated at the middle stage of biodegradation. Microorganisms from several bacterial genera might be involved in simazine biodegradation. This work could add some new insights on the bioremediation of herbicides contaminated agricultural soils.

  6. Effects of poultry manure amendment on soil phosphorus fractions, phosphatase activity, and phosphorus uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure (PM) contains a large amount of P, and adding this manure to soil can impact the availability of native soil P to plants. To investigate the effects of PM on soil P availability, we grew ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in greenhouse pots amended with poultry manure. Biomass was harvested at...

  7. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of Soil Lead Depends on the Bioaccessible Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils...

  8. Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of a biochar made from switchgrass on four soil enzymes (ß- glucosidase, ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase) to determine if biochar would consistently modify soil biological activities. Inconsistent results from enzyme assays of char-amended soils s...

  9. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues relative to an unamended control soil was assessed using Lumbricus terrestris in 4-L soil microcos...

  10. Metolachlor sorption and degradation in soil amended with fresh and aged biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of organic amendments such as biochar to soils can influence pesticide sorption-desorption processes, and in turn, pesticide availability and biodegradation. Availability is affected by both the physical and chemical properties of soils and pesticides, as well as soil-pesticide contact time...

  11. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR PB SPECIATION IN AN AMENDED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immobilization of pyromorphite (Pbs(PO4hCI) via P amendments to Pb contaminated soils is proving to be a viable method of remediation. However, the issue of ascertaining the amount of soil Pb converted to pyromorphite is difficult in heterogeneous soil systems. Previous attempts ...

  12. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  13. Phyto-availability and speciation change of heavy metals in soils amended with lignin as micro-fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songxue; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiaoquan; Mu, Huanzhen

    2005-05-01

    Lignin is a primary byproduct from the black liquor treatment in paper making industries, its application as micro-fertilizer in agricultural land might provide a promising alternative to sewage discharge. However, application of such a micro-fertilizer might affect the soil properties and result in soil pollution. In this study, the effects of lignin application on phyto-availability and speciation change of heavy metals in soils were investigated. Greenhouse experiments showed that lignin application improved the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in all three soils investigated. The increase of the biomass for wheat shoot was 59.7%, 39.8% and 12.3% for Beijing soil, Jiangxi soil and Dongbei soil, respectively. In contrast, lignin amendment decreased the concentrations of heavy metals in wheat shoots from 2.2% to 61.0%. Sequential extraction procedure of a three-step BCR was used to investigate the fraction distribution. The extractable fractions were specified as fraction B1: water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound or weakly specifically adsorbed; B2: Fe-Mn oxide bound; B3: organic matter and sulfide bound. The results showed that lignin application led to the redistribution of heavy metals in each fraction. Generally, heavy metals decreased in B1 and B2 fractions and increased in B3 fraction. Upon the results short-term application of lignin in agricultural land not only improves the growth of wheat but also reduces the phyto-abailability of heavy metal in wheat.

  14. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C; Shepherd, Jessica G; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-03-15

    The term "marginal biomass" is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average+82.8% Cr, +226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition +22.5 mg Cr kg(-1) biochar and +44.4 mg Ni kg(-1) biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser.

  15. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbiological processes (that is, nitrification and denitrification). Soil amended with biochar (charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass) has been demonstrated to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and affect greenhouse gas emissions, for example, reduce N2O emissions. Despite several studies on variations in the general microbial community structure due to soil biochar amendment, hitherto the specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in mitigating soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. We performed a microcosm study with a water-saturated soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil. PMID:24067258

  16. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community.

    PubMed

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbiological processes (that is, nitrification and denitrification). Soil amended with biochar (charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass) has been demonstrated to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and affect greenhouse gas emissions, for example, reduce N2O emissions. Despite several studies on variations in the general microbial community structure due to soil biochar amendment, hitherto the specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in mitigating soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. We performed a microcosm study with a water-saturated soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil.

  17. Sorption and desorption of cadmium by different fractions of biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Ryan, James A; Chaney, Rufus L; La Fleur, Cherie M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of both the inorganic and organic fractions in biosolids on Cd chemistry, a series of Cd sorption and desorption batch experiments (at pH 5.5) were conducted on different fractions of soils from a long-term field experimental site. The slope of the Cd sorption isotherm increased with rate of biosolids and was different for the different biosolids. Removal of organic carbon (OC) reduced the slope of the Cd sorption isotherm but did not account for the observed differences between biosolids-amended soils and a control soil, indicating that the increased adsorption associated with biosolids application was not limited to the increased OC from the addition of biosolids. Removal of both OC and Fe/Mn further reduced the slopes of Cd sorption isotherms and the sorption isotherm of the biosolids-amended soil was the same as that of the control, indicating both OC and Fe/Mn fractions added by the biosolids were important to the increased sorption observed for the biosolids-amended soil samples. Desorption experiments failed to remove from 60 to 90% of the sorbed Cd. This "apparent hysteresis" was higher for biosolids-amended soil than the control soil. Removal of both OC and Fe/Mn fractions was more effective in removing the observed differences between the biosolids-amended soil and the control than either alone. Results show that Cd added to biosolids-amended soil behaves differently than Cd added to soils without biosolids and support the hypothesis that the addition of Fe and Mn in the biosolids increased the retention of Cd in biosolids-amended soils.

  18. Arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation in the soils amended with organoarsenicals and drinking-water treatment residuals based on a long-term greenhouse study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C.; Datta, Rupali

    2014-10-01

    SummaryAlthough organoarsenical pesticides are no longer applied to agricultural fields in the US, their widespread use until recently, toxicity, and potential transformation to inorganic arsenic has raised serious concern. Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) have been proposed as a low-cost amendment for remediation of organoarsenical pesticide contaminated soils. A long-term greenhouse study was initiated to evaluate the effect WTR application on bioaccessibility, geochemical partitioning, and speciation of the Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Two soils (Immokalee and Orelia series) were spiked with DMA (1500 mg As kg-1) and amended with an Al- and Fe-based WTR at two rates (5% and 10% by wt.). Soil sampling was done immediately after spiking (time zero) and after 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 3 (time final) years of equilibration and subjected to bioaccessibility test and sequential extraction. Results showed that compared to the unamended (no WTR) control, As bioaccessibility in the WTR-amended soils significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by 40-70% in 3 years. The Fe-WTR was more effective than Al-WTR in decreasing soil As bioaccessibility. The in vitro and water-extracted samples were subjected to As speciation at time zero and time final. Results showed transformation of DMA into inorganic As, irrespective of WTR amendments. The Orelia soil showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher transformation than the Immokalee soil.

  19. Uptake and translocation of metals in fenugreek grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: involvement of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarita; Gupta, Amit K; Bhatt, Kavita

    2007-06-01

    Agricultural and industrial activities cause heavy metal pollution in the soil, which adversely affect the plant growing therein. The plants of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were grown in soil amended with different percent of tannery sludge (TS) (10%, 25%, 35%, 50%, and 100% TS) in order to study the effect on antioxidant levels due to translocation of metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb). The accumulation of the metals was found more in shoots than roots, except Fe and Cr. The level of metals in seeds of the plant increased with increase in sludge amendments ratio except Mn, which decreased in roots, shoots, and seeds of the plant. Chromium was found below detection limits in the seeds at 10% and 25% TS. Correlation coefficient (r) between total metal accumulation and extractable metals showed that Zn (P<0.01), Cr (P<0.01), and Cu (P<0.05) are significantly correlated, whereas, correlation with pH showed significant positive relation with all the studied metals except Mn. Significant positive correlation was recorded between metal accumulation (Fe, Zn, Cu) and electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter, however, Zn, Cr, and Cu showed significant positive correlation with bulk density, nitrate, ammonia, and available phosphorus. The analysis of the results showed that total chlorophyll content showed significant (P< 0.5) increase in lower amendment of sludge (up to 35% TS at 30 d and 25% TS at 60 d) as over their controls. In roots, malondialdehyde, cysteine, non-protein thiol, proline, protein, ascorbic acid contents increased up to 35% TS at 30 d. Principal component analysis also showed that strong association exists among malondialdehyde, nonprotein thiol, protein, and cysteine contents in the plants grown on different amendments of TS. The level of antioxidants increased which enabled the plant to cope up the stress induced in the plants grown on lower amendments of TS, however, toxicity was observed at higher amendments.

  20. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  1. Effect of amendments on phytoavailability and fractionation of copper and zinc in a contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2010-09-01

    The ability of amendments to modify the soil properties and influence plants to immobilise Cu and Zn was studied in a naturally contaminated, additionally spiked podzolic soil. Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue) and Poa pratensis L (Kentucky blue grass) were tested in a pot study in the presence of soil amendments (lime, phosphate, and compost, individually and in combination) to assess the effect of soil-plant-amendment interaction on phytostabilisation. The ability of treatments to stabilize metals was assessed on the basis of metal fractionation in soil, partitioning of metals in plants, and metal uptake by the plants. Significant partitioning of Cu into immobile forms occurred as a result of the growth of Festuca rubra, and of Zn by the growth of Poa pratensis. Application of lime significantly reduced the exchangeable fraction of Zn, whereas phosphate application had an accelerating effect on exchangeable Cu. With combined application of amendments, the plant metal concentration decreased by more than 40% for Cu and 70% for Zn, compared to soils receiving no amendments. Combined application of amendments, in conjunction with growth of Festuca and Poa, can be recommended for phytostabilising of Cu and Zn in moderately contaminated acid soils of southwest British Columbia.

  2. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  3. Evaluation of composted sewage sludge (CSS) as a soil amendment for Bermudagrass growth.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, O Nouri; Pishdar, H

    2007-05-01

    In order to evaluate the growth of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) in soils amended with 5-100% composted sewage sludge (CSS) and the impacts of CSS amendment on soil physical and chemical properties an experiment was conducted. Soils amended with < or = 20% CSS did not significantly affect the seedling emergence, while the contents of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium of Bermudagrass grown in such soils were greatly improved. Bulk density, water retention and nutrient contents of the soil were also improved with the amendment of CSS, but high CSS contents introduced excessive amounts of heavy metals and soluble salts. Results show that Cu, Zn and Pb accumulated slightly (up to approximately 2.3 times) in clippings of Bermudagrass grown in CSS-amended soils compared to those grown in the base and reference soils, while no significant Cd absorption in shoots of Bermudagrass occurred. The detrimental effects on seedling emergence and turfgrass growth observed on substrates with high (> or = 40%) CSS contents were mainly attributed to the presence of high soluble salt concentrations. The findings suggest that addition of CSS at 10-20% levels can greatly improve the soil nutrient supply for turfgrass growth without significantly affecting heavy metal and soluble salt contents of the soil.

  4. A multi-site, multi-year examination of factors affecting the persistence of attenuated O157- and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli in manure-amended soils in the mid-Atlantic United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of untreated biological soil amendments (BSAs), including dairy cattle manure (DM), poultry litter (PL), and horse manure (HM), to soils provides nutrients for crops in conventional and organic agriculture, but may also introduce enteric pathogens present in manure to crops. The U.S. Fo...

  5. To amend the Agricultural Adjustment Act to exclude raisins from agricultural marketing orders.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Radel, Trey [R-FL-19

    2013-07-25

    08/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

    2008-02-01

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate

  7. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils.

    PubMed

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r=0.957**, P<0.01). The amount of isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation (DT(50)) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal increased from 0 to 50 g kg(-1) (for Paddy soil, DT(50) values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT(50) from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT(50) from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  8. Olive mill waste biochar: a promising soil amendment for metal immobilization in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hmid, Amine; Al Chami, Ziad; Sillen, Wouter; De Vocht, Alain; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of biochar from olive mill waste for in situ remediation of metal contaminated soils was evaluated. Biochar was mixed with metal contaminated soil originating from the vicinity of an old zinc smelter. Soil-biochar mixtures were equilibrated for 30 and 90 days. At these time points, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals were determined, and effects of the biochar amendment on soil toxicity were investigated using plants, bacteria, and earthworms. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) growth, metal content, antioxidative enzymes activities, and soluble protein contents were determined. Furthermore, effects on soil microbial communities (activity, diversity, richness) were examined using Biolog ECOplates. After 120 days of soil-biochar equilibration, effects on weight and reproduction of Eisenia foetida were evaluated. With increasing biochar application rate and equilibration period, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals decreased, and growth of bean plants improved; leaf metal contents reduced, the activities of antioxidative stress enzymes decreased, and soluble protein contents increased. Soil microbial activity, richness, and diversity were augmented. Earthworm mortality lowered, and their growth and reproduction showed increasing trends.

  9. Biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in an agricultural management continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships among biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in a claypan soil were evaluated across a continuum of long-term agricultural practices in Missouri, USA. In addition to chemical and physical soil quality indicators, dehydrogenase and phenol oxidase a...

  10. An experimental study of vermi-biowaste composting for agricultural soil improvement.

    PubMed

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y; Kumari, Usha R

    2008-04-01

    Vermitechnology was investigated as a means of reducing organic waste materials. Vermicomposting conditions were optimized to convert the biowastes to nutritious composts for amending agricultural soil. Studies were undertaken to select the most suitable earthworm species for vermicomposting, to enrich vermicompost by inoculation with beneficial microbes, to standardize an economically feasible method of vermicomposting, to achieve nutrient economy through vermicompost application in acid soils (pH 4.5), and to assess the performance of vermicompost as a bioinoculant in cow-pea, banana, and cassava. Earthworm species Eudrillus eugineae, Eisenia foetida, Perionyx sansibaricus, Pontoscolex corethrurus and Megascolex chinensis were compared for their efficiencies in biodegrading organic wastes. E. eugineae was found to be a superb agent. As a bioinoculant, vermicompost increased nitrogen and phosphorous availability by enhancing biological nitrogen fixation and phosphorous solubilisation. Vermicompost-amended acid-agriculture-soil significantly improved the yield, biometric character and quality of banana, cassava and cow-pea. Vermicompost application stimulated root growth, facilitating nutrient absorption and thereby favouring higher yield.

  11. Fast effects of biochar amendment on soil C and N dynamics, nutrient availability and fertility under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa, J. M.; Knicker, H.

    2012-04-01

    The shift towards a biobased economy will probably trigger the application of bioenergy by-products and charred residues to the soil as either amendments or fertilizers. However, limited research has been done to determine how this will influence C and N dynamics and soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 15N enriched pyrogenic organic matter (15N-PyOM) on C and N mineralisation, nutrient availability and fertility of amended soil. A typical Andalusian agricultural soil (calcareous Rhodoxeralf) was amended (0.1% w/w) with 15N enriched-biochar produced from Lolium perenne. The bioavailability and partitioning of the 15N from the biochars was tested by determining its content in the soil and the ray grass grown on this soil under controlled conditions for 72 days. After 30, 60 and 72 days of incubation, soil samples were analyzed for C, N, 15N, microbial biomass C. In addition, the chemical alteration of the 15N-containing organic structures during mobilization/immobilization was followed by solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy. Soil amendment led to a general increase in the biomass production and N retention. After 72 days of incubation, 10 % of the 15N added in the soil with the PyOM had been degraded and available for grass growth. 15N and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that part of the pyrogenic heterocyclic N has been transformed into amide N, possibly by the use of microbiologically mobilized 15N from the char. Newer results indicate that PyOM can be microbially degraded, the efficiency of which depends on its chemical composition and properties. The chemical properties of the used material as well as the optimal conditions for microbial decay during the laboratory incubation experiments are likely to have augmented PyOM decomposition. In summary, our results indicate that: i) a re-evaluation of the potential of pyrogenic material as a sink of C and N is needed. ii) the characterization of the chemical composition of char material is

  12. Development of fugal strains in biochar amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ana Z.; De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    The application of carbonized materials (including biochar and hydrochar) produced by the pyrolysis of biomass to soil has been proposed as a novel approach to establish a significant long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems [1]. In addition, several research studies pointed out that biochar can act as a soil conditioner enhancing plant growth by supplying and, more importantly, retaining nutrients, and by providing other benefits such as improving soil physical and biological properties [2]. Despite numerous authors take for granted that microbial degradation of carbonized materials is highly unlikely, this fact is far away from being true for all the chars. Nevertheless, the knowledge concerning the natural degradation of chars by microorganisms is of high interest due to the direct decline on the char capacity for C stabilization. In order to achieve this goal, biochars from different feedstock and pyrolysis conditions were applied to soil from a Calcareous Cambisol (0, 2.5 and 5%) which was filled into 30-cm long methacrylate columns. They were incubated during 4 months under controlled conditions (25 °C, 12 hours of light per day and water holding capacity maintained at 60% by adding deionized sterile water). After 1 month of incubation, white colonies were observed on a biochar derived from paper-sludge. The microorganisms were cultured from paper sludge biochar, isolated and further identified by DNA-based molecular analysis [3]. The identified fungi grouped into the Fusarium genus within Ascomycota phylum, being represented by F. oxysporum. These fungi are soil-borne and have the ability to exist as saprophytes. F. oxysporum strains are known to degrade lignin and complex carbohydrates associated with soil debris [4]. However, many strains within the F. oxysporum are pathogenic to plants, especially in agricultural settings. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum is responsible for vascular wilt in cucumber plants [5]. These

  13. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms–the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs. PMID:27782159

  14. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms–the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  15. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Abioye, O. P.; Agamuthu, P.; Abdul Aziz, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration. PMID:22919502

  16. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  17. Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

  18. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbially-mediated processes. Soil amended with biochar has been demonstrated to reduce N2O emissions in the field and in laboratory experiments. Although N2O emission mitigation following soil biochar amendment has been reported frequently the underlying processes and specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in decreasing soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. To investigate the impact of biochar on the microbial community of nitrogen-transforming microorganisms we performed a microcosm study with arable soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature wood derived biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative real-time PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil.

  19. Structure, Composition and Metagenomic Profile of Soil Microbiomes Associated to Agricultural Land Use and Tillage Systems in Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no- tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems

  20. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  1. EXAFS speciation and phytoavailability of Pb in a contaminated soil amended with compost and gypsum.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    Due to unregulated uses of lead pellets for hunting purposes in Japan, soils and sediments in some river basins and wetlands have become highly contaminated with Pb. Deterioration of natural vegetation has occurred sporadically in these areas, and therefore revegetation is needed for ecological restoration. The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of surface applications of compost and gypsum amendments on Pb availability to a watercress plant (Nasturtium officinale W.T. Aiton) and molecular-scale speciation of Pb in soil solid phases. The compost and gypsum amendments significantly decreased dissolved Pb and Sb in pore water. The concentration of Pb in aboveground plant tissues was 190mg kg(-1) in the control soil and was reduced to <20mg kg(-1) in the compost and gypsum-amended soils. The concentration of Sb in plants grown in the control soil was 13mg kg(-1), whereas that in the soils receiving compost and gypsum decreased below detectable levels. Redox potential was higher in vegetated soils (ave. 349mV) than in the unvegetated soils (ave. 99mV) due to oxygen introduced by plant roots. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy illustrated that Pb occurred as Pb sorbed on birnessite and/or ferrihydrite (Pb-Mn/Fe, ~60%) and Pb sorbed on organic matter (Pb-org, ~15%), and galena (PbS, ~10%) in the vegetated and unvegetated control soils. The compost amendment increased the proportion of Pb-org by 2-fold than in the control soils. The amended soils with plant growth decreased the proportion of Pb-Mn/Fe phases by half of that without plant growth. Galena and anglesite (PbSO(4)) were not detected in compost-amended soils and even in gypsum-amended soils since a significant soil reduction to anoxic levels did not occur in the entire soil. The present study indicated that, under flooded conditions, surface applications of compost and gypsum amendments reduced plant Pb uptake from the Pb contaminated soil.

  2. Infrared sensors to map soil carbon in agricultural ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid methods of measuring soil carbon such as near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy have gained interest but problems of accurate and precise measurement still persist resulting from the high spatial variability of soil carbon within agricultural landscapes. T...

  3. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry.

  4. Suppression of plant parasitic nematodes in the chinampa agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, B M; Dicklow, M B; Coles, G C; Garcia-E, R; Marban-Mendoza, N

    1989-06-01

    Soil from the chinampa agricultural system in the Valley of Mexico suppressed damage by plant-parasitic nematodes to tomatoes and beans in greenhouse and growth chamber trials. Sterilization of the chinampa soil resulted in a loss of the suppressive effect, thereby indicating that one or more biotic factors were responsible for the low incidence of nematode damage. Nine organisms were isolated from chinampa soil, which showed antinematodal properties in culture. Naturally occurring populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were of lower incidence in chinampa soil than in Chapingo soil.

  5. Soil Type Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data for Agricultural Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Nadar, Pallavi

    2016-09-01

    Soil assessment plays important role in making decisions for Agriculture. In this paper, an approach by integrating the image processing and pattern recognition techniques to find the type of soil has been presented. The soil from the area of interest is selected and soil indices are extracted as features. Indexing technique is used for faster retrieval. The efficiency of the proposed system is proved using sensitivity, specificity, precision and recall. Our empirical evaluation has a superior retrieval performance over the performance of other works. This work is of great use to the farmers, who need to identify their field's soil type.

  6. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  7. Metolachlor Sorption and Degradation in Soil Amended with Fresh and Aged Biochars.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Spokas, Kurt A; Hall, Kathleen E; Cox, Lucia; Koskinen, William C

    2016-04-27

    Addition of organic amendments such as biochar to soils can influence pesticide sorption-desorption processes and, in turn, the amount of pesticide readily availability for transport and biodegradation. Sorption-desorption processes are affected by both the physical and chemical properties of soils and pesticides, as well as soil-pesticide contact time, or aging. Changes in sorption-desorption of metolachlor with aging in soil amended with three macadamia nut shell biochars aged 0 (BCmac-fr), 1 year (BCmac-1yr), and 2 years (BCmac-2yr) and two wood biochars aged 0 (BCwood-fr) and 5 years (BCwood-5yr) were determined. Apparent sorption coefficient (Kd-app) values increased with incubation time to a greater extent in amended soil as compared to unamended soils; Kd-app increased by 1.2-fold for the unamended soil, 2.0-fold for BCwood-fr, 1.4-fold for BCwood-5yr, 2.4-fold for BCmac-fr, 2.5-fold for BCmac-1yr, and 1.9-fold for BCmac-4yr. The increase in calculated Kd-app value was the result of a 15% decrease in the metolachlor solution concentration extractable with CaCl2 solution with incubation time in soil as compared to a 50% decrease in amended soil with very little change in the sorbed concentration. Differences could possibly be due to diffusion to less accessible or stronger binding sites with time, a faster rate of degradation (in solution and on labile sites) than desorption, or a combination of the two in the amended soils. These data show that transport models would overpredict the depth of movement of metolachlor in soil if effects of aging or biochar amendments are not considered.

  8. Cu retention in an acid soil amended with perlite winery waste.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2016-02-01

    The effect of perlite waste from a winery on general soil characteristics and Cu adsorption was assessed. The studied soil was amended with different perlite waste concentrations corresponding to 10, 20, 40 and 80 Mg ha(-1). General soil characteristics and Cu adsorption and desorption curves were determined after different incubation times (from 1 day to 8 months). The addition of perlite waste to the soil increased the amounts of organic matter as well as soil nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium, and these increments were stable with time. An increase in Cu adsorption capacity was also detected in the perlite waste-amended soils. The effect of perlite waste addition to the soil had special relevance on its Cu adsorption capacity at low coverage concentrations and on the energy of the soil-Cu bonds.

  9. Biochar as soil amendment to improve soil quality, crop yield, and carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a by-product of a thermochemical process called pyrolysis, which involves burning of any agricultural and animal waste (biomass) under high temperature and absence of oxygen. It is assumed that since biochar is very high in aromatic carbon, which persists in soil environment for very long ...

  10. Feather hydrolysate from Streptomyces sampsonii GS 1322: A potential low cost soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Jain, Richa; Jain, Aakanchha; Rawat, Neha; Nair, Meera; Gumashta, Raghvendra

    2016-06-01

    Process parameters for obtaining hydrolysate from hen feathers, i.e., initial pH (5.0-9.0) and incubation period (1-6 day), were set and studied, using Streptomyces sampsonii GS 1322 in submerged and solid state conditions. Under submerged conditions, complete hydrolysis of feathers was observed on fifth day [initial pH 8.0, 28 ± 2°C, shaking (150 rpm)] with release of soluble protein (2985 μg ml(-1)) and amino acids (2407 μg ml(-1)). Cell free hydrolysate showed hydrolysis of casein (18 mm), gelatin (26 mm), collagen (31 mm), hemoglobin (23 mm) and Tween 80 (35 mm) while 445 U keratinase activity. Total soluble protein reached 5 mg ml(-1) in solid state conditions. During Pot experimentation using barren agriculture soil the effect of feather hydrolysate on wheat crop were recorded. Significant increase (p<0.01) in wheat seed germination was observed in treated soils as compared to untreated. Treatment significantly increased plant height from 30 to 60 days and 30-90 days (p<0.001). Treated soil showed an increase in total microbial count, proteolytic activity, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and ammonifying bacteria, whereas pathogenic fungi load was reduced. S. sampsonii GS 1322 can be used for bio-processing of poultry wastes yielding feather hydrolysate rich in proteins and amino acids for development of low-cost organic amendment to accelerate wheat crop growth in barren agricultural land.

  11. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  12. Effect of biochar or activated carbon amendment on the volatilisation and biodegradation of organic soil pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, David; Meynet, Paola; Bushnaf, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biochar or activated carbon added to contaminated soil may temporarily reduce the volatilisation of organic pollutants by enhanced sorption. The long-term effect of sorbent amendments on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures (VPHs) will depend on the responses of the soil bacterial community members, especially those which may utilize VPHs as carbon substrates. We investigated the volatilisation and biodegradation of VPHs emanating from NAPL sources and migrating through one meter long columns containing unsaturated sandy soil with and without 2% biochar or activated carbon amendment. After 420 days, VPH volatilisation from AC amended soil was less than 10 percent of the cumulative VPH volatilisation flux from unamended soil. The cumulative CO2 volatilisation flux increased more slowly in AC amended soil, but was comparable to the untreated soil after 420 days. This indicated that the pollution attenuation over a 1 meter distance was improved by the AC amendment. Biochar was a weaker VPH sorbent than AC and had a lesser effect on the cumulative VPH and CO2 fluxes. We also investgated the predominant bacterial community responses in sandy soil to biochar and/or VPH addition with a factorially designed batch study, and by analyzing preserved soil samples. Biochar addition alone had only weak effects on soil bacterial communities, while VPH addition was a strong community structure shaping factor. The bacterial community effects of biochar-enhanced VPH sorption were moderated by the limited biomass carrying capacity of the sandy soil investigated which contained only low amounts of inorganic nitrogen. Several Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas putida strains, became dominant in VPH polluted soil with and without biochar. The ability of these versatile VPH degraders to effectively regulate their metabolic pathways according to substrate availabilities may additionally have moderated bacterial community structure responses to the presence of biochar

  13. Arsenic solubility and distribution in poultry waste and long-term amended soil.

    PubMed

    Han, F X; Kingery, W L; Selim, H M; Gerard, P D; Cox, M S; Oldham, J L

    2004-03-05

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the solubility and distribution of As among solid-phase components in poultry wastes and soils receiving long-term poultry waste applications. Arsenic in the water-soluble, NaOCl-extractable (organically bound), NH(2)OH x HCl-extractable (oxide bound) and residual fractions were quantified in an Upper Coastal Plain soil (Neshoba County, MS) that received annual waste applications. After 25 years, As in the amended soil had a mean of 8.4 mg kg(-1) compared to 2.68 mg kg(-1) for a non-amended soil. Arsenic in the amended soil was mainly in the residual fraction (72% of total), which is generally considered the least bioavailable fraction. Arsenic in poultry waste samples was primarily water-soluble (5.3-25.1 mg kg(-1)), representing 36-75% of the total As. To assess the extent of spatial heterogeneity, total As in a 0.5-ha area within the long-term waste-amended field was quantified. Soil surface samples were taken on 10-m grid points and results for total As appeared negatively skewed and approximated a bimodal distribution. Total As in the amended soil was strongly correlated with Fe oxides, clay and hydroxy interlayered vermiculite concentrations, and negatively correlated with Mehlich III-P, mica and quartz contents.

  14. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  15. Soil structural changes caused by agricultural machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of tractor traffic with high axle load on the aggregate size distribution, the total soil porosity, and the aggregate porosity were studied in a field experiment on a silty clay loam Greyzem soil. One and three tractors passes were made at pre-irrigated and non-irrigated 10x10 m plots. The v...

  16. Efficiency of soil organic and inorganic amendments on the remediation of a contaminated mine soil: II. Biological and ecotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Alvarenga, P; Bernal, M P

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost) in combination with hydrated lime for the remediation of a highly acidic trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil was assessed in a mesocosm experiment. The effects of the amendments on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological properties were evaluated and related with the main physicochemical characteristics of soil and soil solution. The original soil showed impaired basic ecological functions due to the high availability of TEs, its acidic pH and high salinity. The three amendments slightly reduced the direct and indirect soil toxicity to plants, invertebrates and microorganisms as a consequence of the TEs' mobility decrease in topsoil, reducing therefore the soil associated risks. The organic amendments, especially compost, thanks to the supply of essential nutrients, were able to improve soil health, as they stimulated plant growth and significantly increased enzyme activities related with the key nutrients in soil. Therefore, the use of compost or pig slurry, in combination with hydrated lime, decreased soil ecotoxicity and seems to be a suitable management strategy for the remediation of highly acidic TEs contaminated soils.

  17. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

  18. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  19. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  20. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  1. Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep

    2013-04-01

    This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations.

  2. Temperature and moisture responses to carbon mineralization in the biochar-amended saline soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junna; He, Fuhong; Zhang, Zhenhua; Shao, Hongbo; Xu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of temperature and moisture on carbon mineralization (Cmin) in a saline soil system with biochar amendment. The dynamics of Cmin were monitored in a biochar-amended saline soil for 220days by incubation experiments under different conditions of temperature (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) and moisture (30%, 70% and 105% of the water-holding capacity). Results showed that as the incubation temperature rose, cumulative Cmin consistently increased in soil added with 0-4% biochar. The two-compartment model could well describe the dynamics of Cmin. The temperature rise increased the concentration of labile C in soil, but reduced the turnover time of labile and recalcitrant C pools and the value of temperature coefficient Q10. The response of Cmin to moisture was varying in soil amended with different levels of biochar. In the control treatment (soil alone), cumulative Cmin increased only when soil moisture was >105%. In the biochar treatments, however, 70% of water-holding capacity was optimal for Cmin, except for 2%-biochar treatment at 35°C. The findings highlight the necessity to consider the combined effects of soil moisture, temperature and the amount of biochar added for assessing Cmin in biochar-amended saline soils.

  3. [Effects of earthworm inoculation and straw amendment on soil microflora and microbial activity in Cu contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-dan; Li, Hui-xin; Wei, Zheng-gui; Liu, Man-qiang; Wang, Xia; Hu, Feng

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of microflora and microbial activity in soil added with 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg x kg(-1) of Cu2+ were studied under effects of inoculating earthworm and applying straw. Four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, surface application of straw (M), inoculation of earthworm (E), and M plus E (ME). The results showed that Cu contamination had inhibitory effect on soil bacteria and actinomycetes, but no effect on soil fungi. Straw amendment increased soil fungi significantly, while earthworm inoculation could increase the numbers of soil bacteria and actinomycetes significantly but had little effect on soil fungi. When the Cu concentration was higher than 200 mg x kg(-1, soil microbial biomass carbon was depressed, but earthworm inoculation and straw amendment could enhance it, with most significant effect under the combination of these two treatments. Earthworm inoculation and straw amendment could enhance soil basal respiration markedly. When the Cu concentration was lower than 200 mg x kg(-1), treatment M had the highest soil basal respiration, being about 3.06-5.58 times higher than that of CK, while at Cu > or =200 mg x kg(-1), soil qCO2 followed the sequence of ME > E > M > CK. Treatments M and E had no effects on soil NH4+ -N. As for soil NO3- -N, treatment E could increase it significantly, but treatment M was in adverse. Treatment ME induced the lowest soil NO3- -N. In a definite degree, earthworm inoculation and straw amendment could mitigate the negative impact of Cu contamination on soil microflora and microbial activity.

  4. Formation of chloropyromorphite in a lead-contaminated soil amended with hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J A; Zhang, P; Hesterberg, D; Chou, J; Sayers, D E

    2001-09-15

    Conversion of soil Pb to pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl] was evaluated by reacting a Pb contaminated soil collected adjacent to a historical smelter with hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH]. In a dialysis experiment where the soil and hydroxyapatite solids were placed in separate dialysis bags suspended in 0.01 M NaNO3 solution a crystalline precipitate, identified as chloropyromorphite, formed on the dialysis membrane containing the soil. The aqueous composition of the solution indicated that dissolution of solid-phase soil Pb was the rate-limiting step for pyromorphite formation. Addition of hydroxyapatite to the soil caused a decrease in each of the first four fractions of sequential extractable Pb and a 35% increase in the recalcitrant extraction residue. After a 240-d incubation at field-moisture content there was a further increase in the recalcitrant extraction residue fraction of the hydroxyapatite-amended soil to 45% of the total soil Pb. The increase in the extraction residue fraction in the hydroxyapatite amended 0-d incubated soil as compared to the control soil illustrates that the chemical extraction procedure itself caused changes in extractability. Thus, the chemical extraction procedure cannot easily be utilized to confirm changes occurring in amended soils. The further increase after the 240-d incubation implies that the reaction also occurs in the soil during incubation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy indicated that after the 240-d incubation the hydroxyapatite treatment caused a change in the average, local molecular bonding environment of soil Pb. Low-temperature EXAFS spectra (chi data and radial structure functions--RSFs) showed a high degree of similarity between the chemical extraction residue and synthetic pyromorphite, providing additional evidence that the change of soil Pb to pyromorphite is possible by simple amendments of hydroxyapatite to soil.

  5. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O.

  6. Effects of biosolids and FGD-gypsum amended soil on metal uptake by lettuce and Edamame soybean and nodules development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids and flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum amended soils are a rich nutrient source for plant growth and could reduce soil contamination by synthetic fertilizers. According to previous studies, these soil amendments have also enhanced some rhizobacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum) in the rh...

  7. Differences in soil solution chemistry between soils amended with nanosized CuO or Cu reference materials: implications for nanotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    McShane, Heather V A; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H

    2014-07-15

    Soil toxicity tests for metal oxide nanoparticles often include micrometer-sized oxide and metal salt treatments to distinguish between toxicity from nanometer-sized particles, non-nanometer-sized particles, and dissolved ions. Test result will be confounded if each chemical form has different effects on soil solution chemistry. We report on changes in soil solution chemistry over 56 days-the duration of some standard soil toxicity tests-in three soils amended with 500 mg/kg Cu as nanometer-sized CuO (nano), micrometer-sized CuO (micrometer), or Cu(NO3)2 (salt). In the CuO-amended soils, the log Cu2+ activity was initially low (minimum -9.48) and increased with time (maximum -5.20), whereas in the salt-amended soils it was initially high (maximum -4.80) and decreased with time (minimum -6.10). The Cu2+ activity in the nano-amended soils was higher than in the micrometer-amended soils for at least the first 11 days, and lower than in the salt-amended soils for at least 28 d. The pH, and dissolved Ca and Mg concentrations in the CuO-amended soils were similar, but the salt-amended soils had lower pH for at least 14 d, and higher Ca and Mg concentrations throughout the test. Soil pretreatments such as leaching and aging prior to toxicity tests are suggested.

  8. Occurrence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in agricultural soils and antibiotic resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Deredjian, Amélie; Alliot, Nolwenn; Blanchard, Laurine; Brothier, Elisabeth; Anane, Makram; Cambier, Philippe; Jolivet, Claudy; Khelil, Mohamed Naceur; Nazaret, Sylvie; Saby, Nicolas; Thioulouse, Jean; Favre-Bonté, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was monitored in organic amendments and agricultural soils from various sites in France and Tunisia. S. maltophilia was detected in horse and bovine manures, and its abundance ranged from 0.294 (±0.509) × 10(3) to 880 (±33.4) × 10(3) CFU (g drywt)(-1) of sample. S. maltophilia was recovered from most tested soil samples (104/124). Its abundance varied from 0.33 (±0.52) to 414 (±50) × 10(3) CFU (g drywt)(-1) of soil and was not related to soil characteristics. Antibiotic resistance properties of a set of environmental strains were compared to a clinical set, and revealed a high diversity of antibiotic resistance profiles, given both the numbers of resistance and the phenotypes. Manure strains showed resistance phenotypes, with most of the strains resisting between 7 and 9 antibiotics. While French soil strains were sensitive to most antibiotics tested, some Tunisian strains displayed resistance phenotypes close to those of clinical French strains. Screening for metal resistance among 66 soil strains showed a positive relationship between antibiotic and metal resistance. However, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance phenotypes in the studied sites was not related to the metal content in soil samples.

  9. Cadmium contamination of agricultural soils and crops resulting from sphalerite weathering.

    PubMed

    Robson, T C; Braungardt, C B; Rieuwerts, J; Worsfold, P

    2014-01-01

    The biogeochemistry and bioavailability of cadmium, released during sphalerite weathering in soils, were investigated under contrasting agricultural scenarios to assess health risks associated with sphalerite dust transport to productive soils from mining. Laboratory experiments (365 d) on temperate and sub-tropical soils amended with sphalerite (<63 μm, 0.92 wt.% Cd) showed continuous, slow dissolution (0.6-1.2% y(-1)). Wheat grown in spiked temperate soil accumulated ≈38% (29 μmol kg(-1)) of the liberated Cd, exceeding food safety limits. In contrast, rice grown in flooded sub-tropical soil accumulated far less Cd (0.60 μmol kg(-1)) due to neutral soil pH and Cd bioavailability was possibly also controlled by secondary sulfide formation. The results demonstrate long-term release of Cd to soil porewaters during sphalerite weathering. Under oxic conditions, Cd may be sufficiently bioavailable to contaminate crops destined for human consumption; however flooded rice production limits the impact of sphalerite contamination.

  10. Crop residues as soil amendments and feedstock for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Lal, R

    2008-01-01

    Traditional solid fuels account for more than 90% of the energy supply for 3 billion people in developing countries. However, liquid biofuels (e.g., ethanol) are perceived as an important alternative to fossil fuel. Global crop residue production is estimated at about 4 billion Mg for all crops and 3 billion Mg per annum for lignocellulosic residues of cereals. One Mg of corn stover can produce 280L of ethanol, compared with 400L from 1Mg of corn grains; 1Mg of biomass is also equivalent to 18.5GJ of energy. Thus, 3 billion Mg of residues are equivalent to 840 billion L of ethanol or 56x10(9)GJ of energy. However, removal of crop residues exacerbates soil degradation, increases net emission of CO2, and aggravates food insecurity. Increasing the SOC pool by 1 Mg C ha(-1)yr(-1) through residue retention on soil can increase world food grain production by 24-40 million Mg yr(-1), and root/tuber production by 6-11 million Mg yr(-1). Thus, identifying alternate sources of biofuel feedstock (e.g., biofuel plantations, animal waste, municipal sold waste) is a high priority. Establishing biofuel plantations on agriculturally marginal or degraded lands can off-set 3.5-4 Pg Cyr(-1).

  11. Do Agricultural Soils of California have the Potential to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate Greenhouse Gases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddick, E. C.; Scow, K. M.; Six, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle and can be both sources of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also carbon sinks which may be used to offset any future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In California, climate change predictions indicate major impacts and substantial alterations of agricultural systems over the next decades. In 2006, California passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) that requires reduction of the three major GHG's (CO2, N2O and CH4) to 1990 levels by 2020. We surveyed and synthesized available data from recent studies describing the potential to sequester carbon and reduce other GHG emissions in California agricultural soils. The studies evaluated various management practices in both annual row and perennial cropping systems, with other studies focusing upon biogeochemical model predictions for carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation calibrated towards California agriculture. Management practices considered included minimum or no tillage, cover cropping, organic residue (low and high inputs) and nitrogen fertilizer management. Though practices involving inputs of carbon, such as cover cropping and organic amendments, were often associated with increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top soil layer (0-20 cm), results were not consistent across farming systems. Several studies indicated that conservation tillage, alone, increased above-ground biomass, especially when used with a cover crop. However, the reduced soil disturbance from conservation tillage merely resulted in a redistribution of the soil carbon rather than an overall accumulation, when compared with standard tillage and cover cropping practices together. Predictions from biogeochemical models indicated that increased inputs of manure and increased organic residues led to substantial carbon sequestration but did not consistently reduce non-CO2 related GHG emissions. The most effective way to reduce non-CO2 GHG

  12. Amend soils with residues from water-treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1993-09-01

    This article reports that land application is emerging as a viable disposal/reuse method for water-treatment-process residues. In many cases, these residues actually enhance soil quality and arrest fertilizer loss. Water treatment usually generates solid residues requiring disposal. These include sludges from lime softening and related pretreatment processes and spent ion-exchange resins and adsorbents used for softening, dealkalization, and deionization of surface and well water. Although it may not appear so at first glance, according to consultant Dr. Robert Kunin, these materials have properties that can benefit the soil for agricultural and horticultural needs. Treating water with lime is popular and effective for removing hardness, phosphates, and some silica. Small amounts of alum, chlorine, and/or organic flocculants may also be added in lime-softening processes. Resulting sludge consists of calcium carbonate (CaCO[sub 3]), magnesium hydroxide, and calcium/magnesium/phosphate compounds, along with humic matter and related organic compounds that originate in the raw water. If softening is conducted at high temperatures, large, dense CaCO[sub 3] particles form as the compound crystallizes around sand particles. Disposal of this sludge is often considered a major disadvantage of lime softening. But if the water being treated meets EPA regulations for heavy metals, especially arsenic, then chemical analysis suggests benefits for soils. This has been well-described in texts addressing water treatment. For example, the sludge serves as a mild liming agent and may even supply various plant nutrients. Note that this application is different from municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge, which is difficult to land apply.

  13. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  14. Sorption of polar herbicides and herbicide metabolites by biochar-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dechene, Annika; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Amelung, Wulf

    2014-08-01

    Biochar-amended soil has been proven to possess superior sorption capacities for several environmental pollutants compared with pure soil. However, the role of biochar in the immobilization of polar pesticides and their metabolites has hardly been tested. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of a soil amendment with biochar on the sorption of selected polar herbicides and herbicide metabolites (log Kow 0.3-<2). To simulate worst-case sorption, a sandy soil (1.7% organic matter) was amended with 1.5% biochar (fresh or composted) to determine sorption/desorption isotherms of the test compounds. One herbicide (imazamox) and three herbicide metabolites (methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon, metazachlor oxalic acid, metazachlor sulfonic acid) were tested, i.e. three anionic and one neutral polar compound. The results showed that the presence of biochar increased the sorption capacity of the soil only in the case of the uncharged compound methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon, for which the average distribution coefficients in biochar-amended soils were higher than in pure soil by a factor of 2.1-2.5. However, this effect rather seemed to reflect the increased soil organic carbon content after the addition of biochar than a preferred sorption of methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon to biochar. In the case of the three anionic compounds imazamox, metazachlor oxalic acid and metazachlor sulfonic acid, biochar amendment did not increase the sorption capacity of the soil for these compounds, presumably as a result of its negative net charge. Similarly, desorption experiments did not show any significant effect of the biochar amendment on desorption. This suggests that the potential of using biochar to mitigate the leaching of the tested polar pesticides or metabolites is limited.

  15. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  16. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Editor); Henninger, Donald L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  17. Biochar application to sandy and loamy soils for agricultural nutrient management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwald, Marco; Don, Axel; Tiemeyer, Baerbel; Helfrich, Mirjam

    2014-05-01

    -retention and hydrochar was effective in cation-retention. The experiments provide first information on the uses of biochar for soil nutrient management in agriculture but observed effects were mostly minor under realistic char application rates. [1] LIANG ET AL. 2006: Black Carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils. SSAJ 70, 1719-1730. [2] LEHMANN ET AL. 2009: Biochar for Environmental Management - Science and Technology. 1 An Introduction, 1. [3] YAO ET AL. 2012: Effect of biochar amendment on sorption and leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in a sandy soil. Chemosphere 89, 1467-1471. [4] MUKHERJEE & ZIMMERMANN, 2011: Surface chemistry variations among a series of laboratory-produced biochars. Geoderma 163, 247-255. [5] QIAN ET AL. 2013: Effects of environmental conditions on the release of phosphorus from biochar. Chemosphere 93, 2069-2075.

  18. European risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soil revisited: species sensitivity distribution and risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Smith, Stephen R; Krogh, Paul Henning; Versteeg, Donald J; Temara, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is used at a rate of approximately 430,000 tons/y in Western Europe, mainly in laundry detergents. It is present in sewage sludge (70-5,600 mg/kg; 5-95th percentile) because of its high usage per capita, its sorption and precipitation in primary settlers, and its lack of degradation in anaerobic digesters. Immediately after amendment, calculated and measured concentrations are <1 to 60 mg LAS/kg soil. LAS biodegrades rapidly in soil with primary and ultimate half-lives of up to 7 and 30 days, respectively. Calculated residual concentrations after the averaging time (30 days) are 0.24-18 mg LAS/kg soil. The long-term ecotoxicity to soil microbiota is relatively low (EC10 >or=26 mg sludge-associated LAS/kg soil). An extensive review of the invertebrate and plant ecotoxicological data, combined with a probabilistic assessment approach, led to a PNEC value of 35 mg LAS/kg soil, i.e. the 5th percentile (HC5) of the species sensitivity distribution (lognormal distribution of the EC10 and NOEC values). Risk ratios were identified to fall within a range of 0.01 (median LAS concentration in sludge) to 0.1 (95th percentile) and always below 0.5 (maximum LAS concentration measured in sludge) according to various scenarios covering different factors such as local sewage influent concentration, water hardness, and sewage sludge stabilisation process. Based on the present information, it can be concluded that LAS does not represent an ecological risk in Western Europe when applied via normal sludge amendment to agricultural soil.

  19. Effects of biochar and elevated soil temperature on soil microbial activity and abundance in an agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of Global Warming, rising surface temperatures will likely cause increased soil temperatures. Soil warming has already been shown to, at least temporarily, increase microbial activity and, therefore, the emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and N2O. This underlines the need for methods to stabilize soil organic matter and to prevent further boost of the greenhouse gas effect. Plant-derived biochar as a soil amendment could be a valuable tool to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestrate it in soil on the long-term. During the process of pyrolysis, plant biomass is heated in an oxygen-low atmosphere producing the highly stable solid matter biochar. Biochar is generally stable against microbial degradation due to its chemical structure and it, therefore, persists in soil for long periods. Previous experiments indicated that biochar improves or changes several physical or chemical soil traits such as water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity or soil structure, but also biotic properties like microbial activity/abundance, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth. Changes in the soil microbial abundance and community composition alter their metabolism, but likely also affect plant productivity. The interaction of biochar addition and soil temperature increase on soil microbial properties and plant growth was yet not investigated on the field scale. To investigate whether warming could change biochar effects in soil, we conducted a field experiment attached to a soil warming experiment on an agricultural experimental site near the University of Hohenheim, already running since July 2008. The biochar field experiment was set up as two-factorial randomized block design (n=4) with the factors biochar amendment (0, 30 t ha-1) and soil temperature (ambient, elevated=ambient +2.5° C) starting from August 2013. Each plot has a dimension of 1x1m and is equipped with combined soil temperature and moisture sensors. Slow pyrolysis biochar from the C

  20. Field versus laboratory experiments to evaluate the fate of azoxystrobin in an amended vineyard soil.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Hernández, E; Marín-Benito, J M; Andrades, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the effect that adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) to a representative vineyard soil from La Rioja region (Spain) has on the behaviour of azoxystrobin in two different environmental scenarios. Field dissipation experiments were conducted on experimental plots amended at rates of 50 and 150 t ha(-1), and similar dissipation experiments were simultaneously conducted in the laboratory to identify differences under controlled conditions. Azoxystrobin dissipation followed biphasic kinetics in both scenarios, although the initial dissipation phase was much faster in the field than in the laboratory experiments, and the half-life (DT50) values obtained in the two experiments were 0.34-46.3 days and 89.2-148 days, respectively. Fungicide residues in the soil profile increased in the SMS amended soil and they were much higher in the top two layers (0-20 cm) than in deeper layers. The persistence of fungicide in the soil profile is consistent with changes in azoxystrobin adsorption by unamended and amended soils over time. Changes in the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soils under different treatments assayed in the field and in the laboratory indicated that SMS and the fungicide had a stimulatory effect on soil DHA. The results reveal that the laboratory studies usually reported in the literature to explain the fate of pesticides in amended soils are insufficient to explain azoxystrobin behaviour under real conditions. Field studies are necessary to set up efficient applications of SMS and fungicide, with a view to preventing the possible risk of water contamination.

  1. Contaminant Immobilization and Nutrient Release by Biochar Soil Amendment: Roles of Natural Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of soil interstitial waters by labile heavy metals such as CuII, CdII, and NiII is of worldwide concern. Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and r...

  2. The mechanisms for 1,3-dichloropropene dissipation in biochar-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar has the potential to reduce fumigant emissions to protect air quality; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine effects of biochar properties, amendment rate, soil moisture, temperature, and soil type on degradation and adsorption charact...

  3. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  4. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  5. Emission reduction of 1,3-dichloropropene by soil amendment with biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is important for growing many fruits and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions may contaminate the atmosphere. Biochar as soil amendments has the potential of mitigating climate change effects. In addition, its high surface area and porosity enable it to adsorb or retain nutrients,...

  6. SORPTION AND DESORPTION OF CADMIUM BY DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS - AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Series of Cd sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd-salt, and unamended soils (control) to test the hypothesize that not only organic but also inorganic fraction in biosolids controls the metal availability in...

  7. Effects of organic amendment on degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), are promising alternatives to the phased-out methyl bromide. However, these fumigants are volatile organic compounds and contribute to air pollution from emissions. Organic amendment to soils has been found to reduce emissions by incr...

  8. Phytoavailability and fractionation of lead and manganese in a contaminated soil after application of three amendments.

    PubMed

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2010-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the best management practice for immobilisation of toxic Pb and Mn in soil and the interaction of these metal contaminants with the associated plants. The research protocol comprises addition of soil amendments to accelerate physico-chemically driven sorption processes and growth of appropriate plant species to reduce physiologically driven uptake of Pb and Mn. Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue) and Poa pratensis L (Kentucky blue grass) were tested in the presence of soil amendments (lime, phosphate and compost, both individually and in combination). The effectiveness of treatments in stabilizing metals was assessed on the basis of metal speciation in soil, partitioning of metals in plants, and metal uptake. Significant partitioning of Pb in immobile forms was noticed by the growth of P. pratensis and Mn by the growth of L. perenne. Lime application lowered plant Pb and Mn, while phosphate decreased plant Pb and increased plant Mn. Combined amendment addition resulted in a significant decrease in the exchangeable (mobile) metal fraction in soils growing Poa for Pb and in soils growing Lolium for Mn. EC(root) (ratio of root concentration to soil concentration) and EC(shoot) (ratio of shoot concentration to soil concentration) for Pb in Poa decreased by 72% and 60% with combined application of amendments, while the corresponding decreases for Mn in Lolium were 48% and 43%.

  9. Lead Retention in a Calcareous Soil Influenced by Calcium and Phosphate Amendments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphate amendments in calcareous lead (Pb)-contaminated soils to immobilize Pb may be hindered due to competition of Pb with calcium (Ca) that may inhibit the retention of Pb as a precipitation mechanism. This study explored the retention of Pb in a calcareous soil spiked and ...

  10. Field application of PAM as an amendment in deep-tilled US southeastern Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) was added to sandy coastal plain soils to improve physical properties and yield. Soils were amended with 8 treatments of linear and cross-linked PAMs or controls. Treatments and controls included the following: 1. spraying a 600 mg/kg solution of linear PAM behind a subsoil shan...

  11. Importance of soil amendments: survival of bacterial pathogens in manure and compost used as organic fertizliers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA’s) like manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to soils to improve its physical and chemical properties. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens like enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella spp, and Listeri...

  12. Trace metal enrichment and distribution in a poultry litter-amended soil under different tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant nutrients and minor elements contamination resulting from enrichment due to agronomic practices such as poultry litter amendment of soils, tillage practices, and crop rotation patterns that have long been investigated to determine their impacts on yield, as well as soil and environmental susta...

  13. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  14. Accelerated metolachlor degradation in soil by zerovalent iron and compost amendments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeff; Kim, Dong-Guk; Joo, Jin-Ho

    2010-04-01

    Soil incubation and germination tests were conducted to assess zerovalent iron (ZVI), organic compost, moisture and their combinations on metolachlor degradation in soil. The ZVI alone degraded 91% of metolachlor in soil within 40 days following bi-phasic kinetics. Organic amendment alone facilitated metolachlor degradation in soil up to 60% after 40 days depending on the amendment rate. However, the combination of ZVI with compost amendment at 30 ton ha(-1) and 30% moisture content accelerated metolachlor degradation to 90% after 3 days and 98% after 40 days. The half life (t (1/2)) of metolachlor degradation with ZVI, compost at 30 ton ha(-1), and 30% moisture was about 1 day, which was faster than ZVI treatment alone and 98% faster than controls. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop.) were severely inhibited in unamended metolachlor-contaminated soils but when these soils were amended with ZVI, germination and growth was comparable to controls (metolachlor free soil). Metolachlor degradation was greatest when ZVI, compost and moisture were used together, suggesting that these treatments will maximize in situ remediation of metolachlor-contaminated soils in the field.

  15. Surfactant-Modified Soil Amendments Reduce Nitrogen and Phosphorus Leaching in a Sand-Based Rootzone.

    PubMed

    Shaddox, Travis W; Kruse, Jason K; Miller, Grady L; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Sartain, Jerry B

    2016-09-01

    United States Golf Association putting greens are susceptible to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching. Inorganic soil amendments are used to increase moisture and nutrient retention and may influence N and P leaching. This study was conducted to determine whether N and P leaching could be reduced using soil amendments and surfactant-modified soil amendments. Treatments included a control (sand), sand-peat, zeolite, calcined clay, hexadecyltrimethylammonium-zeolite, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium-calcined clay. Lysimeters were filled with a 30-cm rootzone layer of sand-peat (85:15 by volume), below which a 5-cm treatment layer of amendments was placed. A solution of NO-N, NH-N, and orthophosphate-P (2300, 2480, and 4400 μg mL, respectively) was injected at the top of each lysimeter, and leachate was collected using an autocollector set to collect a 10-mL sample every min until four pore volumes were collected. Uncoated amendments, sand, and peat had no influence on NO-N retention, whereas hexadecyltrimethylammonium-coated amendments reduced NO-N leaching to below detectable limits. Both coated and uncoated amendments reduced NH-N leaching, with zeolite reducing NH-N leached to near zero regardless of hexadecyltrimethylammonium coating. Pure sand resulted in a 13% reduction of applied orthophosphate-P leaching, whereas peat contributed to orthophosphate-P leaching. Surfactant-modified amendments reduced orthophosphate-P leaching by as much as 97%. Surfactant-modified soil amendments can reduce NO-N, NH-N, and orthophosphate-P leaching and, thus, may be a viable option for removing leached N and P before they enter surface or ground waters.

  16. Fly ash for soil amelioration: A review on the influence of ash blending with inorganic and organic amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, L. C.; Masto, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, fly ash (FA), generated in huge quantities from coal fired power plants is a problematic solid waste. Utilization of FA as an ameliorant for improving soil quality has received a great deal of attention over the past four decades, and many studies have been carried out worldwide. The silt-sized particles, low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity (WHC), favorable pH, and significant presence of plant nutrients in FA, make it a potential amendment for soils. The studies suggest enormous potential for the use of FA to improve cultivable, degraded/waste land, mine soil, landfills, and also to reclaim abandoned ash ponds, for agriculture and forestry. FA application improves the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soils to which it is applied. However, in some cases, depending on the characteristics of FA, the release of trace elements and soluble salts from FA to a soil-plant-human system could be a constraint. The effect is minimal in the case of weathered FA. The findings reflected the heterogeneity of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions, thus a generalized conclusion on the impact of FA on plant species and soil quality is difficult. It is very important that the application of FA to soil must be very specific depending on the properties of the FA and soil. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to blend FA with varieties of organic and inorganic materials, like lime, gypsum, red mud, animal manure, poultry manure, sewage sludge, composts, press mud, vermicompost, biochar, bioinoculants, etc. Co-application of FA with these materials has much advantage: enhanced nutrient availability, decreased bioavailability of toxic metals, pH buffering, organic matter addition, microbial stimulation, overall improvement in the general health of the soil, etc. The performance of FA blending with organic and inorganic materials is better than FA alone treatments. Farm manure was found to be the most

  17. Single application of sewage sludge--impact on the quality of an alluvial agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Suhadolc, Metka; Schroll, Reiner; Hagn, Alexandra; Dörfler, Ulrike; Schloter, Michael; Lobnik, Franc

    2010-12-01

    The effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to its nutrient and heavy metal content, microbial community structure and ability to maintain specific soil function (degradation of herbicide glyphosate) were investigated in a three months study using an alluvial soil (Eutric Fluvisol). Dehydrated sewage sludge significantly increased soil organic matter (up to 20.6% of initial content), total and available forms of N (up to 33% and 220% of initial amount, respectively), as well as total and plant available forms of P (up to 11% and 170% of initial amount, respectively) and K (up to 70% and 47% of initial amount, respectively) in the upper 2 cm soil layer. The increase of organic matter was most prominent 3d after the application of sewage sludge, after 3 months it was no longer significant. Contents of nutrients kept to be significantly higher in the sewage sludge treated soil till the end of experiment. Contents of some heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb) increased as well. The highest increase was found for Zn (up to 53% of initial amount), however it was strongly bound to soil particles and its total content was kept below the maximum permissible limit for agricultural soil. Based on molecular fingerprinting of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS fragment on 3rd day and 3rd month after sewage sludge amendment, significant short term effects on bacterial and fungal communities were shown due to the sewage sludge. The effects were more pronounced and more long-term for bacterial than fungal communities. The mineralization of (14)C-glyphosate in the sewage sludge soil was 55.6% higher than in the control which can be linked to (i) a higher glyphosate bioavailability in sewage sludge soil, which was triggered by the pre-sorption of phosphate originating from the sewage sludge and/or (ii) beneficial alterations of the sewage sludge to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil.

  18. The Living Soil: Exploring Soil Science and Sustainable Agriculture with Your Guide, The Earthworm. Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.; And Others

    This instructional packet introduces students to soil biology, ecology, and specific farming practices that promote sustainable agriculture. It helps students to discover the role of earthworms in improving the environment of all other soil-inhabiting organisms and in making the soil more fertile. The activities (classroom as well as outdoor)…

  19. Field test of in situ soil amendments at the Tar Creek National Priorities List Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Compton, H; Basta, N T

    2007-01-01

    A range of soil amendments including diammonium phosphate fertilizer (DAP), municipal biosolids (BS), biosolids compost, and Al- and Fe-based water treatment residuals were tested on Pb-, Zn-, and Cd-contaminated yard soils and tailings at the Tar Creek NPL site in Oklahoma to determine if amendments could restore a vegetative cover and reduce metal availability in situ. For the yard soils, all amendments reduced bioaccessible (assessed with a physiologic-based extraction method) Pb, with reductions ranging from 35% (BS+Al, DAP 0.5%, DAP+Compost+Al) to 57% (Compost+Al). Plant Zn (Cynadon dactylon L.) and NH4 NO3-extractable Cd and Zn were also reduced by a number of amendments. For the tailings, all amendments excluding BS reduced bioaccessible Pb, with the largest reductions observed in the DAP 3% and DAP3%+BS treatments (75 and 84%). Plant growth was suppressed in all treatments that contained DAP for the first season, with the highest growth in the treatments that included compost and biosolids. In the second year, growth was vigorous for all treatments. Plant Zn and Cd and extractable metal concentration were also reduced. A number of treatments were identified that reduced bioaccessible Pb and sustained a healthy plant with reduced metal concentrations. For the yard soil, Compost+Al was the most effective treatment tested. For the tailings, BS+DAP 1% was the most effective treatment tested. These results indicate that in situ amendments offer a remedial alternative for the Tar Creek site.

  20. Assisted attenuation of a soil contaminated by diuron using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic amendments.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Bellido, Marina; Madrid, Fernando; Morillo, Esmeralda; Villaverde, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Diuron desorption and mineralisation were studied on an amended and artificially contaminated soil. The amendments used comprised two different composted organic residues i.e., sewage sludge (SS) mixed with pruning wastes, and urban solid residues (USR), and two different solutions (with inorganic salts as the micronutrients and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD)). After applying micronutrients to activate the soil flora, 15.5% mineralisation could be reached after 150 days, indicating that the soil has a potential capacity to mineralise the herbicide through biostimulation-assisted attenuation. Diuron mineralisation was also improved when HPBCD solutions were applied. Indeed, the extent of herbicide mineralisation reached 29.7% with this application. Moreover, both the lag phase and the half-life time (DT50) were reduced to 33 and 1,778 days, respectively, relative to the application of just micronutrients (i.e., 39 and 6297 days, respectively). Organic amendments were also applied (i.e., USR and SS) on the contaminated soil: it was found that the diuron mineralisation rate was improved as the amendment concentration increased. The joint application of all treatments investigated at the best conditions tested was conducted to obtain the best diuron mineralisation results. The micronutrient amendment plus 4% USR or SS amendment plus HPBCD solution (10-fold diuron initially spiked) caused an extent of diuron mineralisation 33.2 or 46.5%, respectively.

  1. Enhanced degradation of isoproturon in an agricultural soil by a Sphingomonas sp. strain and a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Li, Renyi; Dörfler, Ulrike; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2017-02-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) degradation in an agricultural soil inoculated with an isolated IPU-degrader strain (Sphingomonas sp. strain AK1, IS) or a microbial consortium (MC) harboring this strain, with or without carrier material, were investigated in soil microcosm experiments during 46 days. Effect of the carrier material and inoculation size on IPU-degradation efficacy of the inoculants were studied. Mineralization, extractable residues and non-extractable residues of (14)C-labeled IPU were analyzed. The low IPU mineralization in untreated soil (7.0%) was enhanced to different extents by inoculation of IS (17.4%-46.0%) or MC (58.9%-67.5%). Concentrations of IPU residues in soils amended with MC (0.002-0.095 μg g dry soil(-1)) were significantly lower than in soils amended with IS (0.02-0.67 μg g dry soil(-1)) and approximately 10 times lower than in the uninoculated soil (0.06-0.80 μg g dry soil(-1)). Less extractable residues and non-extractable residues were detected in soil with higher IPU mineralization. Inoculation size (as indicated by the volume of liquid cultures or by the number of carrier particles) determined the IPU-removal efficacy of IS in soil, but this effect was less pronounced for MC. The low sorption of IPU to soil and the decreasing IPU-mineralizing rates suggested incapability of IS to establish the IPU-mineralizing function in the soil. The thorough removal of IPU and persistent IPU-mineralizing activity of soil inoculated with MC indicated a high persistence of IPU-metabolic trait. Our results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains to enhance clean-up of organic chemicals in soil.

  2. Soil amendment with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0: lasting effects on soil biological properties in soils low in microbial biomass and activity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Andreas; Winkler, Manuel; Lutz, Matthias P; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Mäder, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains are used in agriculture as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Nontarget effects of released organisms should be analyzed prior to their large-scale use, and methods should be available to sensitively detect possible changes in the environments the organism is released to. According to ecological theory, microbial communities with a greater diversity should be less susceptible to disturbance by invading organisms. Based on this principle, we laid out a pot experiment with field-derived soils different in their microbial biomass and activity due to long-term management on similar parent geological material (loess). We investigated the survival of P. fluorescens CHA0 that carried a resistance toward rifampicin and the duration of potential changes of the soil microflora caused by the inoculation with the bacterium at the sowing date of spring wheat. Soil microbial biomass (C(mic), N(mic)) basal soil respiration (BR), qCO(2), dehydrogenase activity (DHA), bacterial plate counts, mycorrhiza root colonization, and community level substrate utilization were analyzed after 18 and 60 days. At the initial stage, soils were clearly different with respect to most of the parameters measured, and a time-dependent effect between the first and the second set point were attributable to wheat growth and the influence of roots. The effect of the inoculum was small and merely transient, though significant long-term changes were found in soils with a relatively low level of microbial biomass. Community level substrate utilization as an indicator of changes in microbial community structure was mainly changed by the growth of wheat, while other experimental factors were negligible. The sensitivity of the applied methods to distinguish the experimental soils was in decreasing order N(mic), DHA, C(mic), and qCO(2). Besides the selective enumeration of P. fluorescens CHA0 rif(+), which was only found in amended soils, methods to distinguish the

  3. Use of mixed solid waste as a soil amendment for saline-sodic soil remediation and oat seedling growth improvement.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuan; Ge, Tian; Zheng, Yanli; Li, Hua; Cheng, Fangqin

    2016-11-01

    Soil salinization has become a worldwide problem that imposes restrictions on crop production and food quality. This study utilizes a soil column experiment to address the potential of using mixed solid waste (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) as soil amendment to ameliorate saline-sodic soil and enhance crop growth. Mixed solid waste with vinegar residue content ranging from 60-90 %, sewage sludge of 8.7-30 %, and fly ash of 1.3-10 % was added to saline-sodic soil (electrical conductivity (EC1:5) = 1.83 dS m(-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR1:5) = 129.3 (mmolc L(-1))(1/2), pH = 9.73) at rates of 0 (control), 130, 260, and 650 kg ha(-1). Results showed that the application of waste amendment significantly reduced SAR, while increasing soil soluble K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+), at a dose of 650 kg ha(-1). The wet stability of macro-aggregates (>1 mm) was improved 90.7-133.7 % when the application rate of amendment was greater than 260 kg ha(-1). The application of this amendment significantly reduced soil pH. Germination rates and plant heights of oats were improved with the increasing rate of application. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of vinegar residue and the K/Na ratio in the soil solutions and roots. These findings suggest that applying a mixed waste amendment (vinegar residue, fly ash, and sewage sludge) could be a cost-effective method for the reclamation of saline-sodic soil and the improvement of the growth of salt-tolerant plants.

  4. Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakan Akyol, Nihat

    2014-05-01

    Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in large quantity worldwide. The objective of this study was to perform some batch and column experiments to examine the transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil from Turkey. Batch experiments indicated that sorption isotherm was nonlinear with a freundlich isotherm over a range of concentration (0.2-10 mg/L) examined. Column experiments showed that transport of atrazine in the soil was moderately retarded compared to non-reactive tracer (R = 2.9-4.0). The degree of retardation decreased with increasing atrazine concentration and residance time had negligable impact on degree of sorption. Flow interruption tests in the column experiments indicated that the rate-limited desorption of atrazine mainly controlled the non-ideal transport of atrazine due to the presence of organic matter fraction (0.83 %) in the soil. Sorption and desorption behavior of atrazine in such soils could have important impacts for risk assessment of atrazine-contaminated soil and should be taken into account in the regulation, management, and remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. Keywords: Atrazine, Agricultural soil, Batch, Column, Desorption, Rate-limited desorption, Sorption, Transport.

  5. Assessment of tomato and wine processing solid wastes as soil amendments for biosolarization.

    PubMed

    Achmon, Yigal; Harrold, Duff R; Claypool, Joshua T; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-02-01

    Pomaces from tomato paste and wine production are the most abundant fruit processing residues in California. These residues were examined as soil amendments for solarization to promote conditions conducive to soil disinfestation (biosolarization). Simulated biosolarization studies were performed in both aerobic and anaerobic soil environments and soil temperature elevation, pH, and evolution of CO2, H2 and CH4 gases were measured as metrics of soil microbial activity. Tomato pomace amendment induced conditions associated with soil pest inactivation, including elevation of soil temperature by up to 2°C for a duration of 4days under aerobic conditions and a reduction of soil pH from 6.5 to 4.68 under anaerobic conditions. White wine grape pomace amendment showed similar trends but to a lesser extent. Red wine grape pomace was generally less suitable for biosolarization due to significantly lower soil temperature elevations, reduced acidification relative to the other pomaces and induction of methanogenesis in the soil.

  6. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Rigby, H; Smith, S R

    2013-12-01

    Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and

  7. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers.

  8. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Gerben; Saaltink, Remon; Griffioen, Jasper; Birke, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European, grazing and agricultural soils. Materials and methods: Robust factor analysis was applied to data series for Al,B,Ca, Cd,Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg,Mn, Na,Ni, P, S, Se, Sr, U, Zn (ICP-MS) and SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 (XRF) based on the European GEMAS dataset. In addition, the following general soil properties were included: clay content, pH, chemical index of alteration (CIA), loss on ignition (LOI), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon and total sulfur. Furthermore, this dataset was coupled to a dataset containing information of historic P2O5 fertilization across Europe. Also, a mass balance was carried out for Cd, Cu and Zn to determine if concentrations of these elements found in the soils have their origin in historic P2O5 fertilization. Results and discussion: Seven geogenic factors and one agricultural factor were found of which four prominent ones (all geogenic): chemical weathering, reactive iron-aluminum oxide minerals, clay minerals and carbonate minerals. Results for grazing and agricultural soils were near identical, which further proofs the prominence of geogenic controls on the total elemental composition. When the cumulative amount of P2O5 fertilization was considered, no extra agriculture-related factors became visible. The mass balance confirms these observations. Conclusion: Overall, the geological controls are more important for the total soil chemistry in agricultural and grazing land soils than the anthropogenic controls.

  9. Amending the seedling bed of eggplant with biochar can further immobilize Cd in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyang; Qi, Xuebin; Fan, Xiangyang; Du, Zhenjie; Hu, Chao; Zhao, Zhijuan; Isa, Yunusa; Liu, Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Untreated municipal sewage is a potential source of Cd but has been used for irrigating vegetables in many countries in recent years. In growing vegetables and fruits in greenhouses, seedling breeding method is generally used in which the seedlings are transplanted into soils together with their seedling culture. Biochar has been increasingly used to amend soils contaminated by heavy metals, but there are few studies on the effectiveness of different ways of applying the biochar. In this paper, we investigated the efficacy of immobilizing Cd by amending eggplant seedling bed with biochar before transplanting them to biochar-amended soil contaminated by Cd. The results showed that, in comparison with traditional seedling method (without adding biochar), amending the seedling bed by biochar not only had a positive effect on plant growth and production, but further reduced the Cd concentration in the roots, shoots and the fruits by 12.2%, 12.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Furthermore, it increased the pH in rhizosphere to 8.83, reduced the exchangeable Cd concentration in soil by 28.6%, and decreased the Cd bio-accumulation factor from 0.36 to 0.32. Phytochelatin synthesis could be induced when plants are exposed to Cd and it has been used in the literature as a biomarker for evaluating metal toxicity. Our results showed that the seedling culture amended with biochar reduced phytochelatin synthesis in both roots and shoots. It can therefore be concluded that amending the eggplant seedlings bed with biochar can further enhance the effectiveness of remediating Cd contamination in soil after transplanting the plants into soil also amended with biochar.

  10. Cadmium sorption characteristics of soil amendments and its relationship with the cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator and normal plants in amended soils.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C C; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14-0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51-2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K > or = 1.49 L/mg and n > or = 3.59.

  11. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  12. Trade-offs between soil hydrology and plant disease effects after biochar amendment in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Frank; Silva, Flavio; Amaro, Antonio; Pinto, Gloria; Mesquita, Raquel; Jesus, Claudia; Alves, Artur; Keizer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can affect multiple soil-based ecosystem services to varying extents, leading to trade-offs. Improvements in plant-available water have predominantly been found at high biochar application rates in sandy soils. Reductions in plant diseases after biochar application have been found in various horticultural plants, and trees such as maple and oak, mostly at relatively low biochar application rates. Serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed, and eucalypts are the major tree species in commercial forestry plantations of Portugal, forming an important economic activity. Here we investigated simultaneous effects on plant available water and on disease suppression of eucalypt, in a completely randomised full factorial greenhouse pot experiment, using a range of woody feedstock biochar concentrations in sandy soil. Treatments included plant inoculation with the fungus Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and cycles of acute drought stress. Preliminary results showed delayed wilting for plants treated with 3-6% biochar, but also increased stem lesion length. These results suggest a trade-off between effects on water availability and disease for Eucalyptus globulus plants in the selected sandy soil amended with this specific biochar, at the selected application rates.

  13. Trade-offs between soil-based functions in wetlands restored with soil amendments of differing lability.

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Katherine A; Lehmann, Johannes; Schneider, Rebecca L; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments have been proposed as a means to speed the development of plant and soil processes that contribute to water quality, habitat, and biodiversity functions in restored wetlands. However, because natural wetlands often act as significant methane sources, it remains unknown if amendments will also stimulate emissions of this greenhouse gas from restored wetlands. In this study, we investigated the potential trade-offs of incorporating soil amendments into wetland restoration methodology. We used controlled field-scale manipulations in four recently restored depressional freshwater wetlands in western New York, USA to investigate the impact that soils amended with organic materials have on water-quality functions and methane production in the first three years of development. Results showed that amendments, topsoil in particular, were effective for stimulating the development of a suite of biological (microbial biomass increased by 106% and respiration by 26%) and physicochemical (cation exchange capacity increased by 10%) soil properties indicative of water-quality functions. Furthermore, increases in microbial biomass and activity lasted for a significantly longer period of time (years instead of days) than studies examining less recalcitrant amendments. However, amended plots also had 20% times higher potential net methane production than control plots three years after restoration. Wetlands restoration projects are implemented to achieve a variety of goals, commonly including habitat provision, biodiversity, and water-quality functions, but also carbon sequestration, flood abatement, cultural heritage and livelihood preservation, recreation, education, and others. Projects should strive to achieve their specific goals while also evaluating the potential tradeoffs between wetland functions.

  14. Adsorption-desorption of metolachlor and atrazine in Indian soils: effect of fly ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rakesh K; Singh, Neera

    2013-02-01

    The effect of two fly ashes as soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylphenyl)] and atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) was studied in alluvial and laterite soils. The adsorption data for both the herbicides fitted well the Freundlich equation, and Freundlich adsorption coefficient (K (f)) increased with an increase of fly ash amount. Both the fly ashes differed in their extent to increase herbicide sorption, and the effect was different in different soils. Atrazine was sorbed more in the soils/soils + fly ash mixtures than the metolachlor. The K (f) values showed significant correlation with the amount of fly ash amendment (correlation coefficient, R > 0.982). The desorption isotherms also fitted the Freundlich equation, and desorption showed hysteresis which increased with an increase in the content of fly ash amendment. The free energy change (ΔG) indicated that the sorption process is exothermic, spontaneous, and physical in nature. The study has shown that fly ash as soil amendment significantly increased the sorption of metolachlor and atrazine, but the effect is soil- and fly ash-specific.

  15. Assessment of metal bioavailability in smelter-contaminated soil before and after lime amendment.

    PubMed

    Bade, Rabindra; Oh, Sanghwa; Sik Shin, Won

    2012-06-01

    In this study, changes in bioavailable concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and As in former smelter site soils (J1 and J2) were investigated before and after lime amendment. The immobilization efficiencies of metal(loid)s were evaluated by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Their bioavailable concentrations in the soils were evaluated by the acid-extractable and -reducible fractions in Standard Measurement and Testing Program (i.e., SM&T(I+II)), in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT). The results showed that the bioavailable concentrations remarkably decreased after lime amendment in both J1 and J2 soils. DGT uptake and resupply (R) of Zn, Cu and As from soil to soil solution increased but that of Pb decreased. This pattern was consistent with SM&T(I+II)- and PBET-extractable concentrations after lime amendment. This indicates that lime amendment is highly effective for the immobilization of Zn, Cu and As, but not for Pb. Our results implicate that DGT can be used to estimate bioavailability of metal(loid)s in soils and further extended to estimate risk reduction after soil remediation.

  16. Influence of compost amendment on microbial community and ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Isabella; Sicolo, Matteo; Franzetti, Andrea; Fontanarosa, Eleonora; Santagostino, Angela; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a high quality compost amendment on two soils contaminated with diesel oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, respectively, was evaluated, with respect to contaminant biodegradation, microbial community composition and soil toxicity and genotoxicity. For each of the two soils, two 20-kg biopiles were set up, one without amendments and one compost-amended. GC/FID analyses revealed that compost was effective in enhancing biodegradation of diesel oil and of four-ring PAHs. It also influenced microbial community composition, as inferred by ARDRA analyses and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA of clones from libraries constructed from each soil sample. Microtox analyses on soil aqueous saline extracts and Solid Phase Tests showed some toxicity reduction due to compost addition, while the Comet assay, performed on coelomocytes of earthworms exposed to contaminated soils, did not show genotoxicity reduction. In general, the use of compost amendment to hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a bioremediation process proved to be effective for depletion of contaminants and reduction of toxicity.

  17. Zeolite Combined with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Mixed with Agricultural Slurries Reduces Carbon Losses in Runoff from Grassed Soil Boxes.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Healy, M G

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW. Four treatments under repeated 30-min simulated rainfall events (9.6 mm h) were examined in a laboratory study using grassed soil runoff boxes (0.225 m wide, 1 m long; 10% slope): control soil, unamended slurries, PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (13.3 and 11.7 kg t, respectively), alum-amended MWW (3.2 kg t), combined zeolite and PAC-amended dairy (160 and 13.3 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively) and pig slurries (158 and 11.7 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively), and combined zeolite and alum-amended MWW (72 and 3.2 kg t zeolite and alum, respectively). The unamended and amended slurries were applied at net rates of 31, 34, and 50 t ha for pig and dairy slurries and MWW, respectively. Significant reductions of TOC in runoff compared with unamended slurries were measured for PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (52 and 56%, respectively) but not for alum-amended MWW. Dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW significantly reduced TOC in runoff compared with alum amendment only. We conclude that use of PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries and dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW, although effective, may not be economically viable to reduce TOC losses from organic slurries given the relatively low amounts of TOC measured in runoff from unamended slurries compared with the amounts applied.

  18. Characterization and influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Hao; Luo, Ye; Deng, Xia; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-03-01

    Extensive use of biochar to mitigate N(2)O emission is limited by the lack of understanding on the exact mechanisms altering N(2)O emissions from biochar-amended soils. Biochars produced from giant reed were characterized and used to investigate their influence on N(2)O emission. Responses of N(2)O emission varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the reduction order of N(2)O emission by biochar (BC) was: BC200 ≈ BC600 > BC500 ≈ BC300 ≈ BC350 > BC400. The reduced emission was attributed to enhanced N immobilization and decreased denitrification in the biochar-amended soils. The remaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in low-temperature biochars (300-400 °C) played a major role in reducing N(2)O emission, but not for high-temperature biochars (500-600 °C). Removal of phenolic compounds from low-temperature (200-400 °C) biochars resulted in a surprising reduction of N(2)O emission, but the mechanism is still unknown. Overall, adding giant reed biochars could reduce N(2)O evolution from agricultural soil, thus possibly mitigating global warming.

  19. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere. PMID:27725815

  20. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere.

  1. Mineral-Based Amendments for Remediation

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. PMID:22203887

  2. Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Research results and accomplishments of sixteen tasks in the following areas are described: (1) corn and soybean scene radiation research; (2) soil moisture research; (3) sampling and aggregation research; (4) pattern recognition and image registration research; and (5) computer and data base services.

  3. Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Katra, Itzhak; Gross, Avner; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar; Krasnov, Helena; Angert, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s−1), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km−2, that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km−2) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles. PMID:27095629

  4. Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katra, Itzhak; Gross, Avner; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar; Krasnov, Helena; Angert, Alon

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s‑1), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km‑2, that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km‑2) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Optimizing the combined application of amendments to allow plant growth in a multielement-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Romero-Puertas, M C; Mingorance, M D

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R(2) ≥ 0.94 and Q(2) ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils.

  6. Agriculture, forestry, range, and soils, chapter 2, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave systems in agriculture, forestry, range, and soil moisture measurements was studied. Theory and preliminary results show the feasibility of measuring moisture status in the soil. For vegetational resources, crop identification for inventory and for yield and production estimates is most feasible. Apart from moisture- and water-related phenomena, microwave systems are also used to record structural and spatial data related to crops and forests.

  7. Enhanced irreversible sorption of carbaryl to soils amended with crop-residue-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuping; Wu, Minwei; Jiang, Jing; Li, Liang; Sheng, G Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The irreversible sorption-desorption of carbaryl in five soil types with crop-residue-derived biochar (CBC) amendment was determined. CBC has lower surface area and micropores volume than wood-based biochar and charcoal. However, CBC amendment (0.5%) still significantly enhanced the hysteresis effect on soils, with a 1.7- to 2.8-fold increase in the hysteresis index (HI) values. The HI values increased exponentially with the increased amount of CBC but decreased exponentially with the increased amount of soil organic matter (SOM%). Furthermore, the irreversible carbaryl sorption (qirr) and the irreversibility index (Iirr) values were proportional to the amount of CBC (0-1.0%) in soils. Likewise, the SOM-rich soil (S3) was washed ten times to reduce its SOM% to evaluate the influence of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soils on the irreversible sorption. The Iirr values of the unamended S3 increased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased, whereas those of the 1.0% CBC-amended S3 decreased. In addition, the Iirr values of the unwashed S3 were lower than those of the washed S3. By contrast, the Iirr values of the 1.0% CBC-amended S3 soil were higher in the unwashed samples than in the washed samples. These results suggested that DOM had opposite effects on the irreversible carbaryl sorption by unamended and CBC-amended soils. The DOM release may expose more irreversible adsorption sites in the soils and may cover the surface of the CBC to form a desorption-resistant fraction in its mesopore or macropore regions, thereby preventing the desorption of adsorbed carbaryl molecules.

  8. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  9. Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  10. Effects of biochar and other amendments on the physical properties and greenhouse gas emissions of an artificially degraded soil.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Lal, R; Zimmerman, A R

    2014-07-15

    Short and long-term impacts of biochar on soil properties under field conditions are poorly understood. In addition, there is a lack of field reports of the impacts of biochar on soil physical properties, gaseous emissions and C stability, particularly in comparison with other amendments. Thus, three amendments - biochar produced from oak at 650°C, humic acid (HA) and water treatment residual - (WTR) were added to a scalped silty-loam soil @ 0.5% (w/w) in triplicated plots under soybean. Over the 4-month active growing season, all amendments significantly increased soil pH, but the effect of biochar was the greatest. Biochar significantly increased soil-C by 7%, increased sub-nanopore surface area by 15% and reduced soil bulk density by 13% compared to control. However, only WTR amendment significantly increased soil nanopore surface area by 23% relative to the control. While total cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by any amendment, cumulative N2O emission was significantly decreased in the biochar-amended soil (by 92%) compared to control over the growing period. Considering both the total gas emissions and the C removed from the atmosphere as crop growth and C added to the soil, WTR and HA resulted in net soil C losses and biochar as a soil C gain. However, all amendments reduced the global warming potential (GWP) of the soil and biochar addition even produced a net negative GWP effect. The short observation period, low application rate and high intra-treatment variation resulted in fewer significant effects of the amendments on the physicochemical properties of the soils than one might expect indicating further possible experimentation altering these variables. However, there was clear evidence of amendment-soil interaction processes affecting both soil properties and gaseous emissions, particularly for biochar, that might lead to greater changes with additional field emplacement time.

  11. Soil amendments and cultivar selection can improve rice yield in salt-influenced (tsunami-affected) paddy fields in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Reichenauer, Thomas G; Panamulla, Sunil; Subasinghe, Siripala; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean in December 2004 caused devastation of agricultural soils by salt water over wide areas. Many rice fields located close to the coast were affected by the flood of seawater. Electric conductivity (EC) of soils in tsunami-affected rice fields was found to be higher compared to unaffected fields 2 years after the tsunami. Four soil amendments (gypsum, dolomite, cinnamon ash and rice-husk-charcoal) were tested for their influence on improving the yield parameters of rice grown in a tsunami-affected and a non-affected area. Yield parameters were compared with an untreated control of the same cultivar (AT362) and with a salt resistant rice variety (AT354). The salt resistant variety had the highest grain yield. The two amendments gypsum and rice-husk-charcoal led to an increase in grain yield compared to the untreated control, whereas dolomite and cinnamon ash had no significant effect on grain yield.

  12. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  13. Organic and inorganic amendment application on mercury-polluted soils: effects on soil chemical and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Klouza, Martin; Holečková, Zlata; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a previous study performed in our laboratory, the use of organic and inorganic amendments can significantly modify the Hg mobility in soil. We have compared the effectiveness of organic and inorganic amendments such as digestate and fly ash, respectively, reducing the Hg mobility in Chernozem and Luvisol soils differing in their physicochemical properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare the impact of digestate and fly ash application on the chemical and biochemical parameters in these two mercury-contaminated soils in a model batch experiment. Chernozem and Luvisol soils were artificially contaminated with Hg and then incubated under controlled conditions for 21 days. Digestate and fly ash were applied to both soils in a dose of 10 and 1.5 %, respectively, and soil samples were collected after 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. The presence of Hg in both soils negatively affected to processes such as nitrification, provoked a decline in the soil microbial biomass C (soil microbial biomass C (MBC)), and the microbial activities (arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) in both soils. Meanwhile, the digestate addition to Chernozem and Luvisol soils contaminated with Hg improved the soil chemical properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N (Ntot), inorganic-N forms (N-NH4 (+) and N-NO3 (-))), as consequence of high content in C and N contained in digestate. Likewise, the soil MBC and soil microbial activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) were greatly enhanced by the digestate application in both soils. In contrast, fly ash application did not have a remarkable positive effect when compared to digestate in Chernozem and Luvisol soil contaminated with mercury. These results may indicate that the use of organic amendments such as digestate considerably improved the soil health in Chernozem and Luvisol compared with fly ash, alleviating the detrimental impact of Hg. Probably, the chemical properties present in

  14. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  15. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  16. Ibuprofen adsorption in four agricultural volcanic soils.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Hernandez-Moreno, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Vera, Juan Ramon; Palacios-Diaz, Maria Pino

    2014-01-15

    Ibuprofen (IB) is a high environmental risk drug and one of the most frequently prescribed in human medicine. Recently, IB has been detected in Gran Canaria in reclaimed water for irrigation and in groundwater. Adsorption was studied in four volcanic soils from three islands of the Canarian Archipelago. Once the biodegradation process has been excluded from the experimental conditions, a batch method was applied using initial concentrations of 1-5-10-20-50-100-200 mg L(-1) and two soil/water ratios (w/V): 1:5 (OECD, 2000) and 1:1. Non-linear and linearized Langmuir and Freundlich equations were well fitted. The wide IB range tested in our batch studies allowed us to measure experimental adsorption values close to the maximum adsorption capacity (S(max)) as estimated by Langmuir, making it possible thereby to validate the use of the Langmuir equation when there is a burst of contamination at high concentration. The distribution coefficient (Kd), S(max) and Retardation Factor (RF) varied from 0.04 to 0.5 kg L(-1), 4-200 mgk g(-1) and 1.2-1.9, respectively. The lowest S(max) and Kd values were found for the 1:1S/W ratio whereas most batch studies employ 1:5S/W ratios, thus obtaining higher adsorption parameters than when considering field conditions (1:1). Despite the high anion retention of andic soils, similar Kd and RF to those reported for other soils were obtained in 1:5, while high S(max) was found. Our results demonstrate that IB adsorption in volcanic areas responds not only to the soil properties commonly cited in adsorption studies, but also depends on and