Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural sources including

  1. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  2. Perceptions of Vocational Agriculture Instructors Regarding Knowledge and Importance of Including Selected Agricultural Mechanics Units in the Vocational Agriculture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimgartner, Dale C.; Foster, Richard M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of teachers in five northwestern states revealed that respondents in all states rated the units of arc welding and oxyacetylene welding as the most important units to be included in secondary vocational agriculture programs. (LRA)

  3. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  4. The sources of deforestation - implications for sustainable agriculture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Zorrilla, J.; Arnode, C.

    1992-12-01

    Agricultural equilibrium conditions are used to identify the sources of deforestation in Brazil. The rate which forestland can be converted into agricultural land and meet agricultural and environmental goals is calculated. This serves the task of determining how long agricultural land growth can be maintained until environmental targets are violated.

  5. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12 U.S...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  6. National agricultural lands study. Agricultural land retention and availability: a bibliographic source book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Publications obtainable resulting from the national agricultural lands study are described. The book is divided into 5 chapters: agricultural land within a changing context; agricultural land base-limitations and capabilities; competition for and allocation of agricultural land, state and local agricultural land protection programs, and the federal role. This source book is intended to provide the reader with a broad familiarity with this literature and with issues involved in the current debate about protecting farmland. (DMC)

  7. Importance of Including Language Arts Instruction as Part of the Vocational Agriculture Program of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Richard M.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of including language arts instruction as part of the vocational agriculture program. Perceptions of students, parents, teachers, principals, and counselors were examined to identify specific skills to be integrated into vocational agriculture instruction. (SK)

  8. Importance of Including Values Instruction As a Part of Vocational Agriculture Programs of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1982-01-01

    Vocational agriculture program participants were interviewed to determine the importance of including instruction in values development for students. Data analysis revealed that enhancing values is an important part of vocational agriculture programs. Students generally rated the importance of each value category lower than teachers,…

  9. Registration efficiency of some SSNTDs with source area included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Mansy, M.; Hussein, A.; El-Hawary, M.; El Sersy, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this work, registration efficiency dependence on alpha particle energy and incident angle of some SSNTDs has been studied where the source area ( 241Am thin source) was included in the calculations. Ratio of the number of recorded track density rate ( ρ/ t) to the incident flux ( φ) has been determined using LR-115, CN-85 and CR-39 track detectors etched in the most recommended optimum etching conditions. It was found that the detector registration efficiency is independent on the source-to-detector distance ( d) if the flux is accurately calculated and the point source approximation is worked only for d greater than six times the source diameter when irradiation is performed in air. Results of the present work are discussed within the framework of alpha particle interaction with track detectors where the geometrical configuration of the source and detector arrangement is taken into consideration.

  10. Management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Water quality in China shows an overall trend of deterioration in recent years. Nonpoint source pollution from agricultural and rural regions is the leading source of water pollution. The agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are mainly from fertilization of cropland, excessive livestock and poultry breeding and undefined disposal of daily living wastes in rural areas. Agricultural nonpoint sources contribute the main source of pollution to most watersheds in China, but they are ignored in management strategy and policy. Due to the lack of full understanding of water pollution control and management and the lack of perfect water quality standard systems and practical legislative regulations, agricultural nonpoint source pollution will become one of the biggest challenges to the sustainable development of rural areas and to society as a whole. The system for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control in China should include an appropriate legislation and policy framework, financing mechanisms, monitoring system, and technical guidelines and standards. The management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires multidisciplinary approaches that will involve a range of government departments, institutions and the public.

  11. Dissolved organic carbon source integration in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P. J.; Spencer, R. G.; Dyda, R. Y.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) chemistry and concentration at the mouth of a watershed represents an integrated signal of all sources and process that occur upstream of the mouth, however, the relative contributions of all those sources and processes to the chemistry and concentration is not equal. We sampled an agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley in California synoptically on multiple occasions in order to better identify the most important contributors to DOC chemistry. Our samples included headwater samples from native grasslands in three sub-catchments, samples within the agricultural portions of those sub-watersheds, samples near the conjunctions, and irrigation field inputs and outputs. DOC concentrations increase considerably in the agricultural portion of the watershed, demonstrating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance of landscapes as well as the potential for local landscapes to contribute significantly to the overall DOC concentration and chemistry. The central sub-catchment in particular had significantly greater DOC concentrations, which appears to correspond to the much greater proportion of flood irrigation land management in this portion, as our field runoff measurements indicate much higher added DOC during flood irrigation than during furrow irrigation. Flow-weighted averaging of the three sub-catchment DOC concentrations does not replicate concentrations at the mouth (1-6 km downstream of the confluences), indicating the importance of in-stream processing and/or source inputs from riparian zones even along the mainstem. Optical characterization of DOC demonstrates changing chemistry from season to season, and differences in chemistry from different areas of the catchment. The storm-influenced spring sampling yielded higher carbon-specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), indicating a higher proportion of aromaticity, while the southern sub-catchment consistently yielded the highest spectral slope values, which

  12. The challenges of including impacts on biodiversity in agricultural life cycle assessments.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Vanessa M; Meier, Matthias S; Köpke, Ulrich; Stolze, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture is considered to be one of the main drivers for worldwide biodiversity loss but the impacts of agricultural production on biodiversity have not been extensively considered in Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). Recent realisation that biodiversity impact should be included in comprehensive LCAs has led to attempts to develop and implement methods for biodiversity impact assessment. In this review, twenty-two different biodiversity impact assessment methods have been analysed to identify their strengths and weaknesses in terms of their comprehensiveness in the evaluation of agricultural products. Different criteria, which had to meet the specific requirements of biodiversity research, life cycle assessment methodology, and the evaluation of agricultural products, were selected to investigate the identified methods. Very few of the methods were developed with the specific intention of being used for agricultural LCAs. Furthermore, none of the methods can be applied globally while at the same time being able to differentiate between various agricultural intensities. Global value chains and the increasing awareness of different biodiversity impacts of agricultural production systems demand the development of evaluation methods that are able to overcome these shortcomings. Despite the progress that has already been achieved, there are still unresolved difficulties which need further research and improvement.

  13. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  14. Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Natalie; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff

    2003-06-01

    Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM(2.5) mass in eastern United States is ammonium sulfate, according to the US EPA. Results from recent studies of PM(2.5) show that these fine particles are typically deposited deep in the lungs and may lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality. Also, these particles are in the size range that will degrade visibility. Ammonia emission inventories are usually constructed by multiplying an activity level by an experimentally determined emission factor for each source category. Typical sources of ammonia include livestock, fertilizer, soils, forest fires and slash burning, industry, vehicles, the oceans, humans, pets, wild animals, and waste disposal and recycling activities. Livestock is the largest source category in the United States, with waste from livestock responsible for about 3x10(9) kg of ammonia in 1995. Volatilization of ammonia from livestock waste is dependent on many parameters, and thus emission factors are difficult to predict. Despite a seasonal variation in these values, the emission factors for general livestock categories are usually annually averaged in current inventories. Activity levels for livestock are from the USDA Census of Agriculture, which does not give information about animal raising practices such as housing types and grazing times, waste handling systems, and approximate animal slurry spreading times or methods. Ammonia emissions in the United States in 1995 from sources other than livestock are much lower; for example, annual emissions are roughly 8x10(8) kg from fertilizer, 7x10(7) kg from industry, 5x10(7) kg from vehicles and 1x10(8) kg from humans. There is considerable uncertainty in the emissions from soil and vegetation, although this category may also be significant

  15. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  16. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  17. Thermospheric Density Model Including High-Latitude Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, O. K.; Moe, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    As was predicted long ago by Sydney Chapman, there is a major contribution to thermospheric energy from the magnetosphere at all times. The contribution of this magnetospheric energy source produces a neutral density bulge at high latitudes even during geomagnetically quiet times. We present an analytical, semi- empirical model of the global neutral density at such quiet times. The total density is expressed as the sum of two terms: The first term describes the combined effects of the solar ultra-violet heating and various other contributions like the semi-annual variation; the second term gives the contribution to the density associated with particle precipitation and joule heating coming from magnetospheric sources during times of low geomagnetic activity. The region of density enhancement at high latitudes is associated with the locations of the dayside cusps. Therefore the model produces a density distribution which depends on universal time as well as on altitude, latitude, local time, and the usual solar UV energy source. The numerical values of the parameters in the empirical model were originally determined 30 years ago from density data collected by the Bell-MESA accelerometer on the LOGACS satellite and the pressure gauge on the SPADES satellite. As an example of the model output, we show a Mercator projection of the global density distribution at 400 km altitude at 12 hours GMT in late May at a time of moderate solar activity and low geomagnetic activity. The parameters in the model can now be substantially improved by using recent advances like the latest description of the semi-annual variation and by incorporating the precise density measurements made by the accelerometers on board the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. In the original model, density values at times of high geomagnetic activity were included in the second density term. The parameters in that term can also be improved as accurate storm-time densities become available.

  18. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  19. [Spatial distribution and pollution source identification of agricultural non-point source pollution in Fujiang watershed].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Wen; Shen, Zhen-Yao

    2012-11-01

    In order to provide regulatory support for management and control of non-point source (NPS) pollution in Fujiang watershed, agricultural NPS pollution is simulated, spatial distribution characteristics of NPS pollution are analyzed, and the primary pollution sources are also identified, by export coefficient model (ECM) and geographic information system (GIS). Agricultural NPS total nitrogen (TN) loading was of research area was 9.11 x 10(4) t in 2010, and the average loading was intensity was 3.10 t x km(-2). Agricultural NPS TN loading mainly distributed over dry lands, Mianyang city and gentle slope areas; high loading intensity areas were dry lands, Deyang city and gentle slope areas. Agricultural land use, of which contribution rate was 62. 12%, was the most important pollution source; fertilizer loss in dry lands, of which contribution rate was 50.49%, was the prominent. Improving methods of agricultural cultivation, implementing "farm land returning to woodland" policy, and enhancing treatment efficiency of domestic sewage and livestock waster wate are effective measures.

  20. Arena retrofit includes ground-source heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The venue for Sacramento`s first professional basketball games was the {open_quotes}old Arco Arena,{close_quotes} built in 1985 just north of the downtown area and converted to offices after a large, permanent arena was constructed. In 1994, the {open_quotes}old arena{close_quotes} was acquired by a California general partnership called Del Paso Venture. To heat and cool the 3-story, 211,000-square foot structure, Del Paso has installed a ground-source heat pump system. The project is significant for the ground-source heat pump industry, because this is the first ground-source heat pump site ever designed specifically for the energy load of the building it will serve. Other projects have been calculated by rule-of-thumb. The installation and cost of the heat pump system are discussed.

  1. Sources and Uses of Weather Information for Agricultural Decision Makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNew, Kevin P.; Mapp, Harry P.; Duchon, Claude E.; Merritt, Earl S.

    1991-04-01

    Numerous studies have examined the importance of weather information to farmers and ranchers across the U.S. This study is focused on the kinds of weather information received by farmers and ranchers, the sources of that information, and its use in production and marketing decisions. Our results are based on a survey of 292 producers from the principal agricultural areas of Oklahoma. Producers were classified into five categories related to their source of income from crop and livestock sales.Among temperature, precipitation, relative humility, and wind speed, temperature information was most widely received. Forecast lengths of highest interest were 24-h and 5-day forecasts. Precipitation information was used by many respondents for planting and harvesting decisions. Weather data and forecasts seem to be of greater value to diversified crop and livestock operators than specialized crop and livestock, perhaps due to more frequent timing decisions. Relative humility and wind information appear to be important especially during specific times of the growing season, for example, at harvest time and time of pesticide application. Television is the primary source of weather information for more than 60% of the producers.It appears that there may be a role for both public and private entities in transforming weather data and forecasts into recommendations to crop and livestock producers. Further research is needed to determine the potential value of weather information for alternative production, marketing and livestock decisions, different categories of producers, and different geographic regions.

  2. Evaluation of agricultural nonpoint source pollution potential risk over China with a Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Xu, Zhencheng; Zhu, Yunqiang; He, Chansheng; Wu, Genyi; Qiu, Jin Rong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Qingsong

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has been the most important threat to water environment quality. Understanding the spatial distribution of NPS pollution potential risk is important for taking effective measures to control and reduce NPS pollution. A Transformed-Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution Potential Index (T-APPI) model was constructed for evaluating the national NPS pollution potential risk in this study; it was also combined with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques for evaluation on the large scale and at 1 km2 spatial resolution. This model considers many factors contributing to the NPS pollution as the original APPI model, summarized as four indicators of the runoff, sediment production, chemical use and the people and animal load. These four indicators were analysed in detail at 1 km2 spatial resolution throughout China. The T-APPI model distinguished the four indicators into pollution source factors and transport process factors; it also took their relationship into consideration. The studied results showed that T-APPI is a credible and convenient method for NPS pollution potential risk evaluation. The results also indicated that the highest NPS pollution potential risk is distributed in the middle-southern Jiangsu province. Several other regions, including the North China Plain, Chengdu Basin Plain, Jianghan Plain, cultivated lands in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, also showed serious NPS pollution potential. This study can provide a scientific reference for predicting the future NPS pollution risk throughout China and may be helpful for taking reasonable and effective measures for preventing and controlling NPS pollution.

  3. Strong soil source of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Seibt, U.; Berry, J. A.; Billesbach, D. P.; Campbell, J.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A promising new approach to constrain biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange is the use of carbonyl sulfide (COS). COS is taken up by leaves via the same pathway as CO2, leading to a close coupling of vegetation COS and CO2 fluxes during photosynthesis. Therefore it has been proposed that the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration can be quantified through the concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. A necessary requirement for this approach at ecosystem and continental scales are estimates of soil COS fluxes. Soil is largely considered a sink for COS, but our knowledge of in situ soil COS fluxes remains very limited. We measured soil COS fluxes in a wheat field in Oklahoma from April to June 2012, using a novel combination of an automated soil chamber coupled to a COS laser analyzer. We provide the first continuous record of soil COS fluxes under natural conditions, and report on a phenomenon that has not been observed before. In contrast to the majority of published results, we found that the agricultural soil was a strong source of COS under most conditions during the campaign. The COS flux over the study period was highly correlated with soil temperature. Up to a soil temperature of around 15°C, the soil acted as a COS sink. Above 15°C, it acted a source of COS, with fluxes of up to 25 pmol m-2 s-1. To locate the source of the COS production, we investigated different soil components. Wheat roots were found to be emitting COS under all conditions. Root-free soil was a COS sink up to a soil temperature of around 25°C, but turned into a COS source at higher soil temperatures. We also observed COS production from the roots of several other species, indicating that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Using eddy covariance data of COS and CO2 that was collected concurrently with the soil measurements, we also demonstrate how the soil COS source can be taken into account when partitioning net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration.

  4. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  5. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  6. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  7. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-06-01

    Climate and land use change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect natural and agricultural ecosystems by decreases in precipitation, increases in temperature as well as biodiversity loss and anthropogenic degradation of natural resources. Demographic growth in the Eastern and Southern shores will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development pave the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments on the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  8. Animals as an energy source in third world agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Sutherland, T.M.; Sutherland, J.M.

    1980-05-09

    Agricultural development programs have so far been largely unable to meet the food needs of the world's poorest. Increased food production can be achieved only from more intensive agriculture, which requires greater energy inputs per farm worker. Problems of technological infrastructure and escalating oil prices appear to preclude the spread of mechanization to Third World agriculture at this time. Efficient utilization of grazing animals in specific integrated farming systems could not only increase energy inputs through draft and transportation but also increase the yield of high-grade products and by-products from the renewable energy of biomass. An approach to development based on animal agriculture systems is suggested that might initiate a self-sustaining, more productive agriculture requireing only small inputs of fossil-fuel energy.

  9. Potential alternative fuel sources for agricultural crops and plant components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changing landscape of agricultural production is placing unprecedented demands on farmers as they face increasing global competition and greater natural resource conservation challenges. However, shrinking profit margins due to increasing input costs, particularly of fuel and fertilizer, can res...

  10. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF.

  11. Regulatory Control of Sealed Sources in Germany including Regulations Regarding Spent and Disused Sources - 13176

    SciTech Connect

    Dollan, Ralph; Haeusler, Uwe; Czarwinski, Renate

    2013-07-01

    Effective regulatory control is essential to ensure the safe and secure use of radioactive material and the appropriate management of radioactive waste. To ensure a sustainable control of high radioactive sources, the European Commission published the Council Directive 2003/122/EURATOM on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, which had to be transferred into national legislation by all member states of the European Union. Major requirement of the Directive is a system to ensure traceability of high-activity sealed sources from 'cradle to grave' as well as the provision to take back disused sources by the supplier or manufacturer. With the Act on high-activity sealed radioactive sources Germany implemented the requirements of the Directive 2003/122/EURATOM and established a national registry of high-activity sealed sources in 2006. Currently, about 27.000 high-activity sealed sources are recorded in this national registry. (authors)

  12. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 3, 2012, FDA published a final rule entitled ``Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE PESTICIDE RUNOFF IN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) runoff may result in significant discharges of pesticides, suspended sediments, and fertilizers into estuarine habitats adjacent to agricultural areas or downstream from agricultural watersheds. Exposure of estuarine fin fish and shellfish to to...

  14. Food and agricultural waste: Sources of carbon for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, wastes derived from agriculture products have met with limited success in the production of biofuels. Our objective in this report is to showcase a new and meaningful concept (called “avoidance”), to measure the environmental importance of converting these waste streams into energy. Agr...

  15. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  16. Mitigation strategies for methane emissions from agricultural sources

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    Anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} account for 70% of total global emissions of this greenhouse gas. Current anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} in the US are estimated to be between 24-30 Tg CH{sub 4} or 7-9% of the global anthropogenic total. By comparison the US is responsible for 27% of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel use. Table 1 shows that the major anthropogenic sources of CH{sub 4} in the US are landfills (37%), domestic livestock and livestock waste (31%) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries (28%). On a global basis it is estimated that US landfills contribute 30% to the global landfill total, whereas livestock (including waste) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries each contribute about 8% to their respective global totals. The US is an insignificant contributor (< 1%) to global emissions of CH{sub 4} from rice paddies.

  17. Using Strontium Isotopes in Arid Agricultural Soils to Determine a Sink or Source of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, A. C.; Jin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions of the world are predicted to continue to expand through land degradation and prolonged drought events. Agricultural practices in these drylands degrade soils through elevated salinity, sodicity and alkalinity. Indeed, flood irrigation loads salts onto the soils including carbonate minerals in the form of calcite. Alfalfa and Pecan are salt tolerant and commonly grown in the arid El Paso region, but need irrigation using Rio Grande water with little to no contribution from local ground waters. We hypothesize that the irrigation is loading extra Ca and bicarbonate to soils and anthropogenically enhancing the precipitation of carbonates. We intend to monitor soil CO2 efflux after irrigation, characterize soil minerals, and combine them to isotopic data of soil, irrigation, and drainage waters to link the sources of Ca and C, kinetics of calcite precipitation, to irrigation events. This will include strontium isotopic analysis to determine the source of calcium in the agricultural fields, U-disequilibrium isotopes to estimate the carbonate ages, and CO2 efflux to monitor atmosphere-soil exchange. Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to change during flood irrigation when soils are saturated. After irrigation events, evaporative effects increase Ca and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration in soil waters leading to precipitation of calcite and thus elevated CO2efflux. Preliminary measurements in the pecan field show a marginally significant difference in CO2 fluxes before and after irrigation (p=0.07, t-test). Carbon dioxide emissions are lower during moist conditions (0.6 g m-2hr-1 CO2) than those in dry conditions (1.0 g m-2hr-1 CO2). Future C isotope data are needed to identify the source of extra CO2, biogenic or calcite-precipitation related. A water leachable extraction of alfalfa soils shows 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranged from 0.7101 to 0.7103, indicating Rio Grande river as a dominant calcium source. Further Sr isotopic analysis of

  18. The Relationship between Agriculture Knowledge Bases for Teaching and Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the agriculture knowledge bases for teaching of agriculture teachers and to see if a relationship existed between years of teaching experience, sources of knowledge, and development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), using quantitative methods. A model of PCK from mathematics was utilized as a…

  19. Agricultural Science Teachers' Barriers, Roles, and Information Source Preferences for Teaching Biotechnology Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine barriers, roles, and information source preferences for teaching agricultural biotechnology topics. Agricultural science teachers were described primarily as 37 year-old males who had taught for 12 years, had bachelor's degrees, and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. Equipment was perceived as the…

  20. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  1. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  2. Wetlands and Agriculture in Africa: Major Sources of N2O?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Papyrus wetlands in East Africa are rapidly being converted to agricultural production in an effort to increase food security. This conversion is often seasonal, with wetlands being used for grazing and crop production of maize, sugarcane, and rice during dry seasons, and flooding occurring during wet seasons. An important question with respect to greenhouse gas production is whether wetland conversion to agriculture increases N2O fluxes. This trend has been shown in temperate regions where increased N2O fluxes are positively related to low soil C:N ratios, especially when soil moisture content remains high. In order to examine whether denitrification contributes to N2O flux, we measured potential denitrification rates (PDR by acetylene block method) in intact papyrus wetlands and agricultural converted wetlands in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda, and also performed multivariate analysis to relate soil characteristics to PDR. Agricultural land-cover types included maize, sugarcane, rice, and grazing. Results showed that intact wetlands are potentially important sources of N2O, as PDR in papyrus vegetation were consistently the highest (p<0.05; 128 - 601 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1) while grazing sites showed the lowest (0.1 - 0.5 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1). Rates were second highest in rice fields (2.3 - 303 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1), and intermediate in maize and sugarcane (6.5 - 75 μmg N2O g DW-1 hour-1 and 5 - 30 μg N2O g DW-1 hour-1 respectively). PDR across all sites was inversely related to soil C:N ratio, with nitrate consistently limiting PDR in the wetland sites while soil carbon limited PDR in agricultural sites. This is seemingly in contrast with other findings that show that lower C:N ratios result in high N2O fluxes from drained wetland sites. However, flux measurements along with more realistic process-based measurements of denitrification are urgently needed to more fully understand the effect of agricultural conversion of wetlands in East Africa.

  3. Potash—A vital agricultural nutrient sourced from geologic deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-11-15

    This report summarizes the primary sources of potash in the United States. Potash is an essential nutrient that, along with phosphorus and nitrogen, is used as fertilizer for growing crops. Plants require sufficient potash to activate enzymes, which in turn catalyze chemical reactions important for water uptake and photosynthesis. When potassium is available in quantities necessary for healthy plant growth, disease resistance and physical quality are improved and crop yield and shelf life are increased. Potash is a water-soluble compound of potassium formed by geologic and hydrologic processes. The principal potash sources discussed are the large, stratiform deposits that formed during retreat and evaporation of intracontinental seas. The Paradox, Delaware, Holbrook, Michigan, and Williston sedimentary basins in the United States are examples where extensive potash beds were deposited. Ancient marine-type potash deposits that are close to the surface can be mined using conventional underground mining methods. In situ solution mining can be used where beds are too deep, making underground mining cost-prohibitive, or where underground mines are converted to in situ solution mines. Quaternary brine is another source of potash that is recovered by solar evaporation in manmade ponds. Groundwater from Pleistocene Lake Bonneville (Wendover, Utah) and the present-day Great Salt Lake in Utah are sources of potashbearing brine. Brine from these sources pumped to solar ponds is evaporated and potash concentrated for harvesting, processing, and refinement. Although there is sufficient potash to meet near-term demand, the large marine-type deposits are either geographically restricted to a few areas or are too deep to easily mine. Other regions lack sources of potash brine from groundwater or surface water. Thus, some areas of the world rely heavily on potash imports. Political, economic, and global population pressures may limit the ability of some countries from securing

  4. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin.

  5. Current status of agricultural and rural non-point source Pollution assessment in China.

    PubMed

    Ongley, Edwin D; Xiaolan, Zhang; Tao, Yu

    2010-05-01

    Estimates of non-point source (NPS) contribution to total water pollution in China range up to 81% for nitrogen and to 93% for phosphorus. We believe these values are too high, reflecting (a) misuse of estimation techniques that were developed in America under very different conditions and (b) lack of specificity on what is included as NPS. We compare primary methods used for NPS estimation in China with their use in America. Two observations are especially notable: empirical research is limited and does not provide an adequate basis for calibrating models nor for deriving export coefficients; the Chinese agricultural situation is so different than that of the United States that empirical data produced in America, as a basis for applying estimation techniques to rural NPS in China, often do not apply. We propose a set of national research and policy initiatives for future NPS research in China.

  6. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  7. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  8. Agricultural non-point source pollution in China: causes and mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2012-06-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000-2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension services and the rapid expansion of intensive livestock production with little of waste management. The annual application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in China increased by 50.7 and 119.7%, respectively, during 1991-2008. The mitigation measures to reduce NPS pollution include: correct distortion in fertilizer prices; improve incentives for the recycling of organic manure; provide farmers with better information on the sound use of agro-chemicals; and tighten the regulations and national standards on organic waste disposal and pesticides use.

  9. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  10. [Establishment and application of the estimation model for agricultural non-point source pollution in the field].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang-kun; Li, Huai-en; Hu, Ya-wei; Chen, Wei-wei; Sun, Juan

    2009-12-01

    The quantitative research on pollution loads is the basis of control, evaluation and management of non-point source pollution. The estimation of agricultural non-point source pollution loads includes two steps: evaluation of water discharge and prediction of pollutant concentration in agricultural drain. Water discharge was calculated by DRAINMOD model based on the principle of water balance on farmland. Meanwhile, the synthesis of fertilization and irrigation is used as an impulse input to the farmland, the pollutant concentration changes in agricultural drain is looked as the response process corresponding to the impulse input, the complex migratory and transforming process of pollutant in soil are expressed implied by Inverse Gaussian Probability Density Function. Based on the above, the estimation model of agricultural non-point source pollution loads at field scale was constructed. Taking the typical experimentation area of Qingtongxia Irrigation District in Ningxia as an example, the loads of nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus in paddy-field drain was simulated by this model. The results show that the simulated accorded with measured data approximately and Nash-Suttcliffe coefficient is 0.963 and 0.945 respectively.

  11. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Catalog of infrared observations including: Bibliography of infrared astronomy and index of infrared source positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations and its Far Infrared Supplement summarize all infrared astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Catalog includes as appendices the Bibliography of infrared astronomy which keys observations in the Catalog with the original journal references, and the index of infrared source positions which gives source positions for alphabetically listed sources in the Catalog. The Catalog data base contains over 85,000 observations of about 10,000 infrared sources, of which about 2,000 have no known visible counterpart.

  13. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  14. Synthetic Source Inversion Tests with the Full Complexity of Earthquake Source Processes, Including Both Supershear Rupture and Slip Reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok Goo; Dalguer, Luis A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies in dynamic source modeling and kinematic source inversion show that earthquake rupture may contain greater complexity than we previously anticipated, including multiple slipping at a given point on a fault. Finite source inversion methods suffer from the nonuniqueness of solutions, and it may become more serious if we aim to resolve more complex rupture models. In this study, we perform synthetic inversion tests with dynamically generated complex rupture models, including both supershear rupture and slip reactivation, to understand the possibility of resolving complex rupture processes by inverting seismic waveform data. We adopt a linear source inversion method with multiple windows, allowing for slipping from the nucleation of rupture to the termination at all locations along a fault. We regularize the model space effectively in the Bayesian framework and perform multiple inversion tests by considering the effect of inaccurate Green's functions and station distributions. We also perform a spectral stability analysis. Our results show that it may be possible to resolve both a supershear rupture front and reactivated secondary slipping using the linear inversion method if those complex features are well separated from the main rupture and produce a fair amount of seismic energy. It may be desirable to assume the full complexity of an earthquake rupture when we first develop finite source models after a major event occurs and then assume a simple rupture model for stability if the estimated models do not show a clear pattern of complex rupture processes.

  15. Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords

  16. Estimation of Contaminant Subslab Concentration in Vapor Intrusion Including Lateral Source-Building Separation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-08-01

    Most current vapor-intrusion screening models employ the assumption of a subsurface homogenous source distribution, and groundwater data obtained from nearby monitoring wells are usually taken to reflect the source concentration for several nearby buildings. This practice makes it necessary to consider the possible influence of lateral source-building separation. In this study, a new way to estimate subslab (nonbiodegradable) contaminant concentration is introduced that includes the influence of source offset with the help of a conformal transform technique. Results from this method are compared with those from a three-dimensional numerical model. Based on this newly developed method, a possible explanation is provided here for the great variation in the attenuation factors of the soil vapor concentrations of groundwater-to-subslab contaminants found in the EPA vapor-intrusion database.

  17. Investigating the sources of sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a colour-based fingerprinting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Louise; Lobb, David; Owens, Philip; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Koiter, Alexander; Petticrew, Ellen; McCullough, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    The development of beneficial management practises to minimize adverse impacts of agriculture on soil and water quality requires information on the sources of sediment at the watershed scale. Sediment fingerprinting allows for the determination of sediment sources and apportionment of their contribution within a watershed, using unique physical, radiochemical or biogeochemical properties, or fingerprints, of the potential sediment sources. The use of sediment colour as a fingerprint is an emerging technique that can provide a rapid and inexpensive means of investigating sediment sources. This technique is currently being utilized to determine sediment sources within the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural watershed located in the Canadian prairies (south-central Manitoba). Suspended sediment and potential source (topsoil, channel bank and shale bedrock material) samples were collected between 2009 and 2011 at six locations along the main stem of the creek. Sample colour was quantified from diffuse reflectance spectrometry measurements over the visible wavelength range using a spectroradiometer (ASD Field Spec Pro, 400-2500 nm). Sixteen colour coefficients were derived from several colour space models (CIE XYZ, CIE xyY, CIE Lab, CIE Luv, CIE Lch, Landsat RGB, Redness Index). The individual discrimination power of the colour coefficients, after passing several prerequisite tests (e.g., linearly additive behaviour), was assessed using discriminant function analysis. A stepwise discriminant analysis, based on the Wilk's lambda criterion, was then performed in order to determine the best-suited colour coefficient fingerprints which maximized the discrimination between the potential sources. The selected fingerprints classified the source samples in the correct category 86% of the time. The misclassification is due to intra-source variability and source overlap which can lead to higher uncertainty in sediment source apportionment. The selected fingerprints

  18. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  19. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...) Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma AGENCY: Food and... revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for... the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts...

  20. Sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host range and sorghum resistance including cross-resistance from greenbug sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The graminous host range, and sources of sorghum plant resistance including cross resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) sorghums, [Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench], were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari, (Zehntner) in greenhouse no-choice experiments and ...

  1. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: the Brighouse Bay study, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Aitken, M; Crowther, J; Dickson, I; Edwards, A C; Francis, C; Hopkins, M; Jeffrey, W; Kay, C; McDonald, A T; McDonald, D; Stapleton, C M; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J; Wyer, M D

    2007-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission.

  2. A Method for Source-load Allocation of Nutrients in Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, M. R.; James, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    Identification of pollutant sources is critical to solving water resource contamination problems. Non-point sources of agricultural pollution provide substantial challenges to quantifying and allocating the sources of contaminants to streams. A method is presented for identifying the spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus sources and allocating proportional responsibility for source-reduction. The method is applied to data at scales ranging from hydrologic regions (2-digit hydrologic accounting units) of the Mississippi drainage basin to the public land survey grid in two small (14-digit) watersheds. A mass balance of nutrient sources and losses is estimated using georeferenced data derived from national to local digital data bases. Nitrogen excess is estimated by balancing sources associated with inorganic fertilizer, manure, crop fixation, mineralization of organic matter, and atmospheric redeposition of ammonia with losses from crop harvest, plant senescence, denitrification, and volatilization of manure and inorganic fertilizer. Phosphorus sources from inorganic fertilizer and manure are balanced with losses due to crop harvest. Allocation in regional units allows targeting of major pollutant source areas while smaller aggregation areas define greater ranges of source-loads useful for specific allocation. Manure sources control the distribution of excess nutrients at many scales, particularly in watersheds with uniform cropping systems. Absolute values of excess N sources provide substantially different allocation patterns than proportional values of total source-loads. Selection of aggregation scale is critical to source-load allocation needed to define TMDLs, monitor loads, and establish water-quality remediation strategies. >http://www.nstl.gov/pubs/burkart/trends/index.html

  3. Identification of nitrogen sources to four small lakes in the agricultural region of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanafield, M.; Rosen, M.; Saito, L.; Chandra, S.; Lamers, J.; Nishonov, Bakhriddin

    2010-01-01

    Pollution of inland waters by agricultural land use is a concern in many areas of the world, and especially in arid regions, where water resources are inherently scarce. This study used physical and chemical water quality and stable nitrogen isotope (δ15N) measurements from zooplankton to examine nitrogen (N) sources and concentrations in four small lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan, an arid, highly agricultural region, which is part of the environmentally-impacted Aral Sea Basin. During the 2-year study period, ammonium concentrations were the highest dissolved inorganic N species in all lakes, with a maximum of 3.00 mg N l−1 and an average concentration of 0.62 mg N l−1. Nitrate levels were low, with a maximum concentration of 0.46 mg N l−1 and an average of 0.05 mg N l−1 for all four lakes. The limited zooplankton δ15N values did not correlate with the high loads of synthetic fertilizer applied to local croplands during summer months. These results suggest that the N cycles in these lakes may be more influenced by regional dynamics than agricultural activity in the immediate surroundings. The Amu-Darya River, which provides the main source of irrigation water to the region, was identified as a possible source of the primary N input to the lakes.

  4. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  5. Contamination, source, and input route of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in historic wastewater-irrigated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Li, Hong-Bo; Long, Jin-Lin; Cai, Chao; Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of historic wastewater-irrigated agricultural topsoil (0-5 cm) and the contribution of groundwater irrigation and atmospheric deposition to soil PAHs were studied in a typical agricultural region, i.e. Hunpu region, Liaoning, China. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 0.43 to 2.64 mg kg⁻¹ in topsoil, being lower than those found in other wastewater-irrigated areas. The levels of PAHs in soil declined as the distance from a water source increased. Concentrations of individual PAHs were generally higher in upland than in paddy topsoils. The calculated nemerow composite index showed that agricultural soil in the region was "polluted" by PAHs. A human health risk assessment based on the total toxic equivalent concentration showed that the presence of elevated concentrations of PAHs in the soil might pose a great threat to the health of local residents. Ratios of pairs of PAHs and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that pyrogenesis, such as coal combustion, was the main source of PAHs, while petroleum, to some extent, also had a strong influence on PAHs contamination in upland soil. The distribution patterns of individual PAHs and composition of PAHs differed between irrigation groundwater and topsoil, but were similar between atmospheric deposition and topsoil. There were significant linear correlations (r = 0.90; p < 0.01) between atmospheric deposition rates and average concentrations of the 16 individual PAHs in soils, while no significant relationships were observed between irrigation groundwater and topsoil in levels of PAHs. These suggested that PAHs in agricultural soils were mainly introduced from atmospheric deposition, rather than from groundwater irrigation after the phasing out of wastewater irrigation in the region since 2002. This study provides a reference to ensure agricultural product safety, pollution control, and proper soil management.

  6. Distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from central China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun; Wang, Jingjing; Meng, Beidi; Cheng, Junqi; Lin, Guoping; Chen, Jiachun; Zheng, Dan; Yu, Yanhong

    2013-07-01

    There is little information on the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in agricultural soils of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Surface soil samples were collected from agricultural soils in Wuhan and analyzed to determine twenty-one OCPs. According to the measured concentrations and detection frequencies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), heptachlor (HEPT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and aldrin were the predominant compounds in soil. DDTs accounted for 77.10% of total OCPs, followed by HCHs (7.83%), aldrin (4.21%), HEPTs (2.82%) and HCB (1.53%). The total DDT concentrations ranged from nd to 1198.0ngg(-1) and the main contaminated areas were distributed in Hannan and Xinzhou districts of Wuhan. The total HCH concentrations ranged from nd to 100.58ngg(-1) in soil and relatively higher levels were observed in soil samples from Huangpi and Hannan districts. Source analysis showed that OCPs residues except heptachlor originated mainly from historical application, besides slight recent introduction at some sites. Based on the China National Soil Quality Standard, DDT pollution in most samples of Wuhan agricultural soils could be considered as no and low contamination, while the level of HCHs was classified as no pollution. Our study indicated that there existed potential exposure risk of OCPs in Wuhan agricultural soils although the use of OCPs has been banned.

  7. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  8. Modeling agricultural nonpoint source pollution using a geographic information system approach.

    PubMed

    Emili, Lisa A; Greene, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  9. Stream sediment sources in midwest agricultural basins with land retirement along channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Christensen, Victoria G.; Richardson, William B.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Gellis, Allen C.; Kieta, K. A.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting the effects of agricultural land retirement on stream-sediment sources is critical to identifying management practices that improve water quality and aquatic habitat. Particularly difficult to quantify are the effects from conservation easements that commonly are discontinuous along channelized streams and ditches throughout the agricultural midwestern United States. Our hypotheses were that sediment from cropland, retired land, stream banks, and roads would be discernible using isotopic and elemental concentrations and that source contributions would vary with land retirement distribution along tributaries of West Fork Beaver Creek in Minnesota. Channel-bed and suspended sediment were sampled at nine locations and compared with local source samples by using linear discriminant analysis and a four-source mixing model that evaluated seven tracers: In, P, total C, Be, Tl, Th, and Ti. The proportion of sediment sources differed significantly between suspended and channel-bed sediment. Retired land contributed to channel-bed sediment but was not discernible as a source of suspended sediment, suggesting that retired-land material was not mobilized during high-flow conditions. Stream banks were a large contributor to suspended sediment; however, the percentage of stream-bank sediment in the channel bed was lower in basins with more continuous retired land along the riparian corridor. Cropland sediments had the highest P concentrations; basins with the highest cropland-sediment contributions also had the highest P concentrations. Along stream reaches with retired land, there was a lower proportion of cropland material in suspended sediment relative to sites that had almost no land retirement, indicating less movement of nutrients and sediment from cropland to the channel as a result of land retirement.

  10. Understanding Multifunctional Agricultural Land by Using Low Cost and Open Source Solutions to Quantify Ecosystem Function and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsmoo, Joel; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard; Macleod, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to advance our understanding of how the spatial structure of farmed landscapes contributes to the provision of functions and services. Agricultural land is of critical importance in NW Europe, covering large parts of NW Europe's temperate land. Moreover, these agricultural areas are primarily intensively managed, with a focus on maximizing food and fibre production. Such landscapes therefore can provide a wealth of ecosystem goods and services (ESs) including regulation of climate, erosion regulation, hydrology, water quality, nutrient cycling and biodiversity conservation. However, it has been shown they are key sources of sediment, phosphorous, nitrogen and storm runoff contributing to flooding, and therefore it is likely that most agricultural landscapes do not maximize the services or benefits that they might provide. The focus of this study is the spatio-temporal assessment of carbon sequestration (particularly through proxies such as above-ground biomass) and hydrological processes on agricultural land. Understanding and quantifying both of these is important to (a) inform payments for ecosystem services frameworks, (b) evaluate and improve carbon sequestration models, (c) manage the flood risk, (d) downstream water security and (e) water quality. Quantifying both of these ESs is dependent on data describing the fine spatial and temporal structure and function of the landscape. Common practice has been to use remote sensing techniques, e.g. satellites, providing coarse spatial resolution (around 30cm at 20° off nadir) and/or temporal resolution (around 5 days revisit time at <20° off nadir). In this paper we will explain how imaging data from lightweight and easily deployed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to generate structure from motion (SFM) products describing the very fine detailed (<3 cm pixel resolution) structure of the agricultural environment. We will demonstrate how these products can be delivered using advanced free

  11. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  12. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping: does including data on food consumption matter?

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-11-17

    Source attribution based on microbial subtyping is being performed in many countries to ascertain the main reservoirs of human salmonellosis and to assess the impact of food safety interventions. To account for differences in exposure, the amount of food available for consumption within a country is often included in Salmonella source attribution models along with the level of contamination. However, not all foods have an equal probability of serving as vehicles for salmonellas, as some foods are more likely to be consumed raw/undercooked than others, posing a relatively higher risk. Using Salmonella data from the Netherlands in 2001-2004, this study aims at elucidating whether and how the incorporation of food consumption data in two source attribution models - the (modified) Dutch and Hald models - affects their attributions. We also propose the incorporation of an additional parameter to weight the amount of food consumed by its likelihood to be consumed raw/undercooked by the population. Incorporating the amount of food consumed caused a drastic change in the ranking of the top reservoirs in the Dutch model, but not in the Hald model, which proved to be insensitive to additional weightings given that its source-dependent factor can account for both food consumption and the ability for foods to serve as vehicles for salmonellas. Compared to attributions without food consumption, the Dutch model including the amount of food consumed showed an increase in the percentage of cases attributable to pigs and a decrease in that of layers/eggs, which became the second reservoir, after pigs. This was not consistent with established knowledge indicating that layers/eggs, rather than pigs, were the main reservoir of human salmonellosis in that period. By incorporating the additional weight reflecting the likelihood for different foods to be consumed raw/undercooked, the attributions of the Dutch model were effectively adjusted, both in terms of ranking and percent

  13. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  14. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  15. Management of unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources through water quality trading market.

    PubMed

    Mahjoobi, Emad; Sarang, Amin; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) could be an innovative policy to incentivize farmers to implement best management practices (BMPs) for their activities. This study focused on assessment of involving unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources (NPS) into the WQT market in Gharesoo watershed in the west of Iran. It also proposes a methodology to determine location-based trading ratios as well as environmental penalty cost to achieve a more well-designed market structure. Trading activities in different scenarios were described by trading volume (TV), participation rate (PR), total exchanged value (TEV), and other market parameters in order to achieve a better comparison of market performance. Results showed that, by applying NPS to the Gharesoo watershed, total phosphorous (TP) trading market could increase TV, PR, and TEV up to 11, 1.7 and 7.5 times, respectively, depending on which level of BMPs are implemented by them. Additionally, it could save 29% of the total cost of implementing a TP total maximum daily load in this watershed compared to the 'command and control' approach. Furthermore, the agricultural sector could profit by $5.49 million (or $75/ha) by choosing solutions such as terrace systems and filter strips to register into the market. This profit can be allocated to the development of new agricultural technologies.

  16. Implicit Solution of Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion Including Reactive Heating Source in Material Energy Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D E; Woodward, C S

    2005-05-03

    In this paper, the authors investigate performance of a fully implicit formulation and solution method of a diffusion-reaction system modeling radiation diffusion with material energy transfer and a fusion fuel source. In certain parameter regimes this system can lead to a rapid conversion of potential energy into material energy. Accuracy in time integration is essential for a good solution since a major fraction of the fuel can be depleted in a very short time. Such systems arise in a number of application areas including evolution of a star and inertial confinement fusion. Previous work has addressed implicit solution of radiation diffusion problems. Recently Shadid and coauthors have looked at implicit and semi-implicit solution of reaction-diffusion systems. In general they have found that fully implicit is the most accurate method for difficult coupled nonlinear equations. In previous work, they have demonstrated that a method of lines approach coupled with a BDF time integrator and a Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver could efficiently and accurately solve a large-scale, implicit radiation diffusion problem. In this paper, they extend that work to include an additional heating term in the material energy equation and an equation to model the evolution of the reactive fuel density. This system now consists of three coupled equations for radiation energy, material energy, and fuel density. The radiation energy equation includes diffusion and energy exchange with material energy. The material energy equation includes reaction heating and exchange with radiation energy, and the fuel density equation includes its depletion due to the fuel consumption.

  17. An investigation of element ratios for assessing suspended-sediment sources in small agricultural basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.

    2012-01-01

    Various sediment properties previously have been investigated for the purpose of determining sources of suspended sediment. A remaining research need is an assessment of element ratios for the determination of suspended-sediment sources in different terrestrial environments. In this study, 253 element ratios were assessed to determine which, if any, were potentially useful for sediment-source determinations in six small agricultural basins in northeastern Kansas, USA. Samples of surface soils (cropland and grassland), channel banks, and reservoir bottom sediments were collected, analyzed for 23 elements, and compared. Of the 253 element ratios assessed, only the Co/Pb and Co/Zn ratios were substantially and consistently different between the channel banks and surface soils for all six basins. For three of four reservoirs for which data were available, sediment-source estimates provided by Co/Pb ratios were in agreement with estimates previously provided using 137Cs. For two of the four reservoirs, sediment-source estimates provided by Co/Zn ratios were consistent with the 137Cs estimates. Thus, the Co/Pb ratio potentially may be more useful. Additional research is needed to ascertain whether or not the use of Co/Pb and Co/Zn ratios as tracers is widely applicable or restricted to specific terrestrial environments.

  18. Chloride Sources and Losses in Two Tile-Drained Agricultural Watersheds.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Mitchell, Corey A; Gentry, Lowell E; Salemme, Ronald K

    2016-01-01

    Chloride is a relatively unreactive plant nutrient that has long been used as a biogeochemical tracer but also can be a pollutant causing aquatic biology impacts when concentrations are high, typically from rock salt applications used for deicing roads. Chloride inputs to watersheds are most often from atmospheric deposition, road salt, or agricultural fertilizer, although studies on agricultural watersheds with large fertilizer inputs are few. We used long-term (21 and 17 yr) chloride water quality data in two rivers of east-central Illinois to better understand chloride biogeochemistry in two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kaskaskia), the former with a larger urban land use and both with extensive tile drainage. During our sampling period, the average chloride concentration was 23.7 and 20.9 mg L in the Embarras and Kaskaskia Rivers, respectively. Annual fluxes of chloride were 72.5 and 61.2 kg ha yr in the Embarras and Kaskaskia watersheds, respectively. In both watersheds, fertilizer chloride was the dominant input (∼49 kg ha yr), with road salt likely the other major source (23.2 and 7.2 kg ha yr for the Embarras and Kaskaskia watersheds, respectively). Combining our monitoring data with earlier published data on the Embarras River showed an increase in chloride concentrations as potash use increased in Illinois during the 1960s and 1970s with a lag of about 2 to 6 yr to changes in potash inputs based on a multiple-regression model. In these agricultural watersheds, riverine chloride responds relatively quickly to potash fertilization as a result of tile-drainage.

  19. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  20. Simulation of stress waves in attenuating drill strings, including piezoelectric sources and sensors

    PubMed

    Carcione; Poletto

    2000-07-01

    A key element in drill steering and prediction of lithology ahead-of-the-bit is the transmission of while-drilling information from the bottom of the well to the rig operator and the geophysicists. Mud-pulse telemetry, based on pressure pulses along the drilling mud and extensional waves through the drill string, is the most used technique. The last method, properly designed, could transmit data rates up to 100 bits per second, against the 1 or 2 bits per second achieved with pressure pulses. In this work, a time-domain algorithm is developed for the propagation of one-dimensional axial, torsional, and flexural stress waves, including transducer sources and sensors. In addition, the equations include relaxation mechanisms simulating the viscoelastic behavior of the steel, dielectric losses, and any other losses, such as those produced by the presence of the drilling mud, the casing, and the formation. Moreover, the algorithm simulates the passbands and stopbands due to the presence of the coupling joints and pulse distortion and delay due to nonuniform cross-section areas. Acoustic and electric pulses, generated at one location in the string, can be propagated and detected at any other location by piezoelectric and acoustic sensors, such as PCB accelerometers, clamp-on ammeters, force, and strain transducers.

  1. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  2. Source identification of nitrate in groundwater using stable isotopes and Cl/Br ratios in an agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, D.; Mayer, B.

    2009-12-01

    Sources of nitrate in groundwater were investigated in an agricultural area with natural area at higher altitude, upland at hilly terrains and residential areas at low-lying lands using δ15N and δ18O of nitrate and Cl/Br ratios. The NO3- concentration in groundwater was as high as 49 mg/L, with an average of 6.0 mg/L and a median value of 4.4 mg/L as NO3-N, and, 22% of the groundwater samples exceeded the DWS of South Korea, which is 10 mg/L for NO3-N. Nitrate sources were consistently identified in residential and upland areas using stable isotopes of nitrate and Cl/Br ratios which showed that the higher δ15N-NO3- and Cl/Br ratios in residential area and lower δ15N-NO3- and Cl/Br ratios in upland Meanwhile, contribution of atmospheric nitrate in natural area was not readily observable due to resetting of δ18O-NO3- in the soil zone. The higher δ15N-NO3- values in residential area was consistent with higher Cl/Br ratios indicating the effect of domestic wastewater including sewage and septic effluents. Upland area had δ15N-NO3- corresponding to soil organic nitrogen which seems resulted from mixed sources of mineralized fertilizer and manure with higher contribution of the latter. The lower Cl/Br ratios of upland area compared to residential area indicates higher contribution of agrochemicals including fertilizers and pesticides. Statistical comparison of chemical and isotopic parameters according to land-use groups revealed that nitrate concentrations and Cl/Br ratios were distinctive between four land uses considered whereas stable isotopes of nitrate were not significantly different between anthropogenic land uses indicating Cl/Br ratio is a more efficient tracer for impact of land-uses on groundwater quality in agricultural areas.

  3. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  4. Basic biogenic aerosol precursors: Agricultural source attribution of volatile amines revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, U.; Sintermann, J.; Spirig, C.; Jocher, M.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2011-08-01

    Despite recent evidence on an important role of volatile amines in the nucleation of particulate matter, very scarce information is available on their atmospheric abundance and source distribution. Previous measurements in animal housings had identified livestock husbandry as the main amine source, with trimethylamine (TMA) being the key component. This has led to the assumption that the agricultural sources for amines are similar as for ammonia, emitted throughout the cascade of animal excretion, storage and application in the field. In this study, we present the first micrometeorological flux measurements as well as dynamic enclosure experiments showing that the amine source strength from stored slurry is negligible, implying significant consequences for the global amine emission inventory. In the case of cattle, amine production is attributed to the animal's rumination activity and exhalation is suggested to be an important emission pathway, similar to the greenhouse gas methane. Fodder like hay and silage also emits volatile amines, potentially assigning these alkaloid compounds a key function in enhancing particle formation in remote areas.

  5. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  6. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  7. Surface Time-Variable Gravity Signals and Possible Sources Including Core Mass Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Kuang, Weijia

    2003-01-01

    Over two decades of geodetic satellite-laser-ranging (SLR) data show that the variation of the Earth's oblateness parameter J2 has a clear seasonal signal of amplitude of about 3e-10 and a secular decrease of about -2.8e-11/year, superimposed on some interesting interannual fluctuations. Physically, any change in mass distribution or/inside the Earth will be reflected in the time-variable gravity signal obtained outside the Earth, according to Newton s gravitational law. Therefore, such signal contains contributions from all geophysical sources that redistribute mass, on all temporal and spatial scales, including those from the core. Besides Earth rotation and geomagnetic field variations, the time-variable gravity also contains information linking Earth surface observations with internal core dynamical processes. The time scales of the gravity signal are critical in helping differentiate different contributions. The atmosphere and hydrosphere are responsible for the seasonal and much of the interannual and intraseasoanl fluctuations, while the secular trend is due mainly to the post-glacial rebound but possibly core mass flow. To estimate the latter effect, we use our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent, Three-dimensional) core dynamics model to forward simulate the core flow, and density variation due to the core convection. Our results suggest that, when upward continued to the surface, the J2 component of the core mass redistribution can reach an overall amplitude of e-11/year, approaching the SLR detectability and significant in geophysical terms. We also find a general westward drift of the mass flow, with a speed comparable to that of the geomagnetic westward drift.

  8. Impacts of input parameter spatial aggregation on an agricultural nonpoint source pollution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzHugh, T. W.; Mackay, D. S.

    2000-09-01

    The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends in part on how well model input parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. The spatial extent of input parameter aggregation has previously been shown to have a substantial impact on model output. This study investigates this problem using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed-parameter agricultural nonpoint source pollution model. The primary question addressed here is: how does the size or number of subwatersheds used to partition the watershed affect model output, and what are the processes responsible for model behavior? SWAT was run on the Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, WI, using eight watershed delineations, each with a different number of subwatersheds. Model runs were conducted for the period 1990-1996. Streamflow and outlet sediment predictions were not seriously affected by changes in subwatershed size. The lack of change in outlet sediment is due to the transport-limited nature of the Pheasant Branch watershed and the stable transport capacity of the lower part of the channel network. This research identifies the importance of channel parameters in determining the behavior of SWAT's outlet sediment predictions. Sediment generation estimates do change substantially, dropping by 44% between the coarsest and the finest watershed delineations. This change is primarily due to the sensitivity of the runoff term in the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to the area of hydrologic response units (HRUs). This sensitivity likely occurs because SWAT was implemented in this study with a very detailed set of HRUs. In order to provide some insight on the scaling behavior of the model two indexes were derived using the mathematics of the model. The indexes predicted SWAT scaling behavior from the data inputs without a need for running the model. Such indexes could be useful for model users by providing a direct way to evaluate alternative models

  9. From deposition to erosion: spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport in a small agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Florsheim, J.L.; Pellerin, B.A.; Oh, N.H.; Ohara, N.; Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.; Kavvas, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport were investigated in a small agricultural watershed draining the Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley in central California. Results of field, laboratory, and historical data analysis in the Willow Slough fluvial system document changes that transformed a transport-limited depositional system to an effective erosion and transport system, despite a large sediment supply. These changes were caused by a combination of factors: (i) an increase in transport capacity, and (ii) hydrologic alteration. Alteration of the riparian zone and drainage network pattern during the past ~ 150 years included a twofold increase in straightened channel segments along with a baselevel change from excavation that increased slope, and increased sediment transport capacity by ~ 7%. Hydrologic alteration from irrigation water contributions also increased transport capacity, by extending the period with potential for sediment transport and erosion by ~ 6 months/year. Field measurements document Quaternary Alluvium as a modern source of fine sediment with grain size distributions characterized by 5 to 40% fine material. About 60% of an upland and 30% of a lowland study reach incised into this deposit exhibit bank erosion. During this study, the wet 2006 and relatively dry 2007 water years exhibited a range of total annual suspended sediment load spanning two orders of magnitude: ~ 108,500 kg/km2/year during 2006 and 5,950 kg/km2/year during 2007, only 5% of that during the previous year. Regional implications of this work are illustrated by the potential for a small tributary such as Willow Slough to contribute sediment – whereas large dams limit sediment supply from larger tributaries – to the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay Delta and Estuary. This work is relevant to lowland agricultural river–floodplain systems globally in efforts to restore aquatic and riparian functions and where water quality

  10. Extraction of whole versus ground source rocks: Fundamental petroleum geochemical implications including oil-source rock correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.C.; Clayton, J.L. )

    1992-03-01

    In petroleum geochemistry, extractable hydrocarbons (HCs) in source rocks have typically been studied by grinding the rock to a fine powder ({le}100 mesh) and then extracting the HCs from the rock with a solvent. This procedure carries the implicit assumption that the HCs are homogeneously distributed throughout the rock. However, sequential Soxhlet extractions of whole (unpowdered) source rocks have shown that progressive extracts from the same rock can be quite different and may not even correlate with each other. A crude oil-like material clearly has been fractionated from indigenous bitumen in these rocks, has moved to cracks and parting laminae in the rocks, is ready for expulsion from the rocks, and is thus most accessible to the first extracting solvents. This process, which the authors believe is largely due to HC gases and carbon dioxide generated over all maturation ranks in source rocks, carries petroleum geochemical implications of a fundamental nature for oil-source rock correlations and gives insight into primary migration mechanisms, origin of oil deposits, and use of maturity and organic-facies indices.

  11. Extraction of whole versus ground source rocks: Fundamental petroleum geochemical implications including oil-source rock correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Clayton, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In petroleum geochemistry, extractable hydrocarbons (HCs) in source rocks have typically been studied by grinding the rock to a fine powder (???100 mesh) and then extracting the HCs from the rock with a solvent. This procedure carries the implicit assumption that the HCs are homogeneously distributed throughout the rock. However, sequential Soxhlet extractions of whole (unpowdered) source rocks have shown that progressive extracts from the same rock can be quite different and may not even correlate with each other. A crude oil-like material clearly has been fractionated from indigenous bitumen in these rocks, has moved to cracks and parting laminae in the rocks, is ready for expulsion from the rocks, and is thus most accessible to the first extracting solvents. This process, which we believe is largely due to HC gases and carbon dioxide generated over all maturation ranks in source rocks, carries petroleum geochemical implications of a fundamental nature for oil-source rock correlations and gives insight into primary migration mechanisms, origin of oil deposits, and use of maturity and organic-facies indices. ?? 1992.

  12. Understanding the sources and mitigation potential of nitrous oxide in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, W. R.; Zhu, X.; Doane, T. A.; Burger, M.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the global warming potential of GHG emissions from agriculture is attributed to nitrous oxide (N2O).. Many factors control the production and release of N2O from soils. In addition to fertilizer N, soil N, moisture and carbon availability control N2O emissions. In addition, a previously overlooked factor, iron, was recently found to be the most significant factor influencing N2O production. Controlled by soil and management factors, N2O production is attributed to multiple pathways, including ammonia oxidation (AO), denitrification, and abiotic chemical reactions. Ammonia oxidation or nitrifier activity N2O production, is a well known pathway, but it significance to total N2O production is also highly debated and soil conditions influencing its production are poorly understood. Studies in a variety of crops in California strongly suggest that this pathway contributes substantially to N2O emissions. It is well established that denitrification primarily occurs under O2- limiting conditions, while N2O produced from AO is also influenced by soil O2 content, with maximum production occurring at low O2 levels (~0.5%). Since emission of N2O can arise from both AO and denitrification activities at low O2 concentrations, it is difficult to discern the importance of each pathway under various soil conditions and management. Furthermore, both the N form and concentration are determinants of nitrifier N2O production. The nitrifier denitrification pathway has been shown to dominate over nitrifier nitrification and nitrification coupled denitrification pathways. Irrigation, rainfall, and fertilization events stimulate microbial activity, including AO and denitrification that produces N2O and although limited, these events contribute to the majority of annual emissions. This uncertainty and complexity surrounding N2O production pathways has hampered the development of practices to reduce N2O emissions. As agricultural production intensifies in developing

  13. Identification of sources of metal in the agricultural soils of the Guanzhong Plain, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenbo; Li, Xuxiang; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Liu; Hou, Kang; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-07

    A comprehensive survey was conducted to assess the possible sources and distribution of metals in the agricultural soils of the Guanzhong Plain in northwest China. In total, 227 samples of agricultural soil were collected to determine the content of Pb, Cr, Co, V, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, and Mn by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The mean concentrations of metals were 26.2 ± 10.8 mg kg(--1) , 71.5 ± 16.8 mg kg(-1) , 12.7 ± 1.81 mg kg(-1) , 85.1 ± 7.86 mg kg(-1) , 30.5 ± 6.17 mg kg(-1) , 71.1 ± 14.1 mg kg(-1) , 25.2 ± 5.58 mg kg(-1) , 12.5 ± 1.94 mg kg(-1) , and 635.4 ± 84.7 mg kg(-1) for Pb, Cr, Co, V, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, and Mn, respectively-slightly higher than the regional background values. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the metal sources, and it was found that Ni and Cr in the agricultural soils were mainly derived from lithological materials, and Pb, Zn, and Cu were mainly from traffic emissions; however, Zn and Cu also originated from mineral fertilizers or pesticides. The other metals originated from industrial emissions. The Nemerow index coupled with geographic information system technology was applied to assess the degree and spatial distribution of metal contamination; the soils studied were classified as slightly polluted, and the most contaminated regions were concentrated in the area surrounding Xi'an city, as well as areas in the southeast and north of the Guanzhong Plain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-7. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Source and transport factors influencing storm phosphorus losses in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Mairead; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; kelly-quinn, Mary; Wall, David; Murphy, Paul; Melland, Alice

    2014-05-01

    The relative risk of diffuse phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural land was assessed in a well-drained arable catchment and a poorly-drained grassland catchment and in two nested basins within each catchment. This research investigated the relative control of hydrology and soil P on P losses between basins. Quick flow (QF) P losses (defined here as both concentrations and loads), monitored in stream flow during four storm events, were compared with a dynamic metric of transport risk (QF magnitude) and a static metric of critical source area (CSA) risk (extent of highly-connected poorly-drained soils with excess plant-available soil P). The potential for static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class, to predict relative QF magnitudes and P losses between basins was also investigated. In basins with similar CSA risk but with contrasting QF magnitudes, mean TRP (total molybdate-reactive P) losses were consistently higher in the basins which had the highest QF magnitudes. This suggests that basin hydrology, rather than hydrology of high-P soils only, determined relative TRP losses between hydrologically contrasting basins. Furthermore, static transport metrics of soil connectivity and soil drainage class reliably discerned relative QF magnitudes and TRP losses between these basins. However, for two of the storm events (both occurring during the hydrologically active season), PP (particulate P) concentrations were frequently higher in basins which had the lowest QF magnitudes and may be attributed to a higher proportion of bare soil in these basins at these times as a result of their predominantly arable nature. In basins with similar hydrology, relative TRP and PP losses did not reflect trends in CSA risk or QF magnitude. The dynamics of TRP and PP losses and QF magnitude between these basins varied across storms, thus could not be predicted using static metrics. Where differences in hydrological dynamics were large, storm TRP losses were well

  15. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China. PMID:27973400

  16. Semi-Empirical Characterization of Ground Motions Including Source, Path and Nonlinear Site Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyhan, Emel

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the physical understanding of earthquake ground motion characteristics related to source, path and nonlinear site effects and our ability to model those effects with engineering models. Site database work was performed within the context of the NGA-West 2 project. Starting with the site database from original (2008) NGA project (last edited in 2006), we provided site classifications for 2538 new sites and re-classifications of previous sites. The principal site parameter is the time-averaged shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30 ), which is characterized using measurements where available, and proxy-based relationships otherwise. We improved the documentation and consistency of site descriptors used as proxies for the estimation of Vs30, developed evidence-based protocols for Vs30 estimation from available proxies, and augmented estimates of various basin depth parameters. Site factors typically have a small-strain site amplification that captures impedance and resonance effects coupled with nonlinear components. Site factors in current NEHRP Provisions are empirically-derived at relatively small ground motion levels and feature simulation-based nonlinearity. We show that current NEHRP site factors have discrepancies with respect to the site terms in the original NGA GMPEs both in the linear site amplification (especially for Classes B, C, D, and E) and the degree of nonlinearity (Classes C and D). We analyzed the NGA-West 2 dataset and simulation-based models for site amplification to develop a new model. The model has linear and nonlinear additive components. The linear component is fully empirical, being derived from worldwide ground motion data (regional effects were examined but found to not be sufficiently important to be included in the model). The model features linear Vs30-scaling in a log-log sense below a corner velocity (Vc), and no Vs30-scaling for velocities faster than Vc. The nonlinear component is

  17. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2012-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (∼78%) and nutrients (∼30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  18. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  19. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Davis, J Michael

    2007-08-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM(2.5) particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM(2.5) data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM(2.5).samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM(2.5) data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for "secondary smoke" (industry), "soil", "smoke" and "seaspray". Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from "secondary industry", "smoke", "soil" and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer

  20. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    To provide teachers of vocational agriculture, agricultural supervisors, and agricultural teacher educators with information on current curriculum materials available to them, this annotated bibliography presents 207 references classified according to the AGDEX filing system. Topics are: (1) Field Crops, (2) Horticulture, (3) Forestry, (4) Animal…

  1. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide teachers of vocational agriculture, agricultural supervisors, and agricultural teacher educators with information on current curriculum materials available to them. Classified according to the AGDEX filing system, the 163 references are grouped under the headings: (1) Field Crops, (2)…

  2. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education. 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Listed are 246 curriculum material items in ten categories: field crops, horticulture, forestry, animal science, soils, diseases and pests, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agricultural occupations, and professional. Most materials are annotated and all are classified according to the AGPEX filing system. Bibliographic and…

  3. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  4. Occurrence, distribution and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soil of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xue-Tong; Jia, Ying; Wang, Fei; Wu, Ming-Hong; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2009-10-30

    Surface soil samples from agricultural soil of Shanghai were collected and analyzed for 24 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations were in the ranges of nd-10.38 n gg(-1) for HCHs (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH), 0.77-247.45 ng g(-1) for DDTs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-DDT), 0.84-10.08 ng g(-1) for CHLs (sum of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor), nd-3.68 ng g(-1) for endosulfan (sum of alpha- and beta-endosulfan), 0.10-3.62 ng g(-1) for HCB and nd-5.69 ng g(-1) for other OCPs (sum of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin). The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 265.24 ng g(-1) and the main contaminated areas were distributed in the south regions of Shanghai (including Fengxian, Nanhui and Jinshan districts). According to the measured concentrations and detection frequencies, HCHs, DDTs, HCB and heptachlor epoxide were the most dominant compounds among the 24 OCPs. The different compositions of DDT, HCH, chlordane and endosulfan indicated that the residues of these compounds in most soil samples originated from historical application, besides slight recent introduction at some sampling locations. The correlation analysis showed no significant relationship between TOC and OCPs. The quality of Shanghai agricultural soil was classified as low pollution by OCPs.

  5. Investigating the Sources and Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter in an Agricultural Watershed in California (U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Spencer, R. G.; Ingrum, T. D.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous and plays critical roles in nutrient cycling, aquatic food webs and numerous other biogeochemical processes. Furthermore, various factors control the quality and quantity of DOM, including land use, soil composition, in situ production, microbial uptake and assimilation and hydrology. As a component of DOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been recently identified as a drinking water constituent of concern due to its propensity to form EPA-regulated carcinogenic compounds when disinfected for drinking water purposes. Therefore, understanding the sources, cycling and modification of DOC across various landscapes is of direct relevance to a wide range of studies. The Willow Slough watershed is located in the Central Valley of California (U.S.A.) and is characterized by both diverse geomorphology as well as land use. The watershed drains approximately 425 km2 and is bordered by Cache and Putah Creeks to the north and south. The study area in the watershed includes the eastern portion of the foothills of the inner Coast Range and the alluvial plain and encompasses diverse land uses, including orchards, viticulture, dairy, pasture and natural grasslands. The Willow Slough watershed represents a unique opportunity to examine DOC dynamics through multiple land uses and hydrologic flow paths that are common throughout California. Preliminary data show that DOC concentrations at the watershed mouth peak during winter storms and also increase gradually throughout the summer months during the agricultural irrigation season. The increasing DOC concentrations during the summer months may result from agricultural runoff and/or primary production in channel. In addition, initial results using the chromophoric DOM (CDOM) absorption coefficient and spectral slope parameters indicate seasonal differences in the composition of the DOM. Spectral slopes decreased during both the summer irrigation season and winter storms relative to winter

  6. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (< 0.1-12 ??g/L), nitrate (0.1 to 15 mg/L, and chloride (1.5 to 26 mg/L) in water were similar for creek and tile samples. Water draining predominantly agricultural row crop areas had much higher concentrations than water draining restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to

  7. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  8. Use of Continuous Specific Conductance to Differentiate the Sources of Water to an Agricultural Stream With Subsurface Drainage Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. A.; Thornburg, J.; Capel, P. D.

    2008-12-01

    The sources of water to natural streams include direct precipitation, overland flow, and ground-water inflow. In glaciated areas, the presence of artificial surface and subsurface drainage networks, a common practice for removing excess water from agricultural fields, provides additional pathways of water movement to the stream. The artificial drainage of agricultural fields allows rainfall to move quickly through the catchment to the stream transporting nutrients, pesticides and other agricultural-related constituents. A largely agricultural (about 90%), 31 km2 subcatchment of the South Fork of the Iowa River in north-central Iowa was studied for two years. Discharge and specific conductance (SC) were measured continuously and discreet water samples were obtained for analyses of nutrients and other constituents. SC is an electrical measurement of the total ion content in the water. The SC of the rain and ground-water is about 10 microS/cm and 800-1,200 microS/cm, respectively. The typical, base-flow SC of the stream is 700-800 microS/cm. Within minutes after a substantial rain event, the stream discharge increases and the SC decreases (often times below 200"nmicroS/cm). The rain water is processed through the catchment before it reaches the stream via direct overland flow, preferential flow to subsurface drains, vertical drains attached to subsurface drains in ponded areas, and/or soil infiltration to ground-water. Water moving through each of these pathways has different characteristic time scales and different degrees of interactions with the soil yielding different ionic content, thus different SC. Both the discharge and SC concurrently return to the typical base-flow values over the following days and weeks. This strong relation between rainfall, discharge and SC is used to calculate the relative importance and time scale of the various hydrologic pathways. In addition to the two-year stream record, complementary discharge and SC data were collected in two

  9. Evaluation of land use and water quality in an agricultural watershed in the USA indicates multiple sources of bacterial impairment.

    PubMed

    Wittman, Jacob; Weckwerth, Andrew; Weiss, Chelsea; Heyer, Sharon; Seibert, Jacob; Kuennen, Ben; Ingels, Chad; Seigley, Lynette; Larsen, Kirk; Enos-Berlage, Jodi

    2013-12-01

    Pathogens are the number one cause of impairments of assessed rivers and streams in the USA and pose a significant human health hazard. The Dry Run Creek Watershed in Northeast Iowa has been designated as impaired by the State of Iowa because of high levels of Escherichia coli bacteria. To investigate the nature of this impairment, land use and stream bank assessments were coupled with comprehensive water quality monitoring. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters were measured at 13 different sites in the watershed, including pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia-N, nitrate + nitrite-N, total phosphorus, and E. coli. In addition, benthic macroinvertebrate communities were analyzed at seven sites, and optical brightener tests were performed late in the season. Results identified segments of the watershed that were more prominent contributors of E. coli, and correlations were observed between levels of E. coli and several chemical parameters, including ammonia-N, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Interestingly, distinct sites emerged as more prominent contributors of these elements during rain vs. non-rain events, suggesting different types of sources. Both the amount of rainfall and the time elapsed between the rain event and the sampling influenced E. coli levels during wet weather conditions. Nitrate + nitrite-N displayed a unique response to rain events compared with the other parameters, suggesting a different delivery route. Analyses of benthic macroinvertebrate communities were consistent with pollution trends. Collectively, these data suggest distinct agriculturally related E. coli contributions, as well as specific areas and practices for water quality improvement strategies. This study can serve as a resource for evaluating agricultural watersheds that are impaired for bacteria.

  10. Unaccounted variability in NH3 agricultural sources detected by IASI contributing to European spring haze episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Dufour, G.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Foret, G.; Siour, G.; Van Damme, M.; Meleux, F.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Clarisse, L.; Favez, O.; Wallasch, M.; Beekmann, M.

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3), whose main source in the troposphere is agriculture, is an important gaseous precursor of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). We derived daily ammonia emissions using NH3 total columns measured from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on board Metop-A, at a relatively high spatial resolution (grid cell of 0.5° × 0.5°). During the European spring haze episodes of 24-31 March 2012 and 8-15 March 2014, IASI reveals NH3 total column magnitudes highlighting higher NH3 emissions over central Europe (especially over Germany, Czech Republic, and eastern France) from the ones provided by the European reference European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme inventory. These ammonia emissions exhibit in addition a large day-to-day variability, certainly due to spreading practices. The increase of NH3 emissions in the model, that reaches +300% locally, leads to an increase of both NH3 and PM2.5 surface concentrations and allows for a better comparison with independent measurements (in terms of bias, root-mean-square error, and correlation). This study suggests that there are good prospects for better quantifying NH3 emissions by atmospheric inversions.

  11. Developing unique tracers to distinguish nutrient contributions from agriculture and wastewater sources in the Choptank River and Anacostia River watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eutrophication is a major problem for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The efficacy of the restoration efforts implemented is restricted by the inability to differentiate nutrient sources. This study assessed the use of stable tracers in order to discriminate between urban and agricultural nutrient sou...

  12. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey on sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Erwin, Martha L.

    2004-01-01

    Information from these studies will help with decision-making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields. This information also will benefit the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, local and regional water managers, and agricultural chemical manufacturers who are involved in managing chemical use and pesticide registration.

  13. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  14. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using (137)Cs activities and radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24km(2), Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n=36) and subsurface channel bank (n=17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n=41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. (137)Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of the pond. This original sediment

  15. 76 FR 62451 - Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... to TA-W-73,095 is hereby issued as follows: ``All workers of Avon Products, Inc., including on-site... Employment and Training Administration Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  16. Characterizing the ozone formation potential of agricultural sources in California's San Joaquin Valley: A computational and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Cody Jerome

    The global pattern of expanding urban centers and increasing agricultural intensity is leading to more frequent interactions between air pollution emissions from urban and agricultural sources. The confluence of these emissions that traditionally have been separated by hundreds of kilometers is creating new air quality challenges in numerous regions across the United States. An area of particular interest is California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), which has an agricultural output higher than many countries, a rapidly expanding human population, and ozone concentrations that are already higher than many dense urban areas. New regulations in the SJV restrict emissions of reactive organic gases (ROG) from animal sources in an attempt to meet Federal and State ozone standards designed to protect human health. A transportable "smog" chamber was developed and tested to directly measure the ozone formation potential of a variety of agricultural emissions in representative urban and rural atmospheres. After validation of the experimental procedure, four animal types were examined: beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, and poultry, as well as six commonly used animal feeds: cereal silage (wheat grain and oat grain), alfalfa silage, corn silage, high moisture ground corn, almond shells, almond hulls, and total mixed ration. The emitted ROG composition was also measured so that the theoretical incremental reactivity could be calculated for a variety of atmospheres and directly compared with the measured ozone formation potential (OFP) under the experimental conditions. A computational model was created based on a modified form of the Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism and validated against experimental results. After validation, the computational model was used to predict OFP across a range of NOx and ROG concentrations. The ROG OFP measurements combined with adjusted agricultural ROG emissions inventory estimates were used to predict the actual ozone production in the SJV

  17. Evaluation of area source models to predict near ground level concentrations due to emissions released during agricultural applications.

    PubMed

    Nimmatoori, Praneeth; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-15

    The modeling of emissions to predict concentrations at downwind distances close to the area sources such as agricultural is of great interest for practical applications. In this study, three area source models used for agricultural sources - the Shear, the Parker, and the Smith models - are compared using two field data sets. Statistical performance measures are used to evaluate and compare the performance of the models. The evaluation results showed that the Shear model performed better than the Parker and the Smith models for all the near downwind distances under unstable conditions (B and C). The analysis of model algorithms indicate that the relatively better performance of the Shear model is due to the incorporation of a variation of wind speed and vertical eddy diffusivity (atmospheric turbulence) with height above the ground.

  18. The concentrations, distribution and sources of PAHs in agricultural soils and vegetables from Shunde, Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong Tao; Li, Fang Bai; Chen, Jun Jian; Yang, Guo Yi; Wan, Hong Fu; Zhang, Tian Bin; Zeng, Xiao Duo; Liu, Jian Ming

    2008-04-01

    The concentrations, distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 30 agricultural soil and 16 vegetable samples collected from subtropical Shunde area, an important manufacturing center in China. The total PAHs ranged from 33.7 to 350 microg/kg in soils, and 82 to 1,258 microg/kg in vegetables. The most abundant individual PAHs are phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene for soil samples, and anthracene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene for vegetable samples. Average vegetable-soil ratios of total PAHs were 2.20 for leafy vegetables and 1.27 for fruity vegetables. Total PAHs in vegetable samples are not significantly correlated to those in corresponding soil samples. Principal component analyses were conducted to distinguish samples on basis of their distribution in each town, soil type and vegetable specie. Relatively abundant soil PAHs were found in town Jun'an, Beijiao, Chencun, Lecong and Ronggui, while abundant vegetable PAHs were observed in town Jun'an, Lecong, Xingtan, Daliang and Chenchun. The highest level of total PAHs were found in vegetable soil, followed by pond sediment and "stacked soil" on pond banks. The PAHs contents in leafy vegetables are higher than those in fruity vegetables. Some PAH compound ratios suggest the PAHs derived from incomplete combustion of petroleum, coal and refuse from power generation and ceramic manufacturing, and paint spraying on furniture, as well as sewage irrigation from textile industries. Soil PAHs contents have significant logarithmic correlation with total organic carbon, which demonstrates the importance of soil organic matter as sorbent to prevent losses of PAHs.

  19. Nitrate-nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios for identification of nitrate sources and dominant nitrogen cycle processes in a tile-drained dryland agricultural field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems are a leading source of reactive nitrogen to aquatic and atmospheric ecosystems. Natural d15Nnitrate and d18Onitrate are used to identify the dominant nitrogen cycle processes and sources of NO3- leached from a tile-drained, dryland agricultural field. Tile-drain water discharge...

  20. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the assessment of groundwater pollution potential by pesticides in two adjacent agricultural watersheds in the Mid-Altantic Coastal Plain. Indices for estimating streams vulnerability to pollutants' load from the surficial aquifer...

  1. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis.

  3. 76 FR 62452 - Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...-site at the Springdale, Ohio location of Avon Products. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,095 is... Employment and Training Administration Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  4. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    PubMed

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability.

  5. Assessment of sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area by using a multi-tracer approach.

    PubMed

    Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Harter, Thomas; Ramírez, Aldo I; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Nitrate isotopic values are often used as a tool to understand sources of contamination in order to effectively manage groundwater quality. However, recent literature describes that biogeochemical reactions may modify these values. Therefore, data interpretation is difficult and often vague. We provide a discussion on this topic and complement the study using halides as comparative tracers assessing an aquifer underneath a sub-humid to humid region in NE Mexico. Hydrogeological information and stable water isotopes indicate that active groundwater recharge occurs in the 8000km(2) study area under present-day climatic and hydrologic conditions. Nitrate isotopes and halide ratios indicate a diverse mix of nitrate sources and transformations. Nitrate sources include organic waste and wastewater, synthetic fertilizers and soil processes. Animal manure and sewage from septic tanks were the causes of groundwater nitrate pollution within orchards and vegetable agriculture. Dairy activities within a radius of 1,000 m from a sampling point significantly contributed to nitrate pollution. Leachates from septic tanks caused nitrate pollution in residential areas. Soil nitrogen and animal waste were the sources of nitrate in groundwater under shrubland and grassland. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration underneath agricultural lands and grassland, especially during summer months.

  6. Methane in groundwater used for Japanese agriculture: Its relationship to other physico-chemical properties and possible tropospheric source stength

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Kimura, M. ); Kasuya, M.; Kotake, M.; Katoh, T. )

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of measurements of dissolved methane found in ground water samples from Aichi Prefecture, Japan, taken from wells which were used for agricultural irrigation. It is a part of the overall program to account of methane sources and sinks in the environment. Detectable methane concentrations were found in more than half of the 131 samples taken. Based on the detected methane concentrations, and the estimated ground water usage, this source represents only 1.4% of the methane production from paddy fields in this geographic region.

  7. The MV model of the color glass condensate for a finite number of sources including Coulomb interactions

    DOE PAGES

    McLerran, Larry; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2016-09-19

    We modify the McLerran–Venugopalan model to include only a finite number of sources of color charge. In the effective action for such a system of a finite number of sources, there is a point-like interaction and a Coulombic interaction. The point interaction generates the standard fluctuation term in the McLerran–Venugopalan model. The Coulomb interaction generates the charge screening originating from well known evolution in x. Such a model may be useful for computing angular harmonics of flow measured in high energy hadron collisions for small systems. In this study we provide a basic formulation of the problem on a lattice.

  8. The MV model of the color glass condensate for a finite number of sources including Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLerran, Larry; Skokov, Vladimir V.

    2017-01-01

    We modify the McLerran-Venugopalan model to include only a finite number of sources of color charge. In the effective action for such a system of a finite number of sources, there is a point-like interaction and a Coulombic interaction. The point interaction generates the standard fluctuation term in the McLerran-Venugopalan model. The Coulomb interaction generates the charge screening originating from well known evolution in x. Such a model may be useful for computing angular harmonics of flow measured in high energy hadron collisions for small systems. In this paper we provide a basic formulation of the problem on a lattice.

  9. Agricultural Resources Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains four units with relevant problem areas and is intended as a source unit for agricultural education. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the…

  10. Agriculture: A source of raw materials for industrial purposes the French strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mauguin, P.; Gaouyer, J.P.; Labrousse, S.

    1995-11-01

    Creating new value-added products from agricultural and forestry biomass can present opportunities for diversifying industry, preserving agricultural activities and reinvigorating exploitation of forests. Stimulating new markets for agriculture and forestry products is strategically important for France, in order to cushion the effects of the reform of the European Common Policy (CAP), while maintaining the commitments assessed at the Rio Coference. The promotion of new markets should constitute a major vector for rural development, by marking use of agricultural lands no longer needed for food crops due to the glut of foodstuffs on the market. In the next few years, energy uses of biomass should help hold down greenhouse gas emissions, by regulating and storing CO{sub 2}. For each of these markets, whether for energy uses (solid, liquid or gaseous fuels) or for other applications, the first priority is to match prices and specifications of the fossil fuels that are to be deplaced, with minimum impact on the environment. To match these goals, the French government has launched a new research group, Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy (AGRICE). AGRICE has been set up for a renewable five years period. Its members are: Agriculture, Industry, Research and Environment departments; the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), the Institut Francais due Petrole (IFP), the French Agency for Environment and Energy (Ademe); Wheat producers, Beet growers, and oil seed producers; and Rhone Poulenc (chemicals), TOTAL (oil company). In 1995, AGRICE will have a 40 Millions FFrancs from public funds, supplemented by 25 Millions FFrancs from business and trade groups.

  11. Sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment: A composite fingerprinting approach based on the selection of potential sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiping; Chang, Weina; Zhang, Longjiang

    2016-08-01

    Fingerprinting techniques have been widely used as a reasonable and reliable means for investigating sediment sources, especially in relatively large catchments in which there are significant differences in surface materials. However, the discrimination power of fingerprint properties for small catchments, in which the surface materials are relatively homogeneous and human interference is marked, may be affected by fragmentary or confused source information. Using fingerprinting techniques can be difficult, and there is still a need for further studies to verify the effectiveness of such techniques in these small catchments. A composite fingerprinting approach was used in this study to investigate the main sources of sediment output, as well as their relative contributions, from a small catchment (30 km2) with high levels of farming and mining activities. The impact of the selection of different potential sediment sources on the derivation of composite fingerprints and its discrimination power were also investigated by comparing the results from different combinations of potential source types. The initial source types and several samples that could cause confusion were adjusted. These adjustments improved the discrimination power of the composite fingerprints. The results showed that the composite fingerprinting approach used in this study had a discriminatory efficiency of 89.2% for different sediment sources and that the model had a mean goodness of fit of 0.90. Cultivated lands were the main sediment source. The sediment contribution of the studied cultivated lands ranged from 39.9% to 87.8%, with a mean of 76.6%, for multiple deposited sediment samples. The mean contribution of woodlands was 21.7%. Overall, the sediment contribution from mining and road areas was relatively low. The selection of potential sources is an important factor in the application of fingerprinting techniques and warrants more attention in future studies, as is the case with other

  12. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.

  13. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Members of the Curriculum Materials Committee collect materials available to them prior to each American Vocational Association Meeting. The resulting bibliography contains current, non-commercial materials developed by persons in vocational education in agriculture for use in that field, but of interest beyond the state in which it was developed.…

  14. An enhanced export coefficient based optimization model for supporting agricultural nonpoint source pollution mitigation under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Rong, Qiangqiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Chen, Bing; Yue, Wencong; Yin, Xin'an; Tan, Qian

    2017-02-15

    In this research, an export coefficient based dual inexact two-stage stochastic credibility constrained programming (ECDITSCCP) model was developed through integrating an improved export coefficient model (ECM), interval linear programming (ILP), fuzzy credibility constrained programming (FCCP) and a fuzzy expected value equation within a general two stage programming (TSP) framework. The proposed ECDITSCCP model can effectively address multiple uncertainties expressed as random variables, fuzzy numbers, pure and dual intervals. Also, the model can provide a direct linkage between pre-regulated management policies and the associated economic implications. Moreover, the solutions under multiple credibility levels can be obtained for providing potential decision alternatives for decision makers. The proposed model was then applied to identify optimal land use structures for agricultural NPS pollution mitigation in a representative upstream subcatchment of the Miyun Reservoir watershed in north China. Optimal solutions of the model were successfully obtained, indicating desired land use patterns and nutrient discharge schemes to get a maximum agricultural system benefits under a limited discharge permit. Also, numerous results under multiple credibility levels could provide policy makers with several options, which could help get an appropriate balance between system benefits and pollution mitigation. The developed ECDITSCCP model can be effectively applied to addressing the uncertain information in agricultural systems and shows great applicability to the land use adjustment for agricultural NPS pollution mitigation.

  15. Using lidar to characterize particles from point and diffuse sources in an agricultural field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. Aglite is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Energy Dynamics Laboratory (EDL) to measure the spati...

  16. A DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE LISTING OF PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, 1963-64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLEDGE, GEORGE W.; AND OTHERS

    BRIEF ANNOTATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR MANY OF THE 107 REFERENCES LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES -- (1) ADULT EDUCATION, (2) AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, (3) ANIMAL SCIENCE, (4) CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND CURRICULUM IN CROPS, ENTOMOLOGY, FARM MANAGEMENT, FARM MECHANICS, AND LIVESTOCK, (5) FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING, (6) FORESTRY, (7)…

  17. Interactively Improving Agricultural Field Mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa with Crowd-Sourcing and Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debats, S. R.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    As satellite imagery becomes increasingly available, management of large image databases becomes more important for efficient image processing. We have developed a computer vision-based classification algorithm to distinguish smallholder agricultural land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a group of high-resolution images from South Africa as a case study. For supervised classification, smallholder agriculture, with ambiguous patterns of small, irregular fields, requires a wide range of training data samples to adequately describe the variability in appearance. We employ crowd-sourcing to obtain new training data to expand the geographic range of our algorithm. A crowd-sourcing user is asked to hand-digitize the boundaries of agricultural fields in an assigned 1 km2 image. Yet random assignment of images to users could result in a highly redundant training data set with limited discriminative power. Furthermore, larger training data sets require a greater number of users to hand-digitize fields, which increases costs through crowd-sourcing engines like Amazon Mechanical Turk, as well as longer algorithm training times, which increases computing costs. Therefore, we employ an active learning approach to interactively select the most informative images to be hand-digitized for training data by crowd-sourcing users, based on changes in algorithm accuracy. We investigate the use of various image similarity measures used in content-based image retrieval systems, which quantify the distance, such as Euclidean distance or Manhattan distance, between a variety of extracted feature spaces to determine how similar the content of two images are. We determine the minimum training data set needed to maximize algorithm accuracy, as well as automate the selection of additional training images to classify a new target image that expands the geographic range of our algorithm.

  18. The thermal maturation degree of organic matter from source rocks revealed by wells logs including examples from Murzuk Basin, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Negoita, V.; Gheorghe, A.

    1995-08-01

    The customary technique used to know the organic matter quantity per rock volume it as well as the organic matter maturation stage is based on geochemical analyses accomplished on a preselected number of samples and cuttings drawn from boreholes during the drilling period. But the same objectives can be approached without any extra cost using the continuous measurements of well logs recorded in each well from the ground surface to the total depth. During the diagenetic stage, the identification of potential source rocks out of which no hydrocarbon have been generated may be carried out using a well logging suite including Gamma Ray Spectrometry, the Compensated Neutron/Litho Density combination and a Dual Induction/Sonic Log. During the catagenetic stage the onset of oil generation brings some important changes in the organic matter structure as well as in the fluid distribution throughout the pore space of source rocks. The replacement of electric conductive water by electric non-conductive hydrocarbons, together with water and oil being expelled from source rocks represent a process of different intensities dependent of time/temperature geohistory and kerogen type. The different generation and expulsion scenarios of hydrocarbons taking place during the catagenetic and metagenetic stages of source rocks are very well revealed by Induction and Laterolog investigations. Several crossplots relating vitrinite reflectance, total organic carbon and log-derived physical parameters are illustrated and discussed. The field applications are coming from Murzuk Basin, where Rompetrol of Libya is operating.

  19. Degradation State, Sources, and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from an Amino Acid Time Series in an Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiasek, S. J.; Pellerin, B. A.; Spencer, R. G.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Hernes, P.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed time series of dissolved amino acids was obtained in an agricultural watershed in the northern Central Valley, California, USA to investigate the roles of hydrologic and seasonal changes on the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA) concentrations ranged from 0.55 to 9.96 μM (mean 3.76 ± 1.80 μM) and not only peaked with discharge during winter storms, but also remained elevated throughout the irrigation season when discharge was low. Summer irrigation was a critical hydrologic regime for DOM cycling, since it mobilized DOM similar in concentration and reactivity to DOM released during winter storms for an extended period of time, with the largest amino acid contributions to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pools (3.4 ‒ 3.7 % DOC-AA, 17.4 ‒ 22.5 % DON-AA), the largest proportion of basic amino acids (B/(B+A) = 0.19 ‒ 0.22), and the largest degradation index values (mean 1.37 ± 0.96). The mole percent of non-protein amino acids, commonly considered as an indicator of microbial degradation, decreased with DOM processing and was highest during summer (mean 4.1 ± 1.1%). A lack of correlation between THAA concentrations and UV-Vis absorbance and fluorescence proxies (including "protein-like" fluorophores B and T) indicated that optical properties may be limited in representing amino acid dynamics in this system. A new parameter for DOM processing derived from trends in individual amino acids demonstrated strong potential for inferring the extent of DOM degradation in freshwater systems. The biogeochemical relevance of irrigation practices is heightened by timing, since the additional export of reactive DOM coincides with enhanced downstream DOM processing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a critical habitat for endangered species serving as water source for 25 million Californians.

  20. Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution from agricultural diffuse sources: a case study.

    PubMed

    Muhammetoğlu, H; Muhammetoğlu, A; Soyupak, S

    2002-01-01

    Kumluca, near Antalya in Turkey, is an important plain with its intensive agricultural activities employing greenhouses. The chemical fertilizer application practices caused excessive increases of the nitrogen, phosphorus and salinity within groundwater. A study has been initiated to assess the present state of the groundwater pollution problem of Kumluca Plain. A total of nine measurement and sampling stations have been selected to represent different depths groundwater table, different types of agricultural activities and different soil types. The magnitudes of the parameters: temperature, salinity and conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate and fecal coliform were determined for groundwater. Soil samples collected from the stations have been analyzed for several parameters such as texture, total salinity, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The measurement and analyses results of the groundwater showed wide spatial variations depending on factors such as the quality of irrigation water, depth groundwater, soil characteristics, type and age of agriculture and hydrology. Groundwater vulnerabilities to pollution have been analyzed using the SEEPAGE Model approach. Furthermore the soil, aquifer and groundwater characteristics, which will be utilized to establish "cause" and "effect" relationships in future, have been clarified.

  1. Reductions in non-point source pollution through different management practices for an agricultural watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaowu; Huang, Zhilin; Xiao, Wenfa

    2010-01-01

    Non-point source water pollution generated by agricultural production is considered a major environmental issue in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of China. The Annualised Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) model was selected to assess the impact of the application of various management treats, including seven crops, five fertilizer levels and three-group management practice scenarios, on water quality from Heigou River Watershed in TGRA. The scenario subsets include conservation tillage practice (CTP), conservation reserve program (CRP) and conversion of cropland into forestland program (CCFP). Results indicated that tea can not be replaced by other crops because comparatively tea resulted in a higher sediment yield. CTP with no-tillage was more effective to reduce sediment yield, but could increased nutrient loss. CRP reduced sediment yield significantly, but slightly benefited on nutrient loss. CCFP reduced not only sediment yield but also the nutrient loss significantly. The conversion of cropland with a slope greater than 10 degrees into forestland was found to be the best scenario as the sediment yield export is less than 5 tons/ha and nutrient loss is within the permissible limit.

  2. Measuring Florida Extension Faculty's Agricultural Paradigmatic Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laura A.; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Lawver, David E.; Baker, Matt; Lindner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The demand for sustainable agriculture has increased, and many institutions, including the University of Florida, have adopted agricultural sustainability as a major goal. Extension has been identified as a critical information source, important in disseminating sustainable agricultural growing techniques. However, research has demonstrated that…

  3. Designing Schemes to Mitigate Non-Point Source Water Pollution from Agriculture: The Value of High-Resolution Hydrochemical and Hydrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    To effectively mitigate non-point source water pollution from agriculture, first it is vital to have an awareness of a watershed's hydrological and contaminant regime. Understanding the magnitude and timing of pollutant export, as well as the pathways by which different constituents are delivered to a water course, is paramount. One approach to gaining this type of knowledge is to observe pollutant fluxes at the watershed outlet. The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchments programme uses in-situ monitoring equipment to provide high-resolution (30 minute) data for three mixed-agriculture watersheds (ca. 10km2) in north western England. Determinands measured include turbidity, phosphorus, nitrate, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH and temperature, along with river discharge and rainfall. Provided with these data, and an awareness of significant agricultural activities carried out in the watershed on an annual basis, this study demonstrates how it is possible to identify different pollutant transfer pathways, along with their spatio-temporal nature, and their relative importance. This information is then used to inform appropriate mitigation design. In relation to this purpose, the pros and cons of the different hydrochemical and hydrophysical data are described, and recommendations made for other determinands that should be considered for measurement in future similar studies.

  4. Reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus loading under intensifying agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogus, Mamaru; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, Seifu; Steenhuise, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture will bring along non-point source pollution in the Ethiopian highlands resulting in eutrophication of lakes. The first signs of eutrophication have been observed already in Lake Tana. The lake it supports the lives of millions in the surrounding through fishing, tourism, transportation and hydropower.Presently, information on non-point source pollution is lacking in the Ethiopian highlands. There are few studies carried out in the highlands on the extent and the source areas of pollution, and models are not available for predicting sediment and phosphorus loading other than those developed for temperate climates. The objective of this chapter is to review existing non-point source studies, report on our findings of sediment and phosphorus sources that are related the non-point source pollution of Lake Tana and to present a non-point source model for the Ethiopian highland based on the Parameter Efficient Semi-distributed Watershed Hydrology Model (PED-WHM).In our research we have found that the saturation excess runoff from valley bottoms and from degraded lands are prevalent in the Ethiopia highlands. The periodically runoff source areas are also the sources for the non-point source pollution and by concentrating best management practices in these source areas we expect that we can reduce pollution without affecting the profitability of the existing farms. The water balance component of the non-point source model has been performing well in predicting both the discharge and the location of the runoff source areas. Sediment and phosphorus prediction models have been developed and are currently being tested for the 7km2Awramba watershed and the 1350 km2Gumara basin. Initial results indicate that 11.2 ton/ha/year sediment load and an accumulation rate of 17.3 mg/kg/year of dissolved phosphorus from Gumara watershed joining the lake. By developing best management practices at this time before non-point source pollution is rampant and

  5. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  6. Initial results of a full kinetic simulation of RF H{sup −} source including Coulomb collision process

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, S.; Shibata, T.; Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    In order to evaluate Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) more correctly for radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (RF-ICP) in hydrogen negative ion sources, the Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (EM-PIC) simulation code has been improved by taking into account electron-electron Coulomb collision. Binary collision model is employed to model Coulomb collision process and we have successfully modeled it. The preliminary calculation including Coulomb collision has been done and it is shown that Coulomb collision doesn’t have significant effects under the condition: electron density n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and high gas pressure p{sub H{sub 2}} = 3 Pa, while it is necessary to include Coulomb collision under high electron density and low gas pressure conditions.

  7. Fingerprinting Sources of Suspended Sediment in a Canadian Agricultural Watershed Using the MixSIAR Bayesian Unmixing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. P.; Owens, P. N.; Gaspar, L.; Lobb, D. A.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support watershed management strategies. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly being recognized as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within watersheds. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognized as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection needs to be addressed. There are also questions associated with which modelling approach (frequentist or Bayesian) is the best to unmix complex environmental mixtures, such as river sediment. This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian unmixing model (MixSIAR) using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We used fallout radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs) and geochemical elements (e.g. As) as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used (i.e. Koiter et al., 2013; Barthod et al., 2015) to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural watershed located in Manitoba, Canada. We show that the unmixing model using a combination of fallout radionuclides and geochemical tracers gave similar results to the model based on colour parameters. Furthermore, we show that a model that combines all tracers (i.e. radionuclide/geochemical and colour) gave similar results, showing that sediment sources change from predominantly topsoil in the upper reaches of the watershed to channel bank and bedrock outcrop material in the lower reaches. Barthod LRM et al. (2015). Selecting color-based tracers and classifying sediment sources in the assessment of sediment dynamics using sediment source fingerprinting. J Environ Qual

  8. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broad- casts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document includes articles concerning agriculture issues in the USSR. Topics include: crop progress and weather reporting, livestock, regional development , agro-economicss and organizations, tilling and cropping technology.

  9. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides.

  10. Role of Diffusion in Attributing the Source of Nitrous Oxide Production in the Upper Meter of an Agricultural Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbak, I.; Robertson, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is a major anthropogenic source of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Distribution of subsurface sources of N2O in agricultural soils is not well understood. We examined N2O production at different soil depths to 1 meter in order to quantify by depth the total flux produced and the factors responsible for production. We measured subsurface N2O concentrations and surface N2O flux in three experiments: 1) duplicated tilled and no-tillage plots planted to corn, 2) rainfed and irrigated plots planted to corn at six N fertilizer levels, and 3) different replicated treatments of KBS LTER site - corn/soybean/wheat under conventional tillage, no-tillage, reduced input, and organic management, poplar trees, alfalfa, and early- and mid-successional communities. We measured diffusivity by injecting an inert tracer (SF6) and high concentrations of nitrous oxide to different depths to validate a diffusivity model. We developed a production function from experiments studying the effects of tillage, fertilization, and irrigation and applied it to treatments of KBS LTER. We attributed specific portions of N2O produced at different soil depths, with lower fluxes produced at depth despite surprisingly high N2O concentrations to 1m. Major seasonal fluxes were produced in the top 25 cm.

  11. The strategic significance of wastewater sources to pollutant phosphorus levels in English rivers and to environmental management for rural, agricultural and urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P; Withers, Paul J A; Whitton, Brian A; Neal, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between soluble and particulate phosphorus was examined for 9 major UK rivers including 26 major tributaries and 68 monitoring points, covering wide-ranging rural and agricultural/urban impacted systems with catchment areas varying from 1 to 6000km(2) scales. Phosphorus concentrations in Soluble Reactive (SRP), Total Dissolved (TDP), Total (TP), Dissolved Hydrolysable (DHP) and Particulate (PP) forms correlated with effluent markers (sodium and boron) and SRP was generally dominant signifying the importance of sewage sources. Low flows were particularly enriched in SRP, TDP and TP for average SRP>100microg/l indicating low effluent dilution. At particularly low average concentrations, SRP increased with flow but effluent sources were still implicated as the effluent markers (boron in particular) increased likewise. For rural areas, DHP had proportionately high concentrations and SRP+DHP concentrations could exceed environmental thresholds currently set for SRP. Given DHP has a high bioavailability the environmental implications need further consideration. PP concentrations were generally highest at high flows but PP in the suspended solids was generally at its lowest and in general PP correlated with particulate organic carbon and more so than the suspended sediment in total. Separation of pollutant inputs solely between effluent and diffuse (agriculture) components is misleading, as part of the "diffuse" term comprises effluents flushed from the catchments during high flow. Effluent sources of phosphorus supplied directly or indirectly to the river coupled with within-river interactions between water/sediment/biota largely determine pollutant levels. The study flags the fundamental need of placing direct and indirect effluent sources and contaminated storage with interchange to/from the river at the focus for remediation strategies for UK rivers in relation to eutrophication and the WFD.

  12. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. A mathematical framework for including various sources of variability in a task-based assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Subok; Badal, Andreu; Young, Stefano; Myers, Kyle J.

    2012-03-01

    For a rigorous x-ray imaging system optimization and evaluation, the need for exploring a large space of many different system parameters is immense. However, due to the high dimensionality of the problem, it is often infeasible to evaluate many system parameters in a laboratory setting. Therefore, it is useful to utilize computer simulation tools and analytical methods to narrow down to a much smaller space of system parameters and then validate the chosen optimal parameters by laboratory measurements. One great advantage of using the simulation and analytical methods is that the impact of various sources of variability on the system's diagnostic performance can be studied separately and collectively. Previously, we have demonstrated how to separate and analyze noise sources using covariance decomposition in a task-based approach to the assessment of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems in the absence of x-ray scatter and detector blur.1, 2 In this work, we analytically extend the previous work to include x-ray scatter and detector blur. With use of computer simulation, we also investigate the use of the convolution method for approximating the scatter images of structured phantoms in comparison to those computed via Monte Carlo. The extended method is comprehensive and can be used both for exploring a large parameter space in simulation and for validating optimal parameters, chosen from a simulation study, with laboratory measurements.

  14. The role of hydrology in connecting agricultural phosphorus sources to surface water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the risk of phosphorus (P) loss from land to water represents one of the most important priorities of nutrient management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Simply put, for P to pose a water quality problem, there must be a source of P that can readily be connected to surface water by hydro...

  15. Organic matter source and degradation as revealed by molecular biomarkers in agricultural soils of Yuanyang terrace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangfang; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Di; Yang, Xiaolei; Li, Hao; Liao, Shaohua; Ghaffar, Abdul; Peng, Hongbo; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-06-01

    Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation. Two soils (TD and TP) with human activities showed more diverse of chemicals in both free lipids and CuO oxidation products than the one (NS) without human activities. Branched alkanoic acids only accounted for less than 5% of lipids, indicating limited microbial inputs in all three investigated soils. The degradation of lignin in NS and TD was relatively higher than TP, probably because of the chemical degradation, most likely UV light-involved photodegradation. Lignin parameters obtained from CuO oxidation products confirmed that woody gymnosperm tissue (such as pine trees) may be the main source for NS, while angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP. Analysis of BPCAs illustrated that BC in NS may be mainly originated from soot or other fossil carbon sources, whereas BC in TD and TP may be produced during corn stalk and straw burning. BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP. The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants.

  16. Organic matter source and degradation as revealed by molecular biomarkers in agricultural soils of Yuanyang terrace

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Di; Yang, Xiaolei; Li, Hao; Liao, Shaohua; Ghaffar, Abdul; Peng, Hongbo; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Three soils with different tillage activities were collected and compared for their organic matter sources and degradation. Two soils (TD and TP) with human activities showed more diverse of chemicals in both free lipids and CuO oxidation products than the one (NS) without human activities. Branched alkanoic acids only accounted for less than 5% of lipids, indicating limited microbial inputs in all three investigated soils. The degradation of lignin in NS and TD was relatively higher than TP, probably because of the chemical degradation, most likely UV light-involved photodegradation. Lignin parameters obtained from CuO oxidation products confirmed that woody gymnosperm tissue (such as pine trees) may be the main source for NS, while angiosperm tissues from vascular plant may be the predominant source for the lignins in TD and TP. Analysis of BPCAs illustrated that BC in NS may be mainly originated from soot or other fossil carbon sources, whereas BC in TD and TP may be produced during corn stalk and straw burning. BC was involved in mineral interactions for TD and TP. The dynamics of organic matter needs to be extensively examined for their nonideal interactions with contaminants. PMID:26046574

  17. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  18. Agricultural waste as a source for the production of silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vaibhav, Vineet; Vijayalakshmi, U; Roopan, S Mohana

    2015-03-15

    The major interest of the paper deals with the extraction of silica from four natural sources such as rice husk, bamboo leaves, sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shell. These waste materials in large quantities can create a serious environmental problem. Hence, there is a need to adopt proper strategy to reduce the waste. In the present investigation, all the waste materials are subjected to moisture removal in a hot plate and sintered at 900°C for 7 h. The sintered powder was treated with 1 M NaOH to form sodium silicate and then with 6M H2SO4 to precipitate silica. The prepared silica powders were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM-EDAX analysis. The silica recovered from different sources was found to vary between 52% and 78%. Magnesium substituted silica was formed from the groundnut waste and further treatment is required to precipitate silica.

  19. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 512.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Letricia M.; Traub, Larry G.

    This report presents agricultural information for each state and the United States as a whole for the years 1981-1985. Included are data on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms. The primary data sources are the "1982 Census of Agriculture," the…

  20. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  1. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  2. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  3. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrates from agricultural sources using a GIS-compatible logic multicriteria model.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Flotats, Xavier; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2016-04-15

    In the present study an overlay method to assess groundwater vulnerability is proposed. This new method based on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) was developed and validated using an appropriate case study in Aragon area (NE Spain). The Vulnerability Index to Nitrates from Agricultural Sources (VINAS) incorporates a novel Logic Scoring of Preferences (LSP) approach, and it has been developed using public geographic information from the European Union. VINAS-LSP identifies areas with five categories of vulnerability, taking into account the hydrogeological and environmental characteristics of the territory as a whole. The resulting LSP map is a regional screening tool that can provide guidance on the potential risk of nitrate pollution, as well as highlight areas where specific research and farming planning policies are required.

  4. Point-source effects on N and P uptake in a forested and an agricultural Mediterranean streams.

    PubMed

    Merseburger, Gora; Martí, Eugènia; Sabater, Francesc; Ortiz, Jesús D

    2011-02-01

    We examined the effect of point-source inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on in-stream uptake of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate and compared it between two streams draining catchments with contrasting land use. The selected streams were La Tordera and Gurri (NE Spain), draining a forest- and an agriculture-dominated catchment, respectively. In each stream, we compared nutrient uptake metrics, estimated from nutrient additions, between two reaches located upstream and downstream of a WWTP input. Measurements were done on 8-9 dates during 2002-2003. In La Tordera, the point-source increased concentrations of all studied nutrients; whereas in Gurri, this effect was less evident. Point-source effects on nutrient uptake differed between the two streams, and among solutes. In La Tordera, uptake lengths (S(w)) of ammonium and phosphate averaged hundreds of meters above the point-source, and increased (i.e., decreased uptake efficiency) 4 and 5 times, respectively, below the point-source. S(w) of nitrate was ≥2km regardless of reach location. In Gurri, S(w) of all studied nutrients was within the km range in the two reaches. In this stream, diffuse nutrient inputs from adjacent fields may overwhelm the local effect of the point-source input. Uptake velocities (v(f)) of the studied nutrients ranged between 10EXP(-6) and 10EXP(-4)m/s in the two streams, and were similar between the two reaches in each stream. However, phosphate v(f) decreased under increasing concentrations following a power function. This trend remained significant when combining our results with those compiled from literature, suggesting the efficiency loss response may be a general trend for phosphate across streams. The relative increases in uptake rates (U) below the point-source were proportional to the relative point-source contribution to downstream nutrient loads, especially for ammonium and nitrate. However, the increases in U were not enough to compensate for the increases in

  5. The implementation of non-condensable mass equations including a dissolved gas source term in WCOBRA/TRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumiller, David Lee, Jr.

    1997-12-01

    In the era of passively cooled reactors, condensation is playing a larger role in the emergency cooling of the reactor. With this added emphasis it is more important than ever to be able to accurately predict the condensation rate. It is well known that the presence of non-condensable gases will diminish this rate. This thesis describes the changes which were necessary to enable WCOBRA/TRAC to calculate the non-condensable distribution in the reactor system. WCOBRA/TRAC is Westinghouse's Large Break LOCA code. The ability to track both gaseous nitrogen and hydrogen was implemented in both portions of WCOBRA/TRAC. Furthermore, a mass equation was also added for dissolved hydrogen. This dissolved mass equation when combined with the calculation of the dissolved hydrogen solubility forms the basis of a gaseous hydrogen source term. This source had not previously been included in reactor safety codes. Several different models for this flashing mechanism are presented. The effect on the interfacial heat transfer for both portions of WCOBRA/TRAC is also discussed. This discussion primarily focuses on the necessary changes required to maintain the proper driving forces for the interfacial heat transfer as well the changes required to assure conservation of energy in the new system. Several types of test problems are used to show the importance of the models which have been implemented on the modelling of reactor transients. The most important effect is that by properly accounting for the effects of the non-condensables on condensation, the ability to model the impact of the ECCS injection during a Large Break Loca is drastically improved. The ability of the code to properly track the dissolved hydrogen and its emergence from solution was demonstrated. Several different scenarios for the emergence of the hydrogen have been studied. The results of these studies show that the hydrogen which is liberated has the ability to play a significant role in the progression of reactor

  6. Nitrate sinks and sources as controls of spatio-temporal water quality dynamics in an agricultural headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Durand, Patrick; Weiler, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Several controls are known to affect water quality of stream networks during flow recession periods, such as solute leaching processes, surface water-groundwater interactions as well as biogeochemical in-stream turnover processes. Throughout the stream network, combinations of specific water and solute export rates and local in-stream conditions overlay the biogeochemical signals from upstream sections. Therefore, upstream sections can be considered functional units which could be distinguished and ordered regarding their relative contribution to nutrient dynamics at the catchment outlet. Based on snapshot sampling of flow and nitrate concentrations along the stream in an agricultural headwater during the summer flow recession period, we determined spatial and temporal patterns of water quality for the whole stream. A data-driven, in-stream-mixing-and-removal model was developed and applied for analysing the spatio-temporal in-stream retention processes and their effect on the spatio-temporal fluxes of nitrate from subcatchments. Thereby, we have been able to distinguish quantitatively between nitrate sinks, sources per stream reaches, and subcatchments, and thus we could disentangle the overlay of nitrate sink and source signals. For nitrate sources, we determined their permanent and temporal impact on stream water quality and for nitrate sinks, we found increasing nitrate removal efficiencies from upstream to downstream. Our results highlight the importance of distinct nitrate source locations within the watershed for in-stream concentrations and in-stream removal processes, respectively. Thus, our findings contribute to the development of a more dynamic perception of water quality in streams and rivers concerning ecological and sustainable water resource management.

  7. Environmental Involvement. Sources of Information (Including Directories and Lists) on Organizations, Institutions, Agencies, Groups, Etc., Concerned with Environmental Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, John

    Sources of information for environmental involvement are presented in this bibliography, designed not only as a single reference work but also to demonstrate the variety of sources which exist. Catalogued are organizations, institutions, agencies, and groups concerned with environmental affairs and providing international, continental, national,…

  8. 75 FR 41854 - SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC's application for market-based...

  9. Woodchip bioreactors for N-source reduction in a highly managed agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kult, K.; Jones, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Excess nutrification and the resulting hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico are increasingly understood to originate in managed landscapes of the Upper Mississippi River basin. Nitrogen inputs to cropped fields are high in landscapes with soils containing high organic nitrogen content that, when mineralized, releases nitrogen in the soluble nitrate form. These in situ sources supply extensive subsurface drainage systems that rapidly transport nitrogen to streams and ultimately the Gulf. Aggressive in-field N management can reduce loading to streams, but will not reduce loads to sufficiently impact Gulf hypoxia. Edge of Field (EOF) treatment will be needed to reach water quality objectives. Denitrification bioreactors are one technology being studied for practical and economical EOF nitrate reduction. Bioreactors intercept the high-N tile-drain effluent with woodchip substrates that provide carbon and energy to support denitrification. Iowa Soybean Association (ISA) installed six bioreactors. Design of the ISA bioreactors has focused on the diameter of the field tile and the catchment area. Designs balance discharge with retention times. The bioreactors have been designed to have a 4-hour hydraulic retention time (HRT) capable of treating 20% of peak flow. Denitrification is assumed to follow zero-order kinetics given the high NO3 concentrations in the studied systems. Aerobic organisms must deplete DO sufficiently so anaerobic denitrifying organisms can compete. Insufficient HRT results in unsatisfactory NO3 reductions. Conditions favoring incomplete denitrification can lead to emission of the greenhouse gas N2O. Excessive retention times allow for complete denitrification enabling SO4-reducing bacteria to thrive. This produces undesirable results: conversion of SO4 to H2S, C-source depletion, production of toxic CH3Hg+, and methanogenesis. A flow control structure (FCS) allows for management of HRT by modifying the position of stop logs. Increased HRT reduces the amount

  10. Sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field in the Southern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Berry, Joseph A; Billesbach, Dave; Campbell, John Elliott; Torn, Margaret S; Zahniser, Mark; Seibt, Ulli

    2014-06-24

    Net photosynthesis is the largest single flux in the global carbon cycle, but controls over its variability are poorly understood because there is no direct way of measuring it at the ecosystem scale. We report observations of ecosystem carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO2 fluxes that resolve key gaps in an emerging framework for using concurrent COS and CO2 measurements to quantify terrestrial gross primary productivity. At a wheat field in Oklahoma we found that in the peak growing season the flux-weighted leaf relative uptake of COS and CO2 during photosynthesis was 1.3, at the lower end of values from laboratory studies, and varied systematically with light. Due to nocturnal stomatal conductance, COS uptake by vegetation continued at night, contributing a large fraction (29%) of daily net ecosystem COS fluxes. In comparison, the contribution of soil fluxes was small (1-6%) during the peak growing season. Upland soils are usually considered sinks of COS. In contrast, the well-aerated soil at the site switched from COS uptake to emissions at a soil temperature of around 15 °C. We observed COS production from the roots of wheat and other species and COS uptake by root-free soil up to a soil temperature of around 25 °C. Our dataset demonstrates that vegetation uptake is the dominant ecosystem COS flux in the peak growing season, providing support of COS as an independent tracer of terrestrial photosynthesis. However, the observation that ecosystems may become a COS source at high temperature needs to be considered in global modeling studies.

  11. Sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field in the Southern Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Maseyk, Kadmiel; Berry, Joseph A.; Billesbach, Dave; Campbell, John Elliott; Torn, Margaret S.; Zahniser, Mark; Seibt, Ulli

    2014-01-01

    Net photosynthesis is the largest single flux in the global carbon cycle, but controls over its variability are poorly understood because there is no direct way of measuring it at the ecosystem scale. We report observations of ecosystem carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO2 fluxes that resolve key gaps in an emerging framework for using concurrent COS and CO2 measurements to quantify terrestrial gross primary productivity. At a wheat field in Oklahoma we found that in the peak growing season the flux-weighted leaf relative uptake of COS and CO2 during photosynthesis was 1.3, at the lower end of values from laboratory studies, and varied systematically with light. Due to nocturnal stomatal conductance, COS uptake by vegetation continued at night, contributing a large fraction (29%) of daily net ecosystem COS fluxes. In comparison, the contribution of soil fluxes was small (1–6%) during the peak growing season. Upland soils are usually considered sinks of COS. In contrast, the well-aerated soil at the site switched from COS uptake to emissions at a soil temperature of around 15 °C. We observed COS production from the roots of wheat and other species and COS uptake by root-free soil up to a soil temperature of around 25 °C. Our dataset demonstrates that vegetation uptake is the dominant ecosystem COS flux in the peak growing season, providing support of COS as an independent tracer of terrestrial photosynthesis. However, the observation that ecosystems may become a COS source at high temperature needs to be considered in global modeling studies. PMID:24927594

  12. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria—A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50–100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  13. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Avelar, A C; Ferreira, W M; Pemberthy, D; Abad, E; Amaral, M A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field.

  14. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria-A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  15. Quantifying the Earthquake Clustering that Independent Sources with Stationary Rates (as Included in Current Risk Models) Can Produce.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.; Apel, E. V.; Muir-Wood, R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) renewed public and academic awareness concerning the clustered nature of seismicity. Multiple event occurrence in short time and space intervals is reminiscent of aftershock sequences, but aftershock is a statistical definition, not a label one can give an earthquake in real-time. Aftershocks are defined collectively as what creates the Omori event rate decay after a large event or are defined as what is taken away as "dependent events" using a declustering method. It is noteworthy that depending on the declustering method used on the Canterbury earthquake sequence, the number of independent events varies a lot. This lack of unambiguous definition of aftershocks leads to the need to investigate the amount of clustering inherent in "declustered" risk models. This is the task we concentrate on in this contribution. We start from a background source model for the Canterbury region, in which 1) centroids of events of given magnitude are distributed using a latin-hypercube lattice, 2) following the range of preferential orientations determined from stress maps and focal mechanism, 3) with length determined using the local scaling relationship and 4) rates from a and b values derived from the declustered pre-2010 catalog. We then proceed to create tens of thousands of realizations of 6 to 20 year periods, and we define criteria to identify which successions of events in the region would be perceived as a sequence. Note that the spatial clustering expected is a lower end compared to a fully uniform distribution of events. Then we perform the same exercise with rates and b-values determined from the catalog including the CES. If the pre-2010 catalog was long (or rich) enough, then the computed "stationary" rates calculated from it would include the CES declustered events (by construction, regardless of the physical meaning of or relationship between those events). In regions of low seismicity rate (e.g., Canterbury before

  16. Occurrence, sources, and potential human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Shangguan, Yuxian; Cheng, Bin; Xu, Yafei; Zhao, Ruifen; Zhang, Yigong; Hua, Xiaozan; Huo, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xiufeng

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, distribution patterns, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. A total of 247 samples collected from agricultural soils from the area were analyzed for sixteen PAHs, including highly carcinogenic isomers. The PAH concentrations had a range of n.d. to 782ngg(-1), with a mean value of 202ngg(-1). The two-three ring PAHs were the dominant species, making up 60 percent of total PAHs. Compared with the pollution levels and carcinogenic potential risks reported in other studies, the soil PAH concentrations in the study area were in the low to intermediate range. A positive matrix factorization model indicates that coal/biomass combustion, coal and oil combustion, and coke ovens are the primary PAH sources, accounting for 33 percent, 26 percent, and 24 percent of total PAHs, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations had a range of n.d. to 476ngg(-1) for PAH7c, with a mean value of 34ngg(-1). The BaPeq concentrations of PAH7c accounted for more than 99 percent of the ∑PAH16, which suggests that seven PAHs were major carcinogenic contributors of ∑PAH16. According to the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines, only six of the soil samples had concentrations above the safe BaPeq value of 600ngg(-1); the elevated concentrations observed at these sites can be attributed to coal combustion and industrial activities. Exposure to these soils through direct contact probably poses a significant risk to human health as a result of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs.

  17. A lighting assembly based on red and blue light-emitting diodes as a lighting source for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Zhigalova, Tatiana; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising lighting source for space agriculture due to their high efficiency, longevity, safety, and other factors. Assemblies based on red and blue LEDs have been recommended in literature, although not all plants show sufficient productivity in such lighting conditions. Adding of green LEDs proposed in some works was aimed at psychological support for the crew, and not at the improvement of plant growth. We studied the growth and the state of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) plants grown under red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Plants grown under a high-pressure sodium lamp (HPS lamp) were used as a control. The plants were illuminated with two photosynthetic photon flux levels: nearly 400 µE and about 100 µE. Plants grown under LEDs with 400 µE level, as compared to control plants, showed lower fresh weight, edible biomass, growth rate, and sugar content. The difference in fresh weight and edible biomass was even more pronounced in plants grown with 100 µE level; the data indicate that the adaptability of the test plants to insufficient lighting decreased. Under LEDs, we observed the decreasing of root growth and the absence of transition to the flowering stage, which points to a change in the hormonal balance in plants grown in such lighting conditions. We also found differences in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and its reaction to a low lighting level. We have concluded that a lighting assembly with red and blue LEDs only is insufficient for the plant growth and productivity, and can bring about alterations in their adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Further studies are needed to optimize the lighting spectrum for space agriculture, taking into account the photosynthetic, phototropic and regulatory roles of light. Using white LEDs or adding far-red and green LEDs might be a promising approach.

  18. Application of strontium isotope measurements to trace sediment sources in an upstream agricultural catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Thil, François; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural areas. It accelerates the supply of sediment to the rivers and degrades water quality. To limit those impacts and optimize management programs in such areas, sources of sediment need to be identified and sediment transport to be controlled. Here, we determined the sources of suspended sediment in the Louroux (24 km², French Loire River basin), a small catchment representative of lowland cultivated environments of Northwestern Europe. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and 220 tile drain outlets have been installed over the last several decades. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes have increased drastically. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, driven by the weathering of rocks with different ages and chemical composition, may reflect the mixing of different sediment sources. Strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were therefore determined in potential soil sources, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and a sediment core sampled in the Louroux Pond at the catchment outlet. Soil, SPM and core samples displayed significantly different isotopic signatures. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil samples varied from 0.712763 to 0.724631 ± 0.000017 (2σ, n=20). Highest values were observed in silicic parts of the catchment whereas the lower values were identified in a calcareous area close to the Louroux Pond. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in SPM (0.713660 to 0.725749 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=20) plotted between the soil and sediment core (0.712255 to 0.716415 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=12), suggesting the presence of particles originating from at least two different lithological sources, i.e. silicic rocks and carbonate material. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the outlet core sample were used to reconstruct the sedimentary dynamics in the catchment during the last decades. These results will guide the future implementation of appropriate management practices aiming to reduce erosion in upstream

  19. New analytical approach to calibrate the co-axial HPGe detectors including correction for source matrix self-attenuation.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Mohamed S; Gouda, Mona M; Nafee, Sherif S; El-Khatib, Ahmed M; El-Mallah, Ekram A

    2012-12-01

    To calibrate the co-axial HPGe semiconductor detectors, we introduce a new theoretical approach based on the Direct Statistical method proposed by Selim and Abbas (1995, 1996) to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency for cylindrical detectors. The present method depends on the accurate analytical calculation of the average path length covered by the photon inside the detector active volume and the geometrical solid angle Ω, to obtain a simple formula for the efficiency. In addition, the self attenuation coefficient of the source matrix (with a radius greater than the detector's radius), the attenuation factors of the source container and the detector housing materials are also treated by calculating the average path length within these materials. (152)Eu aqueous radioactive sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. Remarkable agreement between the measured and the calculated efficiencies was achieved with discrepancies less than 2%.

  20. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from the Magnetic Bubble Source as a Discriminator of Underground Nuclear Explosions, Including Cavity Decoupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    planned shock physics experiments (SPE) 4. Design/develop a very low frequency (VLF)/ELF pulsar to serve as an underground calibration source 5...Carry out underground (in tunnels, etc.) pulsar calibration experiments  A-1 APPENDIX A. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CORRTEX Continuous Reflectometry

  1. Anthropogenic and geogenic Cd, Hg, Pb and Se sources of contamination in a brackish aquifer below agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Colombani, Nicolò; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater quality is often threatened by industrial, agricultural and land use practices (anthropogenic input). In deltaic areas is however difficult to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic inorganic contaminants pollution, since these phenomena can influence each other and often display a seasonal cycling. The effect of geogenic groundwater ionic strength (>10 g/l) on the mobility of trace elements like Cd, Hg, Pb and Se was studied in combination with the anthropogenic sources of these elements (fertilizers) in a shallow aquifer. The site is located in the Po river plain (Northern Italy) in an agricultural field belonging to a reclaimed deltaic environment, near Codigoro town. It is 6 ha wide and is drained by a subsurface drainage system made of PVC tile drains with a slope of 3‰, which provides gravity drainage towards two ditches that in turn discharge in a main channel. The whole area has been intensively cultivated with cereal rotation since 1960, mainly using synthetic urea as nitrogen fertilizer at an average rate of 180 kg-N/ha/y and pig slurry at an average rate of 60 kg-N/ha/y. The sediments were analyzed for major and trace elements via XRF, while major ions in groundwater were analyzed via IC and trace elements via ICP-MS. Three monitoring wells, with an inner diameter of 2 cm and screened down to 4 m below ground level, were set up in the field and sampled every four month from 2012 to 2014. The use of intensive depth profiles with resolution of 0.5 m in three different locations, gave insights into groundwater and sediment matrix interactions. To characterize the anthropogenic inputs synthetic urea and pig slurry were analyzed for trace elements via ICP-MS. The synthetic urea is a weak source of Cd and Hg (~1 ppb), while Se and Pb are found below detection limits. The pig slurry is a much stronger source of Se (~19 ppb) and Pb (~23 ppb) and a weak source of Cd (~3 ppb) and Hg (~2 ppb). Although, the mass loading rate pig slurry is

  2. Assessing the Source-to-Stream Transport of Benzotriazoles during Rainfall and Snowmelt in Urban and Agricultural Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Parajulee, Abha; Lei, Ying Duan; De Silva, Amila O; Cao, Xiaoshu; Mitchell, Carl P J; Wania, Frank

    2017-04-07

    While benzotriazoles (BTs) are ubiquitous in urban waters, their sources and transport remain poorly characterized. We aimed to elucidate the origin and hydrological pathways of BTs in Toronto, Canada, by quantifying three BTs, electrical conductivity, and δ(18)O in high-frequency streamwater samples taken during two rainfall and one snowmelt event in two watersheds with contrasting levels of urbanization. Average concentrations of total BTs (∑BT) were 1.3 to 110 times higher in the more urbanized Mimico Creek watershed relative to the primarily agricultural and suburban Little Rouge Creek. Strong correlations between upstream density of major roads and total BT concentrations or BT composition within all events implicate vehicle fluids as the key source of BTs in both watersheds. Sustained historical releases of BTs within the Mimico Creek watershed have likely led to elevated ∑BT in groundwater, with elevated concentrations observed during baseflow that are diluted by rainfall and surface runoff. In contrast, relatively constant concentrations, caused by mixing of equally contaminated baseflow and rainfall/surface runoff, are observed in the Little Rouge Creek throughout storm hydrographs, with an occasional first flush occurring at a subsite draining suburban land. During snowmelt, buildup of BTs in roadside snowpiles and preferential partitioning of BTs to the liquid phase of a melting snowpack leads to early peaks in ∑BT in both streams, except the sites in the Little Rouge Creek with low levels of vehicle traffic. Overall, a history of BT release and land use associated with urbanization have led to higher levels of BTs in urban areas and provide a glimpse into future BT dynamics in mixed use, (sub)urbanizing areas.

  3. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  4. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Nathaniel P.; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R.; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F.; Tomich, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today’s globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly—depending largely on the stakeholder perspective—as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 “integrated” issues—24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues —that are composed of 318 “component” issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them

  5. [Reduction effects of agricultural management practices on non-point source pollution in a watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Lin; Tian, Yao-Wu; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Liu, Zhi-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Taking a typical watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) as test object, the AnnAGNPS model was used to evaluate the reduction effects of different cropping, different fertilization level, conservation tillage practice (CTP), conservation reserve program (CRP), and conversion of cropland into forestland program (CCFP) on the output of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPS) in the watershed. The simulation results showed that different cropping had no significant difference in the effect of reducing sediment yield, but had significant difference in the effect of reducing phosphorus output. Fertilization level had significant effects on the outputs of total nitrogen and total phosphorus. CTP decreased the sediment yield significantly but increased the nutrient output. CRP reduced sediment yield, but had less effect in reducing nutrient output. CCFP reduced both sediment yield and nutrient output significantly. After the implementation of CCFP, the sediment yield output on the croplands with a slope greater than 10 degrees was less than 5 t x hm(-2) and the nutrient output was within the permissible limit.

  6. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  7. Equivalent circuit model including magnetic and thermo sources for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical magnetostrictive constitutive and the linear thermo-mechanical-electric piezoelectric constitutive are adopted in this paper. The bias magnetic field and ambient temperature are equivalent to a magnetic source and a thermo source, respectively. An equivalent circuit, which contains a magnetic source and a thermo source at the input, for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric (ME) laminates, is established. The theoretical models of the output voltage and static ME coefficient for ME laminates can be derived from this equivalent circuit model. The predicted static ME coefficient versus temperature curves are in excellent agreement with the experimental data available both qualitatively and quantitatively. It confirms the validity of the proposed model. Then the models are adopted to predict variations in the output voltages and ME coefficients in the laminates under different ambient temperatures, bias magnetic fields, and the volume ratios of magnetostrictive phases. This shows that the output voltage increases with both increasing temperature and increasing volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases; the ME coefficient decreases with increasing temperature; the ME coefficient shows an initial sharp increase and then decreases slowly with the increase in the bias magnetic field, and there is an optimum volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases that maximize the ME coefficient. This paper can not only provide a new idea for the study of the thermo-magneto-electric coupling characteristics of ME laminates, but also provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of ME laminates, operating under different sensors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285 and 11472259) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).

  8. High-frequency monitoring reveals nutrient sources and transport processes in an agriculture-dominated lowland water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grift, Bas; Broers, Hans Peter; Berendrecht, Wilbert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Osté, Leonard; Griffioen, Jasper

    2016-05-01

    Many agriculture-dominated lowland water systems worldwide suffer from eutrophication caused by high nutrient loads. Insight in the hydrochemical functioning of embanked polder catchments is highly relevant for improving the water quality in such areas or for reducing export loads to downstream water bodies. This paper introduces new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in a polder in the Netherlands situated below sea level using high-frequency monitoring technology at the outlet, where the water is pumped into a higher situated lake, combined with a low-frequency water quality monitoring programme at six locations within the drainage area. Seasonal trends and short-scale temporal dynamics in concentrations indicated that the NO3 concentration at the pumping station originated from N loss from agricultural lands. The NO3 loads appear as losses via tube drains after intensive rainfall events during the winter months due to preferential flow through the cracked clay soil. Transfer function-noise modelling of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be related to rainfall. The total phosphorus (TP) concentration and turbidity almost doubled during operation of the pumping station, which points to resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by changes in water flow due to pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not results in TP concentration peaks. The rainfall induced and NO3 enriched quick interflow, may also be enriched in TP but retention of TP due to sedimentation of particulate P then results in the absence of rainfall induced TP concentration peaks. Increased TP concentrations associated with run-off events is only observed during a rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. All these observations suggest that the P retention potential of polder water systems is primarily due to the artificial pumping regime

  9. High-frequency monitoring reveals nutrient sources and transport processes in an agriculture-dominated lowland water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grift, B.; Broers, H. P.; Berendrecht, W. L.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Osté, L. A.; Griffioen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Many agriculture-dominated lowland water systems worldwide suffer from eutrophication caused by high nutrient loads. Insight in the hydrochemical functioning of embanked polder catchments is highly relevant for improving the water quality in such areas. This paper introduces new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in a low elevated polder in the Netherlands using high-frequency monitoring technology at the outlet, where the water is pumped into a higher situated lake, combined with a low-frequency water quality monitoring program at six locations within the drainage area. Seasonal trends and short scale temporal dynamics in concentrations indicated that the NO3 concentration at the pumping station originated from N-loss from agricultural lands. The NO3 loads appear as losses with drain water discharge after intensive rainfall events during the winter months due to preferential flow through the cracked clay soil. Transfer function-noise modelling of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be related to rainfall. The total phosphorus (TP) concentration almost doubled during operation of the pumping station which points to resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by changes in water flow due to pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not results in TP concentration peaks. The by rainfall induced and NO3 enriched quick interflow, may also be enriched in TP but this is then buffered in the water system due to sedimentation of particulate P. Increased TP concentrations associated with run-off events is only observed during a rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. All these observations suggest that the P retention potential of polder water systems is highly due to the artificial pumping regime that buffers high flows. As the TP concentration is affected by operation of the pumping station, timing of sampling

  10. A strategy for reducing pollutants at source in order to obtain sustainable agricultural recycling of wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, A; Mattsson, J; Davidsson, F

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish licensing system for wastewater sludge use in agriculture, REVAQ, sets challenges. These include a maximum nominal accumulation rate of 0.2%/year on farmland, for specified metals, to be reached by 2025. Here a model is suggested, and applied for the Gothenburg regional wastewater treatment plant, Gryaab, to quantify historic sludge quality improvements and necessary future development. Local sampling campaigns covering two decades show a substantial reduction of heavy metals and ecologically harmful organic substances (such as adsorbable organic halogens, nonylphenols, phthalates, naphthalenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from households and society at large. For the metals studied the historic mass flow reduction to sludge varies from 1 to 2%/year for mercury, zinc and copper to 15%/year for silver. Copper needs further reduction, involving water pipes and copper roofing. Silver is rare in soil, and significant reduction from already low levels is needed to reach the accumulation goal. Further reduction of other metals involves addressing storm- and drainage water entering the sewers and the sediments already in the sewers. Fulfilling the goals of REVAQ implies national and local measures affecting public and private stakeholders including property owners, the wastewater collection system, commercial businesses and legislating authorities.

  11. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides Species in Cofermentations Are Affected by Carbon Sources, Including Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M.; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708

  12. Forests on drained agricultural peatland are potentially large sources of greenhouse gases - insights from a full rotation period simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongxing; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Björklund, Jesper; Tarvainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Kasimir, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    The CoupModel was used to simulate a Norway Spruce forest on fertile drained peat over 60 years, from planting in 1951 until 2011, describing abiotic, biotic and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2 and N2O). By calibrating the model against tree ring derived biomass data and measured 6 year abiotic data we obtained a "reference" model by which we were able to describe the GHG fluxes and controlling factors over the 60 years. The GHG fluxes are composed of two important quantities, the forest carbon (C) uptake, 405 g C m-2 yr-1 and the decomposition of peat soil, 396 g C m-2 yr-1. N2O emissions contribute to the GHG emissions by 0.5 g N m-2 yr-1, corresponding to 56.8 g C m-2 yr-1. The 60-year-old Spruce forest has an accumulated biomass of 164 Mg C ha-1. However, over this period 208 Mg C ha-1 GHG has been added to the atmosphere, which means a net addition of GHG emissions. The main losses are from the peat soil and, indirectly, from forest thinning products, which we assume have a short lifetime. Model sensitivity analysis by changing initial soil C, drainage depth and initial soil C/N ratio also confirms that forests on drained agricultural peatland are a GHG source. We conclude that after harvest at an age of 80 years, most of the stored biomass carbon is liable to be released, the system having captured C only temporarily and with a cost of disappeared peat, adding both CO2 and N2O to the atmosphere.

  13. Identification of sources and behavior of agricultural contaminants in groundwater using nitorgen and sulfur isootope in Haean basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, Dugin; Kim, Heejung; Mayer, Bernard; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2013-04-01

    The Haean basin shows a bowl-shaped topographic feature and the drainage system shows a dendritic pattern. The study area is consisted of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and fruit fields (0.5%). Most of residents in the study area practice agriculture and paddy rice and vegetables (Chinese radish) are the typical crops grown. The concentration of nitrate in groundwater showed 0.8 ~ 67.3 mg/L in June, 2012 and 2.0 ~ 65.7 mg/L in September, 2012. Hydrogeochemical values and stable isotope ratios of dissolved nitrate and sulfate in groundwater were used to identify contamination sources and transformation processes in shallow groundwater. The δ15N-NO3- values in the study area ranged between +5.2 and +16.9‰ in June and between +4.4 and +13.0‰ in September. The sulfate concentration in groundwater samples obtained from the study area varied from 0.8 to 16.5 mg/L in June and 0 to 19.7 mg/L in September. δ34S-SO42- values ranged from +2.9 to +11.7‰ in June and +1.6 to +8.2‰ in September. The values of δ15N-NO3- and δ34S-SO42- in September were slightly decreased than those of values in June. The chemical composition of groundwater in vegetable and fruit fields showed slightly lower values of δ34S-SO42- and δ15N-NO3- indicated that a mixture of synthetic and organic fertilizers is responsible for groundwater contamination with agro-chemicals. Most groundwater from forests and paddy fields showed slightly higher values of δ15N-NO3- suggested that organic fertilizer is introduced into subsurface.

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of nitrogen in river-alluvial aquifer systems affected by diffuse pollution from agricultural sources: Implications for the implementation of the Nitrates Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arauzo, M.; Valladolid, M.; Martínez-Bastida, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    SummaryReducing nitrate pollution from diffuse agricultural sources is the major environmental challenge in the two adjacent catchments of the Oja-Tirón and Zamaca rivers (La Rioja and Castilla y León, northern Spain). For this reason, part of their territory was designated a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) according to the Nitrates Directive. The Oja Alluvial Aquifer, the Tirón Alluvial Aquifer and their associated rivers are particularly vulnerable to nitrogen pollution due to the shallow water table, the high permeability of alluvial deposits, interconnections between the alluvial aquifers and surface waters and pressures from agriculture. To this end, nine sampling campaigns, organised on a semi-annual basis and focused on the rivers and alluvial aquifers of the two catchments, were carried out from April 2005 to April 2009. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to investigate the chemical forms of nitrogen in river-alluvial aquifer systems of the Oja-Tirón and Zamaca catchments, (2) to improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of nitrogen distribution in the alluvial aquifers and associated rivers by integrating hydrochemical data and hydrogeological and environmental parameters, (3) to estimate the amount of nitrogen exported from the rivers and alluvial aquifers to the River Ebro, and (4) to evaluate the suitability of the current method of designating NVZs in the area. High groundwater flow velocities in the upper alluvial zones favoured the advective transport of nitrate and generated a dilution effect. In these areas, inter-annual variations in nitrate concentrations were observed related to precipitation and N-input from agriculture. However, low flow velocities favoured processes of accumulation in the lower alluvial zones. Our results demonstrated that the entire alluvial surface was highly vulnerable, according to dynamics of the nitrogen in the river-alluvial aquifer systems being studied. The amount of nitrogen exported from

  15. Land-use controls on sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area revealed by multiple environmental tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Chan; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Ko, Kyung-Seok,

    2010-10-01

    Sources and transformation processes of nitrate in groundwater from shallow aquifers were investigated in an agricultural area in the mid-western part of South Korea using a multi-tracer approach including δ 2H and δ 18O values of water, δ 15N and δ 18O values of nitrate, Cl/Br ratios and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The study area was comprised of four land-use types with natural areas at higher altitudes, upland areas with fruit orchards, paddy fields and residential areas at lower elevations. The isotopic composition of water was suitable for distinguishing groundwater that had infiltrated in the higher elevation natural areas with lower δ 2H and δ 18O values from groundwater underneath paddy fields that was characterized by elevated δ 2H and δ 18O values due to evaporation. δ 18O-H 2O values and Cl - concentrations indicated that groundwater and contaminant sources were derived from three land-use types: natural areas, residential areas and paddy fields. Groundwater age determination based on CFCs showed that nitrate contamination of groundwater is primarily controlled by historic nitrogen loadings at least in areas with higher nitrate contamination. Nitrate sources were identified using the stable isotope composition of nitrate and Cl/Br ratios. Higher δ 15N-NO 3- values and Cl/Br ratios of 300 to 800 in residential areas indicated that waste water and septic effluents were major nitrate sources whereas lower δ 15N-NO 3- values and Cl/Br ratios of 100 to 700 in upland areas suggested that synthetic fertilizers constituted a major source of nitrate contamination of aquifers. With only few exceptions in the natural area, contributions of atmospheric nitrate were insignificant due to the resetting of δ 18O-NO 3- values via immobilization and re-mineralization of nitrate in the soil zone. In groundwater underneath paddy fields, 30% of samples had δ 18O-NO 3- values at least 2‰ higher than expected for nitrate formed by chemolithoautotrophic

  16. Land-use controls on sources and fate of nitrate in shallow groundwater of an agricultural area revealed by multiple environmental tracers.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Chan; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Ko, Kyung-Seok

    2010-10-21

    Sources and transformation processes of nitrate in groundwater from shallow aquifers were investigated in an agricultural area in the mid-western part of South Korea using a multi-tracer approach including δ²H and δ¹⁸O values of water, δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O values of nitrate, Cl/Br ratios and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The study area was comprised of four land-use types with natural areas at higher altitudes, upland areas with fruit orchards, paddy fields and residential areas at lower elevations. The isotopic composition of water was suitable for distinguishing groundwater that had infiltrated in the higher elevation natural areas with lower δ²H and δ¹⁸O values from groundwater underneath paddy fields that was characterized by elevated δ²H and δ¹⁸O values due to evaporation. δ¹⁸O-H₂O values and Cl⁻ concentrations indicated that groundwater and contaminant sources were derived from three land-use types: natural areas, residential areas and paddy fields. Groundwater age determination based on CFCs showed that nitrate contamination of groundwater is primarily controlled by historic nitrogen loadings at least in areas with higher nitrate contamination. Nitrate sources were identified using the stable isotope composition of nitrate and Cl/Br ratios. Higher δ¹⁵N-NO₃⁻ values and Cl/Br ratios of 300 to 800 in residential areas indicated that waste water and septic effluents were major nitrate sources whereas lower δ¹⁵N-NO₃⁻ values and Cl/Br ratios of 100 to 700 in upland areas suggested that synthetic fertilizers constituted a major source of nitrate contamination of aquifers. With only few exceptions in the natural area, contributions of atmospheric nitrate were insignificant due to the resetting of δ¹⁸O-NO₃⁻ values via immobilization and re-mineralization of nitrate in the soil zone. In groundwater underneath paddy fields, 30% of samples had δ¹⁸O-NO₃⁻ values at least 2‰ higher than expected for nitrate formed

  17. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, H. K.; Ruesch, A. S.; Achard, F.; Clayton, M. K.; Holmgren, P.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions. PMID:20807750

  18. Potential sources of 2-aminoacetophenone to confound the Pseudomonas aeruginosa breath test, including analysis of a food challenge study.

    PubMed

    Scott-Thomas, Amy; Pearson, John; Chambers, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    2-Aminoacetophenone can be detected in the breath of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonized cystic fibrosis patients; however, low levels were also detected in a small proportion of healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that food, beverages, cosmetics or medications could be a source of contamination of 2-aminoacetophenone in breath. To determine the potential confounding of these products on 2-aminoacetophenone breath analysis, screening for this volatile was performed in the laboratory by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a food challenge study carried out. 2-Aminoacetophenone was detected in four of the 78 samples tested in vitro: corn chips and canned tuna (high pmol mol(-1)) and egg white and one of the three beers (low pmol mol(-1)). No 2-aminoacetophenone was detected in the CF medication or cosmetics tested. Twenty-eight out of 30 environmental air samples were negative for 2-aminoacetophenone (below 50 pmol mol(-1)). A challenge study with ten healthy subjects was performed to determine if 2-aminoacetophenone from corn chips was detectable on the breath after consumption. Analysis of mixed breath samples reported that the levels of 2-aminoacetophenone were immediately elevated after corn chip consumption, but after 2 h the level of 2-aminoacetophenone had reduced back to the 'baseline' for each subject.

  19. A comparative study on iron sources for mitochondrial haem synthesis including ferritin and models of transit pool species.

    PubMed

    Funk, F; Lecrenier, C; Lesuisse, E; Crichton, R R; Schneider, W

    1986-06-02

    The rates of reaction of various exogenic iron(III) complexes with deuteroporphyrin IX in isolated mitochondria to form deuterohaem were measured. Ferritin was shown to supply iron readily for haem synthesis if the ferritin iron was reductively mobilised by the mitochondrial respiratory chain with succinate as substrate and FMN as mediator. In contrast, polynuclear complexes of iron(III) were able to form deuterohaem without added FMN. Rates of haem formation are about five times higher for the lowest polynuclear units than for ferritin. Sorbitol, gluconate, and bovine serum albumin were used as scavengers for polynuclear complexes with restricted size. Strong chelators of iron(II) compete favourably for deuterohaem formation, which supports the multistep mechanism for haem formation suggested by a priori arguments. Rates of deuterohaem formation were measured in homologous and heterologous systems of ferritins and mitochondria. Slightly differing rates of haem formation were shown to originate in different rates of iron mobilisation from the ferritins. The lack of species specificity in the interaction of ferritin with mitochondria also shows up in the linear dependence of ferritin binding on its bulk concentration as measured using 3H-labeled ferritin. Rates of haem formation are virtually the same in mitoplasts and mitochondria which indicates insignificant influences of the outer membrane. The hypothesis of low polynuclears as major components of the intracellular transit iron pool implies that both ferritin and transit iron pool species are largely equivalent sources of iron for mitochondrial haem synthesis.

  20. Adaptation of an ambient ion monitor for detection of amines in gas and particulate agricultural emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile amines are emitted from many sources including agricultural facilities. Recent work has shown that amines may be important players in secondary aerosol formation. Because amine emissions are significantly lower than ammonia, previous measurements and emission studies at agricultural facilit...

  1. Euclidean Distances as measures of speaker similarity including identical twin pairs: A forensic investigation using source and filter voice characteristics.

    PubMed

    San Segundo, Eugenia; Tsanas, Athanasios; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that hybrid approaches are necessary for successful speaker characterization in Forensic Speaker Comparison (FSC); hence this study explores the forensic potential of voice features combining source and filter characteristics. The former relate to the action of the vocal folds while the latter reflect the geometry of the speaker's vocal tract. This set of features have been extracted from pause fillers, which are long enough for robust feature estimation while spontaneous enough to be extracted from voice samples in real forensic casework. Speaker similarity was measured using standardized Euclidean Distances (ED) between pairs of speakers: 54 different-speaker (DS) comparisons, 54 same-speaker (SS) comparisons and 12 comparisons between monozygotic twins (MZ). Results revealed that the differences between DS and SS comparisons were significant in both high quality and telephone-filtered recordings, with no false rejections and limited false acceptances; this finding suggests that this set of voice features is highly speaker-dependent and therefore forensically useful. Mean ED for MZ pairs lies between the average ED for SS comparisons and DS comparisons, as expected according to the literature on twin voices. Specific cases of MZ speakers with very high ED (i.e. strong dissimilarity) are discussed in the context of sociophonetic and twin studies. A preliminary simplification of the Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) Scheme is proposed, which enables the quantification of voice quality features in the perceptual assessment of speaker similarity, and allows for the calculation of perceptual-acoustic correlations. The adequacy of z-score normalization for this study is also discussed, as well as the relevance of heat maps for detecting the so-called phantoms in recent approaches to the biometric menagerie.

  2. Export of non-point source suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sloping highland agricultural fields in the East Asian monsoon region.

    PubMed

    Reza, Arif; Eum, Jaesung; Jung, Sungmin; Choi, Youngsoon; Owen, Jeffrey S; Kim, Bomchul

    2016-12-01

    Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed. SS, TN, and TP concentrations in Mandae Stream were monitored for 5 years (2009-2013) to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. Average EMCs for SS, TN, and TP were as high as 986, 3.4 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The agricultural export coefficients of agricultural land in the study watershed for SS, TN, and TP were 5611, 171, and 6.83 kg/ha/year, respectively. A comparison with results from other studies shows that both EMCs and agricultural export coefficients in the study watershed were much higher than most of the results reported for watersheds in other regions. The results show that sediment and nutrient export from intensive agriculture areas with steep slopes continue to be a major concern for the downstream reservoir, Lake Soyang. Remedial strategies should be directed towards controlling sources of SS, TN, and TP to improve downstream water quality in sloping highland agricultural areas in Korea.

  3. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  4. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel.

  5. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  6. Monthly variability and possible sources of nitrate in ground water beneath mixed agricultural land use, Suwannee and Lafayette Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    In an area of mixed agricultural land use in Suwannee and Lafayette Counties of northern Florida, water samples were collected monthly from 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer during July 1998 through June 1999 to assess hydrologic and land-use factors affecting the variability in nitrate concentrations in ground water. Unusually high amounts of rainfall in September and October 1998 (43.5 centimeters total for both months) resulted in an increase in water levels in all wells in October 1998. This was followed by unusually low amounts of rainfall during November 1998 through May 1999, when rainfall was 40.7 centimeters below 30-year mean monthly values. The presence of karst features (sinkholes, springs, solution conduits) and the highly permeable sands that overlie the Upper Floridan aquifer provide for rapid movement of water containing elevated nitrate concentrations to the aquifer. Nitrate was the dominant form of nitrogen in ground water collected at all sites and nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.02 to 22 milligrams per liter (mg/L), as nitrogen. Water samples from most wells showed substantial monthly or seasonal fluctuations in nitrate concentrations. Generally, water samples from wells with nitrate concentrations higher than 10 mg/L showed the greatest amount of monthly fluctuation. For example, water samples from six of eight wells had monthly nitrate concentrations that varied by at least 5 mg/L during the study period. Water from most wells with lower nitrate concentrations (less than 6 mg/L) also showed large monthly fluctuations. For instance, nitrate concentrations in water from four sites showed monthly variations of more than 50 percent. Large fluctuations in nitrate concentrations likely result from seasonal agricultural practices (fertilizer application and animal waste spreading) at a particular site. For example, an increase in nitrate concentrations observed in water samples from seven sites in February or March 1999 most

  7. A simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic model for agricultural non-point source pollution control through land retirement.

    PubMed

    Luo, B; Li, J B; Huang, G H; Li, H L

    2006-05-15

    This study presents a simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic programming (SITSP) model for agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution control through land retirement under uncertain conditions. The modeling framework was established by the development of an interval two-stage stochastic program, with its random parameters being provided by the statistical analysis of the simulation outcomes of a distributed water quality approach. The developed model can deal with the tradeoff between agricultural revenue and "off-site" water quality concern under random effluent discharge for a land retirement scheme through minimizing the expected value of long-term total economic and environmental cost. In addition, the uncertainties presented as interval numbers in the agriculture-water system can be effectively quantified with the interval programming. By subdividing the whole agricultural watershed into different zones, the most pollution-related sensitive cropland can be identified and an optimal land retirement scheme can be obtained through the modeling approach. The developed method was applied to the Swift Current Creek watershed in Canada for soil erosion control through land retirement. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate the sediment information for this case study. Obtained results indicate that the total economic and environmental cost of the entire agriculture-water system can be limited within an interval value for the optimal land retirement schemes. Meanwhile, a best and worst land retirement scheme was obtained for the study watershed under various uncertainties.

  8. Nonpoint-source agricultural chemicals in ground water in Nebraska; preliminary results for six areas of the High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Hsiu-Hsiung; Druliner, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The reconnaissance phase of a study to determine the occurrence of agricultural chemicals from nonpoint sources in groundwater in six areas, which represented the major provinces of the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska is described. In 1984, water from 82 wells in the 6 study areas was analyzed for nitrate, and water from 57 of the 82 wells was analyzed for triazine herbicides. Data for 9 of the 21 independent variables suspected of affecting concentrations of nitrate and triazine herbicides in groundwater were compiled from the 82 well sites. The variables and their ranges are: hydraulic gradient (XI), 0.006-0.0053; hydraulic conductivity (X2), 5-149 ft/day; specific discharge (X3), 0.0128-0.2998 ft/day; depth to water (X4), 3-239 ft; well depth (X5), 40-550 ft; annual precipitation (X6), 12.0-39.3 inches; soil permeability (X7), 0.76-9.0 inches; irrigation well density (X8), 0-8 irrigation wells/ sq mi; and annual nitrogen fertilizer use (X9), 0-260 lbs of nitrogen/acre. Nitrate concentrations ranged from < 0.1 to 45 mg/L as nitrogen. Triazine herbicide concentrations were detected in samples from five of the six study areas in concentrations ranging from < 0.1 to 2.3 mg/L. Statistical tests indicated that there were significant differences in nitrate concentrations among the six study areas, while no significant differences in triazine herbicide concentrations were found. Concentrations of nitrate and triazine herbicide were significantly larger in more intensively irrigated areas. Preliminary correlations with the independent variables and nitrate concentrations indicated significant relations at the 95% confidence level with variables X2, X5, and X8. Correlations with triazine herbicide concentrations indicated significant relations with variables X2 , X3, X5, X6, and X8, and with nitrate concentrations (X10). By using a simple multiple regression technique, variables X5, X8, and X9 explained about 51% of the variation in nitrate concentrations. Variables X3

  9. Long-term Observations of Carbonaceous Aerosols (including C isotope) at Alert: Inferring Emission Sources of Black Carbon Transported to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lin; Sharma, Sangeeta; Zhang, Wendy; Brook, Jeff; Leaitch, Richard; He, Kebin; Duan, Fengkui; Yang, Fumo

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon is a major component of carbonaceous aerosols and formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning (including biofuels and open fires). It plays unique roles in Earth's climate system through both direct and indirect effects. Identifying and attributing its emission sources, tracking source changes with time and relating them to radiative forcing are important for understanding the impacts of BC on climate at the global and regional levels, as well as necessary for the strategies targeted to reduce BC emission. However, there are many challenges and uncertainties regarding those aspects, particularly for BC aerosols transported to the Arctic region. To address the concerns of BC in the Arctic, carbonaceous aerosol observations, including elemental carbon (EC) content as BC mass, C isotopes as a source tracer, and light absorption coefficient as BC's optical property, have been conducted at Alert, a WMO GAW station (82° 27'N, 62° 31'W) since the early 2000s. In this presentation, nearly a decade of measurements will be presented, with a focus on the isotope results in EC (corresponding data from Beijing will also be shown for the purpose of comparison). Seasonal and inter-annual variations in δ13C (EC) have been characterized, inferring emission sources and suggesting source changes over last 5-6 years. Based on the C isotope results, the possible emission sources of BC contributed to the Arctic will be also discussed.

  10. Including non-dietary sources into an exposure assessment of the European Food Safety Authority: The challenge of multi-sector chemicals such as Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    von Goetz, N; Pirow, R; Hart, A; Bradley, E; Poças, F; Arcella, D; Lillegard, I T L; Simoneau, C; van Engelen, J; Husoy, T; Theobald, A; Leclercq, C

    2017-04-01

    In the most recent risk assessment for Bisphenol A for the first time a multi-route aggregate exposure assessment was conducted by the European Food Safety Authority. This assessment includes exposure via dietary sources, and also contributions of the most important non-dietary sources. Both average and high aggregate exposure were calculated by source-to-dose modeling (forward calculation) for different age groups and compared with estimates based on urinary biomonitoring data (backward calculation). The aggregate exposure estimates obtained by forward and backward modeling are in the same order of magnitude, with forward modeling yielding higher estimates associated with larger uncertainty. Yet, only forward modeling can indicate the relative contribution of different sources. Dietary exposure, especially via canned food, appears to be the most important exposure source and, based on the central aggregate exposure estimates, contributes around 90% to internal exposure to total (conjugated plus unconjugated) BPA. Dermal exposure via thermal paper and to a lesser extent via cosmetic products may contribute around 10% for some age groups. The uncertainty around these estimates is considerable, but since after dermal absorption a first-pass metabolism of BPA by conjugation is lacking, dermal sources may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources.

  11. Solar charged agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Heckeroth, S.

    1999-07-01

    It is becoming obvious that the developed world's reliance on petroleum for transportation and agricultural production is not sustainable. Industrial agriculture currently uses an average of 200 gallons of diesel per acre (1,900 liters per hectare) per year. Sustainability requires a transition to the use of non-polluting renewable energy sources, as well as small scale farming techniques. This paper outlines the tremendous potential electric tractors offer in a variety of applications all over the world, including greenhouses and organic farms, toxic cleanup, bomb disposal and mine sweeping, as well as use as a mobile power source in remote areas and in emergency applications. An electric tractor can be charged from photovoltaic panels, either on the tractor in the form of a shade canopy or mounted on the roof of a building.

  12. A revised dosimetric characterization of the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source containing an anode-centering plastic insert and other components not included in the 2006 model

    SciTech Connect

    Hiatt, Jessica R.; Davis, Stephen D.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose

  13. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  14. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  15. Historical accumulation of N and P and sources of organic matter and N in sediment in an agricultural reservoir in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui; Chu, Zhaosheng; Jin, Xiangcan

    2015-07-01

    Agriculture has significantly intensified in Northern China since the 1980s. This intensification has caused a series of simultaneous lake ecological environment problems in this area. However, little is known about the role of agricultural intensification in historical nutrient dynamics and lake eutrophication processes. The Yanghe reservoir, a typical artificial reservoir characterized by high-yield grain production in Northern China, has been suffering from serious eutrophication and water quality deterioration. This study evaluates the effect of agricultural intensification on nutrient retention and source in the sediments using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques combined with stable C and N isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen, as well as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and P fractions. Results suggested that agricultural intensification was keys to the accumulation of nutrients and was a source of organic matter (OM) and N in sediment for the past three decades. N and P pollution started in the 1980s and worsened from the 1990s. Good water quality status and steady sedimentary environment with low nutrient content (mean concentrations of TN and TP were 815 and 387 mg kg(-1), respectively) were observed before the 1980s. Sediment OM was primarily derived from aquatic plants, whereas N was primarily derived from soil erosion and aquatic plants. However, water quality began to deteriorate while sediment nutrient content began to increase after the 1980s, with values of 1186 mg kg(-1) for TN and 434 mg kg(-1) for TP in 1989. Sediment OM was primarily derived from C3 (sweet potato) and aquatic plants, and the major sources of N were soil erosion, fertilizer, and sewage, which accompany the rapid development of agriculture in the watershed. Following the further growth of grain production and fertilizers, excessive external nutrient loading has resulted in dramatic water quality and ecosystem deterioration since 1990

  16. Indicators of the sources and distribution of nitrate in water from shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vowinkel, Eric F.; Tapper, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Previously collected and new water-quality data from shallow wells (screened interval less than 30 meters below the land surface) in predominantly agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain were used to determine the relation of nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water to various hydrogeologic and land-use factors in the study area. Information on land use, well construction, hydrogeology, and water quality were used to predict the conditions under which concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in water from domestic wells in predominantly agricultural areas are most likely to be equal to or larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter. Results of the analyses of water-quality samples collected during 1980-89 from 230 shallow wells in the outcrop areas of the Kirkwood-Cohansey and Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer systems were used to evaluate the regional effects of land use on shallow-ground-water quality. Results of statistical analysis indicate that concentrations of nitrate in shallow ground water are significantly different (p= 0.001) in agricultural areas than in undeveloped areas in both aquifer systems. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen exceeded the MCL in water from more than 33 percent of the 60 shallow wells in agricultural areas. Concentrations of hitrate in water from shallow wells in agricultural areas increased as the percentage of agricultural land within an 800-meter-radius buffer zone of the wellhead increased (r= 0.81). Concentrations ofhitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas were similar (p= 0.23) to those concentrations in water from irrigation wells. These results indicate that most of the nitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas results from agricultural practices rather than other sources, such as septic systems. Water-quality samples collected from 12 shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas screened in the outcrop areas of

  17. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that specialty crops are a vital part of agriculture in the United States, that the Committee on Agriculture should propose funding for programs that support specialty crops priorities, and that legislation should be passed that includes funding reflecting specialty crops as a growing and important part of United States agriculture.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. DelBene, Suzan K. [D-WA-1

    2013-04-25

    05/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Quantifying the dominant sources of sediment in a drained lowland agricultural catchment: The application of a thorium-based particle size correction in sediment fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, Patrick J.; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Rajkumar, Vignesh; Desmet, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main factors influencing land degradation and water quality at the global scale. Identifying the main sediment sources is therefore essential for the implementation of appropriate soil erosion mitigation measures. Accordingly, caesium-137 (137Cs) concentrations were used to determine the relative contribution of surface and subsurface erosion sources in a lowland drained catchment in France. As 137Cs concentrations are often dependent on particle size, specific surface area (SSA) and novel thorium (Th) based particle size corrections were applied. Surface and subsurface samples were collected to characterize the radionuclide properties of potential sources. Sediment samples were collected during one hydrological year and a sediment core was sampled to represent sediment accumulated over a longer temporal period. Additionally, sediment from tile drains was sampled to determine the radionuclide properties of sediment exported from the drainage network. A distribution modelling approach was used to quantify the relative sediment contributions from surface and subsurface sources. The results highlight a substantial enrichment in fine particles and associated 137Cs concentrations between the sources and the sediment. The application of both correction factors reduced this difference, with the Th correction providing a more accurate comparison of source and sediment samples than the SSA correction. Modelling results clearly indicate the dominance of surface sources during the flood events and in the sediment core. Sediment exported from the drainage network was modelled to originate predominantly from surface sources. This study demonstrates the potential of Th to correct for 137Cs particle size enrichment. More importantly, this research indicates that drainage networks may significantly increase the connectivity of surface sources to stream networks. Managing sediment transferred through drainage networks may reduce the deleterious effects of

  19. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  20. Identifying sediment sources in a drained lowland agricultural catchment: the application of a novel thorium-based particle size correction in sediment fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laceby, J. P.; Le Gall, M.; Foucher, A.; Salvador-Blanes, S.; Evrard, O.; Lefèvre, I.; Cerdan, O.; Desmet, M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main processes influencing land and water degradation at the global scale. Identifying the main sediment sources is therefore essential for effective soil erosion management. Accordingly, caesium-137 (137Cs) concentrations were used to quantify the relative contribution of surface and subsurface erosion sources in a lowland drained catchment in France. As 137Cs concentrations are often dependent on particle size, specific surface area (SSA) and novel Thorium (Th) based particle size corrections were applied. Surface and subsurface samples were collected to characterize the radionuclide properties of potential sources. Sediment samples were collected during one hydrological year and a sediment core was sampled to represent sediment accumulated over a longer temporal period. Additionally, sediment from tile drains was sampled to determine the radionuclide properties of sediment exported from the drainage network. The results highlight a substantial enrichment in fine particles and associated 137Cs concentrations between the sources and the sediment. The application of both correction factors reduced this difference, with the Th correction providing a more accurate comparison of source and sediment samples than the SSA correction. Modelling results clearly indicate the dominance of surface sources during the flood events and in the sediment core. Sediment exported from the drainage network was modelled to originate predominantly from surface sources. This study demonstrates the potential of Th to correct for 137Cs particle size enrichment. More importantly, this research indicates that drainage networks may significantly increase the connectivity of surface sources to stream networks. Managing sediment transferred through drainage networks may reduce the deleterious effects of suspended sediment loads on riverine systems in similar lowland drained agricultural catchments.

  1. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  2. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  3. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  4. Identification of groundwater contamination sources of nitrate and sulfate in shallow alluvial aquifers using a dual-isotope approach in an agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, D.; Koh, D.; Mayer, B.; Hyun, Y.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2007-12-01

    The elevated level of nitrate in groundwater is a serious problem in Korean agricultural areas. Yupori, a small agricultural area in Chuncheon (Korea), shows a rising level of NO3-N and displays multiple NO3-N sources from non-point and point sources in shallow aquifer groundwater. Numerous vegetable fields are located in the western part of the study area and fruit orchards dominate the landscape with only few vegetable fields in the eastern part of the study area. The source identification of groundwater contamination from overburden agricultural area was undertaken by analyzing hydrochemical data and stable isotopic compositions of dissolved nitrate and sulfate (¥ä15N-NO3-, ¥ä18O-NO3-, ¥ä34S-SO42-, and ¥ä18O-SO42-). The measurements of ¥ä15N- NO3- are in the range of 7.1 to 14.4¢¶ and the values of ¥ä18O-NO3- are in the range of -1.8 to 6.5¢¶. High ¥ä15N-NO3- values shown at low concentrations of nitrate in the eastern Yupori are characteristics of manure- derived nitrate and organic soil. The values of ¥ä34S-SO4-2 ranged from 2.9 to 9.9¢¶ and ¥ä18O-SO42- ranged from 2.5 to 4.7¢¶. At high concentrations of SO42- in the western Yupori, the value of ¥ä34S-SO42- are low around 3-4¢¶. The value of ¥ä34S-SO42- increased with decreasing SO42- concentration in the eastern Yupori. Groundwater quality and stable isotopic compositions of dissolved nitrate and sulfate seem to be significantly affected by agricultural land use pattern of the study site.

  5. Geologic sources and concentrations of selenium in the West-Central Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Colorado, 2003-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Beck, Jennifer A.; Webbers, Ank; Dupree, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek, in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, is a perennial stream in which concentrations of dissolved selenium have consistently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Recent studies of selenium in Toll Gate Creek identified the Denver lignite zone of the non-marine Cretaceous to Tertiary-aged (Paleocene) Denver Formation underlying the watershed as the geologic source of dissolved selenium to shallow ground-water and surface water. Previous work led to this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Aurora Utilities Department, which investigated geologic sources of selenium and selenium concentrations in the watershed. This report documents the occurrence of selenium-bearing rocks and groundwater within the Cretaceous- to Tertiary-aged Denver Formation in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed. The report presents background information on geochemical processes controlling selenium concentrations in the aquatic environment and possible geologic sources of selenium; the hydrogeologic setting of the watershed; selenium results from groundwater-sampling programs; and chemical analyses of solids samples as evidence that weathering of the Denver Formation is a geologic source of selenium to groundwater and surface water in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including Toll Gate Creek. Analyses of water samples collected from 61 water-table wells in 2003 and from 19 water-table wells in 2007 indicate dissolved selenium concentrations in groundwater in the west-central Denver Basin frequently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard and in some locations exceeded the primary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. The greatest selenium concentrations were associated with oxidized groundwater samples from wells completed in bedrock materials. Selenium analysis of geologic core samples indicates that total selenium

  6. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  8. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, K M; King, A M; Harter, T

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  9. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  10. Coherence among Different Microbial Source Tracking Markers in a Small Agricultural Stream with or without Livestock Exclusion Practices

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman F.; Ruecker, Norma J.; Sunohara, Mark; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Over 1,400 water samples were collected biweekly over 6 years from an intermittent stream protected and unprotected from pasturing cattle. The samples were monitored for host-specific Bacteroidales markers, Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, viruses and coliphages associated with humans or animals, and bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Ruminant Bacteroidales markers did not increase within the restricted cattle access reach of the stream, whereas the ruminant Bacteroidales marker increased significantly in the unrestricted cattle access reach. Human Bacteroidales markers significantly increased downstream of homes where septic issues were documented. Wildlife Bacteroidales markers were detected downstream of the cattle exclusion practice where stream and riparian habitat was protected, but detections decreased after the unrestricted pasture, where the stream and riparian zone was unprotected from livestock. Detection of a large number of human viruses was shown to increase downstream of homes, and similar trends were observed for the human Bacteroidales marker. There was considerable interplay among biomarkers with stream flow, season, and the cattle exclusion practices. There were no to very weak associations with Bacteroidales markers and bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. Overall, discrete sample-by-sample coherence among the different microbial source tracking markers that expressed a similar microbial source was minimal, but spatial trends were physically meaningful in terms of land use (e.g., beneficial management practice) effects on sources of fecal pollution. PMID:23913430

  11. Coherence among different microbial source tracking markers in a small agricultural stream with or without livestock exclusion practices.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra C; Jones, Tineke H; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman F; Ruecker, Norma J; Sunohara, Mark; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R

    2013-10-01

    Over 1,400 water samples were collected biweekly over 6 years from an intermittent stream protected and unprotected from pasturing cattle. The samples were monitored for host-specific Bacteroidales markers, Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, viruses and coliphages associated with humans or animals, and bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Ruminant Bacteroidales markers did not increase within the restricted cattle access reach of the stream, whereas the ruminant Bacteroidales marker increased significantly in the unrestricted cattle access reach. Human Bacteroidales markers significantly increased downstream of homes where septic issues were documented. Wildlife Bacteroidales markers were detected downstream of the cattle exclusion practice where stream and riparian habitat was protected, but detections decreased after the unrestricted pasture, where the stream and riparian zone was unprotected from livestock. Detection of a large number of human viruses was shown to increase downstream of homes, and similar trends were observed for the human Bacteroidales marker. There was considerable interplay among biomarkers with stream flow, season, and the cattle exclusion practices. There were no to very weak associations with Bacteroidales markers and bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. Overall, discrete sample-by-sample coherence among the different microbial source tracking markers that expressed a similar microbial source was minimal, but spatial trends were physically meaningful in terms of land use (e.g., beneficial management practice) effects on sources of fecal pollution.

  12. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  13. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch.

    PubMed

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  14. The plight of arid land agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C. W.; Hinman, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    This book analyses the problems of the agricultural environment worldwide and possible solutions. Problems covered include the following: famines caused by agricultural land mismanegment in Subsaharan Africa and population increase; improved productivity leading to salinity, erosion, and water depletion; toxic wastes; loging, deforestation, and over-grazing. Agricultural practices, both ancient and modern, in arid lands are described. Food crops suited for arid lands, potential industrial crops, oil extraction from seed and rubber extraction, and biomass as a source of energy are discussed in different chapters. Finally the book deals with optimization of water use, prevention of salinization, and the prospect of global warming.

  15. A tiered risk-based approach for predicting diffuse and point source phosphorus losses in agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Heathwaite, A L; Dils, R M; Liu, S; Carvalho, L; Brazier, R E; Pope, L; Hughes, M; Phillips, G; May, L

    2005-05-15

    Implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive requires an assessment of the pressures from human activity, which, combined with information on the sensitivity of the receiving waterbody to the pressures, will identify those water bodies at risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives. Part of the process of undertaking the risk assessment for lakes is an assessment of diffuse agricultural phosphorus (P) pressures. Three approaches of increasing sophistication were developed for this purpose: a basic 'risk screening' approach (tier 1) applicable to all lakes in Great Britain (GB) and based on export coefficients for different land cover classes and animal types; the Pressure Delivery Risk Screening Matrix approach (tier 2) that differentiated between pressures in surface water and groundwater river basins; and the Phosphorus Indicators Tool (PIT), a simple model of locational risk and P delivery potential (tier 3). Application of the three approaches to a range of lake catchments in England demonstrated that a tiered risk assessment approach was appropriate which was tailored to the quality of the available data. A step-wise procedure was developed whereby if the tier 1 and 2 approaches showed a catchment to be at high risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives with regard to P, it was justifiable to undertake a more detailed assessment using the tier 3 approach. The tier 1 approach was applied to all lakes in GB greater than 1 ha in size on the assumption that the boundary between the good/moderate status classes under the Water Framework Directive guidelines represented a doubling of the total P (TP) reference conditions. The initial outputs suggested that 51% of lakes in GB are predicted to not meet the TP targets identified for high or good status and must, therefore, be considered at risk. There were regional differences in numbers of lakes at risk. Scotland appeared to have the fewest sites at risk (18

  16. Response of Polish rivers (Vistula, Oder) to reduced pressure from point sources and agriculture during the transition period (1988-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Stålnacke, Per; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Witek, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    The Vistula and Oder Rivers, two out of the seven largest rivers in the Baltic drainage basin, were responsible for 25% of total riverine nitrogen (TN) and 37% of total riverine phosphorus (TP) input to the Baltic Sea in 2000. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the response of these two rivers to changes that took place in Polish economy during the transition period (1988-2008). The economic changes encompassed: construction of nearly 900 waste water treatment plants in 1999-2008, modernization or closure of obsolete factories, economizing in water consumption, closure or change of ownership of State-owned farms, a drop in fertilizer application, and a decline in livestock stocking. More intensive agriculture and higher point source emissions in the Oder than in the Vistula basin resulted in higher concentrations of TN, nitrate (NO3-N), and TP in the Oder waters in the entire period of our studies. In both rivers, nutrient concentrations and loads showed significant declining trends in the period 1988-2008. TN loads decreased by ca. 20% and 25% in the Vistula and Oder; TP loads dropped by ca. 15% and 65% in the Vistula and Oder. The reduction in phosphorus loads was particularly pronounced in the Oder basin, which was characterized by efficient management systems aiming at mitigation of nutrient emission from the point sources and greater extent of structural changes in agricultural sector during the transition period. The trends in riverine loads are discussed in the paper in relation to socio-economical changes during the transition period, and with respect to physiographic features.

  17. Integrating GRACE and multi-source data sets to quantify the seasonal groundwater depletion in mega agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Wang, D.; Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.; Sun, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    It is challenging to quantify the groundwater depletion in the mega basins owing to the huge spatial scale and the intensive anthrophonic activities (e.g. dams and reservoirs). Recently, the satellite Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data provides an opportunity to monitor large-scale groundwater depletion. However, the data is only available after 2002, limiting the understanding of inter-annual variability of seasonal groundwater depletion. In this study, a simple model with two parameters is developed, based on the seasonal Budyko framework for quantifying the seasonal groundwater depletion. The model is applied to the Indus and Ganges River basin in South Asia and the High Plain/Ogallala aquifer in United States. The parameters of the model are estimated by integrating GRACE and other multi-source data sets. Total water storage changes before 2003 are reconstructed based on the developed model with available data of evaporation, precipitation, and potential evaporation.

  18. Measurement of gas and particulate amines at agricultural facilities using an ambient ion monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural facilities are the source of particles and gases that can exhibit an influence on air quality. Particle mass concentration influences from agricultural sources can include both primary emissions and secondary particle formation through the emission of gaseous precursors. Reports showing...

  19. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    PubMed

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  20. Using U-series Isotopes To Determine Sources Of Pedogenic Carbonates: Comparison Of Natural And Agricultural Soils In The Semi-arid Southern New Mexico And Western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Borrok, D. M.; Jin, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonates commonly precipitate from infiltrating soil water in arid and semi-arid lands and are observed in soils of southern New Mexico and western Texas. These carbonates could form an impermeable layer in the soil horizons impairing water infiltration, thus affecting crop growth and yield. It is important to determine the source of C and Ca in these carbonates and to understand conditions favoring their formation, kinetics and precipitation rates. In this study, major elements and U-series isotopes in bulk calcic soils, and weak acid leachates and residues were measured from one irrigated alfalfa site in the Hueco basin near El Paso, TX and one natural shrubland site on the USDA Jornada experimental range in southern NM. The combined geochemical and isotopic results allow us to determine the formation ages of the carbonates; investigate the mobility of U, Th, and major elements in these soils; and infer for the effects of irrigation on carbonate formation in agricultural soils. Our results show distinctive U and Th isotope systems in the two soil profiles analyzed. For example, (234U/238U) ratios in the Jornada bulk soils decrease from ~1.01 to 0.96 towards the surface, consistent with a preferential loss of 234U over 238U during chemical weathering. At the Jornada site, (238U/232Th) ratios decrease while (230Th/238U) increase towards the surface, consistent with a general depletion of U and the immobility of Th in the natural soils. By contrast at the Alfalfa site, (234U/238U) ratios of bulk soils increase from ~ 0.97 to 1.02 towards the surface, suggesting an additional source of external uranium, most likely the irrigation water from Rio Grande which has a (234U/238U) ratio of ~ 1.5 near El Paso. The (238U/232Th) and (230Th/238U) ratios also imply leaching of U from shallower soils but precipitation in greater depths at Alfalfa site; suggests that partial dissolution and re-precipitation of younger carbonates occur. Calculated carbonate ages from U

  1. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from agricultural crop species: is guttation a possible source for methanol emissions following light/dark transition ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffar, Ahsan; Amelynck, Crist; Bachy, Aurélie; Digrado, Anthony; Delaplace, Pierre; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Schoon, Niels; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the atmosphere has recently been measured during an entire growing season by using the eddy covariance technique. Because of the co-variation of BVOC emission drivers in field conditions, laboratory studies were initiated in an environmental chamber in order to disentangle the responses of the emissions to variations of the individual environmental parameters (such as PPFD and temperature) and to diverse abiotic stress factors. Young plants were enclosed in transparent all-Teflon dynamic enclosures (cuvettes) through which BVOC-free and RH-controlled air was sent. BVOC enriched air was subsequently sampled from the plant cuvettes and an empty cuvette (background) and analyzed for BVOCs in a high sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (hs-PTR-MS) and for CO2 in a LI-7000 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. Emissions were monitored at constant temperature (25 °C) and at a stepwise varying PPFD pattern (0-650 µmol m-2 s-1). For maize plants, sudden light/dark transitions at the end of the photoperiod were accompanied by prompt and considerable increases in methanol (m/z 33) and water vapor (m/z 39) emissions. Moreover, guttation droplets appeared on the sides and the tips of the leaves within a few minutes after light/dark transition. Therefore the assumption has been raised that methanol is also coming out with guttation fluid from the leaves. Consequently, guttation fluid was collected from young maize and wheat plants, injected in an empty enclosure and sampled by PTR-MS. Methanol and a large number of other compounds were observed from guttation fluid. Recent studies have shown that guttation from agricultural crops frequently occurs in field conditions. Further research is required to find out the source strength of methanol emissions by this guttation

  2. Support vector machine-an alternative to artificial neuron network for water quality forecasting in an agricultural nonpoint source polluted river?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Lu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Water quality forecasting in agricultural drainage river basins is difficult because of the complicated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution transport processes and river self-purification processes involved in highly nonlinear problems. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector model (SVM) were developed to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations for any location of the river polluted by agricultural NPS pollution in eastern China. River flow, water temperature, flow travel time, rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and upstream TN or TP concentrations were selected as initial inputs of the two models. Monthly, bimonthly, and trimonthly datasets were selected to train the two models, respectively, and the same monthly dataset which had not been used for training was chosen to test the models in order to compare their generalization performance. Trial and error analysis and genetic algorisms (GA) were employed to optimize the parameters of ANN and SVM models, respectively. The results indicated that the proposed SVM models performed better generalization ability due to avoiding the occurrence of overtraining and optimizing fewer parameters based on structural risk minimization (SRM) principle. Furthermore, both TN and TP SVM models trained by trimonthly datasets achieved greater forecasting accuracy than corresponding ANN models. Thus, SVM models will be a powerful alternative method because it is an efficient and economic tool to accurately predict water quality with low risk. The sensitivity analyses of two models indicated that decreasing upstream input concentrations during the dry season and NPS emission along the reach during average or flood season should be an effective way to improve Changle River water quality. If the necessary water quality and hydrology data and even trimonthly data are available, the SVM methodology developed here can easily be applied to other NPS-polluted rivers.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small agricultural catchment in the Three Gorges Region.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chenglong; Gao, Ming; Xie, Deti; Ni, Jiupai

    2016-04-01

    Losses of agricultural pollutants from small catchments are a major issue for water quality in the Three Gorges Region. Solutions are urgently needed. However, before pollutant losses can be controlled, information about spatial and temporal variations in pollutant losses is needed. The study was carried out in the Wangjiagou catchment, a small agricultural catchment in Fuling District, Chongqing, and the data about non-point source losses of nitrogen and phosphorus was collected here. Water samples were collected daily by an automatic water sampler at the outlets of two subcatchments from 2012 to 2014. Also, samples of surface runoff from 28 sampling sites distributed through the subcatchments were collected during 12 rainfall events in 2014. A range of water quality variables were analyzed for all samples and were used to demonstrate the variation in non-point losses of nitrogen and phosphorus over a range of temporal and spatial scales and in different types of rainfall in the catchment. Results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between the mass concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-N) in surface runoff and that the relationship was maintained with changes in time. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N peaked after fertilizer was applied to crops in spring and autumn; concentrations decreased rapidly after the peak values in spring but declined slowly in autumn. N and P concentrations fluctuated more and showed a greater degree of dispersion during the spring crop cultivation period than those in autumn. Concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff were significantly and positively correlated with the proportion of the area that was planted with corn and mustard tubers, but were negatively correlated with the proportion of the area taken up with rice and mulberry plantations. The average concentrations of TN and NO3-N in surface runoff reached the highest level from the sampling points at the bottom of the land used for corn

  4. Insights in nutrient sources and transport from high-frequency monitoring at the outlet pumping station of an agricultural lowland polder catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Van der Grift, B.; Broers, H. P.; Berendrecht, W.; Oste, L.; Griffioen, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in an agricultural-dominated lowland water system based on high-frequency monitoring technology. Starting in October 2014, we have collected semi-continuous measurements of the TP and NO3 concentrations, conductivity and water temperature at a large scale pumping station at the outlet of a 576 km2 polder catchment. The semi-continuous measurements complement a water quality monitoring program at six locations within the drainage area based on conventional monthly or biweekly grab sampling. The NO3 and TP concentrations at the pumping station varied between 0.5 and 10 mgN/L and 0.1 and 0.5 mgP/L. The seasonal trends and short scale concentration dynamics clearly indicated that most of the NO3 loads at the pumping station originated from subsurface drain tubes that were active after intensive rainfall events during the winter months. A transfer function-noise model of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be predicted using rainfall data. In February however, NO3 concentrations were higher than predicted due to direct losses after the first manure application. The TP concentration almost doubled during operation of the pumping station. This highlights resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by the higher flow velocities during pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not result in TP concentration peaks. Direct effects of run-off, with an association increase in the TP concentration and decrease of the NO3concentration, was only observed during rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. The high-frequency monitoring at the outlet of an agricultural-dominated lowland water system in combination with low-frequency monitoring within the area provided insight in nutrient sources and transport processes that are highly relevant for water quality

  5. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  6. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  7. Chemical characteristics, including stable-isotope ratios, of surface water and ground water from selected sources in and near East Fork Armells Creek basin, southeastern Montana, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.; Davis, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 29 sites to provide synoptic chemical data, including stable-isotope ratios, for an area of active surface coal mining and to explore the effectiveness of using the data to chemically distinguish water from different aquifers. Surface-water samples were collected from one spring, four sites on East Armells Creek, one site on Stocker Creek, and two fly-ash ponds. Streamflows in East Fork Armells Creek ranged from no flow in several upstream reaches to 2.11 cu ft/sec downstream from Colstrip, Montana. Only one tributary, Stocker Creek, was observed to contribute surface flow in the study area. Groundwater samples were collected from wells completed in Quaternary alluvium or mine spoils, Rosebud overburden, Rosebud coal bed, McKay coal bed, and sub-McKay deposits of the Tongue River Member, Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Dissolved-solids concentrations, in mg/L, were 840 at the spring, 3,100 to 5,000 in the streams, 13,000 to 22,000 in the ash ponds, and 690 to 4 ,100 in the aquifers. With few exceptions, water from the sampled spring, streams, and wells had similar concentrations of major constituents and trace elements and similar stable-isotope ratios. Water from the fly-ash ponds had larger concentrations of dissolved solids, boron, and manganese and were isotopically more enriched in deuterium and oxygen-18 than water from other sources. Water from individual aquifers could not be distinguished by either ion-composition diagrams or statistical cluster analyses. (USGS)

  8. The PM2.5 chemical composition in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement: main sources and local background.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Visin, Flavia; Canal, Andrea; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Chemical analyses, receptor modeling and meteorological data were combined to determine the composition and sources of PM2.5 sampled daily in a large area in Italy characterized by a high number of heterogeneous industrial emissions and contiguous to a major urban center. The PM2.5 local background in the area, i.e. the common basic composition and concentrations of PM2.5, was determined. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression analysis (FA-MLRA) was used to identify and quantify the main PM sources. Groups of samples with similar source contributions were then sorted using cluster analysis. The potential source location and the influence of long range transport were investigated by using the conditional probability function (CPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) respectively. On an annual basis, five sources of PM were found relevant. Industrial emissions accounted for 3% of PM mass, whereas the main contribution to PM was related to a combination of ammonium nitrate, combustion (54%) and road traffic (36%), mainly related to urban emissions. The PM2.5 background was estimated to account for 20 μg m(-3). It comprises contributions of 55% ammonium nitrate and combustion, 46% road traffic, 6% fossil fuel combustion and 3% industrial emissions. Source contributions are influenced by both local atmospheric circulation and regional transport.

  9. Historical contributions of phosphorus from natural and agricultural sources and implications for stream water quality, Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Milligan, Chad R.; Mau, David Phillip

    2002-01-01

    An examination of soil cores collected from 43 nonagricultural coring sites in the Cheney Reservoir watershed of south-central Kansas was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in September 1999. The cores were collected as part of an ongoing cooperative study with the city of Wichita, Kansas. The 43 sites (mostly cemeteries) were thought to have total phosphorus concentrations in the soil that are representative of natural conditions (unaffected by human activity). The purpose of this report is to present the analysis and evaluation of these soil cores, to quantify the phosphorus contributions to Cheney Reservoir from natural and agricultural sources, and to provide estimates of stream-water-quality response to natural concentrations of total phosphorus in the soil. Analysis of soil cores from the 43 sites produced natural concentrations of total phosphorus that ranged from 74 to 539 milligrams per kilogram with a median concentration of 245 milligrams per kilogram in 2-inch soil cores and from 50 to 409 milligrams per kilogram with a median concentration of 166 milligrams per kilogram in 8-inch soil cores. Natural concentrations of total phosphorus in soil were statistically larger in samples from coring sites in the eastern half of the watershed than in samples from coring sites in the western half of the watershed. This result partly explains a previously determined west-to-east increase in total phosphorus yields in streams of the Cheney Reservoir watershed. A comparison of total phosphorus concentrations in soil under natural conditions to the historical mean total phosphorus concentration in agriculturally enriched bottom sediment in Cheney Reservoir indicated that agricultural activities within the watershed have increased total phosphorus concentrations in watershed soil that is transported in streams to about 2.9 times natural concentrations. Retention efficiencies for phosphorus and sediment historically transported to Cheney Reservoir were calculated

  10. Geospatial data resampling and resolution effects on watershed modeling: A case study using the agricultural non-point source pollution model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Scheidt, D.J.; Ruhl, S.; Beard, T.; Bearden, M.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have been coupling geographic information systems (GIS) data handling and processing capability to watershed and waterquality models for many years. This capability is suited for the development of databases appropriate for water modeling. However, it is rare for GIS to provide direct inputs to the models. To demonstrate the logical procedure of coupling GIS for model parameter extraction, we selected the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) pollution model. Investigators can generate data layers at various resolutions and resample to pixel sizes to support models at particular scales. We developed databases of elevation, land cover, and soils at various resolutions in four watersheds. The ability to use multiresolution databases for the generation of model parameters is problematic for grid-based models. We used database development procedures and observed the effects of resolution and resampling on GIS input datasets and parameters generated from those inputs for AGNPS. Results indicate that elevation values at specific points compare favorably between 3- and 30-m raster datasets. Categorical data analysis indicates that land cover classes vary significantly. Derived parameters parallel the results of the base GIS datasets. Analysis of data resampled from 30-m to 60-, 120-, 210-, 240-, 480-, 960-, and 1920-m pixels indicates a general degradation of both elevation and land cover correlations as resolution decreases. Initial evaluation of model output values for soluble nitrogen and phosphorous indicates similar degradation with resolution. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  11. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  12. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  13. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects.

  14. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-11-15

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO3-N and SO4(2-) in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2-15.2 mg L(-1) and 1.6-19.7 mg L(-1) respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO3-N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L(-1) and sulfate concentrations were ~15 mg L(-1). Groundwater with high NO3-N concentrations of >10mgL(-1) had δ(15)N-NO3(-) values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ(18)O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO4(2-) with δ(34)S-SO4(2-) values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ(18)O-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-SO4(2-) values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO3(-) and SO4(2-) in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use.

  15. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  16. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted.

  17. Nitrate in groundwater and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: A chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.; Magner, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates processes that affect nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath riparian zones in an agricultural watershed. Nitrate pathways in the upper 2 m of groundwater were investigated beneath wooded and grass-shrub riparian zones next to cultivated fields. Because trees can be important components of the overall nitrate pathway in wooded riparian zones, water sources used by riparian trees and possible effects of trees on nitrate concentrations in groundwater were also investigated. Average nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater beneath the cultivated fields were 5.5 mg/L upgradient of the wooded riparian zone and 3.5 mg/L upgradient of the grass-shrub zone. Shallow groundwater beneath the fields passed through the riparian zones and discharged into streams that had average nitrate concentrations of 8.5 mg/L (as N). Lateral variations of ??D values in groundwater showed that mixing among different water sources occurred beneath the riparian zones. In the wooded riparian zone, nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater were diluted by upwelling, nitrate- poor, deep groundwater. Upwelling deep groundwater contained ammonium with a ??15N of 5??? that upon nitrification and mixing with nitrate in shallow groundwater caused nitrate ??15N values in shallow groundwater to decrease by as much as 19.5???. Stream water penetrated laterally beneath the wooded riparian zone as far as 19 m from the stream's edge and beneath the grass- shrub zone as far as 27 m from the stream's edge. Nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater immediately upgradient of where it mixed with stream water averaged 0.4 mg/L in the wooded riparian zone and 0.8 mg/L near the grass-shrub riparian zone. Nitrate concentrations increased toward the streams because of mixing with nitrate-rich stream water. Because nitrate concentrations were larger in stream water than shallow groundwater, concentrated nitrate in the streams cannot have come from shallow groundwater at these

  18. Nitrate in ground water and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: A chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, Stephen C.; Magner, J.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates processes that affect nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath riparian zones in an agricultural watershed. Nitrate pathways in the upper 2 m of groundwater were investigated beneath wooded and grass-shrub riparian zones next to cultivated fields. Because trees can be important components of the overall nitrate pathway in wooded riparian zones, water sources used by riparian trees and possible effects of trees on nitrate concentrations in groundwater were also investigated. Average nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater beneath the cultivated fields were 5.5 mg/L upgradient of the wooded riparian zone and 3.5 mg/L upgradient of the grass-shrub zone. Shallow groundwater beneath the fields passed through the riparian zones and discharged into streams that had average nitrate concentrations of 8.5 mg/L (as N). Lateral variations of δD values in groundwater showed that mixing among different water sources occurred beneath the riparian zones. In the wooded riparian zone, nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater were diluted by upwelling, nitrate-poor, deep groundwater. Upwelling deep groundwater contained ammonium with a δ15N of 5‰ that upon nitrification and mixing with nitrate in shallow groundwater caused nitrate δ15N values in shallow groundwater to decrease by as much as 19.5‰. Stream water penetrated laterally beneath the wooded riparian zone as far as 19 m from the stream's edge and beneath the grass-shrub zone as far as 27 m from the stream's edge. Nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater immediately upgradient of where it mixed with stream water averaged 0.4 mg/L in the wooded riparian zone and 0.8 mg/L near the grass-shrub riparian zone. Nitrate concentrations increased toward the streams because of mixing with nitrate-rich stream water. Because nitrate concentrations were larger in stream water than shallow groundwater, concentrated nitrate in the streams cannot have come from shallow groundwater at these

  19. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  20. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  1. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  2. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  3. Recognizing different impacts of human and natural sources on the spatial distribution and temporal trends of PAHs and PCBs (including PCB-11) in sediments of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Silvia; Piazza, Rossano; El Moumni, Bouchta; Polo, Fabio Paolo; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Zambon, Stefano; Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The Nador Lagoon holds a major interest in present-day Moroccan socioeconomic development. This environment is exposed to a number of potential polluting sources, such as mine tailings, urban and industrial dumping, and untreated wastewater inputs from surrounding cities. The aim of this study was to assess concentrations and trends of persistent contaminants such as PCBs and PAHs and to identify their origin. The non-Aroclor PCB-11 was determined for the first time in the lagoon sediments. Chronology and source assessment helped identifying the timing and nature of inputs and post-depositional processes controlling the two classes of contaminants: PAHs present a typical mixed petrogenic signature, with the exception of sediments deposited in the period 1930-1960 near the city of Nador, when pyrogenic inputs prevailed; PCBs show signs of microbial anaerobic degradation from 1950 to 1990, probably linked to changing hydrodynamic conditions in the South-Western part of the lagoon where agricultural inputs are dominant. The presence of PCB-11 is linked to specific productions and might be affected by degradation processes. Presently, different land uses (e.g., urban and agricultural areas) appear to be the key factors in controlling the level and composition of PAHs and PCBs in lagoon sediments. Total PAH and PCB levels are low (from 21.6 to 108 ng g(-1) and from 2.50 to 20.7 ng g(-1), respectively) but recent increasing values and the potential threat to humans and biota require continuous and constant monitoring.

  4. Multi-purpose droop controllers incorporating a passivity-based stabilizer for unified control of electronically interfaced distributed generators including primary source dynamics.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Seyed Mohammad; Afsharnia, Saeed

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents multi-purpose droop controllers for electronically-interfaced distributed generators (EI-DGs). These controllers allow the micro-grids to operate in grid-connected mode, islanded mode and mode transition transients with a unique control configuration. The active and reactive-power sharing among EI-DGs are satisfied by the proposed droop controllers in islanded mode. On the other hand, in the grid-connected mode, the droop controllers adjust the output active and reactive-powers of EI-DGs at the pre-programmed constant levels. The provision of sufficient damping capability and maintenance of the transient stability in all operational modes of EI-DGs are warranted by the suggested stabilizer. This stabilizer, which is designed using the passivity-based control (PBC) approach, is incorporated in the droop controllers to dampen power-angle, frequency and voltage deviations during large transients using solely local information. The primary source dynamics of EI-DGs are also considered. It is analytically proven that the presence of the primary source dynamics leads to attenuation of the damping capability of EI-DGs in transients. To compensate the adverse effect of the primary source dynamics during transients a novel compensator is inserted in the frequency-droop loop. Finally, time-domain simulations are performed on a multi-resources MG to verify the analytical results compared to those obtained, based on a recently-developed strategy.

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Paired Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D.; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization. PMID:24727274

  6. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the <0.45μm filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1μg/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48μg/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7μg/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (>1kDa i.e. >c. 1-2nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux.

  7. 7 CFR 201.7 - Purity (including variety).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purity (including variety). 201.7 Section 201.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7 Purity (including variety). The...

  8. Steering Organoids Toward Discovery: Self-Driving Stem Cells Are Opening a World of Possibilities, Including Drug Testing and Tissue Sourcing.

    PubMed

    Solis, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, stem cells' shape-shifting abilities have wowed scientists. With proper handling, a few growth factors, and some time, stem cells can be cooked up into specific cell types, including neurons, muscle, and skin.

  9. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed.

  10. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  11. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  12. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  13. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  14. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  15. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  16. Variation in Quantity, Source and Bioreactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter in Streams Draining Watersheds along a Gradient of Agricultural Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, P.; Lu, Y.; Jaffe, R.; Du, Y.; Findlay, R.

    2015-12-01

    In order to address the effects of agricultural land use on stream water dissolved organic matter (DOM), we sampled a regional group of second to third order streams draining watersheds along a gradient of percentage agricultural lands in northwestern Alabama, USA. Samples were collected under baseflow conditions, five different times over the year 2014. We analyzed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, DOM optical properties (i.e. ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometry), and DOM bioreactivity over the course of 22 d incubation. We found that air temperature and antecedent precipitation intensity (API) were two major factors positively controlling DOC concentrations. High DOC concentrations were associated with high fluorescence index values, low percent contributions from terrestrially derived humic-like DOM fluorescence component (C1), and high percent contributions from microbially derived humic-like DOM fluorescence component (C3). We suggest that elevated microbial DOM production under high temperature and API was the primary reason for DOC enrichment in stream water. Percentage agricultural land was the secondary predictor of DOM characteristics. The percentages of forest land use within watersheds positively correlated with percent protein-like DOM fluorescence component (C4). DOC concentrations and relative abundance of humic-like DOM fluorescence components (C1, C2 and C3) were higher in agricultural streams than in forested streams, which could be attributed to flow path differences between agricultural and forested watersheds. Larger amount and percentage of bioreactive DOC was observed in agricultural streams, which might decrease oxygen level and impact fluvial ecosystem in downstream regions during degradation.

  17. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  18. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  19. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  20. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  1. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  3. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  4. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  5. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  6. Screening of postharvest agricultural wastes as alternative sources of peroxidases: characterization and kinetics of a novel peroxidase from lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) stubble.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cuadrado, Nazaret; Pérez-Galende, Patricia; Manzano, Teresa; De Maria, Cándido Garcia; Shnyrov, Valery L; Roig, Manuel G

    2012-05-16

    Aqueous crude extracts of a series of plant wastes (agricultural, wild plants, residues from sports activities (grass), ornamental residues (gardens)) from 17 different plant species representative of the typical biodiversity of the Iberian peninsula were investigated as new sources of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7). Of these, lentil (Lens culinaris L.) stubble crude extract was seen to provide one of the highest specific peroxidase activities, catalyzing the oxidation of guaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to tetraguaiacol, and was used for further studies. For the optimum extraction conditions found, the peroxidase activity in this crude extract (110 U mL(-1)) did not vary for at least 15 months when stored at 4 °C (k(inact) = 0.146 year(-1), t(1/2 inact) = 4.75 year), whereas, for comparative purposes, the peroxidase activity (60 U mL(-1)) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) root crude extract, obtained and stored under the same conditions, showed much faster inactivation kinetics (k(inact) = 2.2 × 10(-3) day(-1), t(1/2 inact) = 315 days). Using guaiacol as an H donor and a universal buffer (see above), all crude extract samples exhibited the highest peroxidase activity in the pH range between 4 and 7. Once semipurified by passing the crude extract through hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, the novel peroxidase (LSP) was characterized as having a purity number (RZ) of 2.5 and three SDS-PAGE electrophoretic bands corresponding to molecular masses of 52, 35, and 18 kDa. The steady-state kinetic study carried out on the H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation of guaiacol by the catalytic action of this partially purified peroxidase pointed to apparent Michaelian kinetic behavior (K(m)(appH(2)O(2)) = 1.87 mM; V(max)(appH(2)O(2)) = 6.4 mM min(-1); K(m)(app guaicol) = 32 mM; V(max)(app guaicol) = 9.1 mM min(-1)), compatible with the two-substrate ping-pong mechanism generally accepted for peroxidases. Finally, after the effectiveness of the crude

  7. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies.

    PubMed

    Power, Alison G

    2010-09-27

    Agricultural ecosystems provide humans with food, forage, bioenergy and pharmaceuticals and are essential to human wellbeing. These systems rely on ecosystem services provided by natural ecosystems, including pollination, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services. Preliminary assessments indicate that the value of these ecosystem services to agriculture is enormous and often underappreciated. Agroecosystems also produce a variety of ecosystem services, such as regulation of soil and water quality, carbon sequestration, support for biodiversity and cultural services. Depending on management practices, agriculture can also be the source of numerous disservices, including loss of wildlife habitat, nutrient runoff, sedimentation of waterways, greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide poisoning of humans and non-target species. The tradeoffs that may occur between provisioning services and other ecosystem services and disservices should be evaluated in terms of spatial scale, temporal scale and reversibility. As more effective methods for valuing ecosystem services become available, the potential for 'win-win' scenarios increases. Under all scenarios, appropriate agricultural management practices are critical to realizing the benefits of ecosystem services and reducing disservices from agricultural activities.

  8. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies

    PubMed Central

    Power, Alison G.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural ecosystems provide humans with food, forage, bioenergy and pharmaceuticals and are essential to human wellbeing. These systems rely on ecosystem services provided by natural ecosystems, including pollination, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services. Preliminary assessments indicate that the value of these ecosystem services to agriculture is enormous and often underappreciated. Agroecosystems also produce a variety of ecosystem services, such as regulation of soil and water quality, carbon sequestration, support for biodiversity and cultural services. Depending on management practices, agriculture can also be the source of numerous disservices, including loss of wildlife habitat, nutrient runoff, sedimentation of waterways, greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide poisoning of humans and non-target species. The tradeoffs that may occur between provisioning services and other ecosystem services and disservices should be evaluated in terms of spatial scale, temporal scale and reversibility. As more effective methods for valuing ecosystem services become available, the potential for ‘win–win’ scenarios increases. Under all scenarios, appropriate agricultural management practices are critical to realizing the benefits of ecosystem services and reducing disservices from agricultural activities. PMID:20713396

  9. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  10. Landscape effects of a non-native grass facilitate source populations of a native generalist bug, Stenotus rubrovittatus, in a heterogeneous agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, A; Takada, M B; Washitani, I

    2014-01-01

    Non-native plant species can provide native generalist insects, including pests, with novel food and habitats. It is hypothesized that local and landscape-level abundances of non-native plants can affect the population size of generalist insects, although generalists are assumed to be less sensitive to habitat connectivity than specialists. In a heterogeneous landscape in Japan, the relationship between the density of a native pest of rice (Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Heteroptera: Miridae)) and the abundance of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poales: Poaceae)), a non-native meadow grass known to facilitate S. rubrovittatus, was analyzed. Statistical analyses of data on bug density, vegetation, and the spatial distribution of fallow fields and meadows dominated by Italian ryegrass, obtained by field surveys, demonstrated that local and landscape-level abundances of Italian ryegrass (the unmowed meadow areas within a few hundred meters of a sampling plot) positively affected bug density before its immigration into rice fields. Our findings suggest that a generalist herbivorous insect that prefers non-native plants responds to spatial availability and connectivity of plant species patches at the metapopulation level. Fragmentation by selective mowing that decreases the total area of source populations and increases the isolation among them would be an effective and environmentally-friendly pest management method.

  11. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  12. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FIVE NON- TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: CATASTROPHIC/ACCIDENTAL RELEASES, VEHICLE REPAIR FACILITIES, RECYCLING, PESTICIDE APPLICATION, AND AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of work that is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to deve...

  14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  15. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  16. Modern Agriculture in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four sections of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course focusing on agriculture: (1) development and diffusion of agriculture; (2) major agricultural production regions; (3) rural land use and change; and (4) impacts of modern agricultural change. Includes references and a resource list. (CMK)

  17. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern.

  18. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  19. Conducting an Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment: Challenges and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Kevin R.; Veal, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is a diverse field that produces a wide array of products vital to society. As global populations continue to grow the competition for natural resources will increase pressure on agricultural production of food, fiber, energy, and various high value by-products. With elevated concerns related to environmental impacts associated with the needs of a growing population, a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework can be used to determine areas of greatest impact and compare reduction strategies for agricultural production systems. The LCA methodology was originally developed for industrial operations but has been expanded to a wider range of fields including agriculture. There are various factors that increase the complexity of determining impacts associated with agricultural production including multiple products from a single system, regional and crop specific management techniques, temporal variations (seasonally and annually), spatial variations (multilocation production of end products), and the large quantity of nonpoint emission sources. The lack of consistent methodology of some impacts that are of major concern to agriculture (e.g., land use and water usage) increases the complexity of this analysis. This paper strives to review some of these issues and give perspective to the LCA practitioner in the field of agriculture. PMID:24391463

  20. Utility of a Two-source Energy Balance Approach for Daily Mapping of Landsat-scale Fluxes Over Irrigated Agriculture in a Desert Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is an area characterized by limited fresh water resources, an often inefficient use of these, and relatively poor in-situ monitoring as a result of sparse meteorological observations. Enhanced satellite-based monitoring systems are needed for aiding local water resource and agricultural management activities in these data poor arid environments. A multi-sensor and multi-scale land-surface flux monitoring capacity is being implemented over parts of MENA in order to provide meaningful decision support at relevant spatiotemporal scales. The integrated modeling system uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI), and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (Landsat and MODIS; MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate daily estimates of land surface fluxes down to sub-field scale (i.e. 30 m). Within this modeling system, thermal infrared satellite data provide information about the sub-surface moisture status and plant stress, obviating the need for precipitation input and error-prone soil surface characterizations. In this study, the integrated ALEXI-DisALEXI-STARFM framework is applied over an irrigated agricultural region in Saudi Arabia, and the daily estimates of Landsat scale water, energy and carbon fluxes are evaluated against available flux tower observations and other independent in-situ and satellite-based records. The study addresses the challenges associated with time-continuous sub-field scale mapping of land-surface fluxes in a harsh desert environment, and looks into the optimization of model descriptions and parameterizations and meteorological forcing and vegetation inputs for application over these regions.

  1. A Comparison of Molecular and Isotopic Chemistry of Overland Flow DOM and yPOM to Soil Sources From a Small Mid-western Agricultural Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooker, K.; Filley, T. R.; Six, J.; Frey, J.

    2004-12-01

    In agricultural watersheds, the mobilization of terrestrial organic matter into yaquatic environments has been linked to increased primary productivity and ymicrobial activity in the tributaries of large-order streams and rivers. The yincrease in primary productivity and microbial activity results in downstream ynutrient export which can increase decomposition rates, turbidity, release of ycarbon dioxide to the atmosphere, and reduce the dissolved oxygen levels that yaquatic fauna rely upon to survive. The intensity and frequency of storms is a ycritical factor in determining the mass and chemical character of organic matter ymobilized as overland flow from agricultural watersheds. We will present results yfrom biogeochemical characterization of size fractionated aquatic and soil yorganic matter collected during storm events from a 2.5 Km2 drainage area in ycentral Indiana, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality yAssessment. Molecular and isotopic techniques were applied to size fractions of ysource surface soils and to the resultant dissolved, colloidal, and particulate yaquatic fractions isolated by cross-flow ultra-filtration at the overland flow site and ydown stream. Alkaline CuO oxidation of the size fractions was performed to yrelease lignin and aliphatic biopolymer (cutin and suberin) components. yPreliminary results indicate that dissolved organic components released during ythe storm are more degraded than particulate and colloidal materials. Compound yspecific and bulk carbon isotope analyses of the fractions will help us discern if yselective mobilization and decomposition is a factor in controlling the organic ymatter discharge volume from either the added C3 soybean or C4 corn in this ycorn/soybean rotation system.y

  2. Vocational Agriculture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

    This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

  3. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  4. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  5. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  6. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  7. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  8. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  9. Real-Time N2O Gas Detection System for Agricultural Production Using a 4.6-μm-Band Laser Source Based on a Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Ridge Waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Tokura, Akio; Asobe, Masaki; Enbutsu, Koji; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Takenouchi, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a gas monitoring system for detecting nitrous oxide (N2O) gas using a compact mid-infrared laser source based on difference-frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. We obtained a stable output power of 0.62 mW from a 4.6-μm-band continuous-wave laser source operating at room temperature. This laser source enabled us to detect atmospheric N2O gas at a concentration as low as 35 parts per billion. Using this laser source, we constructed a new real-time in-situ monitoring system for detecting N2O gas emitted from potted plants. A few weeks of monitoring with the developed detection system revealed a strong relationship between nitrogen fertilization and N2O emission. This system is promising for the in-situ long-term monitoring of N2O in agricultural production, and it is also applicable to the detection of other greenhouse gases. PMID:23921829

  10. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  11. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  12. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in residential soils and sediments within two main agricultural areas of northwest Mexico: Concentrations, enantiomer compositions and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Osorio, José Luis; Macías-Zamora, José Vinicio; Ramírez-Álvarez, Nancy; Bidleman, Terry F

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural Mexicali and Yaqui valleys (MV, YV) in northwest Mexico were heavily treated with organochlorine pesticides in the past. Residential soils and agricultural drain sediments were sampled in 2008-2009 and analyzed for DDTs (o,p'- and p,p'- isomers of DDE, DDD and DDT); hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) and chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor exo-epoxide). Geometric means (GMs) (ng g(-1) dry weight) were: MV soils (n = 27) ΣDDT 22, ΣHCH 0.80, ΣCHL 0.88; YV soils (n = 25) ΣDDT 5.0, ΣHCH 0.23, ΣCHL 0.67; MV sediments (n = 3) ΣDDT 5.0, ΣHCH 0.23, ΣCHL 0.53; YV sediments (n = 8) ΣDDT 2.6, ΣHCH 0.12, ΣCHL 0.090. GMs were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in MV than YV soils for ΣDDT and ΣHCH, but not for ΣCHL. Comparison to worldwide regulatory guideline values (RGVs) for residential soils showed all compounds below mean or GM RGVs, but above the lowest RGV in some cases. Low p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) in most soils indicated aged residues. Lack of p,p'-DDT metabolism might account for its dominance in a few soils. HCH isomer profiles suggested aged technical HCH in the YV, and technical HCH + lindane in the MV. Heptachlor dominated the ΣCHL, probably from application of technical heptachlor as well as chlordane. Chiral compounds were nonracemic in soils and sediments and indicated enantioselective microbial degradation of (+)α-HCH, (-)trans-chlordane, (-)cis-chlordane and (+)o,p'-DDT. Depletion of (+)o,p'-DDT in soils may account for similar enantiomer signatures previously reported in air of northwest Mexico.

  14. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  15. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  16. Agricultural Science--Striving for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budke, Wesley E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles examine several of the critical components of program and personnel development in agricultural science including linkages between agriscience and natural resources teachers and high school science teachers, science in agriculture, biological science applications, and hydroponics. (JOW)

  17. Carbon balance of Russian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, M.

    2012-04-01

    Russia managed 218.7 mln ha agricultural land (2009) in accordance with national statistics (FSSS, 2011: http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/Cbsd/DBInet.cgi#1). Among that, 91.75 mln ha is arable land; 92.05 mln ha - hayfield and pasture; 34.9 mln ha - abandoned arable and fallow. Abandoned arable area is not indicated directly in the statistics, but can be calculated as a difference between "arable" and "cultivated" area. We estimated carbon balance of agricultural land by accounting carbon fluxes. Carbon sink includes: net primary productivity (NPP), applying fertilizes and liming. Carbon losses include soil respiration (SR), harvest and lateral flux. The initial data (cultivated area and harvest distribution by regions and crop) was derived from national agriculture statistics (FSSS, 2011). NPP was estimated via harvest and set of regression models. Average NPP for agricultural land was estimated at 435 g C m-2 (530 g C m-2 for crops). Soil respiration was calculated by a model (Mukhortova et. al., 1011: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/forest_cdrom/Articles/Mukhortova_2011_IBFRA_SR.pdf) developed for Russia which is based on all available empirical data and accounted for climatic parameters, soil type and management practice. Average SR of agricultural land is 344 g C m-2 (372 g C m-2 for the cropland). We applied the IPCC method (National inventory, 2010; IPCC, 2006) for fertilizer and lateral fluxes assessment. The total carbon balance of agricultural land is almost in equilibrium (-0.04 t C ha-1) in spite of arable land is a carbon source (-0.84 t C ha-1). The highest sink (1.21 t C ha-1) is provided by abandoned land. Carbon fluxes vary substantially depending on seasonal weather conditions. For example grains' NPP in 2010 (dry and hot summer in major agricultural regions of European Russia) was estimated at 32% less compare to 2009 and the total carbon balance of this land category decreased by order of magnitude. We used Russian land cover (Schepaschenko et al

  18. Agricultural Business and Management Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains 5 teaching units for 44 agricultural business and management cluster problem areas. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. The five units are as follows: (1) agribusiness operation and…

  19. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 501.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Letricia M.; And Others

    This report presents agricultural information for each of the 50 states and the United States. Data are provided on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms, such as size, tenure, and farm organization. Primary data sources are the 1982 Census of Agriculture and the…

  20. Traumatic injuries in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R; Gerberich, S G

    2002-02-01

    The National Coalition for Agricultural Safety and Health (NCASH) in 1988 addressed issues in agriculture and noted "a sense of urgency... arose from the recognition of the unabating epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming . . ." This article provides an update to the NCASH conference on traumatic injuries in agriculture, a history on how the facts and figures were arrived at for the NCASH conference, and a current report on the status of traumatic injuries in agriculture in the U.S. Fatal and nonfatal injuries are addressed along with national and regional surveillance systems. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) was used for reporting national agricultural production fatal injuries from 1992-1998 (25.8 deaths per 100,000 workers), the Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF) 1993-1995 was used to report nonfatal injuries occurring nationally (7.5/100 workers), and Regional Rural Injury Studies I and II (RRIS-I and RRIS-II) were used to illustrate a regional approach along with in-depth, specific analyses. Fatality rates, which showed some decline in the 1980s, were fairly constant during the 1990s. Changes in nonfatal injury rates for this sector could not be assessed due to a lack of benchmark data. The main concerns identified in the 1989 NCASH report continue today: tractors are the leading cause of farm-related death due mostly to overturns; older farmers continue to be at the highest risk for farm fatalities; and traumatic injuries continue to be a major concern for youth living or working on U.S. farms. Fatal and nonfatal traumatic injuries associated with agricultural production are a major public health problem that needs to be addressed through comprehensive approaches that include further delineation of the problem, particularly in children and older adults, and identification of specific risk factors through analytic efforts. Continued development of relevant surveillance systems and implementation of appropriate

  1. [Multivariate geostatistics and GIS-based approach to study the spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in agricultural soil in the Pearl River Delta, China].

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-mei; Ma, Jin; Zhou, Yong-zhang; Huang, Lan-chun; Dou, Lei; Zhang, Cheng-bo; Fu, Shan-ming

    2008-12-01

    One hundred and eighteen surface soil samples were collected from the Dongguan City, and analyzed for concentration of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, pH and OM. The spatial distribution and sources of soil heavy metals were studied using multivariate geostatistical methods and GIS technique. The results indicated concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg were beyond the soil background content in Guangdong province, and especially concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg were greatly beyond the content. The results of factor analysis group Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As in Factor 1, Pb and Hg in Factor 2 and Cd in Factor 3. The spatial maps based on geostatistical analysis show definite association of Factor 1 with the soil parent material, Factor 2 was mainly affected by industries. The spatial distribution of Factor 3 was attributed to anthropogenic influence.

  2. Tension on the Farm Fields: The Death of Traditional Agriculture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguamanam, Chidi

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the historic transitions and progressions in agricultural science, this article examines the emergence of the phenomenon of agricultural biotechnology. It identifies pivotal sites of tension between agricultural biotechnology and alternative approaches to agriculture. The article identifies two distinct sources of contemporary…

  3. Source attribution of agriculture-related deposition by using total nitrogen and δ¹⁵N in epiphytic lichen tissue, bark and deposition water samples in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie; Werner, Willy

    2013-06-01

    Compared with physico-chemical deposition measurement methods, lichens are able to identify the long-term overall effects of high N pollution concentrations in the air. In addition, the natural abundances of the stable isotope of N, (15)N, are being widely used in research on N cycling in ecosystems. They can also be used as instruments for source attribution. In this study, epiphytic lichens were tested to determine whether their respective N content and δ(15)N ratios can be used to estimate N deposition rates and to locate various sources of N compounds. Epiphytic lichen and bark samples were collected from around various deposition measurement field stations at different sites in the western part of Germany. The N content of epiphytic lichens reflects the species-specific, agriculture-related circumstances of N deposition at various sites in Germany. At the same time, δ(15)N signatures of the different investigated epiphytic lichen species and bark samples are highly depleted in (15)N under high ammonium deposition. The different surface types of lichens and barks exhibit different concentrations of N and δ(15)N ratios, despite being exposed to similar N deposition rates. The verification of highly negative δ(15)N ratios at sites with local and regional emitters shows that source attribution is possible by comparing different δ(15)N signatures in areas with a wide range of different N deposition types and the corresponding differences in δ(15)N among various source N pools. Especially nitrophytic lichens can support the on-site instrumentation measuring N deposition by qualification and quantification.

  4. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    PubMed

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  5. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  7. Collaboration between Science and Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lee G.; Warnick, Brian K.; Tarpley, Rudy S.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive study was to determine the type and frequency of collaborative activities occurring between agriculture teachers and science teachers who taught in schools with agricultural education programs. Additional foci of this study included determining the extent to which science and agriculture teachers value collaborative…

  8. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  9. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  10. Application of methane fermentation technology into organic wastes in closed agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Ryosuke; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    Sustainable and recycling-based systems are required in space agriculture which takes place in an enclosed environment. Methane fermentation is one of the most major biomass conversion technologies, because (1) it provides a renewable energy source as biogas including methane, suitable for energy production, (2) the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as compost for agriculture. In this study, the effect of the application of methane fermentation technology into space agriculture on the material and energy cycle was investigated.

  11. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  12. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  13. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  14. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture

  15. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  16. Source sampling of particulate matter emissions from cotton harvesting - System field testing and emission factor development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission factors are used in the air pollution regulatory process to quantify the mass of pollutants emitted from a source. Accurate emission factors must be used in the air pollution regulatory process to ensure fair and appropriate regulation for all sources. Agricultural sources, including cotton...

  17. Energy and American agriculture. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.; Webb, K.

    1980-01-01

    Agricultural energy consumption is examined and found to be remarkably efficient. The trend toward more energy-intensive farming practices, however, suggests that production costs could be contained without lowering output if some less energy-intensive inputs were substituted. Energy use has enabled US agriculture to achieve an unprecedented level of productivity, which can be maintained with support from a national policy that incorporates regional production differences. Caution is advised against pursuing a labor-intensive alternative instead of end-use efficiency and alternative energy sources. 3 figures, 7 tables (DCK)

  18. Comparison of organic matter composition in agricultural versus forest affected headwaters with special emphasis on organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik; Zwirnmann, Elke; Gelbrecht, Joerg; Pusch, Martin T

    2015-02-17

    Agricultural management practices promote organic matter (OM) turnover and thus alter both the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and presumably also the export of DOM to headwater streams, which intimately connect the terrestrial with the aquatic environment. Size-exclusion chromatography, in combination with absorbance and emission matrix fluorometry, was applied to assess how agricultural land use alters the amount and composition of DOM, as well as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms in headwater streams, including temporal variations, in a temperate region of NE Germany. By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic-like material with high molecular weight, which indicates terrestrial, i.e., allochthonous sources. As an obvious difference in agricultural streams, the contribution of DOC and particularly DON occurring in the form of nonhumic high-molecular-weight, presumably proteinous material is clearly elevated. Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify agricultural soils as important DOC and particularly DON sources to headwater streams.

  19. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  20. A Model for Education in Agriculture below College Level for Thailand with Emphasis on Education in Agriculture in the Private Agricultural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesna, Dharm

    The purpose of the study was to develop a model for a privately supported institution teaching agriculture in Thailand. Information was obtained from related agencies in Thailand and international sources about the needs and problems of education in agriculture. The primary inquiry focused on the value of the education in agriculture to Thailand…

  1. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  2. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  3. Biotic stress resistance in agriculture through antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Sarika; Iquebal, M A; Rai, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the hosts' defense molecules against microbial pathogens and gaining extensive research attention worldwide. These have been reported to play vital role of host innate immunity in response to microbial challenges. AMPs can be used as a natural antibiotic as an alternative of their chemical counterpart for protection of plants/animals against diseases. There are a number of sources of AMPs including prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and are present, both in vertebrates and invertebrates. AMPs can be classified as cationic or anionic, based on net charges. Large number of databases and tools are available in the public domain which can be used for development of new genetically modified disease resistant varieties/breeds for agricultural production. The results of the biotechnological research as well as genetic engineering related to AMPs have shown high potential for reduction of economic losses of agricultural produce due to pathogens. In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce the role of AMPs in relation to plants and animals. Their functional and structural characteristics have been described in terms of its role in agriculture. Different sources of AMPs and importance of these sources has been reviewed in terms of its availability. This article also reviews the bioinformatics resources including different database tools and algorithms available in public domain. References of promising biotechnology research in relation to AMPs, prospects of AMPs for further development of genetically modified varieties/breeds are highlighted. AMPs are valuable resource for students, researchers, educators and medical and industrial personnel.

  4. Agricultural Education and Agricultural Communications: Striking a Proper Balance in the Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mark; Whaley, Sherrie R.; Cano, Jamie M.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a framework of educational sociology to illustrate benefits and challenges of agricultural communications' relationships with agricultural education departments and private industry. Examines agricultural communications as an academic field and the influences of home department, journalism, and industry. Issues include graduate education…

  5. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs), key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access -- all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals. PMID:17242835

  6. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie

    2006-12-01

    Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs), key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access -- all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals.

  7. Microbial source tracking of private well water samples across at-risk regions in southern Ontario and analysis of traditional fecal indicator bacteria assays including culture and qPCR.

    PubMed

    Krolik, Julia; Maier, Allison; Thompson, Shawna; Majury, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Many people living in rural areas rely on privately owned wells as their primary source of drinking water. These water sources are at risk for fecal contamination of human, wildlife, and livestock origin. While traditional bacteriological testing involves culture-based methods, microbial source tracking (MST) assays present an opportunity to additionally determine the source of fecal contamination. This study investigated the main host sources of contamination in private well water samples with high levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli), using MST with human and multi-species specific markers. Fecal contamination of human origin was detected in approximately 50% of samples, indicating that current contamination prevention strategies require reconsideration. The relationship between cattle density and fecal contamination of bovine origin was investigated using a Bovine Bacteroidales specific MST assay. Regional variations of microbial sources were examined, and may inform local primary prevention strategies. Additionally, in order to assess MST and E. coli quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays as indicators of fecal contamination, these were compared to E. coli culture methods. Variation in results was observed across all assay methods investigated, suggesting the most appropriate routine bacteriological testing methodology cannot be determined without comparison to a method that directly detects the presence of fecal contamination.

  8. Agriculture and climate change: Potential for mitigation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Albiac, Jose; Kahil, Taher; Notivol, Eduardo; Calvo, Elena

    2017-03-18

    Agriculture and forestry activities are one of the many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but they are also sources of low-cost opportunities to mitigate these emissions compared to other economic sectors. This paper provides a first estimate of the potential for mitigation in the whole Spanish agriculture. A set of mitigation measures are selected for their cost-effectiveness and abatement potential and an efficient mix of these measures is identified with reference to a social cost of carbon of 40 €/tCO2e. This mix of measures includes adjusting crop fertilization and managing forests for carbon sequestration. Results indicate that by using the efficient mix of mitigation measures the annual abatement potential could reach 10 million tCO2e, which represents 28% of current agricultural emissions in Spain. This potential could further increase if the social cost of carbon rises covering the costs of applying manure to crops. Results indicate also that economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address mitigation in agriculture. These findings can be used to support the mitigation efforts in Spain and guide policymakers in the design of country-level mitigation strategies.

  9. Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Caylor, K. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a major factor in agricultural productivity, especially in developing regions where the capacity for water resources management is limited and climate variability ensures that drought is recurrent and problematic. Recent events in East Africa are testament to this, where drought conditions that have slowly developed over multiple years have contributed to reduced productivity and ultimately food crises and famine. Prospects for the future are not promising given ongoing problems of dwindling water supplies from non-renewable sources and the potential for increased water scarcity and increased drought with climate change. This is set against the expected increase in population by over 2 billion people by 2050 and rise in food demand, coupled with changes in demographics that affect food choices and increases in non-food agriculture. In this talk we discuss the global variability of drought over the 20th century and recent years, and the projected changes over the 21st century, and how this translates into changes in potential agricultural productivity. Drought is quantified using land surface hydrological models driven by a hybrid reanalysis-observational meteorological forcing dataset. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of hydroclimatic variables, in particular precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture, and we calculate changes in various drought characteristics. Potential agricultural productivity is derived from the balance of precipitation to crop water demand, where demand is based on potential evaporation and crop coefficients for a range of staple crops. Some regional examples are shown of historic variations in drought and potential productivity, and the estimated water deficit for various crops. The multitude of events over the past decade, including heat waves in Europe, fires in Russia, long-term drought in northern China, southeast Australia, the Western US and a series of droughts in the Amazon and Argentina, hint at the influence of

  10. Occurrences and toxicological risk assessment of eight heavy metals in agricultural soils from Kenya, Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mungai, Teresiah Muciku; Owino, Anita Awino; Makokha, Victorine Anyango; Gao, Yan; Yan, Xue; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The concentration distribution and toxicological assessment of eight heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and zinc (Zn) in agricultural soils from Kenya, Eastern Africa, were investigated in this study. The results showed mean concentrations of eight heavy metals of Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, As, Ni, Hg, and Cd in agricultural soils as 247.39, 26.87, 59.69, 88.59, 8.93, 12.56, 8.06, and 0.42 mg kg(-1), respectively. These mean values of eight heavy metals were close to the toxicity threshold limit of USEPA standard values of agricultural soils, indicating potential toxicological risk to the food chain. Pollution index values revealed that eight heavy metals severely decreased in the order Hg > Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cr and the mean value of the overall pollution index of Hg and Cd was 20.31, indicating severe agriculture ecological risk. Potential pollution sources of eight heavy metals in agricultural soils were mainly from anthropogenic activities and natural dissolution. The intensification of human agricultural activities, the growing industrialization, and the rapid urbanization largely influenced the concentration levels of heavy metals in Kenya, Eastern Africa. Moreover, the lack of agricultural normalization management and poor enforcement of environmental laws and regulations further intensified the widespread pollution of agricultural soils in Kenya.

  11. Review, mapping and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifania; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Scarascia, Giacomo; Picuno, Pietro; Guarde, Dorleta; Dejean, Cyril

    2013-12-01

    A review of agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe is presented. A detailed geographical mapping of the agricultural plastic use and waste generation in Europe was conducted focusing on areas of high concentration of agricultural plastics. Quantitative data and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation by category, geographical distribution and compositional range, and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste per use and the temporal distribution of the waste generation are presented. Data were collected and cross-checked from a variety of sources, including European, national and regional services and organizations, local agronomists, retailers and farmers, importers and converters. Missing data were estimated indirectly based on the recorded cultivated areas and the characteristics of the agricultural plastics commonly used in the particular regions. The temporal distribution, the composition and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste streams were mapped by category and by application. This study represents the first systematic effort to map and analyse agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

  12. How have agricultural policies influenced caloric consumption in the United States?

    PubMed

    Rickard, Bradley J; Okrent, Abigail M; Alston, Julian M

    2013-03-01

    Many commentators have speculated that agricultural policies have contributed to increased obesity rates in the United States, yet such claims are often made without any analysis of the complex links between real-world farm commodity support programs, prices and consumption of foods, and caloric intake. This article carefully studies the effects of US agricultural policies on prices and quantities of 10 agricultural commodities and nine food categories in the United States over time. Using a detailed multimarket model, we simulate the counterfactual removal of measures of support applied to US agricultural commodities in 1992, 1997, and 2002 and quantify the effects on US food consumption and caloric intake. To parameterize the simulations, we calculate three alternative measures of consumer support (the implicit consumer subsidy from policies that support producers) for the 10 agricultural commodities using information about government expenditures on agricultural commodities from various sources. Our results indicate that-holding all other policies constant-removing US subsidies on grains and oilseeds in the three periods would have caused caloric consumption to decrease minimally whereas removal of all US agricultural policies (including barriers against imports of sugar and dairy products) would have caused total caloric intake to increase. Our results also indicate that the influence of agricultural policies on caloric intake has diminished over time.

  13. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 3 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The third of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains twenty-five units of instruction in the area of agricultural mechanics. Among the unit topics included are (1) Farm Safety, (2) Ignition Systems; (3) Servicing Wheel Bearings, (4) Oxyacetylene Cutting, (5) Servicing the…

  14. Congressional District Schools: Forerunner of Federally Supported Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillison, John

    1989-01-01

    Before the Smith-Hughes Act, Congressional district agricultural schools in Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia provided an early example of federal support for vocational agriculture. Although agricultural instruction was included, these schools were in reality comprehensive high schools that set precedents for subsequent agricultural curricula. (SK)

  15. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  16. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  17. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  18. Pulmonary Health Effects of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Tara M.; Bailey, Kristina L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Recent findings Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. Summary In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease amongst workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations. PMID:26761627

  19. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  20. Agricultural Education in an Urban Charter School: Perspectives and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kesha A.; Talbert, Brian Allen; Morris, Pamala V.

    2014-01-01

    Urban school districts are viable recruitment sources for higher education in agriculture and have the ability to play a significant role in efforts to increase agricultural education program numbers at the secondary level. Secondary school increases should lead to growth in agricultural college enrollments across the country. Increasing…

  1. Precision agriculture in the 21st Century: Geospatial and information technologies in crop management

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Agricultural managers have for decades taken advantage of new technologies, including information technologies, that enabled better management decision making and improved economic efficiency of operations. The extent and rate of change now occurring in the development of information technologies have opened the way for significant change in crop production management and agricultural decision making. This vision is reflected in the concept of precision agriculture. Precision agriculture is a phrase that captures the imagination of many concerned with the production of food, feed, and fiber. The concepts embodied in precision agriculture offer the promise of increasing productivity while decreasing production costs and minimizing environmental impacts. Precision agriculture conjures up images of farmers overcoming the elements with computerized machinery that is precisely controlled via satellites and local sensors and using planning software that accurately predicts crop development. This image has been called the future of agriculture. Such high-tech images are engaging. Precision agriculture, however, is in early and rapidly changing phases of innovation. Techniques and practices not anticipated by the committee will likely become common in the future, and some techniques and practices thought to hold high promise today may turn out to be less desirable than anticipated. This report defines precision agriculture as a management strategy that uses information technologies to bring data from multiple sources to bear on decisions associated with crop production. Precision agriculture has three components: capture of data at an appropriate scale and frequency, interpretation and analysis of that data, and implementation of a management response at an appropriate scale and time. The most significant impact of precision agriculture is likely to be on how management decisions address spatial and temporal variability in crop production systems.

  2. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  3. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  4. Crop Farm Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Chester; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Vocational Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 13 units for crop farm employees. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (opportunities in farming, farming as a science, and farming in the United States), farm records (keeping farm…

  5. Assessing nonpoint source pollution in the vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Tim

    Sustainable agriculture is viewed as the only viable means of meeting the food demands of the world's projected population of 11 billion by the year 2050. Sustainable agriculture is predicated on a delicate balance of maximizing crop productivity and maintaining economic stability while minimizing the use of finite natural resources and avoiding the detrimental environmental impacts of associated nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. NPS pollutants include pesticides, fertilizers, trace elements, salts, sediments, etc., and are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. NPS pollutants threaten sustainable agriculture and are recognized as the single greatest threat to surface and subsurface drinking water resources.

  6. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  7. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  8. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  9. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  10. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-04

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  11. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  12. Introduction to Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the importance of forecasting in order for a farm family to develop marketing plans. It describes sources of information and includes a glossary of marketing terms and exercises using both fundamental and technical methods to predict prices in order to improve forecasting ability. The unit is organized in the…

  13. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  14. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  15. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  16. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  17. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  18. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  19. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  20. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  1. NABIC: A New Access Portal to Search, Visualize, and Share Agricultural Genomics Data

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Young-Joo; Lee, Tae-Ho; Park, Dong-Suk; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2016-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center developed an access portal to search, visualize, and share agricultural genomics data with a focus on South Korean information and resources. The portal features an agricultural biotechnology database containing a wide range of omics data from public and proprietary sources. We collected 28.4 TB of data from 162 agricultural organisms, with 10 types of omics data comprising next-generation sequencing sequence read archive, genome, gene, nucleotide, DNA chip, expressed sequence tag, interactome, protein structure, molecular marker, and single-nucleotide polymorphism datasets. Our genomic resources contain information on five animals, seven plants, and one fungus, which is accessed through a genome browser. We also developed a data submission and analysis system as a web service, with easy-to-use functions and cutting-edge algorithms, including those for handling next-generation sequencing data. PMID:26848255

  2. Agriculture & the Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Linda Maston

    This teacher's guide offers background information that teachers can use to incorporate topics related to agriculture and the environment into the curriculum. Classroom activities to bring these topics alive for students in grades 6-9 are suggested. Chapters include: (1) Pesticides and Integrated Pest Management; (2) Food Safety; (3) Water…

  3. Agriculture Teachers: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a 1978 survey highlighting some of the factors which may be related to the critical shortage of agriculture teachers in Illinois and the high rate of turnover among these teachers. These factors include the time required on the job, inadequate salaries, and large classes. (JOW)

  4. Single Sheet Agricultural Mechanics Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Leon, Ed.

    This packet contains 25 single-page plans for agricultural mechanics projects. Each plan consists of a one-page set of drawings of the object to be made with a list of needed materials, a cut list, and step-by-step construction procedures on the back of the page. Plans for the following wood projects are included: bluebird house, lawn seat, dog…

  5. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  6. Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Polasky, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation. In turn, ecosystem services affect agricultural productivity. Understanding the contribution of various agricultural practices to the range of ecosystem services would help inform choices about the most beneficial agricultural practices. To accomplish this, however, we must overcome a big challenge in measuring the impact of alternative agricultural practices on ecosystem services and of ecosystem services on agricultural production.

  7. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  8. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  9. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  10. Agricultural Education. Proceedings of the Central Region Annual Research Conference (44th, Chicago, Illinois, February 24-25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The following papers are included: "Focusing Agricultural Education Research" (Williams); "A Time Series Analysis of Agricultural Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Competencies" (Schumacher, Johnson); "Determination of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Inservice Needs of Missouri…

  11. Variable anelastic attenuation and site effect in estimating source parameters of various major earthquakes including M w 7.8 Nepal and M w 7.5 Hindu kush earthquake by using far-field strong-motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kumar, Parveen; Chauhan, Vishal; Hazarika, Devajit

    2016-12-01

    Strong-motion records of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake (M w 7.8), its strong aftershocks and seismic events of Hindu kush region have been analysed for estimation of source parameters. The M w 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 and its six aftershocks of magnitude range 5.3-7.3 are recorded at Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory, Ghuttu, Garhwal Himalaya (India) >600 km west from the epicentre of main shock of Gorkha earthquake. The acceleration data of eight earthquakes occurred in the Hindu kush region also recorded at this observatory which is located >1000 km east from the epicentre of M w 7.5 Hindu kush earthquake on 26 October 2015. The shear wave spectra of acceleration record are corrected for the possible effects of anelastic attenuation at both source and recording site as well as for site amplification. The strong-motion data of six local earthquakes are used to estimate the site amplification and the shear wave quality factor (Q β) at recording site. The frequency-dependent Q β(f) = 124f 0.98 is computed at Ghuttu station by using inversion technique. The corrected spectrum is compared with theoretical spectrum obtained from Brune's circular model for the horizontal components using grid search algorithm. Computed seismic moment, stress drop and source radius of the earthquakes used in this work range 8.20 × 1016-5.72 × 1020 Nm, 7.1-50.6 bars and 3.55-36.70 km, respectively. The results match with the available values obtained by other agencies.

  12. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  13. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  14. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type. High amounts of agriculture on steep slopes can increase the amount of soil erosion leading to increased sediment in surface water. Agricultural land cover on steep slopes (AGSL) is the percent of agriculture on slopes greater than or equal to 9%. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  15. Agricultural Education in the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, J. A.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a paper presenting the results of a survey conducted in 1967 by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations at the request of the South Pacific Commission. The survey included existing facilities for agricultural education in the several territories…

  16. Measurement of gas and aerosol agricultural emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Agriculture impacts can include primary dust emission, on-facility combustion from vehicles or seasonal field burning, and gaseous emissions from waste...

  17. Agriculture waste and rising CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there are many uncertainties concerning agriculture’s role in global environmental change including the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. A viable and stable world food supply depends on productive agricultural systems, but environmental concerns within agriculture have to...

  18. Agricultural aviation application in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduces the current status of aerial application including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It has a c...

  19. Agricultural Products: Program Planning Guide: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Richard; Robb, Sam

    The program planning guide for agricultural products was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of meat and meat byproducts, dairy processing, fruit and vegetable…

  20. Using Visuals in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    One of a series of booklets designed to answer questions about agricultural communications is presented. This booklet illustrates how visual teaching speeds learning and effects faster agricultural progress. Chapter titles include: (1) Visuals and Learning, (2) Visuals in Extension Teaching; (3) Presentation Visuals; (4) Drama and Music; (5)…

  1. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  2. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  3. 40 CFR 52.245 - New Source Review rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purposes from June 16, 2004 through June 10, 2010, is limited, as it relates to agricultural sources, to the extent that the permit requirements apply: (1) To agricultural sources with potential emissions at... emission offset requirements apply to major agricultural sources and major modifications of such sources....

  4. Agricultural waste utilization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

  5. On the new GPCC gridded reference data sets of observed (daily) monthly land-surface precipitation since (1988) 1901 published in 2014 including an all seasons open source test product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziese, Markus; Andreas, Becker; Peter, Finger; Anja, Meyer-Christoffer; Kirstin, Schamm; Udo, Schneider

    2014-05-01

    Since 1989 the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) collects world-wide observational in-situ data from rain gauges in order to provide gridded high quality and resolution land surface precipitation analyses as mandated by WMO's World Climate Research Program and the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). In doing so a thorough quality control (QC) is performed on the original data prior to its entrance into the ever growing GPCC data archive being the world-wide largest with monthly totals for more than 90000 stations. Since 2012 also daily data is processed and the archive already holds daily data for more than 30000 stations with the aim to reach at least the same scope as for monthly data, ultimately. All archived data stems from various sources, e.g. national meteorological and hydrological services and regional or global data collections and is thus stored in source specific slots, allowing cross-checks on redundant records and subsequent QC at different sophistication levels depending on the timeliness demand on each product. All data products are referenced by digital object identifiers (DOIs all starting with "10.5676/DWD_GPCC/") and thus published in public domain (ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html) for minimum 10 years per product and version. In 2014 the monthly Full Data Reanalysis and the Climatology product releases of December 2011 are due for update. As the new Climatology product is also used as background climatology for all other data products, the Monitoring Product shall be re-processed for all years since 1986. Moreover the First Guess Products (daily and monthly) will benefit from the improved climatology. Finally, GPCC will release its first Full Data Daily Reanalysis product comprising the land-surface precipitation for every day since 1 January 1988. It will be extended backward in course of GPCC's participation in the ERA_CLIM2 re-analysis project. The double to triple size of the GPCC data archive

  6. Simplified overturn stability monitoring of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Nichol, C I; Sommer, H J; Murphy, D J

    2005-02-01

    Agricultural tractors are the most common source of farm work fatalities in the U.S., with overturns the most common type of incident. For the year 2001, there were 15 tractor-related fatalities in Pennsylvania, 9 of which were due to tractor rollover. A new device using low-cost sensors and microcomputers was developed around a simplified mathematical model of an agricultural tractor to inform the operator of potential tractor instability. This device communicates the current rollover potential, along with a recent history of rollover potential, to the operator of the tractor via a simple bar-graph display. The device uses a single-chip accelerometer to sense the current rollover potential and a small microprocessor to analyze the accelerometer data, compensate for variations due to temperature, and then send this information to a visual display. The use of these low-cost "off the shelf" components enabled the fabrication of a very inexpensive sensor system. Because agricultural tractors have a long service life, it was important to make the device low cost and flexible. This could enable it to be sold as an aftermarket add-on for a variety of tractor models. The device is also capable of interfacing with newer on-board tractor systems via a CAN bus to make it more attractive to tractor manufacturers who may want to incorporate this device into new models. Work is continuing on the development of an improved display to inform the tractor operator of possible instability, including display ergonomic studies, investigation of threshold levels for alerting an operator of potential instability, and investigation into audible warning signals.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region.

  9. 7 CFR 735.105 - Care of agricultural products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.105 Care of agricultural products. Each warehouse operator must at all times, including during...

  10. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  11. Agricultural origins: centers and noncenters.

    PubMed

    Harlan, J R

    1971-10-29

    I propose the theory that agriculture originated independently in three different areas and that, in each case, there was a system composed of a center of origin and a noncenter, in which activities of domestication were dispersed over a span of 5,000 to 10,000 kilometers. One system includes a definable Near East center and a noncenter in Africa; another system includes a North Chinese center and a noncenter in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific; the third system includes a Mesoamerican center and a South American noncenter. There are suggestions that, in each case, the center and noncenter interact with each other. Crops did not necessarily originate in centers (in any conventional concept of the term), nor did agriculture necessarily develop in a geographical "center."

  12. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in response to ethanol policy incentives in recent years is well documented and may worsen this effect. We develop a spatially distributed dynamic environmental performance index (EPI), accounting for both desirable agricultural outputs and undesirable nonpoint source emissions from farm production, to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance within the UMRB between 2002 and 2007, which is characterized by increasing policy incentives for ethanol production. County-level production data from the USDA agricultural census are aggregated to hydrologic unit code (HUC8) boundaries using a geographic information system (GIS), and a previously developed statistical model, which includes net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) as well as precipitation and land use characteristics as inputs, is used to estimate annual nitrogen loadings delivered to streams from HUC8 watersheds. The EPI allows us to decompose performance of each HUC8 region over time into changes in productive efficiency and emissions efficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance for producers in this region at the watershed scale. The resu

  13. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  14. Sustainable Agriculture as a Recruitment Tool for Geoscience Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, K. P.; Gilbert, L. A.; McGillis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Small-scale agriculture has exploded with popularity in recent years, as teenagers and college students gain interest in local food sources. Outdoor experiences, including gardening and farming, are often among the motivations for students to take their first geoscience courses in college. The methods and theories of small agriculture translate well into geologic research questions, especially in the unique setting of college campus farms and gardens. We propose an activity or assignment to engage student-farmers in thinking about geosciences, and connect them with geoscience departments as a gateway to the major and career field. Furthermore, the activity will encourage a new generation of passionate young farmers to integrate the principles of earth science into their design and implementation of more sustainable food systems. The activity includes mapping, soil sampling, and interviewing professionals in agriculture and geology, and results in the students writing a series of recommendations for their campus or other farm. The activity includes assessment tools for instructors and can be used to give credit for a summer farming internship or as part of a regular course. We believe reaching out to students interested in farming could be an important recruitment tool for geosciences and helps build interdisciplinary and community partnerships.

  15. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  16. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  17. Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality: lessons from the USA and China.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Andrew; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2014-09-01

    The accelerated eutrophication of freshwaters and to a lesser extent some coastal waters is primarily driven by phosphorus (P) inputs. While efforts to identify and limit point source inputs of P to surface waters have seen some success, nonpoint sources remain difficult to identify, target, and remediate. As further improvements in wastewater treatment technologies becomes increasingly costly, attention has focused more on nonpoint source reduction, particularly the role of agriculture. This attention was heightened over the last 10 to 20 years by a number of highly visible cases of nutrient-related water quality degradation; including the Lake Taihu, Baltic Sea, Chesapeake Bay, and Gulf of Mexico. Thus, there has been a shift to targeted management of critical sources of P loss. In both the U.S. and China, there has been an intensification of agricultural production systems in certain areas concentrate large amounts of nutrients in excess of local crop and forage needs, which has increased the potential for P loss from these areas. To address this, innovative technologies are emerging that recycle water P back to land as fertilizer. For example, in the watershed of Lake Taihu, China one of the largest surface fresh waters for drinking water supply in China, local governments have encouraged innovation and various technical trials to harvest harmful algal blooms and use them for bio-gas, agricultural fertilizers, and biofuel production. In any country, however, the economics of remediation will remain a key limitation to substantial changes in agricultural production.

  18. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeber, Daniel; Meerhof, Mariana; Zwirnmann, Elke; Ovesen, Niels; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Jeppesen, Erik; Kronvang, Brian

    2014-05-01

    ratios. The high seasonality of DOM, especially in the Uruguayan streams implies high influence of variation of the environmental conditions, both temperature and precipitation. Our study shows the importance of agriculture as DOM source in both climate zones, with a high seasonality particularly in Uruguayan streams. Future investigations and models of DOC and DON export in agricultural catchments need to include this seasonality to give correct information on the catchment export. Moreover, our results clearly show that DON is increasingly important for the nitrogen export from agricultural catchments when moving from a temperate to a warmer climate.

  19. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  20. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  1. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  2. H. R. 1198: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to restore the application of the credit for producing fuels from a nonconventional source to steam produced from agricultural byproducts, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 28, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The bill would allow a tax credit for steam produced from solid agricultural byproducts (including sugar cane residues, but not including timber byproducts). The bill applies to steam produced which is sold after December 31, 1989, the effective date of this amendment. Steam produced which is used by the taxpayer in his trade or business would be treated as having been sold by the taxpayer to an unrelated person on the date on which it is used.

  3. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  4. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  5. Hands-On Activities and Challenge Tests in Agricultural and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poudel, D. D.; Vincent, L. M.; Anzalone, C.; Huner, J.; Wollard, D.; Clement, T.; DeRamus, A.; Blakewood, G.

    2005-01-01

    Many agricultural and environmental problems are interrelated and overlapping. Several agencies, including nonprofit organizations, have developed programs to educate schoolchildren about agricultural and environmental issues; however, programs that integrate both agricultural and environmental learning, especially among middle and high school…

  6. Effects of conservation practices on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles within agricultural streams and wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices have been traditionally used to manage soil and water resources to improve agricultural production, and now include methods to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture on streams and wetlands. These practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watershed...

  7. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article.

  8. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  9. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  10. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  11. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  12. USSR Report Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the last century one of the first Russian agronomists, M. G. Pavlov , in speaking about efficient agriculture, was asked the question, is agriculture...three are agronomists in enterprises--Nikolay Georgiyevich Kovalev, Fedor Akimovich Ivashchenko and Ivan Kirillovich Okhrimenko. All three work under the

  13. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  14. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  15. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology.

  16. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    18 Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity Congressional Research Service Summary Industrial hemp is a variety of Cannabis sativa and is of the same...further processing. Under the current U.S. drug policy, all cannabis varieties, including hemp, are considered Schedule I controlled substances under the...illegal to grow without a DEA permit. Currently, cannabis varieties may be legitimately grown for research purposes only. Among the concerns over

  17. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  18. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  19. Annual Review of Selected Developments; Agricultural Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This document is the second in a series designed to describe agricultural education projects and practices which have been successful in promoting agricultural change and improvement in areas of the world where subsistance agriculture predominates. The projects are included here because of their emphasis on development of human resources and…

  20. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  1. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas.

  2. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  3. Agriculture's Contribution to Nitrate Contamination of Californian Groundwater (1945-2005).

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Todd S; Liptzin, Daniel; Dzurella, Kristin; Fryjoff-Hung, Anna; Hollander, Allan; Jensen, Vivian; King, Aaron; Kourakos, George; McNally, Alison; Pettygrove, G Stuart; Quinn, Jim; Viers, Joshua H; Tomich, Thomas P; Harter, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) use in intensive agriculture can degrade groundwater resources. However, considerable time lags between groundwater recharge and extraction complicate source attribution and remedial responses. We construct a historic N mass balance of two agricultural regions of California to understand trends and drivers of past and present N loading to groundwater (1945-2005). Changes in groundwater N loading result from historic changes in three factors: the extent of agriculture (cropland area and livestock herd increased 120 and 800%, respectively), the intensity of agriculture (synthetic and manure waste effluent N input rates increased by 525 and 1500%, respectively), and the efficiency of agriculture (crop and milk production per unit of N input increased by 25 and 19%, respectively). The net consequence has been a greater-than-order-of-magnitude increase in nitrate (NO) loading over the time period, with 163 Gg N yr now being leached to groundwater from approximately 1.3 million ha of farmland (not including alfalfa [ L.]). Meeting safe drinking water standards would require NO leaching reductions of over 70% from current levels through reductions in excess manure applications, which accounts for nearly half of all groundwater N loading, and through synthetic N management improvements. This represents a broad challenge given current economic and technical conditions of California farming if farm productivity is to be maintained. The findings illustrate the growing tension-characteristic of agricultural regions globally-between intensifying food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production and preserving clean water.

  4. Increased risk of agricultural injury among African-American farm workers from Alabama and Mississippi.

    PubMed

    McGwin, G; Enochs, R; Roseman, J M

    2000-10-01

    Research on the epidemiology of agriculture-related injuries has largely ignored African-Americans and farm workers. This cohort study is the first to estimate injury rates and to evaluate prospectively risk factors for agriculture-related injuries and compare them among African-American and Caucasian farmers and African-American farm workers. A total of 1,246 subjects (685 Caucasian owners, 321 African-American owners, and 240 African-American workers) from Alabama and Mississippi were selected from Agricultural Statistics Services databases and other sources and were enrolled between January 1994 and June 1996. Baseline data included detailed demographic, farm and farming, and behavioral information. From January 1994 to April 1998, subjects were contacted biannually to ascertain the occurrence of an agriculture-related injury. Injury rates were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.3) higher for African-American farm workers compared with Caucasian and African-American owners. Part-time farming (relative risk (RR) = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), prior agricultural injury (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), and farm machinery in fair/poor condition (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) were also independently associated with injury rates. The results demonstrate the increased frequency of agricultural injury among farm workers and identify a number of possible ways of reducing them.

  5. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.14 - Other source milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other source milk. 1000.14 Section 1000.14 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.14 Other source milk. Other source milk means all skim milk and butterfat contained in...

  9. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Factors Influencing Enrollment in Agricultural Education Programs as Expressed by Iowa Secondary Agricultural Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Randal; Kahler, Alan A.

    1997-01-01

    Iowa secondary students (n=1,429) indicated that the people who most influenced agricultural education enrollment were parents, instructor, friend, and former ag student. Other influences included personal interest, farm background, and fun of participating. They were least satisfied with classroom facilities, agricultural mechanics, and…

  11. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  12. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Technology Usage of Tennessee Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Michael D.; Warner, Wendy J.; Stair, Kristin S.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the accessibility and use of instructional technologies by agriculture teachers in Tennessee. Data were collected using a survey instrument to investigate teachers' adoption of technology, sources of acquired technology skills, accessibility and use of technological equipment, and barriers to technology integration. The study…

  14. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  15. 7 CFR 3021.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 3021.215 Section 3021.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE... include in my drug-free awareness program? You must establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program...

  16. 7 CFR 3021.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 3021.215 Section 3021.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE... include in my drug-free awareness program? You must establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program...

  17. 7 CFR 3021.215 - What must I include in my drug-free awareness program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must I include in my drug-free awareness program? 3021.215 Section 3021.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE... include in my drug-free awareness program? You must establish an ongoing drug-free awareness program...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  19. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  20. Spatial distribution of an ancient agricultural oasis in Juyan, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ningke; Li, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Activities related to agricultural cultivation are some of the major human drivers of landscape change on the Earth's surface. Archaeological remains can provide qualitative evidence for studies of past agricultural development and environmental conditions. The ancient Juyan Oasis, which once flourished along the historic Silk Road, was a typical oasis of downstream inland river basins in the arid zone of northwestern China. Historical records and archaeological discoveries have qualitatively shown that the oasis supported extensive agricultural activities in this historical period from the Han Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty (B.C. 202-A.D. 1375), which can be traced back to 2,000 years ago. In this study, different types of archaeological remains (including archaeological sites, ground surface artifacts, ancient cultivation ruins, and agricultural irrigation canals) that were obtained and identified from previous archaeological reports, field inspections, and remote sensing imagery were used to determine the spatial extent of the agricultural oasis in the historical period of interest. Our approach used multiple data sources in order to increase the accuracy and reliability of the results compared to previous studies. Our results distinctly suggested that much of the oasis was cultivated during the historical periods considered. Additionally, the arable land area in the historical period considered was roughly estimated to be approximately (3.39-4.75) × 104 ha. These findings regarding the spatial distribution of this ancient agricultural oasis and its arable land were reasonably determined to represent the ancient agricultural development that occurred in the Juyan Oasis better than results obtained from single sources of data.

  1. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  2. Agricultural Education and OSHA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

  3. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is USSR Report for Agriculture. It contains the issues with different topics on Major Crop Progress and Weather Reporting, Livestock, Regional Development , Agro-Economics and Organization, Tilling and Cropping Technology.

  4. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  5. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  6. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  7. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  8. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  9. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  10. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  11. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-06

    simultaneous freeing of production resources for the achievement of other social goals of public development involves improving the structure of the food...in agriculture it becomes possible to free about 2 million hectares of arable land for the purpose of cultivating other crops, about 200,000 persons...insufficient application of mineral fertilizers. The structural changes in agriculture proposed by us, based on the freeing of 2 million hectares of

  12. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  13. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  14. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 178 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Properties of 21 Urban Agricultural Soils in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    The number of urban agriculture practitioners has been increasing rapidly in Korea like many other urbanized countries recently. The Korean government enacted a law for promoting urban agriculture in 2011. However, urban soil environment can be potential sources of many toxic contaminants including heavy metals making people concern about the safety of the agricultural products from the urban agriculture. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plant by overuse of compost from animal waste was one of the raised concerns. This study was carried out to find out properties and total and phytoavailable (1.0 M NH4NO3 extractable) contents of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in 21 urban agricultural soils in Seoul. On the average, the investigated urban soils showed pH1:5 6.89, EC1:5 0.14 dS m-1, organic mater 2.22%, available P2O5 139 mg kg-1, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 11.36 cmolc kg-1 and total nitrogen 0.15%. The average exchangeable-Ca, -Mg, -K and -Na of the 21 samples were 6.71, 1.44, 1.06 and 0.30 cmol+ kg-1, respectively. Total heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.97-3.17 mg kg-1, average 1.89 mg kg-1; Pb 8.10-46.27 mg kg-1, average 19.96 mg kg-1; Cu 8.97-133.40 mg kg-1, average 38.37 mg kg-1; and Zn 38.97-180.06 mg kg-1, average 97.73 mg kg-1) in urban agricultural soils were lower than those of the warning standard in the area 1 according to the Soil Environmental Conservation Act of Korea. Phytoavailable-Cu, -Pb, and -Zn concentrations of the samples showed 0.02-0.28, N.D-0.09 and 0.01-0.43 mg kg-1, respectively. Phytoavailable-Cd was not detected. The average phytoavailable-Cu concentration from this study was similar to that from the previous phytoavailable-Cu of the highly contaminated soils from nearby abandoned mines, which might be resulted from overuse of compost from animal waste. Results showed a necessity of long-term monitoring of soils for sustainable urban agriculture in Korea.

  17. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  18. Mitigation potential and costs for global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities are a substantial contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for about 58% of the world’s anthropogenic non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions and 14% of all anthropogenic GHG emissions, and agriculture is often viewed as a potential source of relatively low-c...

  19. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  20. Utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for environmental benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of FGD gypsum in agriculture for environmental benefits. Gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) has been used as an agricultural soil amendment for over 250 years. It is a soluble source of calcium and sulfur for crops and has been shown to improve soil physical and chemical pr...

  1. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  2. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  3. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  4. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  5. Does the Recent Growth of Aquaculture Create Antibiotic Resistance Threats Different from those Associated with Land Animal Production in Agriculture?

    PubMed

    Done, Hansa Y; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-05-01

    Important antibiotics in human medicine have been used for many decades in animal agriculture for growth promotion and disease treatment. Several publications have linked antibiotic resistance development and spread with animal production. Aquaculture, the newest and fastest growing food production sector, may promote similar or new resistance mechanisms. This review of 650+ papers from diverse sources examines parallels and differences between land-based agriculture of swine, beef, and poultry and aquaculture. Among three key findings was, first, that of 51 antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, 39 (or 76%) are also of importance in human medicine; furthermore, six classes of antibiotics commonly used in both agriculture and aquaculture are also included on the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of critically important/highly important/important antimicrobials. Second, various zoonotic pathogens isolated from meat and seafood were observed to feature resistance to multiple antibiotics on the WHO list, irrespective of their origin in either agriculture or aquaculture. Third, the data show that resistant bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and agriculture share the same resistance mechanisms, indicating that aquaculture is contributing to the same resistance issues established by terrestrial agriculture. More transparency in data collection and reporting is needed so the risks and benefits of antibiotic usage can be adequately assessed.

  6. Evidence for carbon sequestration by agricultural liming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Stephen K.; Kurzman, Amanda L.; Arango, Clay; Jin, Lixin; Robertson, G. Philip

    2007-06-01

    Agricultural lime can be a source or a sink for CO2, depending on whether reaction occurs with strong acids or carbonic acid. Here we examine the impact of liming on global warming potential by comparing the sum of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to carbonate alkalinity in soil solutions beneath unmanaged vegetation versus limed row crops, and of streams and rivers in agricultural versus forested watersheds, mainly in southern Michigan. Soil solutions sampled by tension indicated that lime can act as either a source or a sink for CO2. However, infiltrating waters tended to indicate net CO2 uptake, as did tile drainage waters and streams draining agricultural watersheds. As nitrate concentrations increased in infiltrating waters, lime switched from a net CO2 sink to a source, implying nitrification as a major acidifying process. Dissolution of lime may sequester CO2 equal to roughly 25-50% of its C content, in contrast to the prevailing assumption that all of the carbon in lime becomes CO2. The ˜30 Tg/yr of agricultural lime applied in the United States could thus sequester up to 1.9 Tg C/yr, about 15% of the annual change in the U.S. CO2 emissions (12 Tg C/yr for 2002-2003). The implications of liming for atmospheric CO2 stabilization should be considered in strategies to mitigate global climate change.

  7. A review of green- and blue-water resources and their trade-offs for future agricultural production in the Amazon Basin: what could irrigated agriculture mean for Amazonia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Coe, Michael T.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon Basin is a region of global importance for the carbon and hydrological cycles, a biodiversity hotspot, and a potential centre for future economic development. The region is also a major source of water vapour recycled into continental precipitation through evapotranspiration processes. This review applies an ecohydrological approach to Amazonia's water cycle by looking at contributions of water resources in the context of future agricultural production. At present, agriculture in the region is primarily rain-fed and relies almost exclusively on green-water resources (soil moisture regenerated by precipitation). Future agricultural development, however, will likely follow pathways that include irrigation from blue-water sources (surface water and groundwater) as insurance from variability in precipitation. In this review, we first provide an updated summary of the green-blue ecohydrological framework before describing past trends in Amazonia's water resources within the context of land use and land cover change. We then describe green- and blue-water trade-offs in light of future agricultural production and potential irrigation to assess costs and benefits to terrestrial ecosystems, particularly land and biodiversity protection, and regional precipitation recycling. Management of green water is needed, particularly at the agricultural frontier located in the headwaters of major tributaries to the Amazon River, and home to key downstream blue-water users and ecosystem services, including domestic and industrial users, as well as aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Agriculture and water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    The attempt by certain jurisdictions to preserve a rural lifestyle by means of farmland preservation may produce some unwanted side effects, such as polluted water supplies. While there are many excellent and important reasons to preserve high-quality agricultural land for food production, efforts to retain or encourage agricultural activities in areas experiencing rapid population growth may produce some serious environmental problems.For the entire post-WW II period the United States has experienced almost continuous suburban sprawl. Many incorporated areas, experiencing rapid development, have attempted to preserve open-space and less-developed land uses by actively attempting to preserve agricultural activities. Often the most recent migrants to a growing municipality exemplify the ‘last in’ syndrome by being among the most vociferous in attempting to halt further development.

  9. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  10. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  11. Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-04-01

    treatment plant throughout the year. The insecticide diazinon for example showed a background concentration in treated waste water of approximately 50 ng/l. Substances like mecoprop, which are used in urban areas (roof protection, private gardens) and agriculture showed a mixed pattern. At the time scale of single events two concentration peaks have been observed. One of them was due to the fast reaction of sewer overflows or rain sewers carrying urban storm water. The delayed peak was caused by fast flow from agricultural soils. Overall, the study revealed complex concentration patterns for the different compounds. Source identification was only possible by means of a comprehensive approach including different nested measuring sites, a broad range of different compounds that were complemented by tracer substances like caffeine or drugs and their metabolites (sulfamethoxazole, N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, diclofenac) that can be non-ambiguously attributed to sources like treated or untreated wastewater.

  12. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes...

  13. Agricultural chemical utilization and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, E W; Piver, W T

    1992-01-01

    The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466

  14. Health hazards to children in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wilk, V A

    1993-09-01

    Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture.

  15. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first…

  16. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The first of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in two major areas: (1) plant and soil science and (2) leadership (Future Farmers of America). Typical of the nineteen units included in the first section are the following: Plant Insect Control, Plant…

  17. 7 CFR 46.38 - Sundays and holidays included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Sundays...

  18. Ice nucleation properties of agricultural soil dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Isabelle; Funk, Roger; Busse, Jacqueline; Iturri, Antonela; Kirchen, Silke; Leue, Martin; Möhler, Ottmar; Schwartz, Thomas; Sierau, Berko; Toprak, Emre; Ulrich, Andreas; Hoose, Corinna; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil dust particles emitted from agricultural areas contain large amounts of organic material such as fungi, bacteria and plant debris. Being carrier for potentially highly ice-active biological particles, agricultural soil dusts are candidates for being very ice-active as well. In this work, we present ice nucleation experiments conducted in the AIDA cloud chamber. We investigated the ice nucleation efficiency of four types of soil dust from different regions of the world. Results are presented for the immersion freezing and the deposition nucleation mode: all soil dusts show higher ice nucleation efficiencies than desert dusts, especially at temperatures above 254 K. For one soil dust sample, the effect of heat treatments was investigated. Heat treatments did not affect the ice nucleation efficiency which presumably excludes primary biological particles as the only source of the increased ice nucleation efficiency. Therefore, organo-mineral complexes or organic compounds may contribute substantially to the high ice nucleation activity of agricultural soil dusts.

  19. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil.

  20. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.