Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural tractor test

  1. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed. PMID:24303716

  2. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors shall be... load is applied. (ii) The following definitions shall apply: W = Tractor weight (see 29 CFR 1928.51(a... conditions shall be met: (A) The protective frame and tractor shall be tested at the weight defined by 29...

  3. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors shall be... load is applied. (ii) The following definitions shall apply: W = Tractor weight (see 29 CFR 1928.51(a... conditions shall be met: (A) The protective frame and tractor shall be tested at the weight defined by 29...

  4. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 29 CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural... following definitions shall apply: W = Tractor weight (see 29 CFR 1928.51(a)) in lb (W ′ in kg); E is... and point of load application for both side and rear shall be the same as specified in 29 CFR...

  5. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 29 CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural... following definitions shall apply: W = Tractor weight (see 29 CFR 1928.51(a)) in lb (W ′ in kg); E is... and point of load application for both side and rear shall be the same as specified in 29 CFR...

  6. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to 5 mph (4.8 to 8.0 kph) at maximum governed engine rpm by driving forward directly up a minimum slope of 60° ±5° as shown in Figure C-11, or by an alternative equivalent means. The engine clutch may... CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors shall...

  7. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to 5 mph (4.8 to 8.0 kph) at maximum governed engine rpm by driving forward directly up a minimum slope of 60° ±5° as shown in Figure C-11, or by an alternative equivalent means. The engine clutch may... CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors shall...

  8. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to 5 mph (4.8 to 8.0 kph) at maximum governed engine rpm by driving forward directly up a minimum slope of 60° ± 5° as shown in Figure C-11, or by an alternative equivalent means. The engine clutch may... CFR 1928.51. (b) Types of tests. All protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors shall...

  9. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation.

    PubMed

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V

    2013-10-01

    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated. PMID:24673034

  10. Agricultural Tractor Safety on Public Roads and Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigated the extent, causes, and means of preventing agricultural tractor accidents. The report includes an estimate of annual tractor-related deaths, an identification of the primary causes of such accidents with consideration of the major hazards causing death or injury, and recommendations or means for preventing the occurrence…

  11. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) SAE standard J674-1963 appears... upset shall be induced by engine power, with the tractor operating in gear to obtain 3 to 5 mph (4.8...

  12. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) SAE standard J674-1963 appears... upset shall be induced by engine power, with the tractor operating in gear to obtain 3 to 5 mph (4.8...

  13. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems. PMID:22163479

  14. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure. PMID:22877701

  15. Personal noise exposures of operators of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Aybek, Ali; Kamer, H Atil; Arslan, Selçuk

    2010-03-01

    Approximately one million agricultural tractors are used in Turkey for crop production and about one-third of the population lives in rural areas. The objectives of this study were to determine sound pressure levels, A-weighted sound pressure levels, and the permissible exposure time for tractors without cabins, field-installed cabins, and original cabins at ear level of agricultural tractor operators for following machines: plows, cultivators, top soil cultivators, rotary tillers, tool combinations (harrow+roller), mechanical drills, pneumatic drills, chemical applicators, fertilizer applicators, drum mowers, balers, and forage harvesters. Variance analyses showed that type of operation, type of cabins, and operation x cabin interactions were statistically significant (P<0.01) both for sound pressure levels and equivalent (A-weighted) sound pressure levels. The use of original cabins had a greater effect in decreasing average sound pressures and resulted in more efficient noise insulation, especially at higher center frequencies compared to field-installed cabins whereas field-installed cabins proved to be more favorable compared to tractors without cabins. Sound pressure levels at 4000Hz center frequency was reduced 2-13dB and 4-18dB by using a field-installed cabin and an original cabin, respectively. The measured A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels were compared to the threshold limit level, and was concluded that depending on the cabin types used, the operators could usually work from 4 to 6h a day without suffering from noise induced inconveniences while 2-3h is permissible for plowing and forage harvesting on tractors without cabins. Due to timeliness considerations in agricultural machine operations, a farmer would not be willing to interrupt the operation based on permissible exposure time set by the standards. Based on the findings of this study, particularly an original cabin is recommended to reduce machine-induced noise below the danger limit

  16. Perceptions of tilt angles of an agricultural tractor.

    PubMed

    Görücü, Serap; Cavallo, Eugenio; Murphy, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A tractor stability simulator has been developed to help study tractor operators' perceptions of angles when the simulator is tilted to the side. The simulator is a trailer-mounted tractor cab equipped with hydraulic lift that can tilt the tractor cabin up to 30 degrees. This paper summarizes data from 82 participants who sat in the simulator while it was tilted. Demographic variables, estimates of tilt angles, and measured tilt angles were collected. The effects of age, gender, tractor driving experience, and frequency of operation on the estimated and measured tilt angles were analyzed. The results showed that about 50% of the participants reported estimations of side tilt angles within ±5 degrees of the actual angles, and nearly the same percentage overestimated the actual side tilt angles. Only a small percentage underestimated the angles. Older, more experienced, and male participants set higher limits on the actual angle at which they felt uncomfortable and would not drive. PMID:24417527

  17. Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

    The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

  18. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR 1928.52, 1928.53, or 1926.1002 as appropriate. A ROPS used on track-type tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR... horizontal in and upward and rearward direction. Floor and seat deformation is acceptable provided there...

  19. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR 1928.52, 1928.53, or 1926.1002 as appropriate. A ROPS used on track-type tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR... horizontal in and upward and rearward direction. Floor and seat deformation is acceptable provided there...

  20. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR 1928.52, 1928.53, or 1926.1002 as appropriate. A ROPS used on track-type tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR... horizontal in and upward and rearward direction. Floor and seat deformation is acceptable provided there...

  1. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR 1928.52, 1928.53, or 1926.1002 as appropriate. A ROPS used on track-type tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR... horizontal in and upward and rearward direction. Floor and seat deformation is acceptable provided there...

  2. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  3. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery. PMID:27024992

  4. Summary of NREL's Recent Class 8 Tractor Trailer Platooning Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-08-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's recent class 8 tractor trailer platooning testing, including analysis of SAE J1321 Type II fuel consumption testing, fuel consumption improvement, fuel economy and platooning position accuracy.

  5. Automated field testing of a track-type tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Lay, Keith; Struble, Joshua; Allen, William; Subrt, Michael

    2003-09-01

    During the design process, earthmoving manufacturers routinely subject machines to rigorous, long-term tests to ensure quality. Automating portions of the testing process can potentially reduce the cost and time to complete these tests. We present a system that guides a 175 horsepower track-type tractor (Caterpillar Model D6R XL) along a prescribed route, allowing simple tasks to be completed by the automated machine while more complex tasks, such as site clean up, are handled by an operator. Additionally, the machine can be operated manually or via remote control and observed over the internet using a remote supervisor program. We envision that safety would be handled using work procedures, multiple over-ride methods and a GPS fence. The current system can follow turns within a half meter and straight sections within a quarter meter. The controller hardware and software are integrated with existing on-board electronic modules and allow for portability. The current system successfully handles the challenges of a clutch-brake drive train and has the potential to improve control over test variables, lower testing costs and enable testing at higher speeds allowing for higher impact tests than a human operator can tolerate.

  6. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations. 1928.51 Section 1928.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE...

  7. Field Tests of a Tractor Rollover Detection and Emergency Notification System.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Koc, A B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of a rollover detection and emergency notification system for farm tractors using field tests. The emergency notification system was developed based on a tractor stability model and implemented on a mobile electronic device with the iOS operating system. A complementary filter was implemented to combine the data from the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to improve their accuracies in calculating the roll and pitch angles and the roll and pitch rates. The system estimates a stability index value during tractor operation, displays feedback messages when the stability index is lower than a preset threshold value, and transmits emergency notification messages when an overturn happens. Ten tractor rollover tests were conducted on a field track. The developed system successfully monitored the stability of the tractor during all of the tests. The iOS application was able to detect rollover accidents and transmit emergency notifications in the form of a phone call and email when an accident was detected. The system can be a useful tool for training and education in safe tractor operation. The system also has potential for stability monitoring and emergency notification of other on-road and off-road motorized vehicles. PMID:26204787

  8. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  9. Energy and Agriculture. A Basic Core Curriculum for Teaching Energy to Vocational Agriculture Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James; French, Byron

    This core curriculum contains five units of material for teaching energy to vocational agriculture students. Energy uses and the benefits of energy conservation are covered in a unit on the impact of energy on agriculture. Discussed next are tractor performance and Nebraska tractor test data for selecting and evaluating tractors for maximum fuel…

  10. Structural dynamics modeling and testing of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination. The focus is to augment the experimental test results with the use of a high quality computer model. The discussion includes an overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental modal test results. System identification techniques are employed to update the mathematical model. The validated model is then used to illustrate the benefits of incorporating two major design changes, namely the switch from a separate cab/sleeper configuration to an integrated cab, and the use of a cab suspension system.

  11. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  12. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

  13. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  14. TRACTOR TUNE-UP AND MAINTENANCE. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE AND ABILITY TO PERFORM TUNEUPS AND MAINTENANCE TASKS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

  15. A powered roller/crimper for walk-behind tractors to terminate cover crops in conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller/crimper implements have been used in large conservation farming systems to terminate cover crops near maturity and flatten them down to create a mulch through which cash crops can be planted directly into the cover residue. On small farms, tractors are usually small and less powerful relative...

  16. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  17. Low-back disorders in agricultural tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Betta, A

    1994-08-01

    The occurrence of low-back pain (LBP) was investigated in a population of 1155 tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural stress (response rate 91.2%) and in a control group of 220 office workers (response rate 92.2%). The subjects were questioned about several types of low-back symptom (LBP, sciatic pain, acute LBP, transient and chronic LBP) and various work- and individual-related risk factors, by using a standardized questionnaire. Vibration measurements were performed on a representative sample of the vehicles driven by the tractor drivers in the last ten years. Vibration magnitude and duration of exposure were used to calculate a vibration dose for each tractor driver. Perceived postural load was assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. The prevalence of LBP was found to be greater in the tractor drivers than in the controls. After controlling for potential confounders by logistic modelling, low-back disorders were found to be significantly associated with both vibration dose and postural load. Back accidents and age were also significant predictors for LBP. Quantitative regression analysis indicated that vibration exposure and postural load were independent contributors to the increased risk for LBP according to a multiplicative model. The exposure levels for WBV recently recommended by a proposal of European Directive on physical agents seem to be more adequate to prevent long-term health effects on the lower back than the exposure limits suggested by the International Standard ISO 2631/1. PMID:15676973

  18. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary. PMID:24738521

  19. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings V : Clark Y Biplane Cellule - NACA Cowled Nacelle - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, E Floyd

    1935-01-01

    This report is the fifth of a series giving the results obtained from wind tunnel tests on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. This report gives results of tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 12 positions with reference to a Clark Y biplane cellule.

  20. Tractor overturn concerns in Iowa: perspectives from the Keokuk county rural health study.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Madsen, M D; Rautiainen, R; Kelly, K M; Zwerling, C; Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J; Stromquist, A M; Burmeister, L F; Merchant, J A

    2006-02-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous industries in the U.S., with tractor overturns producing the greatest number of agricultural machinery-related fatalities. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seatbelts effectively reduce tractor overturn deaths. However, a large proportion of tractors in use in American agriculture are older tractors without ROPS and seatbelts. This article describes the tractor-related responses from participants in a population-based study conducted in Keokuk County, Iowa. This study was designed to measure rural and agricultural adverse health and injury outcomes and their respective risk factors. Questionnaires were partially developed from well-documented national surveys. Questions about agricultural machinery use, presence of safety equipment on the machinery, work practices, and attitudes about farm safety were included. Study participants on farms who owned tractors had an average of 3.1 tractors with an average age of 27 years. Only 39% of the 665 tractors had ROPS. Tractor age was associated with the presence of ROPS; 84% of tractors manufactured after 1984 were ROPS-equipped, whereas only 3% of tractors manufactured before 1960 were ROPS-equipped. ROPS-equipped tractors were significantly more common on larger farms and households with higher income. Only 4% of the farmers reported that their tractors had seatbelts and they wore them when operating their tractors. The results of this study support the findings of other studies, which indicate that many older tractors without ROPS and seatbelts remain in use in American agriculture. Until a dramatic reduction in the number of tractors in the U.S. operated without ROPS and seatbelts is achieved, the annual incidence of 120 to 130 deaths associated with tractor overturns will persist. PMID:16536175

  1. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings III : Clark Y Wing - Various Radial-engine Cowlings - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1933-01-01

    This report is the third of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel on the interference drag, and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The second report gave the results for several engine cowlings and nacelles with tractor propeller located in four positions with reference to same wing. The present report gives results of tests of the same nacelles and cowlings in the same positions with reference to a smaller wing of Clark y section. The lift, drag, and propulsive efficiency were determined at several angles of attack for each cowling and in each nacelle location.

  2. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  3. 4-H Tractor Operator Program Teaches Employability Skills and Safety to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    For Michigan State University Extension, the Berrien County 4-H Tractor Operator Program has provided tractor safety education to teens for over 30 years. The certification training satisfies current requirements for operation of a 20 PTO HP or greater agricultural tractor by 14- and 15-year-old youth employed on property "not" owned,…

  4. Wind-Tunnel Tests of Several Model Tractor-Propeller and Pusher-Propeller Wing Extension-Shaft Arrangements, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Hubert N.

    1941-01-01

    Tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel to investigate the possibility of obtaining increased net efficiencies of propeller-nacelle units by enclosing the engines in the wings and by using extension shafts. A wing of 5-foot chord was fitted with a propeller drive assembly providing for several axial locations of tractor propellers and pusher propellers. A three-blade 4-foot propeller and a three-blade 3 1/2-foot propeller of special design were tested in this wing with spinners and fairings ranging in diameter from 6 to 16 inches. A 16-inch NACA cowling was tested for comparative purposes. Two types of cuffs were also employed. It was found that the net efficiency of a conventional round-shank propeller mounted on an extension shaft in front of or behind a wing increased with an increase in the diameter of the spinner and the shaft housing within the scope of the tests. The largest spinner used had a diameter that might favorably compare with that of a radial engine cowling. The efficiencies for the pusher position appeared to be more critically affected by spinner size than those for the tractor position. The spinners with large diameters for the pusher position resulted in a higher efficiency than those for the corresponding tractor arrangements; the reverse was true for the small spinners. The use of propeller cuffs in combination with a spinner of small diameter generally resulted in net efficiencies that were comparable with those found for the large-spinner combinations.

  5. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on

  6. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  7. Agriculture Library of Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Duncan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  8. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW AMIDST AN ACCUMULATION OF CLUTTER ON THE FLOOR. TRACTOR HAD ATTACHMENTS IN FRONT TO FACILITATE MOVING OF COFFINS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3027. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 9/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Ferrante, Todd A.; Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  10. Tractor beams for optical micromanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevick, Aaron; Grier, David G.

    2016-03-01

    Tractor beams are traveling waves that transport illuminated objects in the retrograde direction relative to the direction of propagation. The theory of photokinetic effects identifies design criteria for long-range general- purpose tractor beams. These criteria distinguish first-order tractor beams that couple to induced dipole moments from higher-order tractor beams that rely on coupling to higher-order multipole moments to achieve pulling. First-order tractor beams are inherently longer-ranged and operate on a wider variety of materials. We explore the physics of first-order tractor beams in the context of a family of generalized solenoidal waves.

  11. Development of a small high-thrust tractor rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C.E.; Oberlander, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the parachute extraction tractor rocket motor design and test efforts conducted during the Sandia ASW/SOW development program. The prime contractor was Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the tractor rocket motor subcontractor was Morton Thiokol, Inc., Elkton, Maryland.

  12. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  13. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  14. Wi-Fi and satellite-based location techniques for intelligent agricultural machinery controlled by a human operator.

    PubMed

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems' (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor. From

  15. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    PubMed Central

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor

  16. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saman, D.M.; Cole, H.P.; Odoi, A.; Myers, M.L.; Carey, D.I.; Westneat, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Methods: A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Results: The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55) and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97). Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002) and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (p<0.0001). Conclusions: This study reveals that geographic hotspots of tractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions) with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky. ?? 2012 Saman et al.

  17. A Spatial Cluster Analysis of Tractor Overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Saman, Daniel M.; Cole, Henry P.; Odoi, Agricola; Myers, Melvin L.; Carey, Daniel I.; Westneat, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Methods A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Results The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55) and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97). Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002) and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study reveals that geographic hotspots of tractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions) with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky. PMID:22291980

  18. Evaluation of a tractor cab using real-time aerosol counting instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ronald M; Heitbrink, William A; Reed, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol instrumentation was used to evaluate air infiltration into tractor cabs that are used to protect the agricultural worker during pesticide applications. Preliminary surveys were conducted on three different manufactured agriculture enclosures. The results of these preliminary surveys indicated that aerosols are entering the cab through leak sources or are being generated inside the cab. These results identified the need for in-depth field evaluations of tractor cabs to identify any leak sources. To evaluate the ability of tractor cabs to reduce operator air contaminant exposure, field evaluations were conducted on two tractor cabs. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) the particle size distribution and the effectiveness of the filter system; and 2) air infiltration into the cab. These evaluations were also conducted to demonstrate the ease and practicality of using optical particle counters to evaluate the ability of cabin filtration systems. Pesticide particle size distribution during an air blast spray operation was also evaluated during the study. The field tests were conducted on a John Deere 7000 series tractor cab (tractor manufacturer's cab) and a Nelson spraycab (retrofit cab). Both cabs were equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media which were assumed to be 99.97 percent efficient at removing the test aerosol, atmospheric condensation nuclei. Thus, the major source of aerosols inside the cab was assumed to be leakage around filters at the seals. Using a portable dust monitor (PDM), the ratio of the outside to inside aerosol measurements was used to calculate a cab protection factor. During the evaluations, one PDM was placed inside the tractor cab (near the tractor operator) and one PDM was placed outside (near the air intake) to count particles. During the evaluations, the instruments were switched to prevent instrument bias from affecting the findings. The ratio of the two measurements (i.e., protection factor = outside

  19. Evaluation of mechanical tractor pedal extensions.

    PubMed

    Kelso, S A; Stangherlin, A M; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    Many farmers with disabilities choose to modify their work environments to accommodate their personal abilities; however, modified tractors may present greater risk to the operator as they are often one-of-a-kind designs that have not been subjected to rigorous safety testing. The objective of this research was to evaluate mechanical tractor pedal , extensions from a safety perspective. This objective was achieved by identifying potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab environment so that both existing and novel designs could be compared using a common methodology. Based on review of the published literature, 19 potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab of a tractor were identified. A hazard self-assessment worksheet (HSAW), created based on the 19 hazards, was validated through a pilot study. The overall inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion validity proved to be acceptable. With the use of the HSAW six pedal extensions (three existing designs and three novel designs) were evaluated by 14 experts. Statistical analysis of the results did not identify a "best" design; however, several important trends were observed. Four of the six designs tended to block access to the exit path. The two designs that did not block access to the exit path might be considered to be the best designs for the tractors used in this study, but other designs likely would have been acceptable if they had been custom-fit for these tractors. The results of this research suggest that custom fabrication of pedal extensions for each specific tractor will likely yield the safest work environment for those who choose to use this assistive technology. PMID:19044171

  20. Acoustic tractor beam.

    PubMed

    Démoré, Christine E M; Dahl, Patrick M; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system. PMID:24836252

  1. Acoustic Tractor Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.

  2. Development of the Safe Tractor Assessment Rating System.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Scott, M; Williams, R; Rechnitzer, G; Walsh, P; Boyle, S

    2005-08-01

    We describe the development of the Safe Tractor Assessment and Rating System (STARS), a design-based tractor safety rating system that can be applied to new or used tractors to provide an objective assessment of their inherent safety features. A predictive rating system model, based on technical inspection, was used. Key principles underlying the system included the potential for design features to reduce the risk of an injury event occurring, and to reduce the risk of injury if such an event did occur. The rating system was based on current standards, research literature, injury and fatality data, and farmer input via focus groups. Development was an iterative process involving field, pilot, and inter-rater reliability tests. The final system was divided into six domains: rollover protection, runover protection, user protection, information and controls, pedestrian protection, and options. Within each domain, optimum design features were described for the common or serious potential injury risks, and a score was assigned for each feature. Scores were translated into a star rating, from zero stars for virtually no inherent safety features to five stars for the highest inherent safety, for each of the six domains. STARS distinguished well between older tractor models known to have few inherent safety features and newer tractor models known to have higher levels of inherent safety. STARS can provide tractor manufacturers, dealers, and users with information critical for managing tractor-associated injury risk. In Australia, it is initially being implemented within the curriculum of the technical education and training sector. PMID:16184794

  3. Retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures: perspective of equipment dealers.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, S M; Donham, K J; Leedom-Larson, K; Sanderson, W; Purschwitz, M

    2009-10-01

    This study was one of a cluster of studies that originated via requests for proposals from the NIOSH National Agricultural Tractor Safety Initiative. The present study design consisted of several steps: (1) formation of an advisory group, (2) development and testing of a standard paper self-responding survey instrument, (3) sample selection of farm equipment dealers, (4) administration of the survey, (5) assessment and analysis of the survey, and (6) in-person response panel of dealers (n = 80) to review results of the questionnaire for further definition and sharpening of the recommendations from the survey. A key finding is that most dealers do not currently sell or install ROPS retrofit kits. Barriers cited by dealers included (1) actual or perceived lack of farmer demand, (2) injury liability, (3) expensive freight for ordering ROPS, (4) lack of dealer awareness of the magnitude of deaths from tractor overturns and the high life-protective factor of ROPS, and (5) difficulty and incursion of non-recoverable expenses in locating and obtaining specific ROPS. Despite not currently selling or installing ROPS, dealers responded favorably about their future potential role in ROPS promotion and sales. Dealers were willing to further promote, sell, and install ROPS if there was demand from farmers. Recommendations include establishing a ROPS "clearing house" that dealers could contact to facilitate locating and obtaining ROPS orders from customers. Additional recommendations include education and social marketing targeting farm machinery dealers as well farmers, manufacturers, and policy makers. PMID:19967910

  4. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  5. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  6. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  7. Tractor Mechanic--Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Edward W.

    Developed to assist vocational agricultural mechanics students in learning to be tractor mechanics, this curriculum guide contains all the student competency sheets which comprise this competency-based curriculum. These competency sheets are categorized under sixteen instructional units. The first two units cover employment opportunities and…

  8. Fatalities associated with improper hitching to farm tractors--New York, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    1996-04-19

    Approximately half of all injury-related fatalities in the agricultural industry are associated with farm tractors (1). Since April 1991, the New York State Department of Health's Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities (OHNAC) program has investigated 27 incidents of sudden rear rollover of farm tractors (i.e., incidents in which the tractor flips backward, rotating around its rear axle); these incidents resulted in 15 fatalities. This report describes four of these incidents, summarizes the characteristics of the 16 incidents that involved improper hitching, and outlines strategies for reducing the risk for their occurrence. PMID:8602129

  9. Assessing farm tractor incidents and awareness levels of operators for tractor safety issues in the Hatay province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S Görücü; Keskin, M; Soysal, Y

    2012-04-01

    Studies and statistical data on safety issues related to farm tractors and machinery are very limited in developing countries, including Turkey. This study was carried out to investigate tractor-related incidents in the Hatay province, located in the mid-south of Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted with 107 tractor operators using face-to-face interviews. Data were evaluated according to the incident type, machinery involved, and mechanism of injury or fatality. A total of 101 incidents were reported by 77 of the 107 respondents. Most of the incidents were due to tractor rollovers (65.4%), 14.8% of the incidents were due to entanglement of body parts in moving machinery, and 12.9% involved crashing into other vehicles or obstacles. The leading cause of the incidents was personal mistakes (60.4%). Fatalities resulted from 25.7% of the incidents, while 45.5% of the incidents caused non-fatal injuries. Only 5.6% of the tractors had a ROPS-enclosed cab. The percentage of ROPS-equipped tractors was 19.6%, while 41.3% of the tractors had a shade cover and 33.6% had no protective structure. Only one of the respondents used a seatbelt, although 44.9% of them stated that seatbelts should be used. It was also found that only 13.5% of the operators had training in work safety, while 95.1% stated that incidents might be reduced if people were trained. Development of appropriate policies and training programs are needed for safer operation of agricultural machinery to reduce injuries and fatalities due to farm accidents. PMID:22655521

  10. Creating a National Coalition to Address Tractor Overturn Fatalities.

    PubMed

    Tinc, P J; Ayers, P D; May, J J; Purschwitz, M A; Sorensen, J A

    2015-04-01

    Tractor overturns continue to be the leading cause of death on U.S. farms. While rollover protective structures (ROPS) are effective in preventing these fatalities, they are underutilized due to a number of barriers. Past programs in the U.S. and abroad have targeted this area of agricultural safety; however, a national program is not yet in place for U.S. farmers. This study seeks to build a national partnership to address tractor overturn fatalities by increasing the number of tractors with ROPS. A diverse, multisector steering committee has been organized and is working together using Whole System in a Room methods. This method brings together partners from nine stakeholder groups to identify and commit to a collaborative solution to the issue. PMID:26204786

  11. Implementing a National Tractor Safety Program: Using "Whole System in a Room" to Mobilize Partners and Implement Solutions.

    PubMed

    Tinc, Pamela J; Ayers, Paul; May, John J; Purschwitz, Mark A; Park, Samantha; Bayes, Barbara; Sorensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Fatalities due to tractor overturns have long plagued the U.S. farm community. Constituting 20% of agricultural fatalities, tractor overturns contribute significantly to high rates of fatal injuries. In the past, many efforts have been directed toward reducing tractor overturns, with one successful US-based program offering rebates to farmers who retrofit their tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS). In an effort to expand the program, the National Tractor Safety Coalition was formed. This coalition hosted a "Whole System in the Room" workshop to bring 50 stakeholders together. During this workshop, participants worked together to identify a common vision for the future of tractor safety and ROPS programs and commit to action. At the close of the workshop, coalition members set out to begin work on 100 short- and long-term commitments to begin implementing a National ROPS Rebate Program. PMID:26788905

  12. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B... obtain 3 to 5 mph (4.8 to 8.0 kph) at maximum governed engine rpm by driving forward directly up a minimum slope of 60° ±5° as shown in Figure C-11, or by an alternate equivalent means. The engine...

  13. Wind-Tunnel Tests of Four- and Six-Blade Single- and Dual-Rotating Tractor Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P

    1942-01-01

    Test of 10-foot diameter, four and six blade single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers were conducted in the NACA propeller-research tunnel. The propellers were mounted at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners to house the hub portions. The effect of a symmetrical wing mounted in the slipstream ranged from 20 degrees to 65 degrees setting corresponds to airplane speeds greater than 500 miles per hour. The results indicate that dual-rotating propellers were from 0 to 6 percent more efficient than single-rotating ones; but, when the propellers operated in the presence of a wing, the gain was reduced by about one-half. Other advantages of dual-rotating propellers were found to include greater power absorption and greater efficiency at the low V/nD operating range of high-pitch propellers.

  14. [The differential diagnosis of the types of trauma caused by wheeled tractors].

    PubMed

    Zaval'niuk, A Kh

    1993-01-01

    Examinations of 23 corpses and study of 282 expert conclusions concerning the deaths of subjects aged 6 to 78 dead because of wheeled tractor injuries under agricultural conditions helped detect the specific characteristic signs of tractor injury types. Mathematical method of analysis of the characteristic features' quantitative parameters permitted the author to find statistically reliable criteria for differential diagnosis of the types of injuries inflicted by wheeled tractors. The possibility of correct conclusions of an expert using this method is at least 95%. PMID:7940629

  15. Action Learning: a new method to increase tractor rollover protective structure (ROPS) adoption.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem. PMID:22994641

  16. AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF MANAGEMENT (ARM) MODEL VERSION II: REFINEMENT AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Runoff Management (ARM) Model has been refined and tested on small agricultural watersheds in Georgia and Michigan. The ARM Model simulates the hydrologic, sediment production, pesticide, and nutrient processes on the land surface and in the soil profile that det...

  17. ROPS deficiency of gray-market tractors.

    PubMed

    Myers, M L; Purschwitz, M A

    2012-04-01

    Many used tractors that are imported from Japan are adding to the current national inventory in the U.S. and Canada of farm tractors that lack a rollover protective structure (ROPS). Gray-market tractors are built for use by the manufacturer for a certain country but are imported against the manufacture's wishes to a second country for use there, usually as a used tractor. Gray-market tractors may lack ROPS and seatbelts, depending on the date of manufacturer. The objective of this investigation is to describe the gray market for tractors imported from Japan into the U.S. and the policy implications regarding the hazards associated with these imports. Operator manuals and warning labels are typically not written in English. Foreign manufacturers that market tractors in the U.S. have established a variety of disincentives for the importation of gray-market tractors, including issuing warnings, not servicing or providing parts for these tractors, and banning their importation through actions by the U.S. International Trade Commission. Nonetheless, a U.S. market has developed that imports and provides services and parts for gray-market tractors, and some companies provide certified ROPS on the tractors that they sell. A product safety perspective and related policies are presented as an approach to ensuring that these imports are equipped with ROPS and seatbelts. PMID:22655522

  18. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  19. Power transmission device for a tractor

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Kishizawa, Y

    1989-05-23

    A power transmission device is described for an engine-driven tractor having a transmission case mounted in a rear part thereof, a main shifting device and a secondary shifting device arranged in front-to-back longitudinally spaced relation within the transmission case, means for lifting agricultural machinery including a lower arm vertically swingably mounted to the transmission case and a differential shaft extending transversely of the transmission case for transmitting drive power from the engine to an axle, characterized by the differential shaft being disposed between the main shifting device and the secondary shifting device, and the lower arm being pivotably connected to the transmission case adjacent to the secondary shifting device and behind the differential shaft.

  20. Preventing tractor rollover fatalities: performance of the NIOSH autoROPS.

    PubMed

    Powers, J R; Harris, J R; Etherton, J R; Ronaghi, M; Snyder, K A; Lutz, T J; Newbraugh, B H

    2001-09-01

    Approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best known method for preventing these fatalities. One impediment to ROPS use, however, is low clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), developed an automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (Auto-ROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. Ifa rollover condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The design of the retractable ROPS and sensor, as well as the results of the different testing phases are discussed. PMID:11565973

  1. Preventing tractor rollover fatalities: performance of the NIOSH AutoROPS

    PubMed Central

    Powers, J; Harris, J; Etherton, J; Ronaghi, M; Snyder, K; Lutz, T; Newbraugh, B

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best known method for preventing these fatalities. One impediment to ROPS use, however, is low clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), developed an automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (AutoROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. If a rollover condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The design of the retractable ROPS and sensor, as well as the results of the different testing phases are discussed. PMID:11565973

  2. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  3. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    PubMed

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways. PMID:16536173

  4. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors. PMID:23600166

  5. MODEL TESTING IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE – COMPARING MEASURES OF VARIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistical tests that compare means are widely known and used; tests that compare variation are less so. However, evaluating performance of a simulation model over a range of results requires both. In precision agriculture, comparing simulated results to measured results is usually done using linea...

  6. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

  7. Plane waves as tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  8. Two hybrid versions of a forest tractor

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, S.S.; Carlini, M.; Abenavoli, R.I.; Kormanski, H.; Rudzinska, K.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the authors consider two different hybrid drive systems for a small caterpillar tractor used for logging in forests. The first one is a series hybrid electric propulsion system. It is composed of an internal combustion (IC) engine, an electric generator, a group of lead-acid batteries and electric drive motors. The second one is a series hybrid hydraulic propulsion system. It is composed of an IC engine, hydraulic pump, a group of hydraulic accumulators and hydraulic motors. Generally, vehicles employed in forestry and agricultural works are characterized by low utilization of the available installed power. It stems from oversizing IC engine in a conventional driveline in order to supply the maximum power. Since the mean required power over a duty cycle is often substantially lower, a series hybrid drive system has potential for improving fuel economy, reducing pollutant emission and noise level. Series hybrids generally feature small engines because they are sized to provide only the average vehicle power demand. Sizing of the engine and other drive system components is significantly different in a hybrid vehicle than in a conventional forest tractor in which the engine is the only source of power to drive the vehicle or to lift wood. In a hybrid crawler, the power required at any time is split between auxiliary power unit (IC engine/electric generator or IC engine/hydraulic pump) and load leveling device (batteries or hydraulic accumulators). The engine can be decoupled from the terrain load. This may allow the engine to be operated near its most efficient fuel consumption conditions or else turned off. The presented hybrid powertrains are compared with the conventional one and one to another. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. To evaluate the performance of the proposed solutions a special forest cycle was used.

  9. Tractors, mass, and Weyl invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, A. R.; Shaukat, A.; Waldron, A.

    2009-05-01

    Deser and Nepomechie established a relationship between masslessness and rigid conformal invariance by coupling to a background metric and demanding local Weyl invariance, a method which applies neither to massive theories nor theories which rely upon gauge invariances for masslessness. We extend this method to describe massive and gauge invariant theories using Weyl invariance. The key idea is to introduce a new scalar field which is constant when evaluated at the scale corresponding to the metric of physical interest. This technique relies on being able to efficiently construct Weyl invariant theories. This is achieved using tractor calculus—a mathematical machinery designed for the study of conformal geometry. From a physics standpoint, this amounts to arranging fields in multiplets with respect to the conformal group but with novel Weyl transformation laws. Our approach gives a mechanism for generating masses from Weyl weights. Breitenlohner-Freedman stability bounds for Anti-de Sitter theories arise naturally as do direct derivations of the novel Weyl invariant theories given by Deser and Nepomechie. In constant curvature spaces, partially massless theories—which rely on the interplay between mass and gauge invariance—are also generated by our method. Another simple consequence is conformal invariance of the maximal depth partially massless theories. Detailed examples for spins s⩽2 are given including tractor and component actions, on-shell and off-shell approaches and gauge invariances. For all spins s⩾2 we give tractor equations of motion unifying massive, massless, and partially massless theories.

  10. System identification, adaptive control and formation driving of farm tractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekow, Andrew Karl Wilhelm

    Great increases in agricultural productivity and profitability can be gained by increasing the navigational control accuracy of a farm tractor. To maximize accuracy in the presence of environmental uncertainties, a novel technique for on-line parameter identification has been developed. This method combines the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms and is used to identify key parameters which describe the dynamics of a farm tractor. This algorithm provides a 15:1 improvement in computational efficiency over the traditional EKF, while offering comparable convergence rates and noise rejection properties. Experimental data on a full-sized John Deere tractor shows a 25 percent improvement in lateral accuracy when using then adaptive controller versus a fixed controller over identical trajectories. In addition to parameter identification, farmers require formation driving capability for routine operations. Multiple farm vehicles work cooperatively together to accomplish a common goal. Several formation driving algorithms were developed for these varying requirements. An experimental implementation of a fully autonomous farm vehicle following a human operated lead vehicle demonstrated an accuracy of 10 centimeters in the in-track direction and 10 centimeters in the cross track direction.

  11. Effect of Road Adhesion Coefficient on Tractor-Semitrailer Cornering Braking Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Chen; Tang, Geteng; Wang, Cheng

    A dynamic model of tractor-semitrailer cornering braking was established in this paper, and the accuracy of the model was verified by real vehicle test. By model simulation of the cornering braking process, different road adhesion coefficient such as 0.15, 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, 0.75 was chosen to analyzed the changing curve of braking distance, articulation angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration when initial speed of tractor-semitrailer was 30km h. The result showed that the peak values of articulation angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration gotten by simulation were the largest. On the road of road adhesion coefficient 0.15, distance of tractor-semitrailer cornering braking was the longest. On the road of road adhesion coefficient 0.75, distance of tractor-semitrailer cornering braking was the shortest and the peak values of articulation angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration were small relatively.

  12. Agricultural machineries wheeling and soil qualities mapping in climatic changes conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergonzoli, S.; Servadio, P.

    2012-04-01

    As argued in the Fourth Assessment Report of the UN International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2007 the global climate is changing and will continue to change in the near future. Due to the changing in time distribution and intensity of rainfall, the available time to carry out soil tillage operations, seedbed preparation and fertilizers distribution is becoming shorter. These issues are worsened by soil compaction that is one of the major problems facing modern agriculture. Soil compaction impedes infiltration of rainfall, so the increasing scale of mechanization might well be responsible for greater runoff, soil loss by water erosion and water-logging. Overuse of machinery, intensive cropping, short crop rotations, intensive grazing and inappropriate soil management leads to compaction. The objective of this research was to study the compacting effect of two wheeled tractors fitted with different type of tires during fertilizing operations with soil water content over field capacity. Field tests were carried out in a farm near Rome (41°52'502'' Latitude (N); 12°12'866" Longitude (E)) in March 2010 on a clay soil (Vertic Cambisol) during wheat fertilizing. One tractor was fitted with very narrow and high aspect ratio tires with mounted broadcaster coded (WTN), the other tractor was equipped with extra large and low aspect ratio tires with trailed broadcaster for a total of four axles coded (WTEL). Immediately after fertilising operations, such effects have been quantified through spatial variation of some soil parameters: soil water content, soil penetration resistance (CI) and soil shear strength (SS). Soil samplings have been carried out on the tracks left by the tractors and on soil not interested by the passage (control). To monitor all tractors passes across the field and to compute the total area covered by tractors tires a DGPS receiver was placed into the tractors; to map soil parameters studied, both on tracks left by the tractors passes

  13. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  14. Assessment of controls layout of Indian tractors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Bhaskar, Gaikwad; Singh, J K

    2009-01-01

    Tractors in low-income countries are used both for farm and non-farm activities. Most of the tractors being manufactured in India are products of collaboration with other countries. The design of tractors manufactured in India has not changed much in the past five decades especially from an ergonomics point of view, because of economic considerations. This paper describes a tractor control layout assessment with respect to the Indian population and compares the location of controls with workspace envelopes and the IS12343 standard for commonly used tractors on Indian farms. Controls like steering, foot clutch, foot brake, foot accelerator are located in areas defined by IS12343 standard in some tractors but these are not placed in the workspace envelopes of the Indian population. This results in a mismatch between the workspace envelope and location of controls as defined by the standard. The controls need a complete change in their layout to be in the workspace envelopes, as this cannot be achieved by providing seat movement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the present tractor design. PMID:18339354

  15. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  16. Tractor beams in the Rayleigh limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevick, Aaron; Ruffner, David B.; Grier, David G.

    2016-04-01

    A tractor beam is a traveling wave that transports illuminated objects back to its source, opposite to the wave's direction of propagation, along its entire length. The requisite retrograde force arises when an object scatters the wave's momentum density downstream into the direction of propagation and then recoils upstream by conservation of momentum. Achieving this condition imposes constraints on the structure of the wave, which we elucidate in the Rayleigh limit, when the wavelength exceeds the size of the object. Continuously propagation-invariant modes such as Bessel beams do not satisfy these conditions at dipole order in the multipole expansion and so cannot serve as general-purpose long-ranged tractor beams. Modes with discrete propagation invariance, however, can act as first-order tractor beams. We demonstrate this by introducing a class of minimal solenoidal waves together with a set of design criteria that distinguish tractor beams that pull objects from repulsor beams that push them.

  17. Generating stable tractor beams with dielectric metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Propagation-invariant beams that pull objects towards a light source are commonly known as tractor beams. Here, an efficient, linearly polarized tractor beam with improved stability is introduced. The beam consists of a superposition of transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarized Bessel beams of orders m =+1 and m =-1 . It is shown that this beam can stably pull a wide range of dielectric microparticles arbitrarily long distances, independent of ambient conditions. Next, a straightforward method of generating these high-performance beams is proposed. A Si metasurface transforms an incident linearly polarized Gaussian beam into the desired tractor beam. Full-wave simulations demonstrate that it is possible for this simple geometry to pull a polystyrene sphere a distance equal to the nondiffracting range of the Bessel beam. The simplicity of the setup and the robust performance of the proposed tractor beam significantly enhance the ability to manipulate matter with light.

  18. Keys to Successful Tractor Maintenance Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, William A.

    1979-01-01

    To prevent problems with teaching plans, supplement class instruction, and stimulate use of the operator's manual, the teacher can use a series of leaflets. The first leaflet describes the activities and what is expected of the tractor operator's manual. (LRA)

  19. Making 'Tractor Beams' a Reality (Eventually)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tractor beams -- the ability to trap and move objects using laser light -- are the stuff of science fiction, but a team of NASA scientists has won funding to study the concept for remotely capturin...

  20. Analysis of tractor-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Erkol, Zerrin; Buken, Bora; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Erkol, Hayri; Ince, Haluk; Erzengin, Omer Utku

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the properties of tractor-related death cases and discuss the precautions in order to prevent such events. For this aim, reports made between 2006 and 2009 by the First Specialty Board of Council of Forensic Medicine (FSBCFM), Turkey, were evaluated retrospectively. Forty-one tractor-related death cases were included in this study. Thirty-five (85.4%) of the cases were male. The mean age was 42.52 ± 25.1 (with a range between 1 and 84 years old). The average time interval between the incident and death was 13.76 ± 33.53 days (range: 0-176 days) and 20 (48.8%) cases died on the incident spot or during transportation to the hospital. Among the cases, 34.1% (n = 14) were drivers, whereas 39.0% (n = 16) were passengers and the remaining were pedestrians (26.9%, n = 11). The accident was caused by the tractor rolling over in 34.1%, the victim being run over in 22.0%, and the victim falling from the tractor or trailer in 22.0% of the cases. Most of the events (56.1%) occurred on the road. In conclusion, tractors must not be used as a transportation vehicle for passengers. Periodic training of drivers can be useful for reducing tractor-related accidents. PMID:23540299

  1. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering. PMID:22164006

  2. 77 FR 54557 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content... (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content... Census of Agriculture Content Testing. OMB Control Number: 0535-0243. ] Expiration Date of...

  3. The U.S. Department of Labor's Tractor and Machinery Certification Program: management styles and perceptions held by community stakeholders and instructors.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, S D

    2012-07-01

    A mixed-mode, descriptive study was conducted on the U.S. Department of Labor's (DOL) Tractor and Machinery Certification Program. Legislated by the Fair Labors Standards Act, the Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (HOOA) was enacted in 1968 as a public policy measure to reduce the number of injuries to youth on farms. An educational exemption allows youth 14 and 15 years of age to work for hire after they successfully complete a training program. In the 40+ years since the legislation went into effect prescribing such training exemptions, deficiencies and variations have occurred in the quality of the educational program and the system by which agencies certify young people. To gain a better understanding of the DOL Tractor and Machinery Certification program, community stakeholders were asked to identify management practices, curriculum resources, and perceptions of the DOL program. The study design used qualitative data from 49 agricultural representatives participating in regional focus groups and quantitative data from 330 community instructors responding to an electronic-formatted questionnaire (representing a 70.7% response rate) in an effort to answer the question: "What is the current status of the DOL Tractor and Machinery Certification program in the United States?" The findings revealed that 55.2% of the instructors taught a qualifying DOL program. Of these, the certification was administered through an Extension or 4-H program (68.7%), an agricultural education program (24.7%), or as a combination of Extension and agricultural education (6.0%). Course instructors believed the training was beneficial to students and had opportunity to attract more students than currently enrolled These instructors placed a higher value on standardized teaching materials than on standardized testing procedures; they also supported the need for additional teaching aids, which included hands-on activities, videotapes, student workbooks, and DVDs. Study participants

  4. Miniature Tractor Pull Helps Teach Mechanical Power Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.

    1996-01-01

    A miniature tractor pull was developed as a high school activity, enabling students to assess a tractor's pulling capabilities and determine subsequent horsepower. The activity takes the textbook concept of horsepower and makes it come alive. (JOW)

  5. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  6. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  7. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  8. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  9. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  10. Tractor Mechanic--Teacher's Guide. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Edward W.

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the Tractor Mechanic Competency Based Education (CBE) Curriculum (CE 022 480). The following information is included: a discussion of the uses of the Tractor Mechanic CBE curriculum; definitions of related terms; the table of contents for the Tractor Mechanic CBE curriculum; a list of competencies by…

  11. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  12. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  13. 30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shovels, draglines, and tractors. 77.409... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.409 Shovels, draglines, and tractors. (a) Shovels, draglines, and tractors shall not be operated in the presence of any person exposed to a hazard from...

  14. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings II : Thick Wing - Various Radial-Engine Cowlings - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1932-01-01

    This report is the second of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the test of a N.A.C.A. cowled air-cooled engine nacelle located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The present report gives results of tests of a normal engine nacelle with several types of cowling and fairings in four of the positions with reference to the same wing. (author)

  15. A Kalman filter implementation for precision improvement in low-cost GPS positioning of tractors.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost GPS receivers provide geodetic positioning information using the NMEA protocol, usually with eight digits for latitude and nine digits for longitude. When these geodetic coordinates are converted into Cartesian coordinates, the positions fit in a quantization grid of some decimeters in size, the dimensions of which vary depending on the point of the terrestrial surface. The aim of this study is to reduce the quantization errors of some low-cost GPS receivers by using a Kalman filter. Kinematic tractor model equations were employed to particularize the filter, which was tuned by applying Monte Carlo techniques to eighteen straight trajectories, to select the covariance matrices that produced the lowest Root Mean Square Error in these trajectories. Filter performance was tested by using straight tractor paths, which were either simulated or real trajectories acquired by a GPS receiver. The results show that the filter can reduce the quantization error in distance by around 43%. Moreover, it reduces the standard deviation of the heading by 75%. Data suggest that the proposed filter can satisfactorily preprocess the low-cost GPS receiver data when used in an assistance guidance GPS system for tractors. It could also be useful to smooth tractor GPS trajectories that are sharpened when the tractor moves over rough terrain. PMID:24217355

  16. A Kalman Filter Implementation for Precision Improvement in Low-Cost GPS Positioning of Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost GPS receivers provide geodetic positioning information using the NMEA protocol, usually with eight digits for latitude and nine digits for longitude. When these geodetic coordinates are converted into Cartesian coordinates, the positions fit in a quantization grid of some decimeters in size, the dimensions of which vary depending on the point of the terrestrial surface. The aim of this study is to reduce the quantization errors of some low-cost GPS receivers by using a Kalman filter. Kinematic tractor model equations were employed to particularize the filter, which was tuned by applying Monte Carlo techniques to eighteen straight trajectories, to select the covariance matrices that produced the lowest Root Mean Square Error in these trajectories. Filter performance was tested by using straight tractor paths, which were either simulated or real trajectories acquired by a GPS receiver. The results show that the filter can reduce the quantization error in distance by around 43%. Moreover, it reduces the standard deviation of the heading by 75%. Data suggest that the proposed filter can satisfactorily preprocess the low-cost GPS receiver data when used in an assistance guidance GPS system for tractors. It could also be useful to smooth tractor GPS trajectories that are sharpened when the tractor moves over rough terrain. PMID:24217355

  17. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  18. The Tractor Electrical System. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The fundamental principles underlying the application of electricity to tractors and farm equipment are presented. An understanding of the material in the basic manual will enable the service man to understand better the service procedures covered in service manuals on electrical equipment. Topics dealt with are fundamentals of electricity,…

  19. Polyhedron tracking and gravity tractor asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummen, N.; Lappas, V.

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the defense against hazardous asteroids is becoming a topic of high interest. This work improves the gravity tractor asteroid deflection approach by tracking realistic small body shapes with tilted ion engines. An algorithm for polyhedron tracking was evaluated in a fictitious impact scenario. The simulations suggest a capability increase up to 38.2% with such improved tilting strategies. The long- and short-term effects within polyhedron tracking are illustrated. In particular, the orbital reorientation effect is influential when realistic asteroid shapes and rotations are accounted for. Also analyzed is the subject of altitude profiles, a way to tailor the gravity tractor performance, and to achieve a steering ability within the B-plane. A novel analytical solution for the classic gravity tractor is derived. It removes the simulation need for classic tractor designs to obtain comparable two body model Δv figures. This paper corroborates that the asteroid shape can be exploited for maximum performance. Even a single engine tilt adjustment at the beginning of deflection operations yields more deflection than a fixed preset tilt.

  20. V-TECS Guide for Tractor Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    This guide contains a course outline for a tractor mechanic course. The outline is organized by 15 duties: performing general skills and maintaining and servicing storage battery, ignition circuit, the cooling system, the charging circuit, the starting circuit, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel system, basic engine, lubrication system, clutches,…

  1. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  2. Plans for Learning Stations. Tractor Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This shop guide gives graphic illustration of twenty-eight learning stations in a tractor mechanics shop, at each of which a specific learning activity occurs. The authors suggest that each station (most of them constructed of plywood or sheet metal and angle iron) be self-contained, having its own appropriate tools, supplies, parts, and set of…

  3. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  4. Soil compaction and structural morphology under tractor wheelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Peter; Quinton, John; Binley, Andrew; Silgram, Martyn

    2010-05-01

    Compaction of cultivated soils is a major problem for agriculture in terms of yield decline and sustainable soil resource management. Tramline wheelings exacerbate runoff and increase erosion from arable land. The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) LINK Project - a joint venture between agri-business, land managers and research groups - is currently evaluating a number of methods for alleviating compaction in tractor wheelings across a range of soil types in England. Using innovative applications of agri-geophysics (e.g. ground penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, acoustics and x-ray tomography), this current project aims to determine relationships between properties derived from geophysical methods (e.g. soil moisture, porosity), soil compaction and structural morphology. Such relationships are important for a clearer understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in compacted soils, to address land management practices and develop cost-effective mitigation measures. Our poster will present some early results of this study.

  5. Application of auditory signals to the operation of an agricultural vehicle: results of pilot testing.

    PubMed

    Karimi, D; Mondor, T A; Mann, D D

    2008-01-01

    The operation of agricultural vehicles is a multitask activity that requires proper distribution of attentional resources. Human factors theories suggest that proper utilization of the operator's sensory capacities under such conditions can improve the operator's performance and reduce the operator's workload. Using a tractor driving simulator, this study investigated whether auditory cues can be used to improve performance of the operator of an agricultural vehicle. Steering of a vehicle was simulated in visual mode (where driving error was shown to the subject using a lightbar) and in auditory mode (where a pair of speakers were used to convey the driving error direction and/or magnitude). A secondary task was also introduced in order to simulate the monitoring of an attached machine. This task included monitoring of two identical displays, which were placed behind the simulator, and responding to them, when needed, using a joystick. This task was also implemented in auditory mode (in which a beep signaled the subject to push the proper button when a response was needed) and in visual mode (in which there was no beep and visual, monitoring of the displays was necessary). Two levels of difficulty of the monitoring task were used. Deviation of the simulated vehicle from a desired straight line was used as the measure of performance in the steering task, and reaction time to the displays was used as the measure of performance in the monitoring task. Results of the experiments showed that steering performance was significantly better when steering was a visual task (driving errors were 40% to 60% of the driving errors in auditory mode), although subjective evaluations showed that auditory steering could be easier, depending on the implementation. Performance in the monitoring task was significantly better for auditory implementation (reaction time was approximately 6 times shorter), and this result was strongly supported by subjective ratings. The majority of the

  6. Structural strength evaluation of driver's protective structures for self-propelled agricultural machines.

    PubMed

    Molari, G; Badodi, M; Guarnieri, A; Mattetti, M

    2014-07-01

    The high number of accidents due to rollovers of agricultural machines has increased the interest of researchers and organizations for standardization in this field. In the 1960s, standards to test rollover protective structures (ROPS) for tractors were designed and approved. Similar standards were introduced in the 1990s for earth-moving machinery, but ROPS standards were not defined for self-propelled agricultural machines. In the present work, the driver's protective structures of five different categories of self-propelled agricultural machines were analyzed with the goal of introducing ROPS with a strength level in accordance with the standards used for tractors while maintaining the same shape as the existing structure. The results show a low resistance level of the present structures on the machines selected for the tests. New structures that are able to sustain the loads specified by the tractor standard are not different in design from the existing structures, but an increase of the resistance of the materials or an increase of the thickness of the mountings is necessary. PMID:25174149

  7. Career Preparation in Agricultural Resources: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Larry

    This curriculum guide in agricultural resources is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes eight occupational subgroups: fish, forestry, mining area restoration, outdoor recreation, soil, range, water, and wildlife. It is…

  8. Career Preparation in Agricultural Production: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Max B., Comp.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural production is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes four occupational subgroups: animal science, plant science, farm mechanics, and farm business management. It is meant as an aid to…

  9. NEUROTOXICITY TESTING OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The farmer has been one of the major beneficiaries of the chemical revolution that has occurred over the past half century. The development of new fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and other agricultural chemicals has dramatically increased crop yields and reduced c...

  10. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  11. Tractor beam in micro-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzobohatý, O.; Karásek, V.; Šiler, M.; Chvátal, L.; Čižmár, T.; Zemánek, P.

    2014-12-01

    Following the Keplerian idea of radiative forces one would intuitively expect that an object illuminated by sunlight radiation or a laser beam is accelerated along the direction of the photon flow. Such radiation pressure forms the basis for the concept of solar sail, or laser acceleration of micro-particles. In contrast, a hypothetical optical field known from the realm of science-fiction as the "tractor" beam attracts the matter from large distances against the beam propagation. We present a geometry of such"tractor" beam in micro-scale and experimentally demonstrate how it acts upon spherical micro-particles of various sizes or optically self-arranged structures of micro-particles.

  12. Electrostatic Tractor Analysis for GEO Debris Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Erik A.

    The high value of operating in the geostationary ring, coupled with increasing numbers of orbital debris, highlights the need for GEO debris remediation techniques. One recent proposed technique for GEO debris mitigation is the electrostatic tractor. Here, a tug vehicle approaches a target debris object and emits a focused electron beam onto it. This results in a negative charge on the debris, and a positive charge on the tug vehicle. Due to the near proximity of the highly charged objects (20 meters or less) an attractive electrostatic force on the order of milliNewtons results. This electrostatic force is used in conjunction with low thrusting by the tug vehicle to tow the debris object into a disposal orbit 200-300 kilometers above the GEO belt. During the tugging period, the charged relative motion between tug and deputy is stabilized through a feedback control law. This is accomplished using a novel relative motion description that isolates separation distance from the relative orientation. The equations of motion for the relative motion description are derived from the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations, assuming the debris object is in a nearly circular orbit. Lyapunov stability theory is used to derive an asymptotically stable control law for the tug thrusters during the towing period. The control law requires an estimate of the electrostatic force magnitude, and the impacts of improperly modeled charging on control response are determined. If the electrostatic force is under-predicted too severely, a collision may result. A bound on the control gains is determined to prevent such a collision. Expected reorbiting performance levels achievable with the electrostatic tractor are computed. An open-loop analytical performance study is performed where variational equations are used to predict how much general orbital elements may be changed using the electrostatic tractor over one orbital period for a towed object at geosynchronous altitude. In contrast to earlier

  13. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1978-01-01

    Force and moment data were obtained from a one-twenty-fifth scale wind tunnel model of a cab-over-engine tractor trailer combination. The tests define the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline (unmodified) vehicle and several modified configurations. The primary modifications consist of: (1) greatly increased forebody corner radii, (2) a smooth fairing over the cab-to-trailer gap, (3) a smoothed underbody, and (4) rear streamlining (boattailing)of the trailer. Tests were conducted for yaw angles from 0 deg to 30 deg. The reduction in drag, relative to the baseline, obtained by combining the modifications are compared for the zero yaw condition with full scale coast down drag results for similar configurations. The drag reductions obtained from the model and full scale tests are in good agreement.

  14. Test Item Construction and Validation: Developing a Statewide Assessment for Agricultural Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The State of New York Agriculture Science Education secondary program is required to have a certification exam for students to assess their agriculture science education experience as a Regent's requirement towards graduation. This paper focuses on the procedure used to develop and validate two content sub-test questions within a…

  15. Analysis of tractor-related deaths in North Carolina from 1979 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H; Langley, R L

    1999-01-01

    This descriptive study examined 342 fatalities involving tractors and attachments that occurred during a 10-year period in North Carolina from 1979 to 1988. Reports of the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner and medical examiner's certificates of death were reviewed using the public health model of causation. Data were collected on characteristics of thefatally injured (host), including age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration and length of survival; characteristics of the injury event (environment), including type of accident, weather conditions and terrain; and characteristics of the agent, including both the tractor and attachments, if any, in place at the time of injury. Ninety-eight percent of the victims were male. Victims ages 65 and older accounted for 38 percent of fatal injuries, and 11 percent were 18 years of age or younger. Only slightly more than one-half of the victims (54 percent) were full- or part-time farmers. Forty-four percent of the deaths were to nonfarmers who were not in the act of farming. Nineteen percent of tested victims had a detectable blood alcohol level. Almost three-fourths of the victims died in the first hour after injury and 87 percent within the first 24 hours. In the majority of accidents, the tractor operator was a victim of a rollover or runover. This study provided detailed characterization of the fatally injured and, to the extent possible, the tractor involved and the injury event itself. However, additional methods of data collection are needed to provide further characterization of the injury event and the injury agent to design and support prevention programs for tractor users. PMID:11942561

  16. Farm Tractor Tune-Up and Service Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, J. G.; And Others

    Tune-up and service specifications for 10 major tractor manufacturers are presented in the handbook. In addition, the following tables are included: (1) spark plug heat-range comparisons, (2) freezing protection, (3) pressures for farm tractor tires, (4) use of calcium chloride for liquid weighting, (5) comparisons of American Petroleum Institute…

  17. Single wheel testers, single track testers, and instrumented tractors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single wheel testers and single track testers are used for determining tractive performance characteristics of tires and tracks. Instrumented tractors are useful in determining the tractive performance of tractors. These machines are also used for determining soil-tire and soil-track interactions,...

  18. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, H C; Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is approximately 10% higher in the tractor drivers than in workers not exposed to vibration. The increase is mainly due to more pain in the lower back and more pain lasting at least several days. A vibration dose was calculated by assigning each vehicle driven a vibration magnitude, estimated on the base of vibration measurements. The prevalence of back pain increases with the vibration dose. The highest prevalence odds ratios are found for the more severe types of back pain. These prevalence odds ratios do not increase with the vibration dose. This might be due to health-related selection which is more pronounced for severe back pain than for back pain in general. The two components of the vibration dose, duration of exposure and estimated mean vibration magnitude, have also been considered separately. Back pain increases with duration of exposure but it does not increase with the estimated mean magnitude of vibration. This is probably due to the inaccuracy of this estimate. The higher prevalence of back pain in tractor drivers might be (partly) caused by whole-body vibration, but prolonged sitting and posture might also be of influence. PMID:2139012

  19. Enhanced Gravity Tractor Technique for Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Wade, Darren W.; Tantardini, Marco; Shen, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Given sufficient warning time, Earth-impacting asteroids and comets can be deflected with a variety of different "slow push/pull" techniques. The gravity tractor is one technique that uses the gravitational attraction of a rendezvous spacecraft to the impactor and a low-thrust, high-efficiency propulsion system to provide a gradual velocity change and alter its trajectory. An innovation to this technique, known as the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT), uses mass collected in-situ to augment the mass of the spacecraft, thereby greatly increasing the gravitational force between the objects. The collected material can be a single boulder, multiple boulders, regolith or a combination of different sources. The collected mass would likely range from tens to hundreds of metric tons depending on the size of the impactor and warning time available. Depending on the propulsion system's capability and the mass collected, the EGT approach can reduce the deflection times by a factor of 10 to 50 or more, thus reducing the deflection times of several decades to years or less and overcoming the main criticism of the traditional gravity tractor approach. Additionally, multiple spacecraft can orbit the target in formation to provide the necessary velocity change and further reduce the time needed by the EGT technique to divert hazardous asteroids and comets. The robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) will collect a multi-ton boulder from the surface of a large Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and will provide the first ever demonstration of the EGT technique and validate one method of collecting in-situ mass on an asteroid of hazardous size.

  20. Assessment of neurobehavioral function with computerized tests in a population of hispanic adolescents working in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Rohlman, D S; Bailey, S R; Anger, W K; McCauley, L

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been heightened concern over the potential of occupational or environmental exposures to affect neurological function in children and adolescents. The current study was designed to develop computerized tests to effectively assess neurobehavioral function in Hispanic adolescents working in agriculture and to evaluate those tests in Hispanic youths working in agriculture and in a non-agricultural group. After exclusions, 96 adolescents currently working in agriculture (AG) and 51 adolescents currently non-migratory and not working in agriculture (Non-AG) were tested. Neurobehavioral tests were selected from the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System. AG test performance was significantly below Non-AG performance on the cognitive tests. However, educational and cultural differences between the AG and Non-AG groups may explain this difference. Repeat testing of the AG group revealed substantially improved performance, further supporting educational or cultural differences as an explanation for the group differences. Together, these results expose the limitations in case-control or cross-sectional designs for testing migrant worker populations in the United States. Longitudinal or cross-sectional designs with repeat testing offer more promise and may be essential for drawing accurate conclusions in migrant worker groups where there are no truly equivalent comparison or control groups. PMID:11161647

  1. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included. PMID:25906273

  2. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  3. A simple method to improve autonomous GPS positioning for tractors.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gómez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Stombaugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Error is always present in the GPS guidance of a tractor along a desired trajectory. One way to reduce GPS guidance error is by improving the tractor positioning. The most commonly used ways to do this are either by employing more precise GPS receivers and differential corrections or by employing GPS together with some other local positioning systems such as electronic compasses or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, both are complex and expensive solutions. In contrast, this article presents a simple and low cost method to improve tractor positioning when only a GPS receiver is used as the positioning sensor. The method is based on placing the GPS receiver ahead of the tractor, and on applying kinematic laws of tractor movement, or a geometric approximation, to obtain the midpoint position and orientation of the tractor rear axle more precisely. This precision improvement is produced by the fusion of the GPS data with tractor kinematic control laws. Our results reveal that the proposed method effectively reduces the guidance GPS error along a straight trajectory. PMID:22163917

  4. A Simple Method to Improve Autonomous GPS Positioning for Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gómez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Stombaugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Error is always present in the GPS guidance of a tractor along a desired trajectory. One way to reduce GPS guidance error is by improving the tractor positioning. The most commonly used ways to do this are either by employing more precise GPS receivers and differential corrections or by employing GPS together with some other local positioning systems such as electronic compasses or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, both are complex and expensive solutions. In contrast, this article presents a simple and low cost method to improve tractor positioning when only a GPS receiver is used as the positioning sensor. The method is based on placing the GPS receiver ahead of the tractor, and on applying kinematic laws of tractor movement, or a geometric approximation, to obtain the midpoint position and orientation of the tractor rear axle more precisely. This precision improvement is produced by the fusion of the GPS data with tractor kinematic control laws. Our results reveal that the proposed method effectively reduces the guidance GPS error along a straight trajectory. PMID:22163917

  5. Occupational incidents with self-propelled machinery in Austrian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery are the most commonly used self-propelled machineries in Austrian agriculture, and they have similarities in main accident scenarios. Statistical data of all occupational incidents with these machines reported between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed to obtain information about the circumstances of the incidents, and about the victims and their work environments. Criteria of recognized occupational incidents provided by the Austrian Social Insurance Institution for Farmers were analyzed according to machinery category by means of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The results were discussed and evaluated in the context of the literature. The results of the analysis of the databases show that 786 occupational incidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery, and material handling machinery occurred in Austrian agriculture between 2008 and 2010. There were 231 occupational incidents in 2008; the number rose to 268 in 2009 and to 286 in 2010. A total of 41 incidents were fatal. For the machinery categories analyzed, the majority of injured victims were male, older than 40 years, Austrian citizens, and managers of a mixed-agricultural farm. A large number of the incidents occurred in all machinery categories by loss of control during operating a vehicle. PMID:24125051

  6. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Engine, Learning Activity Packages 78-89; Lubricating the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 90-94; Painting the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 95-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on three areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the engine, (2) lubricating the tractor, and (3) painting the tractor. Each of the nineteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM TRACTOR "OLD DINAH," LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM TRACTOR "OLD DINAH," LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS STEAM TRACTOR WAS USED TO REPLACE THE HORSE WAGON TRAINS THAT CARRIED SUPPLIES AND CRUDE OIL THE 26 MILES FROM BEATTY, NEVADA TO KEANE WONDER. THE TRACTOR ONLY MADE ONE RUN IN 1909 BEFORE THE BOILER EXPLODED ENROUTE, AND IT WAS ABANDONED THERE ON THE TRAIL TODAY IT STANDS ON DISPLAY AT THE FURNACE CREEK RANCH IN DEATH VALLEY NATIONAL PARK, AS SEEN IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Microencapsulation and testing of the agricultural animal repellent, Daphne.

    PubMed

    Boh, B; Kosir, I; Knez, E; Kukovic, M; Skerlavaj, V; Skvarc, A

    1999-01-01

    The microencapsulated animal repellent Daphne was prepared by in situ polymerization of melamine-formaldehyde prepolymer with styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer as a modifying agent. Pure Daphne (a mixture of essential oils and other volatile compounds) and Daphne (45 wt%) diluted with isopropylmyristate (55 wt%) were used as core materials. Three types of formulations were prepared: (1) aqueous suspension concentrates, to be diluted for spraying, (2) thickened pastes with microcapsules for coating tree bark, and (3) textile, paper and metal strips, coated or impregnated with microcapsules. In field testing, all formulations with microcapsules showed a prolonged effect in comparison with non-encapsulated Daphne. The repelling effect on animals was stronger in summer and weaker in winter, when the pressure of the animals was much more intense, and diffusion of repellent from the microcapsules was reduced due to low temperatures. However, pastes for the bark and non-woven textile strips impregnated with microencapsulated Daphne showed good repelling effect against deer and rabbits in the winter period. PMID:10080111

  9. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    PubMed

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working. PMID:23405593

  10. VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO THE FAR RIGHT. WAREHOUSE WITH ITS RIDGELINE ROTARY VENTS TO RIGHT OF STACK. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. 17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor developed and patented by Mr. Arsenaud of Laurel Valley Plantation; Claiborne Toups, overseer, is standing on the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  12. Safe tractor access platforms: from guidance material to implementation.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Rechnitzer, G

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the implementation of published guidelines for retrofitting tractors with safe access platforms, which were developed to reduce the risk of serious injuries and deaths associated with mounting and dismounting. Farmer interviews and engineering-based inspections of ten retrofitted tractors were conducted to gather information regarding benefits and disadvantages of the retrofitting and to assess the construction of the platforms. A scoring system was developed for platform retrofitting, and weighted scores between zero and ten were calculated for tractor access before and after retrofitting. Access was improved on all tractors, although to varying degrees. The average post-retrofit weighted score was 6.3 (range 2.6 to 9.7), compared with the pre-retrofit average of 0.9 (range 0.3 to 1.6). Five tractors received a post-retrofit score of 8.0 or higher. None of the lower-scoring tractors fully met the specifications for placement of the bottom step or rear wheel guard, two key characteristics for runover prevention. Other characteristics associated with a lower post-retrofit score included a low bottom step, high step rises, absence of colored nosing, and the front handrail space not being filled in. Platform retrofitting had little effect on tractor operations and substantially improved ease of access. This is the first published evaluation of a design-based solution for tractor runover injuries. This study shows that general guidelines for retrofitting of safe access platforms can be successfully applied. Mechanisms to increase adherence to the key criteria of bottom step positioning and rear wheel guarding should be included in future promotion. PMID:15461136

  13. Fatalities associated with farm tractor injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Smith, J D; Sikes, R K; Rogers, D L; Mickey, J L

    1985-01-01

    Death certificates were used as a source of information to characterize fatalities associated with farm tractor injuries in Georgia for the period 1971-81. In this period, 202 tractor-associated fatalities occurred among residents of Georgia; 198 of these persons were males. The annual tractor-associated fatality rate for males based on the population of male farm residents was 23.6 per 100,000; rates of fatal injury increased with age for this population. Persons whose primary occupation was other than farming accounted for more than half of all tractor-associated deaths. Fatal injuries occurred throughout the year but predominantly during the planting and harvesting months. Injuries occurred throughout the day (7 a.m. to midnight), with a peak at 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. Most fatal injuries, 76 percent, resulted when tractors overturned. Fatalities were attributed to crushed chest, exsanguination, strangulation or asphyxia, drowning, and other injuries. Current safety standards for the operation of farm tractors are limited; rollover protective canopies are not required for farm owners or their family members. Descriptive epidemiologic information obtained from death certificates can be used to define injury determinants and to suggest approaches for the further study and prevention of specific types of injuries. PMID:3923543

  14. An approach for modeling the influence of wheel tractor loads and vibration frequencies on soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verotti, M.; Servadio, P.; Belfiore, N. P.; Bergonzoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Both soil compaction and ground vibration are forms of environmental degradation that may be understood in the context of the vehicle-soil interaction process considered (Hildebrand et al., 2008). The transit of tractors on agricultural soil is often the main cause of soil compaction increasing. As known, this can be a serious problems for tillage and sowing and therefore the influence of all the affecting factors have been extensively studied in the last decades in order to understand their impact on the biosystem. There are factors related to the climate, namely to the rainfalls and temperature, and many others. Hence, it is not simple to figure out a complete model for predicting an index of compaction, for a given situation. Soil compaction models are important tools for controlling soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic and they are potentially useful technique to provide information concerning correct soil management. By means of such models, strategies and recommendations for prevention of soil compaction may be developed and specific advice may be given to farmers and advisers. In order to predict field wheeled and tracked vehicle performance, some empirical methods, used for off-road vehicle, were applied by Servadio (2010) on agricultural soil. The empirical indexes included, besides the soil strength, the load carried by the tire or track, some technical characteristics of the tire or track of the vehicle (tire or track width, tire or track wheel diameter, unloaded tire section height, number of wheel station in one track, tire deflection, total length of the belt track, the track pitch) as well as the vehicle passes. They have been validated with the tests results of agricultural vehicles over a range of soil in central Italy. Among the parameters which affect soil compaction, the water content of the soil, the axle load and number of vehicle passes proved to be the most important ones. The present paper concerns mainly vehicle

  15. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  16. SEPARATING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SOURCES OF VARIATION FOR MODEL TESTING IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying crop simulation models to precision agriculture appears to be a matter of developing spatial suites of input parameters and running a model for each set. Extensive modeling literature has reported independent tests in multiple combinations of variety, soils, and climate, which has been gene...

  17. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Differences Between Agricultural Test Plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field research facility with two pairs of replicated agricultural test plots (four total) was established at a location in northwest Ohio during 2005 for the purpose of studying water table management strategies. Initial efforts at this field research facility were devoted to evaluating difference...

  18. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Agricultural Test Plot Differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field research facility with two pairs of replicated agricultural test plots (four total) was established at a location in northwest Ohio during 2005 for the purpose of studying water table management strategies. Initial efforts at this field research facility were devoted to evaluating difference...

  19. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations. PMID:25340448

  20. The influence of tractor-seat height above the ground on lateral vibrations.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations. PMID:25340448

  1. Modelling of agricultural combination driver behaviour from the aspect of safety of movement.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Tadeusz; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Statistics show that the travel of agricultural machinery to a work area and their movement during labour is the source of many serious accidents. The most dangerous in consequences prove to be those that occur during transport and associated with maneuvering tractors and machinery (about 30% of all fatal accidents). It can be assumed that at least some of these accidents were caused indirectly by the specific design features of agricultural machines which adversely affect the driveability. The single- and multi-loop structures of the driver-vehicle system models are formulated to study the contributions of various preview and prediction strategies to the path tracking and dynamic performance of the articulated vehicle. In the presented study the compensatory model of driver utilizes the lateral acceleration of the tractor, roll angle of trailer sprung mass and the articulation rate as the internal motion feedback variables. The control model of steering of an agricultural set has been implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model has been constructed with the use of stochastic methods and operational transmittances describing the various components of the system. The model operational transmittances has been estimated using Box-Jenkins and continuous-time process models from input-output data. The model has been tested using experimental data from road investigation of the agricultural set. PMID:24959798

  2. Mission Designs for Demonstrating Gravity Tractor Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Faber, N.; Eggl, S.; Morrison, D.; Clark, A.; Frost, C.; Jaroux, B. A.; Khetawat, V.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity tractor asteroid deflection relies on the gravitational attraction between the target and a nearby spacecraft; using low-thrust propulsion to change the target's trajectory slowly but continuously. Our team, based at the NASA Ames Mission Design Center, prepared designs for a Gravity Tractor Demonstration Mission (GTDM) for the European Commission's NEOShield initiative. We found five asteroids with well-known orbits and opportunities for efficient stand-alone demonstrations in the 2020s. We selected one object, 2000 FJ10, for a detailed design analysis. Our GTDM design has a 4 kW solar-electric propulsion system and launch mass of 1150 kg. For a nominal asteroid mass of 3 x 109 kg and diameter 150 m, and a hovering altitude 125 m above the asteroid's surface, GTDM would change FJ10's semi-major axis by 10 km over 2 years. To measure the deflection clearly and to permit safe hovering by the spacecraft, several months of survey and characterization are required prior to the active tractoring phase of the mission. Accurate tracking is also required after the tractoring phase, to ensure that the asteroid has indeed been deflected as intended. The GTDM design includes both spacecraft and Earth-based observations of FJ10 to verify the deflection. The estimated cost of GTDM is $280 million. Trajectory analysis for GTDM confirmed that the outcome of a deflection of any asteroid depends on when that deflection is performed. Compared to kinetic impactor deflection, the gradual deflection from a gravity tractor produces comparable results for a given total momentum transfer. However, a gravity tractor can have greater flexibility in the direction in which the target asteroid can be deflected. Asteroid deflection scenarios must be modeled carefully on a case-to-case basis. We will review implications of the results of the GTDM study to other proposed gravity tractor demonstrations, such as that included in NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission.

  3. Development and testing of crop monitoring methods to improve global agricultural monitoring in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.

    2014-12-01

    The SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) is funded through the EC FPY7 Research programme with the particular aim to contribute to the GEOGLAM Research Agenda. It is a partnership of globally distributed expert organizations, focusses on developing innovative techniques and datasets in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterize cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, are used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series are be explored to better assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China are carried out in order to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. This presentation will report on the progress made with respect to the three topics above.

  4. MAC Europe 1991 campaign: AIRSAR/AVIRIS data integration for agricultural test site classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangiovanni, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiumara, A.

    1993-01-01

    During summer 1991, multi-sensor data were acquired over the Italian test site 'Otrepo Pavese', an agricultural flat area in Northern Italy. This area has been the Telespazio pilot test site for experimental activities related to agriculture applications. The aim of the investigation described in the following paper is to assess the amount of information contained in the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) and AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data, and to evaluate classification results obtained from each sensor data separately and from the combined dataset. All classifications are examined by means of the resulting confusion matrices and Khat coefficients. Improvements of the classification results obtained by using the integrated dataset are finally evaluated.

  5. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  6. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall...

  7. 75 FR 2153 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Tractor Tug FORTE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Tractor Tug FORTE AGENCY: Coast Guard... was issued for the tractor tug FORTE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The... Purpose The tractor tug FORTE will be used for offshore supply operations. The horizontal distance...

  8. A survey of tractors and rollover protective structures in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, P; Sjostrom, T; Clark, R E; Adams, D A

    2006-11-01

    A survey of farms in Washington State was conducted to determine tractor characteristics and the presence of rollover protective structures (ROPS) in a state with more inclusive rules on tractor retrofitting than federal regulations. A total of 544 valid surveys were completed from a proportional random sample across different types of farms. Responders indicated that 58% of tractors overall were equipped with ROPS, and 42% of the tractors without ROPS were exempt from the state rules. Seatbelts on tractors equipped with ROPS were reportedly used "sometimes" or more 30% of the time, and 17% of these tractors had no seatbelt installed. Tractors used for row crop farming were significantly more likely to be equipped with ROPS than those used for tree, vine, or hops farming. Older tractors were used for fewer hours, were less likely to be ROPS-equipped, and were less likely to be operated while wearing a seatbelt. The results were consistent with a positive effect of the Washington State ROPS requirements, demonstrated by the increased percentage of ROPS-equipped pre-1976 tractors, as compared to other states, and by the difference between ROPS-equipped tractors in exempt and non-exempt types of farming. The results point to the need for prevention activities to increase seatbelt use on ROPS-equipped tractors, and for further development of practical protection for tractors operating under overhead obstacles. PMID:17131952

  9. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    PubMed

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response. PMID:20222267

  10. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  11. Mission Concepts and Operations for Asteroid Mitigation Involving Multiple Gravity Tractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Jaroux, Belgacem; Mauro, David

    2012-01-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  12. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  13. Trailer-Tank-Truck Driver (petrol. refin; ret. tr.; whole. tr.) 903.883; Tractor-Trailer-Truck Driver (any ind.) 904.883--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  14. Hands-On Activities and Challenge Tests in Agricultural and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poudel, D. D.; Vincent, L. M.; Anzalone, C.; Huner, J.; Wollard, D.; Clement, T.; DeRamus, A.; Blakewood, G.

    2005-01-01

    Many agricultural and environmental problems are interrelated and overlapping. Several agencies, including nonprofit organizations, have developed programs to educate schoolchildren about agricultural and environmental issues; however, programs that integrate both agricultural and environmental learning, especially among middle and high school…

  15. Math on the Job. Tractor-Trailer Driver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of tractor-trailer drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to…

  16. 40 CFR 1037.630 - Special purpose tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under § 1037.135: “THIS VEHICLE WAS CERTIFIED AS A VOCATIONAL TRACTOR UNDER 40 CFR 1037.630.”. (4) You... § 1037.631 and using an engine certified to the standards of 40 CFR part 1036 are deemed to fully...

  17. 40 CFR 1037.630 - Special purpose tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under § 1037.135: “THIS VEHICLE WAS CERTIFIED AS A VOCATIONAL TRACTOR UNDER 40 CFR 1037.630.”. (4) You... § 1037.631 and using an engine certified to the standards of 40 CFR part 1036 are deemed to fully...

  18. 40 CFR 1037.630 - Special purpose tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under § 1037.135: “THIS VEHICLE WAS CERTIFIED AS A VOCATIONAL TRACTOR UNDER 40 CFR 1037.630.”. (4) You... § 1037.631 and using an engine certified to the standards of 40 CFR part 1036 are deemed to fully...

  19. [The assessment of the vibration load in tractor drivers].

    PubMed

    Goranova, L; Ivanovich, E

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of the vibration loading of a group of tractor-drivers from the enterprise for melioration and erosion control is made on the basis of: measurement of general and local vibrations and noise of 5 tractors type C 100, C 100M and T 130; determination of the total vibration loading on the basis of data of measurements and average weekly hour individual engagement; comparison of the admissible values of vibration loading with the real determined at work with machines of different vibration characters at different hour engagement. A surpass of the admissible vibration loading is established which reaches up to 3.3 (at average weekly exposure to 30 hrs.) and to 4.7 hrs (at average weekly exposure 42.5 hrs.) with the tractors with higher surpass of MAC for the general vibrations. An admissible exposure for 1 day and for 1 year work for the separate tractors is determined in relation to the data for general and local vibrations and individual hour engagement. PMID:2099465

  20. [The effect of occupational exposure to noise among tractor drivers: assessment based on 'noise threshold'].

    PubMed

    Solecki, L

    1998-01-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to noise was analysed among operators of agricultural tractors (n = 172). The assessment was based on a parameter called 'noise immission level' (dose connected with the period of employment). The study showed that the correlation between hearing loss and noise immission dose was stronger than that between hearing loss and the period of employment. Equations of simple regression presented in this paper allow us to make a prognosis concerning the risk of occupational deafness and to develop the system of the prevention interventions. The results obtained indicated that the parameter of hygiene evaluation of exposure to noise, called 'noise immission level' should be used more frequently for the noise measurement, especially in the prevention of occupational diseases. PMID:10204143

  1. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  2. Application of step-drawdown test for planning agricultural groundwater well maintenance in S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Sun

    2015-04-01

    Well efficiency decreases with time after development and the pumping rate is reduced sharply at a certain point. However, the rapid decrease of the efficiency definitely depends upon the physical characteristics of the aquifer, chemical properties of groundwater, pore clogging by adsorptive/precipitable materials, and use of groundwater well. In general, it is expected that an adequate and ongoing maintenance for the well is effective in extension of operating periods because major maintenance frequency requirement at municipal wells placed in the crystalline rock aquifer is known to be relatively longer. The proportion of agricultural wells (583,748) against the total groundwater ones (1,380,715) is 42.3% in 2011, S. Korea. Groundwater use accounts for 1.9 billion m3/year which indicates 48.9% of total amount available groundwater resources. Approximate 69% of the total agricultural public wells placed in crystalline rock aquifer have passed more than 10 years after development. In this study, the increase of well efficiency before and after the well disinfection/cleaning for agricultural groundwater wells in the mountains, plains, and coastal aquifer with the data of step-drawdown test was evaluated, respectively. With the concept of critical yield, the increase of available amount of groundwater was quantitatively analyzed after treatment. From the results, well efficiency increased approximately 1.5 to 4 times depending on pumping rate when the proper disinfection/cleaning methods to the wells were applied. In addition, it showed that the pumping rate of approximate 4-8% with the critical yield from step-drawdown test increased and these effects were the highest in wells which are more than 10 years elapsed. Therefore, it would be concluded that the well disinfection/cleaning methods for the purpose of increasing the efficiency are more effective for the wells that are older than 10 years.

  3. Design and testing of an agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait.

    PubMed

    Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A Javier; Boné, Antonio; Vidal, Mariano; García-Ramos, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus) in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM) and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h), three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m), and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy) were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed. PMID:25602272

  4. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    PubMed Central

    Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A. Javier; Boné, Antonio; Vidal, Mariano; García-Ramos, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus) in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM) and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h), three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m), and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy) were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed. PMID:25602272

  5. A long-range polarization-controlled optical tractor beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, Vladlen; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Engheta, Nader; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2014-11-01

    The laser beam has become an indispensable tool for the controllable manipulation and transport of microscopic objects in biology, physical chemistry and condensed matter physics. In particular, ‘tractor’ laser beams can draw matter towards a laser source and perform, for instance, all-optical remote sampling. Recent advances in lightwave technology have already led to small-scale experimental demonstrations of tractor beams. However, the realization of long-range tractor beams has not gone beyond the realm of theoretical investigations. Here, we demonstrate the stable transfer of gold-coated hollow glass spheres against the power flow of a single inhomogeneously polarized laser beam over tens of centimetres. Additionally, by varying the polarization state of the beam we can stop the spheres or reverse the direction of their motion at will.

  6. Helical tractor beam: analytical solution of Rayleigh particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Garcia, Celia; Blaya, Salvador

    2015-08-10

    We analyze particle dynamics in an optical force field generated by helical tractor beams obtained by the interference of a cylindrical beam with a topological charge and a co-propagating temporally de-phased plane wave. We show that, for standard experimental conditions, it is possible to obtain analytical solutions for the trajectories of particles in such force field by using of some approximations. These solutions show that, in contrast to other tractor beams described before, the intensity becomes a key parameter for the control of particle trajectories. Therefore, by tuning the intensity value the particle can describe helical trajectories upstream and downstream, a circular trajectory in a fixed plane, or a linear displacement in the propagation direction. The approximated analytical solutions show good agreement to the corresponding numerical solutions of the exact dynamical differential equations. PMID:26367905

  7. Human hand-transmitted vibration measurements on pedestrian controlled tractor operators by a laser scanning vibrometer.

    PubMed

    Deboli, R; Miccoli, G; Rossi, G L

    1999-06-01

    A first application of a new measurement technique to detect vibration transmitted to the human body in working conditions is presented. The technique is based on the use of a laser scanning vibrometer. It was previously developed, analysed and tested using laboratory test benches with electrodynamical exciters, and comparisons with traditional measurement techniques based on accelerometers were made. First, results of tests performed using a real machine generating vibration are illustrated. The machine used is a pedestrian-controlled tractor working in a fixed position. Reference measurements by using the accelerometer have been simultaneously performed while scanning the hand surface by the laser-based measurement system. Results achieved by means of both measurement techniques have been processed, analysed, compared and used to calculate transmissibility maps of the hands of three subjects. PMID:10340028

  8. Power takeoff for tractor having parallelogram front wheel suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Slazas, J.J.

    1986-11-11

    A tractor having a rigid frame under which a mower can be carried longitudinally intermediate rear driving wheels and steerable front wheels. The tractor comprises an engine mounted on a front portion of the frame, a rigid laterally extending support member near the front end of the frame, laterally opposite wheel supporting brackets, one pivoted to each end portion of the support member to swing about a longitudinally extending upper axis. The tractor also comprises a laterally extending link pivoted to each of the brackets on a lower axis that is below and parallel to the upper axis to cooperate with the support member in connecting the brackets in a parallelogram linkage, and an axle member for each bracket having a laterally inner portion pivoted to the bracket to swing about a substantially vertical axis and having a laterally outwardly extending axle portion on which a front wheel is rotatable. The tractor is characterized by: A. a tubular bushing secured to the support member intermediate the ends thereof with its axis extending longitudinally; B. a power takeoff shaft coaxially rotatable in the bushing having opposite end portions that respectively project forward and rearward beyond the bushing; C. a laterally extending hitch support having means near its opposite ends for detachable connection to it of forwardly projecting hitch members of a mower; D. a sleeve secured to the hitch support intermediate its ends and surrounding the bushing to pivot the hitch support for tilting about the axis of the bushing; E. a connection between the link and the hitch support whereby substantially lateral motion of the link imparts tilting motion to the hitch support; and F. a driving connection between the engine and one of the end portions of the shaft.

  9. Occupational hearing loss among selected farm tractor operators employed on large multiproduction farms in Poland.

    PubMed

    Solecki, L

    1998-01-01

    A specially selected group of 45 farm tractor drivers were examined in order to estimate the degree of occupational hearing loss. The drivers, aged 21-50 years, were employed on multiproduction farms. The study showed that the operators under study had statistically worse hearing within the range of high frequencies (3-6 kHz), especially those aged over 30 years, compared to the control group of the same age. An intolerable hearing loss (over 20 dB) was noted among 56% of operators within the highest frequency range (3, 4 and 6 kHz), and among 22% of operators in the range of medium frequencies (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz), with no hearing loss observed in the control group. Based on analysis of data concerning all operators it was noted that age and the period of employment in agriculture were highly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.45-0.57). A series of correlations and linear regression analyses, conducted in two age intervals, showed that in the group of young operators (under 35 years) a statistically significant, strong correlation was observed between hearing loss and the period of employment (right ear: r = 0.60-0.65), whereas in the older age group (over 35 years) hearing loss was more strongly correlated with age than with the period of employment, although this correlation was not statistically significant. The results obtained confirmed that the detected hearing loss among operators of farm tractors was caused by exposure to occupational noise present on farms. PMID:9637996

  10. Teachers' Use of Test-Item Banks for Student Assessment in North Carolina Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joy Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Higher expectations are on all parties to ensure students successfully perform on standardized tests. Specifically in North Carolina agriculture classes, students are given a CTE Post Assessment to measure knowledge gained and proficiency. Prior to students taking the CTE Post Assessment, teachers have access to a test item bank system that…

  11. The Effect of Propellers and Nacelles on the Landing Speeds of Tractor Monoplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windler, Ray

    1932-01-01

    This paper reports wind-tunnel tests giving the lift coefficients of large-scale wing-nacelle combinations both with and without the propeller. The tests were made to show the effect of nacelles, and idling and stopped propellers on the landing speeds of tractor monoplanes. Four types of nacelles with various cowlings were used in numerous positions with respect to both a Clark Y and a thick airfoil. The effect of both the idling and stopped propeller on lift, and consequently on landing speed, was negligible. A nacelle with exposed engine cylinders when placed directly in front of an airfoil caused a slight reduction in lift, consequently an increase in landing speed, over the condition with the wing alone. With this exception no appreciable effect on landing speed was indicated for any of the other combinations.

  12. Testing parametric BRDF models with CHRIS/PROBA acquisitions over agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Camacho-de Coca, Fernando; Meli, Joaquin

    2004-10-01

    A proper determination of the BRDF is of interest for land surface studies in different topics such as albedo estimation, correction of anisotropy effects, and retrieval of vegetation parameters by defining optimal geometries. In this paper, we evaluate a set of parametric models widely-used for BRDF characterisation (Roujean model, Ambrals combinations, non-linear RPV and the empirical Walthall's model). These models are inverted and tested against atmospherically-corrected BRF measurements acquired with the CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the PROBA (Project for On-Board Autonomy) satellite over an agricultural test site located in Barrax, Spain) during the SPARC (SPectra bARrax Campaign) 2003 campaign. The study area presents different land crops with high variability in LAI values from 0 to 6. The objectives of the present study are to determine how well the different parametric BRDF models are able to fit CHRIS/PROBA's observed multiangular reflectances in order to determine the nadir-zenith reflectance, which is the optimal geometry to retrieve the fractional vegetation coverage (FVC), and to describe the anisotropy of vegetation canopies, which can be useful to estimate accurately the leaf area index (LAI). To do so, performance indicators are obtained for the different models. The results of this study show that all the tested models are fairly accurate in the entire spectral range (RMS<0.016 at 674 nm and RMS<0.025 at 803 nm) and thus are suitable for normalisation purposes. However, most of them are not able to describe BRDF features such as the hot spot, which hampers the use of these models for exploiting the directional information. There are no significant differences, for the experimental conditions, among those evaluated although the best models appear to be the linear Ross-Li model (low RMS) and the non-linear RPV model (more realistic BRDF).

  13. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  14. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or... are accessible from the ground, no step, handholds or deck plates are required to permit access to...

  15. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  16. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... (specified ingredients or food group(s))” when there is reason to believe that the agricultural input or... agent. Sample integrity must be maintained throughout the chain of custody, and residue testing must...

  17. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... (specified ingredients or food group(s))” when there is reason to believe that the agricultural input or... agent. Sample integrity must be maintained throughout the chain of custody, and residue testing must...

  18. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... (specified ingredients or food group(s))” when there is reason to believe that the agricultural input or... agent. Sample integrity must be maintained throughout the chain of custody, and residue testing must...

  19. Optimized optical "tractor beam" for core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng; Lu, Wanli; Ng, Jack; Lin, Zhifang

    2014-04-15

    It is known that core-shell subwavelength nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric shell and a metallic core can simultaneously support electric and magnetic dipolar resonances, which enhance forward scattering and suppress backward scattering. This creates favorable conditions for optical tractor beam applications. Using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory and Maxwell stress tensor formulation, we demonstrate how optical pulling forces can be induced and optimized by first-order Bessel beams with appropriate polarization. The transverse stability of the core-shell nanoparticle under ambient damping is also verified by linear stability analysis and dynamical simulation. PMID:24979003

  20. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  1. A three-step test of phosphate sorption efficiency of potential agricultural drainage filter materials.

    PubMed

    Lyngsie, G; Borggaard, O K; Hansen, H C B

    2014-03-15

    Phosphorus (P) eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of P sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. Efficient sorbents to be used for such filters must possess high P bonding affinity to retain ortho-phosphate (Pi) at low concentrations. In addition high P sorption capacity, fast bonding and low desorption is necessary. In this study five potential filter materials (Filtralite-P(®), limestone, calcinated diatomaceous earth, shell-sand and iron-oxide based CFH) in four particle size intervals were investigated under field relevant P concentrations (0-161 μM) and retentions times of 0-24 min. Of the five materials examined, the results from P sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that the iron based CFH is superior as a filter material compared to calcium based materials when tested against criteria for sorption affinity, capacity and stability. The finest CFH and Filtralite-P(®) fractions (0.05-0.5 mm) were best with P retention of ≥90% of Pi from an initial concentration of 161 μM corresponding to 14.5 mmol/kg sorbed within 24 min. They were further capable to retain ≥90% of Pi from an initially 16 μM solution within 1½ min. However, only the finest CFH fraction was also able to retain ≥90% of Pi sorbed from the 16 μM solution against 4 times desorption sequences with 6 mM KNO3. Among the materials investigated, the finest CFH fraction is therefore the only suitable filter material, when very fast and strong bonding of high Pi concentrations is needed, e.g. in drains under P rich soils during extreme weather conditions. PMID:24275107

  2. CO{sub 2} Laser Ablation Propulsion Tractor Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sinko, John E.; Schlecht, Clifford A.

    2010-05-06

    Manipulation of objects at a distance has already been achieved with no small measure of success in the realm of microscopic objects on the scale size of nanometers to micrometers in applications including laser trapping and laser tweezers. However, there has been relatively little effort to apply such remote control to macroscopic systems. A space tractor beam could be applied to a wide range of applications, including removal of orbital debris, facilitation of spacecraft docking, adjustment of satellite attitude or orbital position, etc. In this paper, an ablative laser propulsion tractor beam is demonstrated based on radiation from a CO{sub 2} laser. Cooperative, layered polymer targets were used for remote impulse generation using a CO{sub 2} laser. The use of a structured ablatant enabling switching between thrust directional parity (i.e., forward or reverse) and imparting torque to a remote target. Fluence-dependent results are presented in the context of polymer ablation modeling work and with consideration of confined ablation effects.

  3. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in agricultural plants in the area used for surface nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Kozhakhanov, T E; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on the study of artificial radionuclide accumulation in agricultural crops grown at the territory with high concentration of radionuclides, and first of all - with high concentration of transuranium elements. As a result of this work, peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of artificial radionuclides in the vegetative and generative organs of the studied plants have been revealed. Basic accumulation factors have been found for (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, and (241)Am in agricultural products. Accumulation factor dependence on type of planting was found for the investigated types of plants. It has been found that the vegetative organs accumulate radionuclides most of all. PMID:25128979

  4. Wear of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Irons for Tractor Drive Train Components

    SciTech Connect

    Beltowski, Mark F; Blau, Peter Julian; Qu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The study was prompted by a desire to improve the wear resistance of power transmission components in rear axle drives on commercial farm tractors. Reciprocating wear tests were conducted under lubricated and non-lubricated conditions on three spheroidal cast irons which varied in strength and hardness (designated GGG450, GGG600, and GGG700). Hemispherically-tipped steel pins (designed 42CrMoS4/ 41CrS4) were used as the sliders. Except for the test duration, test procedures were similar to those described in ASTM Standard Test Method G133 for linearly-reciprocating sliding. Among the three cast irons tested, the harder and stronger the alloy, the lower was its wear rate. Wear factors were approximately four orders of magnitude lower for experiments lubricated in fresh, fully-formulated lubricating oil. There was a linear relationship between Brinell hardness of the alloys and the negative logarithm of the wear factors that were expressed in (mm3/N-m). Wear of lubricated test pins was not measurable due to the presence of deposits; however under non-lubricated sliding, the ratio of the wear of the flat specimen to that of the pin decreased as the hardness of the flat specimens approached that of the pin specimen.

  5. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  6. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  7. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  8. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  9. Development and testing of method for assessing and mapping agricultural areas susceptible to atrazine leaching in the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint effort by the Washington State Department of Agriculture, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Root Zone Model and a Geographic Information System were used to develop and test a method for screening and mapping the susceptibility of ground water in agricultural areas to pesticide contamination. The objective was to produce a map that would be used by the Washington State Department of Agriculture to allocate resources for monitoring pesticide levels in ground water. The method was tested by producing a map showing susceptibility to leaching of the pesticide atrazine for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project, which encompasses an area of intensive agriculture in eastern Washington. The reliability of the atrazine map was assessed by using statistical procedures to determine whether the median of the percentage of atrazine simulated to leach below the root zone in wells where atrazine was detected was statistically greater than the median percentage at wells where atrazine was not detected (at or above 0.001 microgram per liter) in 134 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey. A statistical difference in medians was not found when all 134 wells were compared. However, a statistical difference was found in medians for two subsets of the 134 wells that were used in land-use studies (studies examining the quality of ground water beneath specific crops). The statistical results from wells from the land-use studies indicate that the model potentially can be used to map the relative susceptibility of agricultural areas to atrazine leaching. However, the distinction between areas of high and low susceptibility may not yet be sufficient to use the method for allocating resources to monitor water quality. Several options are offered for improving the reliability of future simulations.

  10. Measurement of the airborne noise and the noise at the operator's position emitted by the ECOTRAC V-1033 F forest tractor.

    PubMed

    Goglia, V; Beljo, R; Gnjilac, D

    1995-03-01

    The paper reports on the measurement procedure and results of measurements of the airborne noise emitted by the ECOTRAC V-1033 F forest tractor. The measurements were carried out in accordance with the International Standards ISO 4872 and 362 for the stationary test condition. The paper further reports on noise measurements at the tractor operator's position conducted in accordance with the International Standards ISO 5131 and 6394. All measurements were performed using the Bruel & Kjaer 4165 type microphone and the 2209 type sound level meter from the same manufacturer. According to ISO 4872, 6393 and 362 the noise level did not exceed the limit values. However, the noise level at the operator's position at full load and at nominal load exceeded the limits. Measures to be undertaken should aim at protecting the driver and improving the cab characteristics. PMID:7575143

  11. The Tractor: Probabilistic astronomical source detection and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Mykytyn, David

    2016-04-01

    The Tractor optimizes or samples from models of astronomical objects. The approach is generative: given astronomical sources and a description of the image properties, the code produces pixel-space estimates or predictions of what will be observed in the images. This estimate can be used to produce a likelihood for the observed data given the model: assuming the model space actually includes the truth (it doesn’t, in detail), then if we had the optimal model parameters, the predicted image would differ from the actually observed image only by noise. Given a noise model of the instrument and assuming pixelwise independent noise, the log-likelihood is the negative chi-squared difference: (image - model) / noise.

  12. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  13. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold (23)Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  14. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.

  15. [Risk of noise-induced hearing loss in farm tractor operators].

    PubMed

    Solecki, L

    2001-01-01

    Studies of noise at work site of tractor operators showed that this parameter exceeds allowable values. In order to evaluate the risk of hearing loss in this occupational group, noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) values were determined. This parameter is a function of the audiometric frequency, duration of occupational exposure and noise exposure level (LEX,8 h). The procedure recommended by ISO-1999/1990 was used for calculations. The study covered two groups of operators: operators of ZM "Ursus" medium-power tractors (noise exposure level: LEX,8 h = 96.6 dB) and operators of high-power tractors of the same manufacture (LEX,8 h = 89.6 dB) The risk of hearing impairment was determined for the group of men aged 50 years, occupationally exposed to noise for a period of 30 years. The calculation was based on the mean value of expected hearing loss for three selected audiometric frequencies: 1000; 2000; and 4000 Hz. The study showed that the average (median; N0.50) expected hearing loss, excluding that associated with age, after 30 years of employment was 15 dB for operators of medium-power farm tractors, and 6 dB for operators of high-power tractors. The risk of hearing impairment due to occupational exposure to noise (exceeding the maximum allowable hearing loss of 27 dB; according to ISO-1999/1990) that may cause an acoustic trauma was 37.9% for medium-power tractors and 13.0% for high-power tractors. The results of the study show that noise at workplaces of farm tractor operators creates a high risk of hearing impairment. PMID:11761672

  16. The Social Marketing of Safety Behaviors: A Quasi–Randomized Controlled Trial of Tractor Retrofitting Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Paul L.; Emmelin, Maria; Stenlund, Hans; Weinehall, Lars; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B.; May, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures. Methods. From 2006 to 2007, we conducted a quasi–randomized controlled trial with 391 farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations. These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion. A fourth region served as a control. Results. The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall. In addition, postintervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors. Conclusions. Our results showed that a social marketing approach (financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion) had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were fairly good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors. PMID:21330581

  17. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one

  18. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    PubMed

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas. PMID:23145781

  19. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume I. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the first volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the 12 lessons included in this volume are selecting tractors and engines, diagnosing engine conditions, servicing electrical systems, servicing cooling systems, servicing fuel and…

  20. Design of a New Sensor for Determination of the Effects of Tractor Field Usage in Southern Spain: Soil Sinkage and Alterations in the Cone Index and Dry Bulk Density

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Diego L.; Gil, Jesús; Agüera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Variations in sinkage and cone index are of crucial importance when planning fieldwork, and for determining the trafficability of farm machinery. Many studies have highlighted the link between higher values of these parameters and dramatic decreases in crop yield. Variations in the dry bulk density and cone index of clayey soil in Southern Spain were measured following each of five successive passes over the same land with the three types of tractor most widely used in the area (tracked, two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive). In addition, sinkage (rut depth) of the running gear was measured using a laser microrelief profile meter. This device, which integrates three sensors, was specifically designed for these experiments, as was an electrical penetrometer to determine the cone index, and both instruments proved reliable and accurate in the field. The main goal of this study was to design, manufacture and test these new devices. The first pass caused most soil alteration when compared to successive passes for all types of tractor tested and soil conditions prevailing during the tests. (Heavier) four-wheel drive tractors were found to cause greater soil damage (sinkage, cone index and dry bulk density) than two-wheel drive and track tractors. There was no statistically significant difference between the two latter types. The greatest alterations were recorded in the top 10 cm of the soil. The results show that soil compaction should be avoided as much as possible. This can be achieved by ensuring that tractors always travel along the same tracks, especially in the wet season. At present these aspects are not considered by farmers in this area. PMID:23202006

  1. Design of a new sensor for determination of the effects of tractor field usage in southern Spain: soil sinkage and alterations in the cone index and dry bulk density.

    PubMed

    Valera, Diego L; Gil, Jesús; Agüera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Variations in sinkage and cone index are of crucial importance when planning fieldwork, and for determining the trafficability of farm machinery. Many studies have highlighted the link between higher values of these parameters and dramatic decreases in crop yield. Variations in the dry bulk density and cone index of clayey soil in Southern Spain were measured following each of five successive passes over the same land with the three types of tractor most widely used in the area (tracked, two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive). In addition, sinkage (rut depth) of the running gear was measured using a laser microrelief profile meter. This device, which integrates three sensors, was specifically designed for these experiments, as was an electrical penetrometer to determine the cone index, and both instruments proved reliable and accurate in the field. The main goal of this study was to design, manufacture and test these new devices. The first pass caused most soil alteration when compared to successive passes for all types of tractor tested and soil conditions prevailing during the tests. (Heavier) four-wheel drive tractors were found to cause greater soil damage (sinkage, cone index and dry bulk density) than two-wheel drive and track tractors. There was no statistically significant difference between the two latter types. The greatest alterations were recorded in the top 10 cm of the soil. The results show that soil compaction should be avoided as much as possible. This can be achieved by ensuring that tractors always travel along the same tracks, especially in the wet season. At present these aspects are not considered by farmers in this area. PMID:23202006

  2. EO-LDAS Temporal Regularization for Estimation of fAPAR over an Agriculture Test Site Using MISR Multiangular Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskiy, M.; Gorbron, N.; Truckenbrodt, S.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Morgan, O.; Lewis, P.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present the retrieval of the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) over an agricultural Sentinel-3 validation test site (S3VT) using multi-angular information from the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) at 275 m and the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EOLDAS). EO-LDAS is done with a temporal regularization using 7 MISR cameras. Results are compared against ground-based data, Joint Research Centre Two-stream Inversion Package (JRC-TIP) and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) FAPAR products.

  3. Frequency and severity of injuries to operators during overturns of farm tractors.

    PubMed

    Cole, H P; Myers, M L; Westneat, S C

    2006-05-01

    Previous estimates of operator death from farm tractor overturn events range from 0.03 to 0.68. This study provided population-based estimates of the denominator of total farm tractor overturns and the frequency of six classes of overturn injury outcomes for tractors with and without rollover protective structures (ROPS). A 40-item telephone survey collected information from a random sample of 6,063 (8.0%) Kentucky farms about each farm's most recent overturn. A total of 551 (9.1%) farms reported overturns, and 5,512 (90.1%) reported no overturns. Injury outcomes for 443 overturns of non-ROPS tractors and 89 ROPS tractors were distributed as follows: no or minor injury (non-ROPS: 70.43%; ROPS: 82.02%), outpatient treatment (non-ROPS: 21.90%; ROPS: 9.00%), hospital admission (non-ROPS: 15.35%; ROPS: 3.37%), temporary disability (non-ROPS: 13.54%; ROPS: 14.61%), permanent disability (non-ROPS: 3.16%; ROPS: 0.00%), and death (non-ROPS: 5.42%; ROPS: 1.12%). (Percents total to more than 100 because some operators treated as outpatients were subsequently hospitalized, disabled, or died.) The observed 0.054 probability of death from overturn of non-ROPS tractors in this sample was corrected for the proportion of farms that went out of business prior to the survey and thus were excluded from the sampling frame. The adjusted 0.08 probability of death from overturn of a non-ROPS tractor is five times smaller than the NIOSH estimate of 0.40. The discrepancy lies in the much larger denominator of all non-fatal and fatal overturns than assumed previously. PMID:16724789

  4. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  5. Performance of an automatically deployable ROPS on ASAE tests.

    PubMed

    Powers, J R; Harris, J R; Etherton, J R; Snyder, K A; Ronaghi, M; Newbraugh, B H

    2001-02-01

    In the U.S., approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best-known method for preventing these fatalities. However, one impediment to ROPS use is low-clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low-clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, developed a prototype automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (AutoROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. If an overturn condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The results of these tests show that the NIOSH AutoROPS has significant potential to overcome the limitations of current ROPS designs for use in low clearance as well as unrestricted clearance operations. PMID:11398902

  6. Scope and magnitude of injuries in the agricultural workplace.

    PubMed

    Purschwitz, M A; Field, W E

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural work injury data are less available than data for other industries, so an overview of existing data is provided. Agriculture has the highest annual work death rate of all industries, 52 per 100,000 workers, which is five times the combined rate for all industries. Tractor-related injuries are the leading types of fatal injuries; injuries involving agricultural machinery, animals, and trucks are the leading types of non-fatal injuries. Victims of fatal accidents range in age from less than 1 year to over 90. Research needs are discussed, including the need for comprehensive surveillance. PMID:2206049

  7. Multi-frequency and polarimetric radar backscatter signatures for discrimination between agricultural crops at the Flevoland experimental test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Villasenor, J.; Klein, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the calibration and analysis of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar backscatter signatures over an agriculture test site in the Netherlands. The calibration procedure involved two stages: in the first stage, polarimetric and radiometric calibrations (ignoring noise) were carried out using square-base trihedral corner reflector signatures and some properties of the clutter background. In the second stage, a novel algorithm was used to estimate the noise level in the polarimetric data channels by using the measured signature of an idealized rough surface with Bragg scattering (the ocean in this case). This estimated noise level was then used to correct the measured backscatter signatures from the agriculture fields. We examine the significance of several key parameters extracted from the calibrated and noise-corrected backscatter signatures. The significance is assessed in terms of the ability to uniquely separate among classes from 13 different backscatter types selected from the test site data, including eleven different crops, one forest and one ocean area. Using the parameters with the highest separation for a given class, we use a hierarchical algorithm to classify the entire image. We find that many classes, including ocean, forest, potato, and beet, can be identified with high reliability, while the classes for which no single parameter exhibits sufficient separation have higher rates of misclassification. We expect that modified decision criteria involving simultaneous consideration of several parameters increase performance for these classes.

  8. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1). PMID:24959797

  9. A test method for the evaluation of protective glove materials used in agricultural pesticide operations.

    PubMed

    Ehntholt, D J; Cerundolo, D L; Bodek, I; Schwope, A D; Royer, M D; Nielsen, A P

    1990-09-01

    The ASTM Standard Test Method for Resistance of Protective Clothing Materials to Permeation by Liquids and Gases (F 739-85) and the recommended permeation cell have been modified to permit the testing of protective clothing materials for permeation by the low volatility, low water solubility active ingredients present in many pesticide formulations. The modification makes use of solid collection medium, a thin (0.02-in. thick) sheet of silicone rubber, to collect permeants. Those compounds permeating the protective material can then be desorbed into an appropriate solvent and analyzed using conventional methods and instruments. A series of permeation tests have been conducted using samples of 10 common, commercially available protective glove materials and the modified cell. Permeation of the active ingredient as well as carrier solvent components of several concentrated pesticide formulations containing low volatility, low water solubility active ingredients and aromatic hydrocarbon carrier solvents has been monitored. The relative breakthrough and the total mass of material permeating the glove materials appears to be strongly related to the concentration of the aromatic carrier solvent present in the formulations studied to date. The collection method was found to be less useful for monitoring the permeation of active ingredients, which have reasonably high water solubilities. The results obtained by using this method with samples of protective glove materials challenged by several concentrated pesticide formulations are described. For these formulations containing xylene boiling range aromatic solvents, gloves made of nitrile rubber, butyl rubber, and Silver Shield were most resistant to permeation; natural rubber and polyethylene glove materials were least resistant. PMID:1699398

  10. Evaluation of Corrosion Failure in Tractor-Trailer Brake System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, DF

    2002-10-22

    As reported to ORNL, concomitant with the introduction of different deicing and anti-icing compounds, there was an increase in the brake failure rate of tractor-trailer trucks. A forensic evaluation of a failed brake system was performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopic evaluation showed corrosion to be mostly confined to the brake table/lining interface. The corrosion is non-uniform as is to be expected for plain carbon steel in chloride environments. This initial analysis found no evidence for the chlorides of calcium and magnesium, which are the newly introduced deicing and antiicing compounds and are less soluble in water than the identified chlorides of sodium and potassium, in the scale. The result could be as a result of non-exposure of the examined brake table to calcium and magnesium chloride. The mechanisms for the increased failure rate are postulated as being an increased rate of corrosion due to positive shifts in the corrosion potential, and an increased amount of corrosion due to an increased ''time of wetness'' that results from the presence of hygroscopic salts. Laboratory scale evaluation of the corrosion of plain carbon steel in simulated deicing and anti-icing solutions need to be performed to determine corrosion rates and morphological development of corrosion product, to compare laboratory data to in-service data, and to rank economically feasible replacement materials for low carbon steel. In addition, the mechanical behavior of the lining attached to the brake shoe table needs to be assessed. It is opined that an appropriate adjustment of materials could easily allow for a doubling of a brake table/lining lifetime. Suggestions for additional work, to clarify the mechanisms of rust jacking and to develop possible solutions, are described.

  11. Transmission and pto system for tractors and utility cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, K.P.

    1987-04-21

    A tractor power transmission is described comprised of: a speed transmission housing, a first transmission shaft journalled in the housing, a hollow second transmission shaft journalled in the housing generally below and parallel to the first transmission shaft. A PTO drive shaft journalled in the housing and passing axially within the second transmission shaft and protruding forward and rearward from the second transmission shaft. A third transmission shaft is journalled in the housing parallel to the second transmission shaft. A final drive differential journalled in the housing perpendicular to the third transmission shaft, a coaxial rearward extension shaft to the PTO drive shaft journalled in the housing to provide a rear PTO drive. Gear means to drivingly connect the second and the third transmission shafts, gear means to drivingly connect the third transmission shaft and the final drive differential. A first set of intermeshing gears on the first and the second transmission shafts to drivingly connect the first and the second transmission shafts, a second set of intermeshing gears on the first transmission shaft and the PTO drive shaft PTO clutch means shiftable to drivingly connect the first transmission shaft. And PTO drive shaft through the second set of intermeshing gears at a first speed ratio when the PTO clutch means are in a first actuated state, the PTO clutch means is shiftable to drivingly connect the first transmission shaft and the PTO drive shaft through the first set of intermeshing gears at a second speed ratio. When the PTO clutch means are in a second actuated state and while the first set of intermeshing gears continues to provide a line of drive from the first transmission shaft to the second transmission shaft.

  12. Performance Objectives, Task Analysis, Learning Content, Content Limits, and Domain Referenced Tests for the Agricultural Chemicals Catalog. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William; And Others

    This document contains Indiana agricultural chemicals curriculum materials based on the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (VTECS) Agricultural Chemicals Catalog. It is intended to improve preparation of high school and adult students for handling and using agricultural chemicals and for jobs as chemical salespersons or chemical…

  13. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  14. Towing Asteroids with Gravity Tractors Enhanced by Tethers and Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Haijun; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Material collected from an asteroid's surface can be used to increase gravitational attraction between the asteroid and a Gravity Tractor (GT); the spacecraft therefore operates more effectively and is referred to as an Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT). The use of tethers and solar sails to further improve effectiveness and simplify operations is investigated. By employing a tether, the asteroidal material can be placed close to the asteroid while the spacecraft is stationed farther away, resulting in a better safety margin and improved thruster efficiency. A solar sail on a spacecraft can naturally provide radial offset and inter-spacecraft separation required for multiple EGTs.

  15. Electrooptical remote sensing methods as nondestructive testing and measuring techniques in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, V I; Allen, W A

    1968-09-01

    Characteristics of plants that influence reflectance and emission of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Four main spectral regions are influenced by plants. These wavelength bands include the visible region of chlorophyll absorption, very near ir wavelengths, where plant structure is of major importance, the near and middle ir wavelengths, where water and CO(2) absorption predominate, and the far ir region of thermal ir emission. Soil characteristics that influence reflectance and emission of energy are discussed. Nondestructive testing techniques described include laboratory spectrophotometry, field spectrometry, color photography, radiometry, and generation of line scan imagery. Spectrophotometer and spectrometer reflectance data obtained in the laboratory and field are related to interpretation of remote sensing imagery. Model studies that permit predictions of reflectance from plant canopies are described. The principle of multispectral sensing which permits utilization of multiple wavelength channels for establishing unique plant and soil signature is reviewed. PMID:20068888

  16. Testing the Need for Replication of Eddy Covariance Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. M.; Amiro, B. D.; Gervais, M.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance method directly measures carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes for long periods of time and with footprints up to hundreds of meters in size. Any ecosystem process that alters how gases and energy move between the atmosphere and soil/vegetation can affect these fluxes. Eddy covariance is vulnerable to systematic errors and uncertainy, particular through relying on assumptions about surface characteristics. Additionally, spatial variation within a site can cause more uncertainty in these measurements and lack of replication in many eddy covariance studies makes statistical analysis of carbon fluxes challenging. We tested if there are significant differences between co-located and simultaneous CO2 flux measurements over a uniform crop surface, and if the differences increase if we measure different flux footprint areas over the same field. During the summer of 2014, three matched instrumented 2.5-m high towers were co-located and then periodically separated by moving at 50 m intervals along a north-south transect on an alfalfa/trefoil field and a spring wheat field in Southern Manitoba, Canada to compare CO­2 fluxes. Georeferenced leaf area index measurements were taken in 50 m grid of each field to establish uniformity of the source/sink within a footprint. Diurnal differences of similar magnitude in the CO2 ­fluxes were found in both the co-located experiment and the spatially separated intervals. Despite rigorous calibration during the experiment, some differences were caused by the measurement systems rather than by variation within the field. Interpretation of the spatial variation in leaf area index is being used to determine the contribution caused by difference in source/sink contributions to the flux footprint areas when the towers were spatially separated.

  17. Testing the effect of a science-enhanced curriculum on the science achievement and agricultural competency of secondary agricultural education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, James Christopher

    Scope and Method of Study. The purpose of this study was to determine if a science-enhanced curriculum produced by the Center for Agricultural and Environmental Research and Training (CAERT) taught in a secondary level animal science or horticulture course would improve students' understanding of selected scientific principles significantly, when compared to students who were instructed using a traditional curriculum. A secondary purpose was to determine the effect that the science-enhanced CAERT curriculum would have on students' agricultural knowledge when compared to students who were instructed using a traditional curriculum. The design of the study was ex post facto, causal comparative because no random assignment of the treatment group occurred. Findings and Conclusions. No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment and comparison groups regarding science achievement. However, the mean score of the treatment group was slightly larger than the comparison group indicating a slightly higher achievement level; a "Small" effect size (d = .16) for this difference was calculated. It was determined that a statistically significant difference (p < .05) existed in agriculture competency scores in animal science (p = .001) and horticulture (p = .000) as a result of the treatment. Moreover, this was considered to be a "very large" effect (d = 1.18) in animal science and a "large" effect (d = .92) in horticulture. When considering student achievement in science, this study found that the use of the science-enhanced CAERT curriculum did not result in a statistically significant increase (p < .05) in student performance as determined by the TerraNova3 science proficiency examination. However, students who were instructed using the CAERT curriculum scored better overall than those who were instructed using a "traditional" curriculum.

  18. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure. PMID:26423288

  19. A History of the Caterpillar Tractor Company's Use of Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeder, Gerry A.

    Film historians have tended to overlook the industrial film even though it has been widely used as a sales tool since early in this century. The Caterpillar Tractor Company was one of the first to adopt this medium as a means of demonstrating what its machines could do in a variety of situations. While other types of films have been made by…

  20. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  1. Analysis of bifurcation and stability for a tractor semi-trailer in planar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Nenggen; Shi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yipeng; Chen, Wen

    2014-12-01

    This paper is intended for bifurcation analysis of a nonlinear tractor semi-trailer vehicle model in planar motion and for investigating its stability under constant running conditions. Bifurcation analysis shows that bifurcation diagrams of a tractor semi-trailer are quite different from those of a single-unit vehicle. Some instability phenomena of the vehicle system such as jackknifing, sideslip, and spinning are explained by correlating them with the behaviour in the neighbourhood of unstable fixed points based on analysis of eigenvectors, phase trajectories, and status of lateral tyre force saturation. It is also found that yaw planar instability of a tractor semi-trailer is caused by lateral tyre force saturation of the tractor's rear axles and/or the trailer's axles. Moreover, the stability region in the state space is demarcated, and a stability index for evaluating size of the stability region in a feasible domain is proposed. Yaw stability under constant driving conditions is analysed by using the proposed stability index.

  2. The Development of Procedural Knowledge in Adults Engaged in a Tractor-Trailer Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Nelson

    1994-01-01

    Studied development of procedural knowledge in 14 adults, aged 18 to 35 years, engaged in a novel task using a toy tractor-trailer rig. Results revealed three phases of development in subjects' knowledge of steering procedures and the rig's movement patterns, and their use of feedback information. Subjects also manifested different levels of…

  3. New method of space debris cleaning based on light negative force: tractor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiongge; Gao, Long; Li, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of space debris removal and protection, that is, using tractor laser, which based on light negative force, to achieve space debris cleaning and shielded. Tractor laser is traceable from the theory of optical tweezers, accompanied with non-diffraction beam. These kind of optical beams have the force named negative force pointing to optical source, this will bring the object along the trajectory of laser beam moving to the optical source. The negative force leads to the new method to convey and sampling the space micro-objects. In this paper, the application of tractor laser in the space debris collection and protection of 1cm is studied. The application of the several tractor beams in the space debris and sample collection is discussed. The proposed method can reduce the requirements of the laser to the satellite platform, and realize the collection of space debris, make the establishment of the space garbage station possible, and help to study the spatial non contact sample transmission and reduce the risk of space missions.

  4. Off-axial acoustic radiation force of repulsor and tractor bessel beams on a sphere.

    PubMed

    Silva, Glauber T; Lopes, J Henrique; Mitri, Farid G

    2013-06-01

    Acoustic Bessel beams are known to produce an axial radiation force on a sphere centered on the beam axis (on-axial configuration) that exhibits both repulsor and tractor behaviors. The repulsor and the tractor forces are oriented along the beam's direction of propagation and opposite to it, respectively. The behavior of the acoustic radiation force generated by Bessel beams when the sphere lies outside the beam's axis (off-axial configuration) is unknown. Using the 3-D radiation force formulas given in terms of the partial wave expansion coefficients for the incident and scattered waves, both axial and transverse components of the force exerted on a silicone- oil sphere are obtained for a zero- and a first-order Bessel vortex beam. As the sphere departs from the beam's axis, the tractor force becomes weaker. Moreover, the behavior of the transverse radiation force field may vary with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on ka values. These results are particularly important for the design of acoustical tractor beam devices operating with Bessel beams. PMID:25004483

  5. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  6. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399.207 Section 399.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...

  7. 76 FR 9495 - Airworthiness Directives; Air Tractor, Inc. Models AT-802 and AT-802A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ..., amendment 39-16412 (75 FR 52255, August 25, 2010), for all Air Tractor Models AT-802 and AT- 802A airplanes... statutes, to fit regulatory and informational requirements to the scale of the businesses, organizations... actions. The RFA covers a wide range of small entities, including small businesses,...

  8. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399.207 Section 399.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...

  9. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  10. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-06-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition-specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  11. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leon; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Bos, Merijn; de Groot, G Arjen; Kleijn, David; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Roberts, Stuart; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2015-10-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is maintained across distinct habitats and for species with different functional traits. Highly mobile species, such as bees, can be particularly challenging to model. Here, we use independent sets of occurrence data collected systematically in several agricultural habitats to test how the predictive performance of SDMs for wild bee species depends on species traits, habitat type, and sampling technique. We used a species distribution modeling approach parametrized for the Netherlands, with presence records from 1990 to 2010 for 193 Dutch wild bees. For each species, we built a Maxent model based on 13 climate and landscape variables. We tested the predictive performance of the SDMs with independent datasets collected from orchards and arable fields across the Netherlands from 2010 to 2013, using transect surveys or pan traps. Model predictive performance depended on species traits and habitat type. Occurrence of bee species specialized in habitat and diet was better predicted than generalist bees. Predictions of habitat suitability were also more precise for habitats that are temporally more stable (orchards) than for habitats that suffer regular alterations (arable), particularly for small, solitary bees. As a conservation tool, SDMs are best suited to modeling rarer, specialist species than more generalist and will work best in long-term stable habitats. The variability of complex, short-term habitats is difficult to capture in such models and historical land use generally has low thematic resolution. To improve SDMs' usefulness, models require explanatory variables and collection data that include detailed landscape characteristics, for example, variability of crops and

  12. Farm noise emissions during common agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Depczynski, J; Franklin, R C; Challinor, K; Williams, W; Fragar, L J

    2005-08-01

    Noise injury in agriculture is a significant yet often unrecognized problem. Many farmers, farm workers, and family members are exposed to noise levels above recommended levels and have greater hearing loss than their non-farming contemporaries. The aim of this study was to gather up-to-date information on farm noise levels and to enhance the quality of information available to assist farmers in reducing noise exposure and meeting Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) regulations regarding noise management. Farm visits were conducted on 48 agricultural establishments that produce a range of commodities. Noise levels were measured at the ears of operators and bystanders involved in typical activities on farms. The average and peak noise levels were measured for 56 types of machinery or sites of farming activity, totaling 298 separate items and activities. Common noise hazards identified included firearms, tractors without cabs, workshop tools, small motors (e.g., chainsaws, augers, pumps), manual handling of pigs, shearing sheds, older cabbed tractors, and heavy machinery such as harvesters, bulldozers, and cotton module presses. We found that use of firearms without hearing protection presents a pressing hearing health priority. However, farming activities involving machinery used for prolonged periods also present significant risks to farmers' hearing health. Noise management strategies on the farm are essential in order to prevent noise injury among farmers. PMID:16184791

  13. DYNAMIC TESTING OF GPS RECEIVERS ON AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT FOR REMOTE SENSING AND VARIABLE-RATE AERIAL APPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and GPS-based swath guidance systems are used on agricultural aircraft for remote sensing, airplane guidance, and to support variable-rate aerial application of crop inputs such as insecticides, cotton growth regulators, and defoliants. Agricultural aircraf...

  14. Five years of work-related injuries and fatalities in Minnesota. Agriculture: a high-risk industry.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Parker, D; Seeland, E; Boyle, D; Wahl, G

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Minnesota Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Study (MN FACE), a federally funded initiative to study fatal injuries in the workplace. The purpose of the program is to investigate various types of occupational fatalities and to identify risk factors that contribute to work-related fatalities. Initially, the MN FACE program only investigated fatalities related to falls, confined spaces, and electrocutions. In 1994, MN FACE also began investigating fatalities associated with agricultural work. Agriculture continues to be one of the nation's most hazardous industries, ranking fourth among industries in the United States at high risk for work-related fatalities. MN FACE investigated 46 agriculture-related fatalities during 1994-95. Forty-one percent of the fatalities involved tractors, and 66% of these accidents were tractor rollovers. Other leading causes of agricultural fatalities included grain bin and manure pit asphyxiations. PMID:9265823

  15. The Mechanization of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Wayne D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses technological innovations affecting the economic and social basis of farm life, focusing on trends, farm equipment (plows, reaping tools, tractors, and harvesters), productivity, and influence of computers in all phases of agribusiness. (JN)

  16. A Summary of the Experimental Results for a Generic Tractor-Trailer in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot and 12-Foot Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Satran, Dale R.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental measurements of a generic tractor-trailer were obtained in two wind tunnels at Ames Research Center. After a preliminary study at atmospheric conditions in the 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel, additional testing was conducted at Reynolds numbers corresponding to full-scale highway speeds in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel. To facilitate computational modeling, the 1:8-scale geometry, designated the Generic Conventional Model, included a simplified underbody and omitted many small-scale details. The measurements included overall and component forces and moments, static and dynamic surface pressures, and three-component particle image velocimetry. This summary report highlights the effects of numerous drag reduction concepts and provides details of the model installation in both wind tunnels. To provide a basis for comparison, the wind-averaged drag coefficient was tabulated for all configurations tested. Relative to the baseline configuration representative of a modern class-8 tractor-trailer, the most effective concepts were the trailer base flaps and trailer belly box providing a drag-coefficient reduction of 0.0855 and 0.0494, respectively. Trailer side skirts were less effective yielding a drag reduction of 0.0260. The database of this experimental effort is publicly available for further analysis.

  17. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  18. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  19. Quantifying driver's field-of-view in tractors: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Issachar; Byran, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    When driving a car, the visual awareness is important for operating and controlling the vehicle. When operating a tractor, it is even more complex. This is because the driving is always accompanied with another task (e.g., plough) that demands constant changes of body postures, to achieve the needed Field-of-View (FoV). Therefore, the cockpit must be well designed to provide best FoV. Today, the driver's FoV is analyzed mostly by computer simulations of a cockpit model and a Digital Human Model (DHM) positioned inside. The outcome is an 'Eye view' that displays what the DHM 'sees'. This paper suggests a new approach that adds quantitative information to the current display; presented on three tractor models as case studies. Based on the results, the design can be modified. This may assist the engineer, to analyze, compare and improve the design, for better addressing the driver needs. PMID:26327259

  20. Co-Simulation Research of the Mechanical-Hydraulic-Control Coupling System of ITER Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Luo, Minzhou; Mei, Tao; Yao, Damao

    2009-06-01

    The virtual prototyping models of the mechanical, hydraulic and control system of the ITER tractor were built with CATIA, ADAMS and MATLAB/Simulink respectively according to its heavy load and high precision characteristics, and the data transfer between the different models was accomplished by the integration interface between different software. Consequently the virtual experimental platform for the multi-disciplinary co-simulation was established. A co-simulation study of the mechanical-hydraulic-control coupling system of the ITER tractor was carried out. The synchronization servo control of parallel hydraulic cylinders was implemented, and the tracking control of the preconcerted trajectory of the hydraulic cylinders was realized on the established experimental platform. This paper presents the optimization design and technology rebuilding for the complicated coupling system with its theoretic foundation and co-simulation virtual experimental platform.

  1. Heat-treatment by using induction heating on the Minsk Tractor Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmovich, L.S.; Baranov, V.S.; Koshelenkov, K.N.; Fel'dman, L.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    The Minsk Tractor Plant uses a technique for hardening preceded by induction heating for more than 50% of its heat-treated parts made from 45, 40Kh, 38KhGs, and 33KhS steels. The majority of parts undergo heat-treatment on the machining lines. This method made it possible to develop and put into service an automatic device for strainless hardening of strips in the forced conditions. Improving and introducing this new technological process, equipment, and fittings for heat treatment by induction heating was found to increase the life of the tractor parts, reduce labor costs for their manufacture as well as increase savings in electricity and rolled materials.

  2. Tractor tire aspect ratio effects on soil bulk density and cone index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 580/70R38 tractor drive tire with an aspect ratio of 0.756 and a 650/75R32 tire with an aspect ratio of 0.804 were operated at two dynamic loads and two inflation pressures on a sandy loam and a clay loam with loose soil above a hardpan. Soil bulk density and cone index were measured just above t...

  3. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  4. Realistic Autofarming Closed-Loop Tractor Control over Irregular Paths Using Kinematic GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Thomas; O'Connor, Michael; Jones, V. K.; Rekow, Andrew; Elkaim, Gabriel; Parkinson, Bradford

    1998-09-01

    High-precision 'autofarming' makes possible farming techniques previously impractical using metre-level Differential GPS-based control systems: techniques such as tape irrigation, the elimination of guess rows, and precise contour farming. A Carrier-Phase Differential gps positioning and attitude system with centimetre-level and 0·1° accuracy was installed in a large farm tractor. Four types of trajectories (lines, arcs, spirals, and curves) were identified as basic building blocks necessary to generate a 'global' trajectory for a realistic autofarming path. Information about each trajectory type was translated into reference state specifications that a linear controller used to control the tractor over velocities between 0·7 and 2·8 m/s to within approximately 6 cm (1 σ) without implement and 10 cm (1 σ) with implement on sloped terrain using a previously developed tractor model. These results are a significant step towards a realistic autofarming system because they not only demonstrate accurate control over various realistic operating speeds but over different types of trajectories necessary for a commercial system.

  5. Gravity, two times, tractors, Weyl invariance, and six-dimensional quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bonezzi, R.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2010-09-15

    Fefferman and Graham showed some time ago that four-dimensional conformal geometries could be analyzed in terms of six-dimensional, ambient, Riemannian geometries admitting a closed homothety. Recently, it was shown how conformal geometry provides a description of physics manifestly invariant under local choices of unit systems. Strikingly, Einstein's equations are then equivalent to the existence of a parallel scale tractor (a six-component vector subject to a certain first order covariant constancy condition at every point in four-dimensional spacetime). These results suggest a six-dimensional description of four-dimensional physics, a viewpoint promulgated by the 2 times physics program of Bars. The Fefferman-Graham construction relies on a triplet of operators corresponding, respectively, to a curved six-dimensional light cone, the dilation generator and the Laplacian. These form an sp(2) algebra which Bars employs as a first class algebra of constraints in a six-dimensional gauge theory. In this article four-dimensional gravity is recast in terms of six-dimensional quantum mechanics by melding the 2 times and tractor approaches. This parent formulation of gravity is built from an infinite set of six-dimensional fields. Successively integrating out these fields yields various novel descriptions of gravity including a new four-dimensional one built from a scalar doublet, a tractor-vector multiplet and a conformal class of metrics.

  6. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  7. Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

  8. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  10. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  11. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  12. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  13. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  14. Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B.; Blower, D.F.

    1994-04-01

    Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

  15. Pathologic features of farm and tractor-related fatalities in children.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Gilbert, J; James, R; Lipsett, J

    1999-03-01

    A study of 15 childhood fatalities due to farm or tractor-related accidents demonstrated extensive injuries typified by crushing, evisceration, and amputation of limbs. Although these injuries are characteristic of industrial accidents in adults, such accidents do not commonly occur in children. However, the unique circumstance of the farm, which incorporates home and industrial environments, results in particularly severe patterns of injuries in accidental childhood deaths. A knowledge of the range of machines that are used and the environment of the farm facilitates assessment of the types of injuries that may be found at autopsy in cases of pediatric farm accident. PMID:10208343

  16. Impact of Automation on Drivers' Performance in Agricultural Semi-Autonomous Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, B; Mann, D D

    2015-04-01

    Drivers' inadequate mental workload has been reported as one of the negative effects of driving assistant systems and in-vehicle automation. The increasing trend of automation in agricultural vehicles raises some concerns about drivers' mental workload in such vehicles. Thus, a human factors perspective is needed to identify the consequences of such automated systems. In this simulator study, the effects of vehicle steering task automation (VSTA) and implement control and monitoring task automation (ICMTA) were investigated using a tractor-air seeder system as a case study. Two performance parameters (reaction time and accuracy of actions) were measured to assess drivers' perceived mental workload. Experiments were conducted using the tractor driving simulator (TDS) located in the Agricultural Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba. Study participants were university students with tractor driving experience. According to the results, reaction time and number of errors made by drivers both decreased as the automation level increased. Correlations were found among performance parameters and subjective mental workload reported by the drivers. PMID:26204788

  17. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  18. Towards Autonomous Agriculture: Automatic Ground Detection Using Trinocular Stereovision

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Giulio; Milella, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a challenging problem, particularly when the domain is unstructured, as in an outdoor agricultural setting. Thus, advanced perception systems are primarily required to sense and understand the surrounding environment recognizing artificial and natural structures, topology, vegetation and paths. In this paper, a self-learning framework is proposed to automatically train a ground classifier for scene interpretation and autonomous navigation based on multi-baseline stereovision. The use of rich 3D data is emphasized where the sensor output includes range and color information of the surrounding environment. Two distinct classifiers are presented, one based on geometric data that can detect the broad class of ground and one based on color data that can further segment ground into subclasses. The geometry-based classifier features two main stages: an adaptive training stage and a classification stage. During the training stage, the system automatically learns to associate geometric appearance of 3D stereo-generated data with class labels. Then, it makes predictions based on past observations. It serves as well to provide training labels to the color-based classifier. Once trained, the color-based classifier is able to recognize similar terrain classes in stereo imagery. The system is continuously updated online using the latest stereo readings, thus making it feasible for long range and long duration navigation, over changing environments. Experimental results, obtained with a tractor test platform operating in a rural environment, are presented to validate this approach, showing an average classification precision and recall of 91.0% and 77.3%, respectively.

  19. Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.

  20. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  1. Acoustic control in a tractor cabin using two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driesch, Patricia L.; Koopmann, Gary H.

    2003-10-01

    A virtual design methodology is developed to minimize the noise in enclosures with optimally designed, passive, 20 acoustic absorbers (Helmholtz resonators). A series expansion of eigenfunctions is used to represent the acoustic=20 absorbers as external volume velocities, eliminating the need for a solution of large matrix eigenvalue problems. A determination of this type (efficient model/reevaluation approach) significantly increases the design possibilities when optimization techniques are implemented. As a full-scale demonstration, the acoustic response from 90-190 Hz of a tractor cabin was investigated. The lowest cabin mode proposes a significant challenge to a noise control engineer since its anti-node is located near the head of the operator and often generates unacceptable sound-pressure levels. Exploiting the low-frequency capability of Helmholtz resonators, lumped parameter models of these resonators were coupled to the enclosure via an experimentally determined acoustic model of the tractor cabin. The virtual design methodology uses gradient optimization techniques as a post-processor for the modeling and analysis of the unmodified acoustic interior to determine optimal resonator characteristics. Using two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators, potential energy was experimentally reduced by 3.4 and 10.3 dB at 117 and 167 Hz, respectively.

  2. Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder

  3. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  4. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  6. Tractor_DB (version 2.0): a database of regulatory interactions in gamma-proteobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Abel González; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2007-01-01

    The version 2.0 of Tractor_DB is now accessible at its three international mirrors: www.bioinfo.cu/Tractor_DB, www.tractor.lncc.br and http://www.ccg.unam.mx/tractorDB. This database contains a collection of computationally predicted Transcription Factors' binding sites in gamma-proteobacterial genomes. These data should aid researchers in the design of microarray experiments and the interpretation of their results. They should also facilitate studies of Comparative Genomics of the regulatory networks of this group of organisms. In this paper we describe the main improvements incorporated to the database in the past year and a half which include incorporating information on the regulatory networks of 13-increasing to 30-new gamma-proteobacteria and developing a new computational strategy to complement the putative sites identified by the original weight matrix-based approach. We have also added dynamically generated navigation tabs to the navigation interfaces. Moreover, we developed a new interface that allows users to directly retrieve information on the conservation of regulatory interactions in the 30 genomes included in the database by navigating a map that represents a core of the known Escherichia coli regulatory network. PMID:17088283

  7. Influence of Agricultural Developments on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in the Semi-arid Region of India: A Study using GloPEM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholkar, M. D.; Goroshi, S.; Singh, R. P.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to assess the effect of agricultural developments on inter-annual variations in the agricultural Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of selected districts of the semi-arid region of India by using GloPEM model. Advancements in farming practices have been contributing to the increase of net primary productivity, which ultimately leads to increase in the agricultural production. The study shows that increase in the gross irrigated area, fertilizer consumption, use of high yielding crop varieties and adoption of agricultural mechanization in terms of tractors and irrigation pumps have contributed significantly in the increase in agricultural NPP in the semi-arid region of India. The agricultural NPP of the semi-arid region of India has shown a very good correlation with the gross irrigated area (R2 = 0.668) and fertilizer use (R2 = 0.701). The anthropogenic factors influencing the agricultural NPP were grouped in 3 major Factor Components (FC) (eigenvalues > 1) as: FC1-nutrients application, FC2-irrigation potential and agricultural mechanization (irrigation pumps and tractors) and irrigated area while FC3-cultivated area and area under high yielding crop varieties. The study showed that most of the semi-arid region of India has a good agricultural production potential which needs to harness by increasing the supply of irrigation water, promoting agricultural mechanization and adoption of integrated nutrient management approach.

  8. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The provisions of 29 CFR 1926.1001 for rubber-tired dozers and rubber-tired loaders may be used... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR... protection provided in 29 CFR 1926.604, or the type of protection provided by this section. (b)...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The provisions of 29 CFR 1926.1001 for rubber-tired dozers and rubber-tired loaders may be used... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR... protection provided in 29 CFR 1926.604, or the type of protection provided by this section. (b)...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The provisions of 29 CFR 1926.1001 for rubber-tired dozers and rubber-tired loaders may be used... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR... protection provided in 29 CFR 1926.604, or the type of protection provided by this section. (b)...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The provisions of 29 CFR 1926.1001 for rubber-tired dozers and rubber-tired loaders may be used... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR... protection provided in 29 CFR 1926.604, or the type of protection provided by this section. (b)...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The provisions of 29 CFR 1926.1001 for rubber-tired dozers and rubber-tired loaders may be used... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR... protection provided in 29 CFR 1926.604, or the type of protection provided by this section. (b)...

  14. Evaluation of a microwave and infrared human-presence sensing system for agricultural equipment.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Gilbert, W; Chaplin, J

    2001-11-01

    The potential use of electronic safety sensors to protect operators from agricultural equipment with rotating hazards has been identified and discussed as a possible means to prevent traumatic entanglement injury. A multi-sensor human-presence sensing system to protect persons approaching a rotating PTO shaft powering a stationary implement was developed using commercially available, passive infrared and microwave sensors. A control and data acquisition system was designed and constructed to evaluate sensor performance and response. The sensor system performed well during 822 warm weather test passes in which a person approached the potentially hazardous area near the drawbar and PTO/IID located between an IH 986 test tractor and a self-unloading forage wagon. During the 822 test passes, there were no false alarms and no misses. Operators approached the hazard space walking from 92 to 227 cm/second. During tests, the sensing system yielded warning times generally between 0.5 and 1.0 seconds, providing an estimate of the time available to accomplish machine shutdown or operator warnings. Additional cold weather tests caused the control and data acquisition hardware to function erratically. This work suggests that multi-sensor human detection systems have the potential to reduce false alarms through redundancy when more than one sensor is required to detect a person before the system signals a "detect" condition. However, the use of multiple, redundant sensors also increases the potential for a "miss." Further work is needed to determine whether these types of sensor can yield timely enough information to prevent injury via mechanical shutdown or operator warnings. PMID:11787754

  15. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  16. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  18. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... food group(s)).â 205.670 Section 205.670 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... ingredients or food group(s)).” (a) All agricultural products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))”...

  19. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... food group(s)).â 205.670 Section 205.670 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... ingredients or food group(s)).” (a) All agricultural products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))”...

  20. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  1. Impacts of tug and debris sizes on electrostatic tractor charging performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    Active debris removal techniques enable relocating noncooperative geosynchronous (GEO) debris objects into graveyard orbits. One proposed method is the electrostatic tractor concept. Here a tug vehicle approaches a target debris object and emits an electron beam onto the debris. The charging that results yields an attractive electrostatic force that is used to tow the debris object into a new orbit. In this study, the impacts of relative sizing between tug and debris on the efficacy of this charge transfer process are considered. By applying a charging model and incorporating nominal, quiet GEO space weather conditions, limitations on the size ratio that preclude charge transfer are identified for different levels of beam energy. The resulting electrostatic forces and impacts on reorbiting performance are studied. The results indicate that a larger tug vehicle will enable the tugging of a broader range of debris sizes, and that the tug size should be roughly as large as the expected debris size.

  2. Acoustical pulling force on rigid spheroids in single Bessel vortex tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-11-01

    The theoretical formalism for acoustical Bessel vortex (helicoidal) tractor beams and results presented here are the first to demonstrate the emergence of a pulling force of attraction on non-spherical oblate and prolate rigid spheroidal particles centered on the beam's axis of wave propagation. Numerical predictions for the axial acoustic radiation force illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio of the spheroid, the half-cone angle and order of the beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter. It is demonstrated here that the Bessel vortex beam parameters may be tailored in such a way that the spheroid is pulled against the forward linear momentum density flux associated with the incoming waves. Those results potentially suggest the use of Bessel vortex beams in the development of emergent technologies for non-contact remote sampling and particle characterization.

  3. Aerodynamic drag reduction apparatus for gap-divided bluff bodies such as tractor-trailers

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2006-07-11

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff-bodied vehicle such as a tractor-trailer in a flowstream, the bluff-bodied vehicle of a type having a leading portion, a trailing portion connected to the leading portion, and a gap between the leading and trailing portions defining a recirculation zone. The apparatus is preferably a baffle assembly, such as a vertical panel, adapted to span a width of the gap between the leading and trailing portions so as to impede cross-flow through the gap, with the span of the baffle assembly automatically adjusting for variations in the gap width when the leading and trailing portions pivot relative to each other.

  4. On the optimum ride control of a stochastic model of a tractor-semitrailer vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElMadany, M. M.; Samaha, M. E.

    1992-07-01

    A systematic approach based on stochastic optimal control and estimation theories for the optimal design of active suspension systems for a tractor-semitrailer vehicle is presented. The vehicle-road system dynamics combined with the human perception of random vibrations are cast in the standard linear quadratic Gaussian format. The time delays of the stochastic excitation process of the multi-axled vehicle are represented by a first order Padé approximation. The optimal controller/observer is derived which minimizes the mean-squared values of performance variables reflecting the human comfort, cargo safety, suspension working space, roadholding ability and control forces. The advantages of optimally controlled suspension systems over their passive counterparts are indicated.

  5. Computational Flow Modeling of a Simplified Integrated Tractor-Trailer Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; McWherter-Payne, M

    2003-09-15

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been part of a consortium funded by the Department of Energy to improve fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles such as Class 8 trucks through aerodynamic drag reduction. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict the flow field around heavy vehicles, with special emphasis on the base region of the trailer, and to compute the aerodynamic forces. In particular, Sandia's computational fluid dynamics code, SACCARA, was used to simulate the flow on a simplified model of a tractor-trailer vehicle. The results are presented and compared with NASA Ames experimental data to assess the predictive capability of RANS to model the flow field and predict the aerodynamic forces.

  6. Computational flow modeling of a simplified integrated tractor-trailer geometry.

    SciTech Connect

    McWherter-Payne, Mary Anna; Salari, Kambiz

    2003-09-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been part of a consortium funded by the Department of Energy to improve fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles such as Class 8 trucks through aerodynamic drag reduction. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict the flow field around heavy vehicles, with special emphasis on the base region of the trailer, and to compute the aerodynamic forces. In particular, Sandia's computational fluid dynamics code, SACCARA, was used to simulate the flow on a simplified model of a tractor-trailer vehicle. The results are presented and compared with NASA Ames experimental data to assess the predictive capability of RANS to model the flow field and predict the aerodynamic forces.

  7. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 7. Science Applications, Incorporated field test facility preliminary design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report contains the preliminary design of an SCEAS Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The ETF is a 3600 m/sup 2/ fluid roof greenhouse with an inflated plastic film roof to maintain a clean environment for the fluid roof and to protect the inner glazing from hail and other small missiles. The objective of the design was the faithful scaling of the commercial facility to ensure that the ETF results could be extrapolated to a commercial facility of any size. Therefore, all major features, including the photovoltaic power system, an integral water desalination system and even the basic structural module have been retained. The design is described in substantial detail in the body of this report, with appendices giving the drawings and specifications.

  8. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.; McKenzie, E. A.; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Wyckoff, Sherry; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS “cost too much” was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were “ROPS wasn’t available” for Virginia (80%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were “not enough time to find ROPS” for New York (67%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for Virginia

  9. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; McKenzie, E A; Cantis, D; May, J; Sorensen, J; Bayes, B; Madden, E; Wyckoff, S; Stone, B; Maass, J

    2015-07-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS. demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS "cost too much" was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were "ROPS wasn't available" for Virginia (80%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were "not enough time to find ROPS" for New York (67%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for Virginia (79%). All

  10. Field test of a generic method for halogenated hydrocarbons: Semivost test at an agricultural chemical manufacturing facility (May 1997). Final report, June 1994-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bursey, J.T.; McGaughey, J.F.; Merrill, R.G.

    1997-05-01

    A field evaluation study was conducted for the halogenated semivolatile organic compounds listed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that may be sampled and analyzed by the SemiVOST method. Dynamic spiking techniques were applied in the field, using a sampling strategy statistically designed to meet the requirements of EPA Method 301 for method evaluation. The second field test provided insufficient valid SemiVOST data to allow thorough statistical evaluation of the results because of problems encountered in the preparation of the samples for analysis. A protocol to address SemiVOST sample preparation was written (Draft Method 3542) and this new sample preparation protocol was applied to this field evaluation to improve compound recovery and precision.

  11. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  12. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  13. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  14. Calibration and algorithm development for estimation of nitrogen in wheat crop using tractor mounted N-sensor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjeet; Kumar, Rajneesh; Sharma, Ankit; Singh, Bhupinder; Thind, S K

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was planned to investigate the tractor mounted N-sensor (Make Yara International) to predict nitrogen (N) for wheat crop under different nitrogen levels. It was observed that, for tractor mounted N-sensor, spectrometers can scan about 32% of total area of crop under consideration. An algorithm was developed using a linear relationship between sensor sufficiency index (SIsensor) and SISPAD to calculate the N app as a function of SISPAD. There was a strong correlation among sensor attributes (sensor value, sensor biomass, and sensor NDVI) and different N-levels. It was concluded that tillering stage is most prominent stage to predict crop yield as compared to the other stages by using sensor attributes. The algorithms developed for tillering and booting stages are useful for the prediction of N-application rates for wheat crop. N-application rates predicted by algorithm developed and sensor value were almost the same for plots with different levels of N applied. PMID:25811039

  15. Calibration and Algorithm Development for Estimation of Nitrogen in Wheat Crop Using Tractor Mounted N-Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjeet; Kumar, Rajneesh; Sharma, Ankit; Singh, Bhupinder; Thind, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was planned to investigate the tractor mounted N-sensor (Make Yara International) to predict nitrogen (N) for wheat crop under different nitrogen levels. It was observed that, for tractor mounted N-sensor, spectrometers can scan about 32% of total area of crop under consideration. An algorithm was developed using a linear relationship between sensor sufficiency index (SIsensor) and SISPAD to calculate the Napp as a function of SISPAD. There was a strong correlation among sensor attributes (sensor value, sensor biomass, and sensor NDVI) and different N-levels. It was concluded that tillering stage is most prominent stage to predict crop yield as compared to the other stages by using sensor attributes. The algorithms developed for tillering and booting stages are useful for the prediction of N-application rates for wheat crop. N-application rates predicted by algorithm developed and sensor value were almost the same for plots with different levels of N applied. PMID:25811039

  16. [Physiological-hygienic aspects of the work of tractor drivers engaged in open-soil vegetable planting].

    PubMed

    Bochkareva, A I; Akhundova, L Kh; Kafizova, F K

    1990-01-01

    The labour conditions of tractor drivers engaged in open soil vegetable planting in subtropical zones were characterized by the unfavourable influence of weather, noise and vibration, dust and exhaust contamination, and by static tension. The physiological studies performed revealed considerable tensions of the CVS, CNS, thermoregulatory and muscle systems in the drivers. The specificity of the identified changes confirmed marked decrease in the functional resources of the organism, which should be taken into account when providing medical services to the drivers. PMID:2096090

  17. Soil structural changes caused by agricultural machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of tractor traffic with high axle load on the aggregate size distribution, the total soil porosity, and the aggregate porosity were studied in a field experiment on a silty clay loam Greyzem soil. One and three tractors passes were made at pre-irrigated and non-irrigated 10x10 m plots. The v...

  18. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  19. An Experimental Curriculum in Vocational Agriculture, Janesville, Wisconsin. New Dimensions in Vocational Agriculture Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, James W.; Becker, William J.

    The purpose of the pilot program was to develop and test a new structure for vocational agriculture and thus meet the needs of a wider range of students. The curriculum was developed around 16 different agricultural subjects offered in alternate years on a semester basis. Agricultural engineering and agricultural survey were offered each semester…

  20. Propulsion Systems Integration for a `Tractor Beam' Mercury Lightcraft: Liftoff Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    2003-05-01

    Described herein is the concept and propulsion systems integration for a revolutionary beam-propelled shuttle called the ``Mercury'' lightcraft - emphasizing the liftoff engine mode. This one-person, ultra-energetic vehicle is designed to ride `tractor beams' into space, transmitted from a future network of satellite solar power stations. The objective is to create a safe, very low cost (e.g., 1000X below chemical rockets) space transportation system for human life, one that is completely `green' and independent of Earth's limited fossil fuel reserves. The lightcraft's airbreathing combined-cycle engine operates in a rotary pulsed detonation mode PDE for lift-offs and landings; at hypersonic speeds it transitions into a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) slipstream accelerator mode. For the latter, the transatmospheric flight path is momentarily transformed into an extremely long, electromagnetic ``mass-driver'' channel with an effective `fuel' specific impulse in the range of 6000 to 16,000 seconds. These future single-stage-to-orbit, highly-reusuable vehicles will ride ``Highways of Light,'' accelerating at 3 Gs into space, with their throttles just barely beyond `idle' power.

  1. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-07-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  2. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-09-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  3. Guidance assistance, autonomous guidance and assisted distance guidance in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gil, Jaime

    The present doctoral thesis analyses the potential of technological advances in electronics, telematics and communications for their application in agriculture. Research has been carried out and some prototypes have been developed in four stages: In a first phase, it has been carried out the analysis and development of guidance assistance devices. It has been carried out the development of a microcontroller based device which has been patented by the author of this thesis and later, has been developed and commercialized by the company GMV Sistemas. In a second phase, it has been developed a module of distance guidance which allows the remote driving of an agricultural tractor. There have been made the mechanical modifications in a tractor and the necessary hardware has been installed in order to allow the remote control of the tractor steering. The laptop receives the guidance instructions by means of wireless communication from the computer installed in the base. In a third phase, there have been developed two autonomous guidance systems, one by means of GPS and the other by means of Computer Vision, using as base the platform developed in the previous phase. It is incorporated a module of path generation from the plot outline. With this trajectory, the tractor is able to do most of the farming work in a plot without the participation of the driver. The last phase has been developed at the same time than the previous ones and it is located in Precision Agriculture. In this phase it has been carried out the performance of a centrifugal spreader of fertilizer and it has been developed an application for the generation in a precise way of fertilizer maps. The carried out studies have produced real developments implanted on the machinery of the author's farm. The development of the work has been carried out on a software platform with modules which are intercommunicated between them, because a large part of the developed applications have a common base of work. This

  4. Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature, magnitude, and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Dubey, A K; Kot, L S

    2002-02-01

    A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites (42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8% were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27 million/year. PMID:12002378

  5. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies. PMID:23395394

  6. A numerical study of scale effects on performance of a tractor type podded propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Kyu; Park, Hyoung-Gil; Kim, Hyoung-Tae

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the scale effect on the performance of the podded propeller of tractor type is investigated. Turbulent flow computations are carried out for Reynolds numbers increasing progressively from model scale to full scale using the CFD analysis. The result of the flow calculation for model scale Reynolds numbers agrees well with that of the experiment of a large cavitation tunnel. The existing numerical analysis indicates that the performance of the podded propeller blades is mainly influenced by the advance coefficient and relatively little by the Reynolds number. However, the drag of pod housing with propeller in operation is different from that of pod housing without propeller due to the acceleration and swirl of propeller slipstream which is altered by propeller loading as well as the pressure recovery and friction according to Reynolds number, which suggests that the pod housing drag under the condition of propeller in operation is the key factor of the scale effect on the performance between model and full scale podded propellers. The so called `drag ratio', which is the ratio of pod housing drag to total thrust of podded propeller, increases as the advance coefficient increases due to accelerated flow in the slipstream of the podded propeller. However, the increasing rate of the drag ratio reduces continuously as the Reynolds number increases from model to full scale progressively. The contribution of hydrodynamic forces, which acts on the parts composed of the pod housing with propeller operating in various loading conditions, to the thrust and the torque of the total propeller unit are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers from model to full scales.

  7. Whole-body vibration and health effects in the agricultural machinery drivers.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Maeda, S; Inaoka, T; Nagano, M; Shono, M; Miyakita, T

    1998-04-01

    Recently farm mechanization has been widespread and developing rapidly, in particular riding farm machines are increasingly used in paddy fields in Japan. We have no information available on the actual situation regarding whole-body vibration on the seats of these farm machines from the standpoint of labour protection. Measurement and evaluation of whole-body vibration was performed on the seats of popular riding agricultural machineries. Whole-body vibration on the seats of combine harvesters and wheel tractors exceeded exposure limits and the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary limit of 8 hr and also shortened the reduced comfort boundary limits of ISO 2631 (1985). Some combines, tractors and carieers had only less than one hour exposure duration as compared with the ISO 2631-1 standard (1997). On the other hand a questionnaire was also performed on the subject of agricultural machine operators. Any specific injury or other effects, i.e. low back injuries were not found among the group of operators as compared with those in non-operator farmers. It seems to be difficult to find out the health effects of whole-body vibration itself, because there may be a lot of causes, i.e. working posture, operating heavy materials, in farm working conditions. PMID:9583309

  8. Mapping wide row crops with video sequences acquired from a tractor moving at treatment speed.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Costa, Nadir; Ribeiro, Angela; Burgos-Artizzu, Xavier P; Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mapping method for wide row crop fields. The resulting map shows the crop rows and weeds present in the inter-row spacing. Because field videos are acquired with a camera mounted on top of an agricultural vehicle, a method for image sequence stabilization was needed and consequently designed and developed. The proposed stabilization method uses the centers of some crop rows in the image sequence as features to be tracked, which compensates for the lateral movement (sway) of the camera and leaves the pitch unchanged. A region of interest is selected using the tracked features, and an inverse perspective technique transforms the selected region into a bird's-eye view that is centered on the image and that enables map generation. The algorithm developed has been tested on several video sequences of different fields recorded at different times and under different lighting conditions, with good initial results. Indeed, lateral displacements of up to 66% of the inter-row spacing were suppressed through the stabilization process, and crop rows in the resulting maps appear straight. PMID:22164003

  9. Mapping Wide Row Crops with Video Sequences Acquired from a Tractor Moving at Treatment Speed

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Costa, Nadir; Ribeiro, Angela; Burgos-Artizzu, Xavier P.; Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mapping method for wide row crop fields. The resulting map shows the crop rows and weeds present in the inter-row spacing. Because field videos are acquired with a camera mounted on top of an agricultural vehicle, a method for image sequence stabilization was needed and consequently designed and developed. The proposed stabilization method uses the centers of some crop rows in the image sequence as features to be tracked, which compensates for the lateral movement (sway) of the camera and leaves the pitch unchanged. A region of interest is selected using the tracked features, and an inverse perspective technique transforms the selected region into a bird’s-eye view that is centered on the image and that enables map generation. The algorithm developed has been tested on several video sequences of different fields recorded at different times and under different lighting conditions, with good initial results. Indeed, lateral displacements of up to 66% of the inter-row spacing were suppressed through the stabilization process, and crop rows in the resulting maps appear straight. PMID:22164003

  10. Use of sorption and extraction tests to predict the dynamics of the interaction of trace elements in agricultural soils contaminated by a mine tailing accident.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Hernández, E; Rodríguez, R; Alcobé, X; Vidal, M; Rauret, G

    2004-08-15

    Over 2000 ha of agricultural soils were contaminated by a pyritic sludge and acidic waste waters coming from a spill from a mining exploitation. The affected soils were acidic with sandy-loam texture (SL), loamy with neutral pH (L), and calcareous, saline, with clay texture (Cs). The Cs soils were contaminated only with acidic waste waters. Sorption and extraction tests were applied to examine the medium-term dynamics of the interaction of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the soils. The solid-soil solution distribution coefficient (KD) was determined in soil samples taken 3 months (initial stage, 3M samples) and then nearly 2 years (final stage, 21M samples) after the accident. Distribution coefficient values ranged from the lowest values in the SL samples (from 0.2 l kg(-1) for Cd and Zn to 25 l kg(-1) for As) to higher values in the L and Cs soils. Lead and As had the highest KD in all soils (over 10(5) l kg(-1) in the L soils). No clear dynamics pattern could be derived from these data because of the low heavy metal concentrations in the soil solution. As a complementary approach, four single extractions (0.01 and 1 mol l(-1) CaCl2; 0.05 mol l(-1) EDTA; 0.43 mol l(-1) CH3COOH) were applied to soil and sludge samples. Samples derived from submitting field 3M samples to drying-wetting (DW) cycles were included to define a complete laboratory approach to predict field dynamics. Results from extraction tests indicated that changes of the trace element interaction over time depended on the soil pH and on the source of contamination. For those soils affected only by the acidic waste waters, where an increase in fixation occurred, natural processes such as diffusion controlled dynamics. For those soils contaminated by a mixed source, the dynamics of the interaction was the resultant process of the combination of the natural attenuation and the oxidation of the pyritic sludge. This latter process led to an increase in the remobilization for those elements

  11. Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Robert A.

    This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

  12. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  13. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  14. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  15. The transformation of southern agriculture and the migration of blacks and whites, 1930-1940.

    PubMed

    Fligstein, N

    1983-01-01

    The causes of the migration of both blacks and whites from the U.S. South between 1930 and 1940 are examined. The author challenges the hypothesis that the root cause of this migration was the mechanization of agriculture and suggests that the primary cause was the crisis in cotton farming that occurred during the depression of the 1930s. "Large farm owners secured aid from the federal government in the form of agricultural subsidy payments. In response to this program, they reduced their cotton acreage, bought tractors, and displaced their tenants. This transformation drastically reduced the need for tenant labor and brought about the large-scale migrations. Regression analyses of relevant data confirm this interpretation." PMID:12339133

  16. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  17. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870-2000.

    PubMed

    Parton, William J; Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily R; Hartman, Melannie D; Adler, Paul R; McNeal, Frederick M; Lutz, Susan M

    2015-08-25

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices. PMID:26240366

  18. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000

    PubMed Central

    Parton, William J.; Gutmann, Myron P.; Merchant, Emily R.; Hartman, Melannie D.; Adler, Paul R.; McNeal, Frederick M.; Lutz, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices. PMID:26240366

  19. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health. PMID:26981119

  20. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  1. Collaboration between nurses and agricultural teachers to prevent adolescent agricultural injuries: the Agricultural Disability Awareness and Risk Education Model.

    PubMed

    Reed, Deborah B; Kidd, Pamela S

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 2 million children live or work on America's farms and ranches. Despite the increasing mechanization of production agriculture in the United States, children still constitute a considerable portion of the work force on farms and ranches. When adjusted for actual work exposure time, adolescent injury rates on agricultural establishments surpass those of adults (Castillo, D. N., Landen, D. D., & Layne, L. A. (1994). American Journal of Public Health, 84, 646-649). This project, headed by two public health nurses, developed and tested an agricultural safety curriculum [Agricultural Disability Awareness and Risk Education (AgDARE)] for use in high school agriculture classes. Students who participated in AgDARE scored significantly higher in farm safety attitude and intent to change work behavior than the control group. School and public health nurses, working together with agriculture teachers, may make an effective team in reducing injuries among teen agricultural workers. PMID:15260837

  2. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  3. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  4. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  5. Children's Agricultural Safety Network: Evaluating Organizational Effectiveness and Impacts.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Coalitions that are effectively organized and led are more likely to achieve their intended program outcomes and impacts, as well as achieve sustainability. External evaluation of the coalition's governance and leadership can help identify strengths and areas for improvement. This article describes the evaluation of the Children's Agricultural Safety Network (CASN)-a national coalition, or network of 45 organizational members. The conceptual framework, Internal Coalition Outcomes Hierarchy, guided the evaluation. We used a mixed-methods approach to answer study's primary objectives from the perspective of CASN members and leaders for (a) organizational effectiveness, (b) network impact, and (c) member benefits. We collected quantitative data using a survey and the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE) instrument. Focused interviews were conducted by phone to gather rich data on examples. Combined findings showed that both members and leaders rated the CASN effective in all construct areas that define successful coalitions. Members feel as invested in CASN success as do leaders. The major impact of CASN has been as a national leader and clearinghouse for childhood safety issues, and the most frequently cited example of impact was the national tractor safety campaign. Members identified the benefits of CASN membership as networking, resource sharing, and opportunities to enhance their knowledge, skills, and practices in the area. Members also valued the national attention that CASN was able to bring to the important issues in childhood agricultural safety. Suggestions for improvement were to focus on more research to improve best practices and strengthen dissemination and implementation science. PMID:25906269

  6. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    In the field of precision-farming research, solutions are worked out to combine ecological and economical requirements in a harmonic way. Integrating hightech in agricultural machinery, natural differences in the fields (biodiversity) can be detected and considered to economize agricultural resources and to give respect to natural ecological variability at the same time. Using precision farming resources, machining - and labour time can be economized, productivness can be improved, environmental burden can be discharged and documentation of production processes can be improved. To realize precision farming it is essential to make contemporary large scale data of the biodiversity in the field available. In the last years effectual traktor based equipment for real time precision farming applications was developed. Using remote sensing, biomass diversity of the field can be considered while applicating operating ressources economicly. Because these large scale data aquisition depends on expensive tractor based inspections, capable Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could complement or in special situations even replace such tractor based data aquisition needed for the realization of precision farming strategies. The specific advantages and application slots of UAVs seems to be ideal for the usage in the field of precision farming. For example the size of even large agricultural fields in germany can be managed even by smaller UAVs. Data can be captured spontaneously, promptly, in large scale, with less respect of weather conditions. In agricultural regions UAV flights can be arranged in visual range as actually the legislator requires in germany, especially because the use of autopilotsystems in fact is nessecary to assure regular area-wide data without gaps but not to fly in non-visible regions. Also a minimized risk of hazard is given, flying UAVs over deserted agricultural areas. In a first stage CIS GmbH cooperated with "Institute For Flightsystems" of the University

  7. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  8. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  9. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  10. Importance and location of instruction for sixty-eight energy competencies for Kansas agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    French, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    The two primary objectives of this study were: to identify which energy competencies had improtance to Kansas agriculture and to determine how appropiate each competency was for three levels of instruction: high school, Area Vocational-Technical School or Community College, or four year college. An energy questionnaire, comprised of 68 competencies, was completed by 140 individuals and provided data to meet the studys primary objectives. Thirty-five returns were recieved from each of four groups: Young Farmers/Young Farm Wives, High School Vo-Ag teachers, Postsecondary AVTS-CC Agricultural teachers, and County Extension Directors. Of the 68 energy competencies, 36 were rated very important, 28 important, and 4 as having some important to Kansas agriculture. All competencies in category six, energy saving technology for farm vehicles, tractors, machinery and crop production, were rated very important. Category six was the highest-rated category importance to Kansas ariculture, and category eleven other alternate energy sources and storage systems was rated the least important. Because energy technology was important to Kansas agriculture it was recommended educational curricula and materials be developed based on the 68 competencies in this study, and be made available to agriculture instructors at all teaching levels.

  11. A system of regional agricultural land use mapping tested against small scale Apollo 9 color infrared photography of the Imperial Valley (California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Claude W.; Browden, Leonard W.; Pease, Robert W.

    1969-01-01

    Interpretation results of the small scale ClR photography of the Imperial Valley (California) taken on March 12, 1969 by the Apollo 9 earth orbiting satellite have shown that world wide agricultural land use mapping can be accomplished from satellite ClR imagery if sufficient a priori information is available for the region being mapped. Correlation of results with actual data is encouraging although the accuracy of identification of specific crops from the single image is poor. The poor results can be partly attributed to only one image taken during mid-season when the three major crops were reflecting approximately the same and their ClR image appears to indicate the same crop type. However, some incapacity can be attributed to lack of understanding of the subtle variations of visual and infrared color reflectance of vegetation and surrounding environment. Analysis of integrated color variations of the vegetation and background environment recorded on ClR imagery is discussed. Problems associated with the color variations may be overcome by development of a semi-automatic processing system which considers individual field units or cells. Design criteria for semi-automatic processing system are outlined.

  12. NREL Highlight: Truck Platooning Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-21

    NREL's fleet test and evaluation team assesses the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning of line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics. Platooning reduces aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and safely decreasing the distance between them via electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. In 2014, the team conducted track testing of three SmartWay tractor - two platooned tractors and one control tractor—at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights. While platooning improved fuel economy at all speeds, travel at 55 mph resulted in the best overall miles per gallon. The lead truck demonstrated fuel savings up to 5.3% while the trailing truck saved up to 9.7%. A number of conditions impact the savings attainable, including ambient temperature, distance between lead and trailing truck, and payload weight. Future studies may look at ways to optimize system fuel efficiency and emissions reductions.

  13. Biotechnology Enters Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)

  14. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  15. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  16. Efficient mapping of agricultural soils using a novel electromagnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Pregesbauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    depth. Instead of being towed several metres behind the tractor, as common with traditional EMI systems used in precision farming, the novel device is conveniently mounted on the front hitch of a tractor and operated from a terminal in the driver's cabin. A major improvement compared with existing EMI systems is the system's capability to cope with the induced noise from the tractor, through integration of a mechanical shielding mechanism into the sensor housing. Any remaining vehicle induced high-frequency electromagnetic noise is filtered out on-the-fly by the data acquisition software, logging the data and positioning information on a ruggedized small computer. The main purpose of this system is to permit the land owner or farmer the efficient mapping of the electrical soil conductivity across agricultural fields on the scale of the entire acreage. The main objective of the measurements is to obtain detailed information on the long wavelength variability of soil structure, while eliminating short wavelength variations. The calculation of the depth of the agricultural layer, or topsoil thickness, has been implemented by inverting the cumulative response function for all coil configurations. The resulting inverted models of the soil conductivity display the vertical distribution of agriculturally relevant soil parameters and improve the chances to identify different subsoil features. By providing this information on the shallow subsurface in real-time, while passing across the field, permits the agriculturist to variably adjust for instance tillage depth or to control other agricultural implements and machines based to the derived information, rendering the soil cultivation both ecologically as well as economically more efficient. We present the TSM system as well as derived data examples.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUCK EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGIES IN CLASS 8 TRACTOR-TRAILERS BASED ON A TRACTIVE ENERGY ANALYSIS USING MEASURED DRIVE CYCLE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua S.; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings that can be achieved from different truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet s specific usage allows the fleet to select the combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. This paper presents an analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and an assessment of advanced efficiency technologies using an analysis of measured drive cycle data for a class 8 regional commercial shipping fleet. Drive cycle measurements during a period of a full year from six tractor-trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload (LTL) carrier were analyzed to develop a characteristic drive cycle that is highly representative of the fleet s usage. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. The drive cycle and mass data were analyzed using a tractive energy analysis to quantify the fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions benefits that can be achieved on class 8 tractor-trailers when using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist among class 8 tractor-trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application.

  18. Control of western tarnished plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) in California organic strawberries using alfalfa trap crops and tractor-mounted vacuums.

    PubMed

    Swezey, Sean L; Nieto, Diego J; Bryer, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    A key economic pest of strawberries in California is the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera:Miridae). Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a highly attractive plant host to western tarnished plant bug, and we hypothesized that it can be successfully managed as a trap crop for pest suppression in strawberries. Completely randomized design trap cropping experiments were established on an organic strawberry farm from 2002 to 2004. Western tarnished plant bug adults and nymphs were significantly more abundant in alfalfa trap crops than in comparable edge strawberry rows. Over 3 experimental yr, twice-weekly summer vacuuming of alfalfa trap crops with a tractor-mounted vacuuming device reduced adult and nymph abundance by 72 and 90%, respectively, in trap crops. This summer vacuuming of alfalfa trap crops also significantly reduced damage caused by western tarnished plant bug in associated unvacuumed organic strawberries (June and July 2002, June 2003, and June and July 2004) compared with either an untreated control (2003) or the organic strawberry grower's standard whole field vacuuming treatment. Vacuuming of alfalfa trap crops reduces an organic grower's costs (tractor, tractor fuel, and driver time) by 78% compared with current whole field vacuuming practices. An economic analysis of a whole hectare model indicates that a positive return from the use of vacuumed trap crops could be realized in 2004. The overall potential positive net return for the 3 mo of vacuumed alfalfa trap crop treatments in 2004 was calculated at +$1,829/ha. PMID:18284774

  19. GUIDELINES FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    AREAS OF TRAINING WHICH ARE OFFERED IN THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS OF MARYLAND ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND ADVISORY GROUPS MAY SELECT AREAS OF TRAINING FROM THE TOPICAL OUTLINE OR ADD NEW AREAS AS NEEDED IN THE LOCAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. PHILOSOPHY, SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES, GROUPS SERVED, AGRICULTURAL TRENDS…

  20. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  1. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  2. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  3. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  4. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  5. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  6. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  7. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  8. Injuries to children's hands caused by the engine belts of agricultural machines: classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Terzioglu, Ahmet; Aslan, Gürcan; Ates, Levent

    2004-01-01

    Injuries to children's hands with farm machinery, particularly tractors, are common in rural areas. We present 58 cases of hand injuries in children aged from 3 to 7 (mean 4.5), caused by the engine belts of agricultural vehicles, who were referred from the cities in Central Anatolia. The injury patterns among patients were similar. The injury generally starts from the middle phalanx of the third finger, crosses the proximal phalanx of the fourth finger and ends in the hypothenar region. The patients were categorised into five groups and treatment planned accordingly. The most commonly involved digit was the third finger and the thumb the least. Surgical treatment depended on the severity of the injury and included primary closure of the lacerations, tendon repair, fixation of fractures, grafting, and local flaps. Results of these injuries are generally poor, so prevention is more important. PMID:15513603

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. Jordan

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the impact of the computer upon education and describes specific applications of automation for agricultural education, including drill and practice, testing, simulation, and student records maintenance. (SK)

  10. Use of Dieselized Farm Equipment and Incident Lung Cancer: Findings from the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tual, Séverine; Silverman, Debra T.; Koutros, Stella; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Lebailly, Pierre; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust is a known lung carcinogen. Farmers use a variety of dieselized equipment and thus may be at increased risk of lung cancer, but farm exposures such as endotoxins may also be protective for lung cancer. Objectives: We evaluated the relative risk of incident lung cancer, including histological subtype, from enrollment (1993–1997) to 2010–2011 in relation to farm equipment use in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. Methods: Farm equipment use was reported by 21,273 farmers and 29,840 spouses. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated separately for farmers and spouses with Poisson regression models adjusted for smoking and other confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by exposure to animals or stored grain, a surrogate for endotoxin exposure. Results: Daily diesel tractor use (vs. no use) was positively associated with lung cancer in farmers (RR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.50; 35 exposed, 32 unexposed cases), particularly adenocarcinoma (RR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.23, 9.33; 12 exposed, 7 unexposed cases). The association of adenocarcinoma with daily (vs. low/no) use of diesel tractors was stronger for farmers with no animal or stored grain exposures (RR = 6.23; 95% CI: 2.25, 17.25; 5 exposed, 18 unexposed cases) than among farmers with these exposures (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.51, 2.79; 7 exposed, 27 unexposed cases) (p-interaction = 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of an increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma among daily drivers of diesel tractors and suggests that exposure to endotoxins may modify the impact of diesel exposure on lung cancer risk. Confirmation of these findings with more exposed cases and more detailed exposure information is warranted. Citation: Tual S, Silverman DT, Koutros S, Blair A, Sandler DP, Lebailly P, Andreotti G, Hoppin JA, Beane Freeman LE. 2016. Use of dieselized farm equipment and incident lung

  11. The resisted rise of randomisation in experimental design: British agricultural science, c.1910-1930.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    The most conspicuous form of agricultural experiment is the field trial, and within the history of such trials, the arrival of the randomised control trial (RCT) is considered revolutionary. Originating with R.A. Fisher within British agricultural science in the 1920s and 1930s, the RCT has since become one of the most prodigiously used experimental techniques throughout the natural and social sciences. Philosophers of science have already scrutinised the epistemological uniqueness of RCTs, undermining their status as the 'gold standard' in experimental design. The present paper introduces a historical case study from the origins of the RCT, uncovering the initially cool reception given to this method by agricultural scientists at the University of Cambridge and the (Cambridge based) National Institute of Agricultural Botany. Rather than giving further attention to the RCT, the paper focuses instead on a competitor method-the half-drill strip-which both predated the RCT and remained in wide use for at least a decade beyond the latter's arrival. In telling this history, John Pickstone's Ways of Knowing is adopted, as the most flexible and productive way to write the history of science, particularly when sciences and scientists have to work across a number of different kinds of place. It is shown that those who resisted the RCT did so in order to preserve epistemic and social goals that randomisation would have otherwise run a tractor through. PMID:26205200

  12. The spectrum of emergency care of agricultural trauma in central Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Stueland, D; Zoch, T; Stamas, P; Krieg, G; Boulet, W

    1990-11-01

    Agriculture is among the most dangerous occupations in the United States. When injuries do occur, the emergency department (ED) is the primary source of care. Over a 2-year period, the emergency medicine section of the Marshfield Clinic/St Joseph's Hospital, cared for 913 victims of agricultural trauma. Although 11% were initially admitted and 4% were later treated, the remainder received their care solely in the ED. Unlike most occupational injuries, people of any age may be involved in agricultural injuries; 27% in this series were less than 18 years of age and 5% were 65 years or older. Just over half of all injuries were from mechanical devices, including tractor and farm machinery. The remainder were from animals, falls, or exposure. Although several different types of injuries occurred, the most common diagnoses were soft tissue injuries and fractures and the most common procedure was diagnostic radiography followed by wound and fracture care. An ED in a rural setting should be prepared to deal with agricultural trauma. PMID:2222598

  13. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... the federal requirements with the same test vehicle in the course of the same test. See, e.g., 43 FR... Regulation; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Public Comment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of opportunity for public hearing and comment....

  14. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  15. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  16. Crew escape system test at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of a crew escape system (CES) test program, a lifelike dummy is pulled by a tractor rocket from an airborne Convair-240 (C-240) aircraft at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. A P-3 chase plane accompanies the C-240. The C-240 was modified with a space shuttle side hatch mockup for the tests which will evaluate candidate concepts developed to provide crew egress capability during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight.

  17. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  18. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  19. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    FORMS ARE PROVIDED FOR RECORDING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SUPERVISED FARM PROGRAM ENTERPRISES BY INDIVIDUAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS. THE BOOK IS DESIGNED ON AN ENTERPRISE BASIS AND PROVIDES SPACE FOR AGREEMENTS, INVENTORIES, EXPENSES, INCOME, SUMMARIES, AND ANALYSES. ASSISTANCE FOR TEACHERS USING THIS RECORD BOOK IS AVAILABLE IN "GUIDE…

  20. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  1. Precision robotic control of agricultural vehicles on realistic farm trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Thomas

    High-precision "autofarming", or precise agricultural vehicle guidance, is rapidly becoming a reality thanks to increasing computing power and carrier-phase differential GPS ("CPDGPS") position and attitude sensors. Realistic farm trajectories will include not only rows but also arcs created by smoothly joining rows or path-planning algorithms, spirals for farming center-pivot irrigated fields, and curved trajectories dictated by nonlinear field boundaries. In addition, fields are often sloped, and accurate control may be required either on linear trajectories or on curved contours. A three-dimensional vehicle model which adapts to changing vehicle and ground conditions was created, and a low-order model for controller synthesis was extracted based on nominal conditions. The model was extended to include a towed implement. Experimentation showed that an extended Kalman filter could identify the vehicle's state in real-time. An approximation was derived for the additional positional uncertainty introduced by the noisy "lever-arm correction" necessary to translate the GPS position measurement at the roof antenna to the vehicle's control point on the ground; this approximation was then used to support the assertion that attitude measurement accuracy was as important to control point position measurement as the original position measurement accuracy at the GPS antenna. The low-order vehicle control model was transformed to polar coordinates for control on arcs and spirals. Experimental data showed that the tractor's control, point tracked an arc to within a -0.3 cm mean and a 3.4 cm standard deviation and a spiral to within a -0.2 cm mean and a 5.3 cm standard deviation. Cubic splines were used to describe curve trajectories, and a general expression for the time-rate-of-change of curve-related parameters was derived. Four vehicle control algorithms were derived for curve tracking: linear local-error control based on linearizing the vehicle about the curve's radius of

  2. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study is a large cohort of 90,000 licensed pesticide applicators, plus 30,000 spouses and 20,000 children who are exposed either directly or indirectly. Exposure to pesticides is widespread and is important beyond the agricultural community. Other exposure...

  3. Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, Deborah A.

    Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

  4. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  5. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  6. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  7. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  8. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  9. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  10. Ecological Models: Agricultural Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural research community is faced with a wide array of complex problems to solve. Continued population increases in developing countries require increased agricultural production, while agroecosystems are being stressed and negatively impacted by greater use of water and agrochemicals. F...

  11. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  12. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  13. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Activity; CNH America, LLC, Subzone 41I (Tractors and Tractor/Combine Components), Racine, WI The Port of... are used for the production of tractors and tractor/combine components. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b)4...; differential axles; transmissions for combines and agricultural tractors; track-laying agricultural...

  14. Development of a Short-Duration Drive Cycle to Represent Long-Term Measured Drive Cycle Data: Evaluation of Truck Efficiency Technologies in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings and emissions reductions that can be achieved from truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet's specific usage allows the fleet to select a combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. An accurate characterization of usage for the fleet is critical for such an evaluation; however, short-term measured drive cycle data do not generally reflect overall usage very effectively. This study presents a detailed analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and demonstrates the development of a short-duration synthetic drive cycle with measured drive cycle data collected over an extended period of time. The approach matched statistical measures of the vehicle speed with acceleration history and integrated measured grade data to develop a compressed drive cycle that accurately represents total usage. Drive cycle measurements obtained during a full year from six tractor trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload carrier were analyzed to develop a synthetic drive cycle. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. These drive cycle and mass data were analyzed with a tractive energy analysis to quantify the benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions that can be achieved on Class 8 tractor trailers by using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist between Class 8 tractor trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application. Finally, the methodology employed for generating the synthetic drive cycle serves as a rigorous approach to develop an accurate usage characterization that can be used to effectively compress large quantities of drive cycle data.

  15. Development of a Short-Duration Drive Cycle to Represent Long-Term Measured Drive Cycle Data: Evaluation of Truck Efficiency Technologies in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    LaClair, Tim; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings and emissions reductions that can be achieved from truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet's specific usage allows the fleet to select a combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. An accurate characterization of usage for the fleet is critical for such an evaluation; however, short-term measured drive cycle data do not generally reflect overall usage very effectively. This study presents a detailed analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and demonstrates the development of a short-duration synthetic drive cycle with measured drive cycle data collected over an extendedmore » period of time. The approach matched statistical measures of the vehicle speed with acceleration history and integrated measured grade data to develop a compressed drive cycle that accurately represents total usage. Drive cycle measurements obtained during a full year from six tractor trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload carrier were analyzed to develop a synthetic drive cycle. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. These drive cycle and mass data were analyzed with a tractive energy analysis to quantify the benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions that can be achieved on Class 8 tractor trailers by using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist between Class 8 tractor trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application. Finally, the methodology employed for generating the synthetic drive cycle serves as a rigorous approach to develop an accurate usage characterization that can be used to effectively compress large quantities of drive cycle data.« less

  16. An Analysis of Once-per-revolution Oscillating Aerodynamic Thrust Loads on Single-Rotation Propellers on Tractor Airplanes at Zero Yaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Vernon L; Yaggy, Paul F; Mccloud, John L , III

    1956-01-01

    A simplified procedure is shown for calculating the once-per-revolution oscillating aerodynamic thrust loads on propellers of tractor airplanes at zero yaw. The only flow field information required for the application of the procedure is a knowledge of the upflow angles at the horizontal center line of the propeller disk. Methods are presented whereby these angles may be computed without recourse to experimental survey of the flow field. The loads computed by the simplified procedure are compared with those computed by a more rigorous method and the procedure is applied to several airplane configurations which are believed typical of current designs. The results are generally satisfactory.

  17. Prediction of the effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes with flaps retracted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Joseph; Sleeman, William C , Jr

    1949-01-01

    The effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes are analyzed, and a simple method is presented for computing power-on pitching-moment curves for flap-retracted flight conditions. The methods evolved are based on the results of powered-model wind-tunnel investigations of 28 model configurations. Correlation curves are presented from which the effects of power on the downwash over the tail and the stabilizer effectiveness can be rapidly predicted. The procedures developed enable prediction of power-on longitudinal stability characteristics that are generally in very good agreement with experiment.

  18. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  19. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  20. Agricultural lung disease.

    PubMed

    Spurzem, John R; Romberger, Debra J; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2002-12-01

    Agricultural work is associated with high rates of injury, disability, and illness. Agricultural workers are at increased risk for a variety of illnesses including respiratory disorders, dermatologic conditions, and cancer. The recognition of ODTS led to increased understanding of acute illness in farmers and grain workers. Previously, many cases of acute illness were probably erroneously called farmer's lung. The same agents that are responsible for ODTS are responsible for the high prevalence of bronchitis in certain agricultural workers. The recent description of the innate immune system is very exciting because it will lead to increased understanding of the pathogenesis of organic dust induced disorders. PMID:12512166

  1. Agriculture Students' Computer Skills and Electronic Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2000-01-01

    College agriculture students who took pencil-and-paper tests scored significantly higher than those taking electronic versions of the tests. Those with a field independent learning style scored significantly higher than field-dependent students, had lower computer anxiety, and enjoyed using computers more. (SK)

  2. Economic effects of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural land in Illinois. Open file report, 1 September 1982-30 November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Guither, H.D.

    1984-01-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural lands in Illinois. In a survey of Illinois agricultural extension advisers, the presence of subsidence from underground coal mining was reported in 31 counties. The most frequently reported problems were the presence of depressions or potholes, standing water in depressed areas, surface drainage disruption, broken tile lines, and reduced crop yields. The most frequently reported attempts to restore productivity from subsidence damage were to dig surface drainage ditches, haul in fill dirt, fill in depressions with tractor and blade or land leveler, and replace tile lines; success was varied. Positive identification of all subsidence occurrences and measurement of the area affected is very elusive.

  3. Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

  4. An Urban Agricultural Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Parker V.

    1974-01-01

    A program of Agricultural Education (primarily horticulture) was started in the San Diego, California school district in 1967. The philosophy behind the program, the growth in terms of students involved, and the structural framework of the program are outlined. (KP)

  5. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  6. Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quan...

  7. Department of Agriculture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and ... and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency News Releases ...

  8. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Review Office of Technology Transfer National Program Research Areas Animal Production and Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ...

  9. The Agriculture Grants Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogmann, David W.; Key, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Reviews historical background surrounding the origins of the Competitive Research Grants Office, established in 1978 to support basic research related to agriculture. Describes current controversy within the legislature which threatens its existence. (CS)

  10. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  11. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  12. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  13. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  14. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, VIRGIL EARL

    A PRETEST, POST-TEST, AND RETENTION TEST OF 481 SOPHOMORE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 33 WISCONSIN HIGH SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL, HOME-FARM SITUATION, AND STUDENT SUPERVISED FARMING EXPERIENCE DIFFERENCES UPON ACQUIRING AND RETAINING LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSROOMS. EACH…

  16. Solar stills for agricultural purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Tran, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concepts of using desalinated water for agricultural purposes are outlined. A mathematical model describing heat and mass transfer in a system combining a solar still with a greenhouse, its solution, and test results of a small-scale unit built at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, are discussed. The unit was employed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the system. Further development and modifications are necessary for larger-scale operations. The basis of an optimization study which is underway at the Brace Research Institute of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, aimed at finding the best combination of design and operation parameters is also presented.

  17. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  18. Ergonomic risks and musculoskeletal disorders in production agriculture: recommendations for effective research to practice.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R; Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Banks, R J

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are increasingly recognized as a significant hazard of agricultural occupation. In agricultural jobs with significant physical labor, MSDs are typically the most frequently reported injury. Although not as lethal as tractor roll-overs, MSDs can result in disability, lost work time, and increased production costs. MSDs increase production costs as a result of worker absence, medical and insurance costs, decreased work capacity, and loss of employees to turnover and competition from other less physically demanding industries. This paper will provide an overview of what is currently known about MSDs in agriculture, including high-risk commodities, tasks and work practices, and the related regulatory factors and workers' compensation costs. As agricultural production practices evolve, the types of MSDs also change, as do ergonomic risk factors. One example is the previous higher rates of knee and hip arthritis identified in farmers in stanchion dairies evolving into upper extremity tendonitis, arthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome now found in milking technicians in dairy milking parlors. This paper summarizes the presentation, "Musculoskeletal Disorders in Labor-Intensive Operations," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The primary focus of the paper is to address current research on ergonomic solutions for MSDs in agriculture. These include improved tools, carts or equipment, as well as work practices. One of the key challenges in this area pertains to measurement, due to the fact that musculoskeletal strain is a chronic condition that can come and go, with self-reported pain as its only indicator. Alternative measurement methods will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of research into practice is reviewed, with an emphasis on best

  19. Safety in High School Supervised Agricultural Experiences: Teachers' Training and Students' Injury Awareness.

    PubMed

    Pate, M L; Lawver, R G; Sorensen, T J

    2016-01-01

    This research study sought to gather evidence of school-based agriculture teachers' hazard perceptions, safety practices, training experiences, and awareness of student injuries related to supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs. Teachers agreed that students should follow safety guidelines developed by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Safety and Health during SAE work. Approximately 66% (f = 153) of teachers reported having general training in first aid, CPR, and AED. Twenty participants (8.6%) indicated having no safety certifications or training. Abrasions, lacerations, bites/stings, and burns accounted for a majority of the student SAE-related injuries that were reported. There were 82 participants (35.5%) who stated that no injuries had been reported or they were not aware of any injuries that occurred. The majority of teachers (66%) had received some form offirst aid or first response training, but fewer teachers had received safety training for ATVs (f = 25, 10.8%), tractors (f = 48, 20.7%), and livestock (f = 39, 16.8%). Results indicated a disparity between required safe work habits and the types of hazardous tasks students should be allowed to complete alone while participating in SAE activities. It appears most responding teachers in this study agreed to allow students to operate equipment and machinery alone. Recommendations for teachers include attending professional development training specific to SAE safety and keeping records of any risk assessments conducted during SAE supervision. Further development of best practices for SAE supervision and safety are needed to assist agricultural education professionals in protecting and shaping our future leaders in agriculture. PMID:27024993

  20. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  1. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    equivalents need to be tracked in parallel to assess climate impacts. For livestock systems it is unclear which metrics are most important to track, GHGs per unit of meat or milk or perhaps per calorie? Different metrics are likely needed for different uses. 3.6. Capacity development in developing countries There is need to improve on the current lack of capacities to monitor land use and land-use change and their associated GHG emissions and removals for national inventories (UNFCCC 2008, Romijn et al 2012). Since there are ongoing efforts to improve, data, methods and capacities for monitoring forests in the context of REDD+ (Herold and Skutsch 2011), synergies should be sought to use and build upon joint data sources and approaches, such as remote sensing, field inventories, crowd sourcing. and human capacities to estimate and report on GHG balance in both forests and agriculture. A number of specific objectives to meet these challenges are discussed in this special issue. Improve the accuracy of emissions factors across regional differences. Improve national inventory data of management activities, crop type and variety, and livestock breeds. Use historical data and data collection over time to show trends. Test the extent of model applications through field validation (e.g., can they be used in regions with less data?). Enhance technical capacity and infrastructure for data acquisition and for application of mitigation strategies in field programs. Increase understanding of which mitigation practices result in more resilient systems. Improve understanding of the GHG tradeoffs of expanding fertilizer use. While data sources and methods are improving and research and operational monitoring are increasing, the international community can be strategic in targeting support for this work and coordinating data and information collection to move toward revised good practice guidelines that would address the particular circumstances and practices dominant in developing countries

  2. Facilities for Agricultural Education Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    Expansion of the vocational agriculture program to include education for off-farm agricultural occupations has placed increasing demands on existing facilities for agricultural programs. The facility requirements of the new curriculums are often not met by the existing facilities. Vocational agriculture teachers, state supervisory staff members,…

  3. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Commission recently promulgated a final rule defining the term ``agricultural commodity.'' See 76 FR 41048... Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, February 3, 2011. \\8\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. C... specifically addressing the costs and benefits of the proposed agricultural swaps rules. \\10\\ See NPRM, 76...

  4. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  5. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  6. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  7. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  8. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  9. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  10. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  11. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  12. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  13. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  14. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  15. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  16. Agriculture Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report is one of a series by the General Accounting Office that summarizes major policy, management, and program issues facing agency heads in the Bush administration. Many concerns have been identified, some new, others long-standing. This report on the Department of Agriculture describes concerns about the following six issues: (1)…

  17. Vocational Agriculture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

    This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

  18. Agriculture Education. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

  19. AGRICULTURAL SIMULATION MODEL (AGSIM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AGSIM is a large-scale econometric simulation model of regional crop and national livestock production in the United States. The model was initially developed to analyze the aggregate economic impacts of a wide variety issues facing agriculture, such as technological change, pest...

  20. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  1. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  2. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  3. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  4. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  5. Metrics for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of agricultural mechanics students, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  6. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL employees at the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, are sharing in a unique community agriculture program that supports EPA environmental goals?off the job as well as on. Every Wednesday afternoon, bags of farm-fresh org...

  7. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  8. Curriculum Guide for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem. Div. of Community Colleges and Career Education.

    Developed through a cooperative effort by industry and education, this curriculum guide outlines the basic knowledge and skills necessary for entry-level competencies in the broad field of agriculture, or for entrance into a post-high school program. This guide is one of several developed for Oregon's new approach to secondary education called…

  9. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  10. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  11. Microcomputer Applications in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenberg, Gene; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in microcomputer applications in agriculture. (These applications are designed to be used on Apple IIe or TRS-80 microcomputers.) Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: microcomputer operating procedures; procedures for evaluating and…

  12. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  13. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  14. Analysis of results from wind tunnel tests of inlets for an advanced turboprop nacelle installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, J. P.; Lyman, V.; Pennock, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Inlets for tractor installations of advanced turboprop propulsion systems were tested in three phases, covering a period from November, 1982 to January, 1984. Nacelle inlet configuration types included single scoop, twin scoop, and annular arrangements. Tests were performed with and without boundary layer diverters and several different diverter heights were tested for the single scoop inlet. This same inlet was also tested at two different axial positions. Test Mach numbers ranged from Mach 0.20 to 0.80. Types of data taken were: (1) internal and external pressures, including inlet throat recoveries; (2) balance forces, including thrust-minus-drag; and (3) propellar blade stresses.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, crawler tractors, crawler-type... requirement does not apply to sideboom pipelaying tractors. (2) The promulgation of specific standards...

  16. The Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; McMaster, S B; Zahm, S H; McDonnell, C J; Lynch, C F; Pennybacker, M; Rothman, N; Dosemeci, M; Bond, A E; Blair, A

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including neurotoxicity reproductive effects, immunologic effects, nonmalignant respiratory disease, kidney disease, and growth and development among children; 3) evaluate disease risks among spouses and children of farmers that may arise from direct contact with pesticides and agricultural chemicals used in the home lawns and gardens, and from indirect contact, such as spray drift, laundering work clothes, or contaminated food or water; 4) assess current and past occupational and nonoccupational agricultural exposures using periodic interviews and environmental and biologic monitoring; 5) study the relationship between agricultural exposures, biomarkers of exposure, biologic effect, and genetic susceptibility factors relevant to carcinogenesis; and 6) identify and quantify cancer and other disease risks associated with lifestyle factors such as diet, cooking practices, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and hair dye use. In the first year of a 3-year enrollment period, 26,235 people have been enrolled in the study, including 19,776 registered pesticide applicators and 6,459 spouses of registered farmer applicators. It is estimated that when the total cohort is assembled in 1997 it will include approximately 75,000 adult study subjects. Farmers, the largest group of registered pesticide applicators comprise 77% of the target population enrolled in the study. This experience compares favorably with enrollment rates of previous prospective studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8732939

  17. Agricultural PM 10 emissions from cotton field disking in Las Cruces, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.; Hiscox, April; Wang, Junming; Miller, David

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between elevated levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM) and agricultural practices, especially in the vicinity of agricultural fields. Airborne particle concentrations and meteorological variables were measured during nine agricultural field events on a cotton field in Las Cruces, NM in March 2008. A variety of real-time and integrated PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) samplers were used during sampling. The field events were designed to measure particle concentrations at different heights, near (4 m) and far (20-100 m) from a disking tractor. Particle concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the ground for near-source disking events, whereas particle concentrations were almost independent of height for background events. Near-source disking event particle concentrations were 4-7 times higher than those for far-source disking and background events. Near-source disking events had PM 10 emission factors ranging from 78 to 239 mg m -2, while those for far-source disking events ranged from 8 to 89 mg m -2. PM 10 plume heights for near-source disking events were between 4 and 5.7 m, whereas those for far-source disking events were between 12 and 15 m. Meteorological variables were found to influence emission factors, with wind speed showing a nonlinear relationship with emission factors. No clear relationship was found between soil moisture content and emission factors probably because the range of soil moisture was small. Impactor data indicated 10-40% of the total mass of agricultural PM collected was less than 1 μm in diameter for the clay loam soil type. Vertical PM 10 concentration profiles showed maxima at sampling heights between 1 and 2 m above the ground.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and... agricultural and light industrial tractors shall meet the seat belt requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers J333a-1970, Operator Protection for Agricultural and Light Industrial Tractors. (ii) Seat...

  19. Distribution of MCA-coated grits in maize fields after high wheel tractor application for disrupting orientation of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    PubMed

    Wennemann, Ludger; Hummel, Hans E

    2002-01-01

    High wheel tractor applications of 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (MCA)-coated corn granules ('grits') were conducted in Ruski Krstur (Serbia) in summer 2001 in a 5 ha corn field. Grits are a by-product after corn is harvested and separated from the cob and used as a carrier medium to disseminate MCA into the corn field. MCA is a kairomone mimic derived form Cucurbita maxima (Duchesne) used to disrupt orientation of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte towards different MCA and pheromone baited traps. The ultimate goal is to investigate the use of MCA as a mating disruptant. MCA was dissolved in an organic solvent and mixed in a cement machine with the grits. Grits were applied at rates of 17.39, 17.1 and 12.45 kg/ha on July 4th, July 19th and August 3rd. Before the impact of MCA as a disruptant can be addressed, the distribution patterns of MCA coated grits have to be thoroughly investigated. They were evaluated by counting girts deposited in 16 or 20 plastic dishes of 30-cm diameter positioned along 2 rows through the field directly after the grit application by tractor. Additionally, grits deposited on corn plant surface such as leaves, leaf axils and corn cobs were counted. Total number of grits collected in plastic dishes revealed even application rates at the first and second application but not on the third application date. Number of grits collected on plant surfaces were significantly different from each other regarding each application date. Altogether, grit distribution in the dishes as well as on the plant surface was variable. However, distribution patterns achieved so far hold promise to disseminate MCA coated grits into corn fields for orientation disruption or mating disruption of D. virgifera virgifera. PMID:12696417

  20. Factors Associated with Knowledge Level Attained by Vocational Agriculture II Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrlik, Joe W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the technical agriculture knowledge level attained by Vocational Agriculture II students on a criterion-referenced test developed from Louisiana's Vocational Agriculture II basic curriculum; and determine if students' scores on the test differed according to selected variables: Future Farmers of America…

  1. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  2. Effective monitoring of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

    2011-06-01

    An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  4. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  5. Teachers' Use of Agricultural Laboratories in Secondary Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in the agriculture industry require students to have the ability to solve problems associated with scientific content. Agricultural laboratories are considered a main component of secondary agricultural education, and are well suited to provide students with opportunities to develop problem-solving skills through experiential learning. This…

  6. Agricultural Awareness Days: Integrating Agricultural Partnerships and STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States there is a need to educate young children in science, technology, and agriculture. Through collaboration with many agricultural groups, the Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Education Center has set up a program that works with 3rd grade students and teachers to reinforce the science that has been taught in the…

  7. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  8. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  9. Shuttle crew escape systems test conducted in JSC Bldg 9A CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Shuttle crew escape systems test is conducted by astronauts Steven R. Nagel (left) and Manley L. (Sonny) Carter in JSC One Gravity Mockup and Training Facilities Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). Nagel and Carter are evaluating methods for crew escape during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight. JSC test was done in advance of tests scheduled for facilities in California and Utah. Here, Carter serves as test subject evaluating egress positioning for the tractor rocket escape method - one of the two systems currently being closely studied by NASA.

  10. Informing Lake Erie agriculture nutrient management via scenario evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Kalcic, Margaret; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Aloysius, Noel; Arnold, Jeffrey; Boles, Chelsie; Confesor, Remegio; DePinto, Joseph; Gildow, Marie; Martin, Jay; Read, Jennifer; Redder, Todd; Robertson, Dale; Sowa, Scott P.; Wang, Yu-Chen; White, Michael; Yen, Haw

    2016-01-01

    Therefore, the overall goal of this study was to identify potential options for agricultural management to reduce phosphorus loads and lessen future HABs in Lake Erie. We applied multiple watershed models to test the ability of a series of land management scenarios, developed in consultation with agricultural and environmental stakeholders, to reach the proposed targets. 

  11. [Theme: Computers in Agricultural Education.].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leising, James G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This theme issue on computer applications in agriculture covers uses of computers in farm management and vocational agriculture instruction; strategies for evaluating and purchasing hardware and software; and ideas for improving the computer literacy of teachers and students. (SK)

  12. Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

  13. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  14. Development and validation of a computer program to design and calculate ROPS.

    PubMed

    Mangado, J; Arana, I; Jarén, C; Arnal, P; Arazuri, S; Ponce de León, J L

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, there are more than 250,000 tractors built before 1980, when it became mandatory for all new tractors to be equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS). A similar situation is found in the European Union, but the situation is worse in the U.S. and in developing countries. Directive 2003/37/EEC establishes that tractors over 800 kg weight can be homologated by using the OECD standard code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (static test), called Code 4. A ROPS attachable to the rear axle of different tractor models has been designed, and a computer program for the calculation of the ROPS design has been developed. The program, named ESTREMA, is available at: www.cfnavarra.es/insl. Using this program, it has been possible to design a ROPS for the Massey Ferguson model 178 tractor, one of the most common tractor models without a ROPS in Spain. After the tractor was equipped with the designed ROPS, it was tested at the Spanish Authorized Station for testing ROPS and passed the homologation test (OECD Code 4), the main results being a maximum distortion of 21.3 cm when the absorbed energy was 5437 N and the maximum force applied was 34 kN during loading from the side. The ROPS was improved, redesigned, and remounted on the tractor, the tractor was tested in a real overturn, and no part of the structure intruded on the driver's clearance zone during the test. In conclusion, the ESTREMA program worked correctly, and the designed ROPS was able to pass the authorized test and provide adequate protection to the operator during a real overturn. PMID:17370915

  15. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  16. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  17. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Schumacher, Leon G.

    A study was conducted to determine the laboratory management competencies needed by secondary agriculture instructors. Information was gathered through an initial mailing to all postsecondary, college, and university agricultural mechanics specialists serving on the National Future Farmers of America Agricultural Mechanics Contest Committee,…

  18. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  19. Strategies To Promote Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller (1990)…

  20. Investigating Community Factors as Predictors of Rural 11th-Grade Agricultural Science Students' Choice of Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Balschweid, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the links between community contexts/factors and rural 11th-grade agricultural science students' choice of careers in agriculture. A logistic regression model was developed and tested to examine the extent to which nine measures of community contexts (i.e., membership in FFA, membership in 4-H, community attachment,…

  1. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  2. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  3. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  4. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  5. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  6. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  7. Fatal work-related farm injuries in Canada, 1991-1995. Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Hartling, L; Brison, R J; Guernsey, J R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from other developed countries have shown that agriculture is among the most dangerous occupational sectors in terms of work-related deaths. The authors describe the occurrence of fatal work-related farm injuries in Canada and compare these rates with those in other Canadian industries. METHODS: The authors present a descriptive, epidemiological analysis of data from the recently established Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program. The study population comprised Canadians who died from work-related farm injuries between 1991 and 1995. Crude, age-standardized, age-specific and provincial rates of such injuries are presented, as are overall death rates in other Canadian industries. Other factors examined were the people involved, the mechanism of injury, and the place and time of injury. RESULTS: There were 503 deaths from work-related farm injuries during the study period, for an overall annual rate of 11.6 deaths per 100,000 farm population. Modest excesses in this rate were observed in Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. High rates were observed among men of all ages and among elderly people. Among the cases that listed the person involved, farm owner-operators accounted for 60.2% of the people killed. There was no substantial increase or decrease in the annual number of deaths over the 5 years of study. The leading mechanisms of fatal injury included tractor rollovers, blind runovers (person not visible by driver), extra-rider runovers, and entanglements in machinery. Compared with other industries, agriculture appears to be the fourth most dangerous in Canada in terms of fatal injury, behind mining, logging and forestry, and construction. INTERPRETATION: Canada now has a national registry for the surveillance of fatal farm injuries. Farming clearly is among the most dangerous occupations in Canada in terms of fatal work-related injuries. Secondary analyses of data from this registry suggest priorities for prevention

  8. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  9. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  10. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... published Notice, the Agricultural Research Service receives written evidence and argument which...

  11. Community Agricultural Processing Services: A Reflection of Urban Differentiation or County Agricultural Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Calloway, Michael O.

    Questionnaire data from 81 North Carolina communities were analyzed in 1981 to test the hypothesis that 5 institutional subcategories (education, general community services, transportation, agricultural services, and health and sanitation) exhibit the underlying characteristic of unidimensionality and that they reflect comparable levels of…

  12. 75 FR 67345 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural... the United States Trade Representative (USTR), intends to reestablish the Agricultural Policy Advisory... of these committees is to advise the Secretary and USTR concerning agricultural trade policy....

  13. 7 CFR 28.957 - Special tests and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special tests and fees. 28.957 Section 28.957 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  14. 7 CFR 28.959 - Limitation of testing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitation of testing services. 28.959 Section 28.959 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  15. 7 CFR 28.959 - Limitation of testing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitation of testing services. 28.959 Section 28.959 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  16. 7 CFR 28.959 - Limitation of testing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitation of testing services. 28.959 Section 28.959 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  17. 7 CFR 28.957 - Special tests and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tests and fees. 28.957 Section 28.957 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  18. 7 CFR 28.957 - Special tests and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special tests and fees. 28.957 Section 28.957 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  19. 7 CFR 28.957 - Special tests and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special tests and fees. 28.957 Section 28.957 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...

  20. 7 CFR 28.959 - Limitation of testing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitation of testing services. 28.959 Section 28.959 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and...