Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural tractor test

  1. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  2. Simplified overturn stability monitoring of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Nichol, C I; Sommer, H J; Murphy, D J

    2005-02-01

    Agricultural tractors are the most common source of farm work fatalities in the U.S., with overturns the most common type of incident. For the year 2001, there were 15 tractor-related fatalities in Pennsylvania, 9 of which were due to tractor rollover. A new device using low-cost sensors and microcomputers was developed around a simplified mathematical model of an agricultural tractor to inform the operator of potential tractor instability. This device communicates the current rollover potential, along with a recent history of rollover potential, to the operator of the tractor via a simple bar-graph display. The device uses a single-chip accelerometer to sense the current rollover potential and a small microprocessor to analyze the accelerometer data, compensate for variations due to temperature, and then send this information to a visual display. The use of these low-cost "off the shelf" components enabled the fabrication of a very inexpensive sensor system. Because agricultural tractors have a long service life, it was important to make the device low cost and flexible. This could enable it to be sold as an aftermarket add-on for a variety of tractor models. The device is also capable of interfacing with newer on-board tractor systems via a CAN bus to make it more attractive to tractor manufacturers who may want to incorporate this device into new models. Work is continuing on the development of an improved display to inform the tractor operator of possible instability, including display ergonomic studies, investigation of threshold levels for alerting an operator of potential instability, and investigation into audible warning signals.

  3. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation.

    PubMed

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V

    2013-10-01

    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated.

  4. Agricultural Tractor Safety on Public Roads and Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigated the extent, causes, and means of preventing agricultural tractor accidents. The report includes an estimate of annual tractor-related deaths, an identification of the primary causes of such accidents with consideration of the major hazards causing death or injury, and recommendations or means for preventing the occurrence…

  5. Design and implementation of a GPS guidance system for agricultural tractors using augmented reality technology.

    PubMed

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor's position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems.

  6. Protecting young workers in agriculture: participation in tractor certification training.

    PubMed

    Heaney, C A; Wilkins, J R; Dellinger, W; McGonigle, H; Elliott, M; Bean, T L; Jepsen, S D

    2006-08-01

    Tractor-related injuries among youth are an important public health problem. The major objectives of this study were to (1) provide a rigorous estimate of the number of youth operating tractors in Ohio and (2) assess the extent to which these youth are participating in federally mandated tractor safety training. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by approximately 4,000 students ages 14 or 15 years who were enrolled in a stratified cluster sample of 99 Ohio schools. Almost one-third of the youth (30%) reported having operated tractors, with 19% having operated a tractor on a farm not owned by a parent or guardian. More than half of the youth (52%) reported having operated a tractor and/or other hazardous machinery, with 25% having operated the machinery on a farm not owned or operated by a parent or guardian. Extrapolating from 4-H records and Ohio census data, fewer than 1% of the youth who are operating tractors or other hazardous machinery have participated in tractor certification training. Increasing participation in mandated training may be an important step in protecting the health of our nation's young agricultural workers.

  7. A mathematical equation for quantifying control functionality in agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Drakopoulos, D; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    The overall accessibility of controls is one of the most important issues to consider when designing a control layout. Well-arranged controls, whose operational characteristics are based on both design guidelines and on human factors considerations, allow the operator to efficiently interact with the system in question. The objective of this article is to introduce a numerical index, referred to as the "index of functionality", capable of comparing, on a mathematical basis, different control arrangements in agricultural tractors. The model is based on information that has been gleaned from the published literature, with input from both professional ergonomists and experienced agricultural tractor operators. The numerical index may take any value between 0 and +1, with +1 being defined as an optimum value in terms of the functionality of a workstation. Data were collected from six old (pre-1982) and six modern (post-2003) tractor workstations to determine whether the model would recognize improvements that have occurred in the ergonomic design of tractor control layouts over the past 20 years. An average score of 0.19 +/- 0.07 was calculated for the pre-1982 tractor workstations. By contrast, an average score of 0.63 +/- 0.10 was calculated for the post-2003 tractor workstations. A number of limitations have been identified with the current model; despite these limitations, the index of functionality clearly recognized the ergonomic improvements in tractor workstations that have occurred over the past 20 years.

  8. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  9. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  10. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  11. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  12. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  13. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  14. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  15. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  16. 29 CFR 1928.52 - Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.52 Protective frames... protective system under actual dynamic conditions. Such testing may be omitted when: (i) The analysis of...

  17. 29 CFR 1928.53 - Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors-test procedures and performance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.53 Protective... effectiveness of the protective system under actual dynamic conditions. This test may be omitted when: (i)...

  18. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems. PMID:22163479

  19. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure.

  20. Public health focus: effectiveness of rollover protective structures for preventing injuries associated with agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    1993-01-29

    Agriculture ranks fourth among U.S. industries for work-related fatalities (1). Fatalities associated with agricultural machinery commonly involve farm tractors, and rollover incidents (i.e., the tractor tips sideways or backward and overturns, crushing the operator) account for 46% (Minnesota) to 76% (Georgia) of all farm tractor-related fatalities (2). Annually, agricultural tractor rollovers result in approximately 132 work-related deaths among persons aged > or = 16 years* (3). This report summarizes information regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on agricultural tractors.

  1. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Mariangela; Bono, Filippa; Quendler, Elisabeth; Febo, Pierluigi; Catania, Pietro

    2016-12-23

    Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers' health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s(-2), the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A) established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor 'site', namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 - 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  2. Personal noise exposures of operators of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Aybek, Ali; Kamer, H Atil; Arslan, Selçuk

    2010-03-01

    Approximately one million agricultural tractors are used in Turkey for crop production and about one-third of the population lives in rural areas. The objectives of this study were to determine sound pressure levels, A-weighted sound pressure levels, and the permissible exposure time for tractors without cabins, field-installed cabins, and original cabins at ear level of agricultural tractor operators for following machines: plows, cultivators, top soil cultivators, rotary tillers, tool combinations (harrow+roller), mechanical drills, pneumatic drills, chemical applicators, fertilizer applicators, drum mowers, balers, and forage harvesters. Variance analyses showed that type of operation, type of cabins, and operation x cabin interactions were statistically significant (P<0.01) both for sound pressure levels and equivalent (A-weighted) sound pressure levels. The use of original cabins had a greater effect in decreasing average sound pressures and resulted in more efficient noise insulation, especially at higher center frequencies compared to field-installed cabins whereas field-installed cabins proved to be more favorable compared to tractors without cabins. Sound pressure levels at 4000Hz center frequency was reduced 2-13dB and 4-18dB by using a field-installed cabin and an original cabin, respectively. The measured A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels were compared to the threshold limit level, and was concluded that depending on the cabin types used, the operators could usually work from 4 to 6h a day without suffering from noise induced inconveniences while 2-3h is permissible for plowing and forage harvesting on tractors without cabins. Due to timeliness considerations in agricultural machine operations, a farmer would not be willing to interrupt the operation based on permissible exposure time set by the standards. Based on the findings of this study, particularly an original cabin is recommended to reduce machine-induced noise below the danger limit

  3. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Front end weight shall be at least 25 percent of the tractor test weight. In case power take-off... tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR 1928.52, 1928.53, or 1926.1002 as appropriate. A ROPS used on track-type tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29...

  4. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Front end weight shall be at least 25 percent of the tractor test weight. In case power take-off... tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29 CFR 1928.52, 1928.53, or 1926.1002 as appropriate. A ROPS used on track-type tractors shall meet the test and performance requirements of 29...

  5. Vocational Agriculture Training Program: Safe Tractor and Farm Machinery Operation. Special Paper No. 8. Second Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Frank; Doss, Howard

    The publication was prepared for the United States Office of Education for use by teachers who direct agricultural training programs in safe tractor operation and safe farm machinery operation that comply with the United States Department of Labor regulations on hazardous occupations in agriculture. Upon successful completion of these training…

  6. GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION, COMPONENTS, AND FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS GASOLINE TRACTOR ENGINE SYSTEMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A…

  7. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in... STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS... tractor means a two-or four-wheel drive type vehicle, or track vehicle, of more than 20 engine...

  8. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in... STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS... tractor means a two-or four-wheel drive type vehicle, or track vehicle, of more than 20 engine...

  9. 29 CFR 1928.51 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in agricultural operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for tractors used in... STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures § 1928.51 Roll-over protective structures (ROPS... tractor means a two-or four-wheel drive type vehicle, or track vehicle, of more than 20 engine...

  10. TRACTOR REPAIR. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE…

  11. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  12. Summary of NREL's Recent Class 8 Tractor Trailer Platooning Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-08-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's recent class 8 tractor trailer platooning testing, including analysis of SAE J1321 Type II fuel consumption testing, fuel consumption improvement, fuel economy and platooning position accuracy.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  17. Initial rollover effectiveness evaluation of an alternative seat belt design for agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Rains, G C

    2000-02-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seat belt restraint in preventing occupant movement in a rollover accident. A baseline type-2 seat belt (pelvic and torso restraint), and an improved type-2 seat belt restraint, both designed to restrict occupant motion in a rollover accident, were tested in a rollover restraints tester (RRT). Each seat belt was placed on a H-III 50th percentile male dummy and testing conducted at a single roll rate and two D-ring adjustment positions. Each test simulated what was approximately a 260 degrees per second rollover parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tractor with the top of the ROPS impacting the ground after 180 degrees of roll. Forces on the dummy's head and neck were measured, and video was taken to measure the head motion in the x-, y-, and z-axis of the dummy. The average vertical, forward, and lateral head movement in the baseline seat belt was 144, 222, and 184 mm, respectively, when the adjustable D-ring anchorage supporting the shoulder belt was in its lowest position. At the lowest D-ring height, the shoulder belt became ineffective and the seat belt performance became similar to a type-1 restraint (required for tractors with ROPS) resulting in increased vertical, forward, and lateral movement. The improved restraint reduced vertical head movement by as much as 75% without increasing head and neck loads above established injury criteria. Testing seat belts for rollover effectiveness will become increasingly important as seat belt usage on tractors with ROPS increases.

  18. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  19. Energy and Agriculture. A Basic Core Curriculum for Teaching Energy to Vocational Agriculture Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James; French, Byron

    This core curriculum contains five units of material for teaching energy to vocational agriculture students. Energy uses and the benefits of energy conservation are covered in a unit on the impact of energy on agriculture. Discussed next are tractor performance and Nebraska tractor test data for selecting and evaluating tractors for maximum fuel…

  20. Structural dynamics modeling and testing of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination. The focus is to augment the experimental test results with the use of a high quality computer model. The discussion includes an overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental modal test results. System identification techniques are employed to update the mathematical model. The validated model is then used to illustrate the benefits of incorporating two major design changes, namely the switch from a separate cab/sleeper configuration to an integrated cab, and the use of a cab suspension system.

  1. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997.

  2. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  3. Evaluation of farm tractor-related fatalities.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Sunam, Guven S; Deniz, Idris; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2010-03-01

    Farm tractors are the major cause of occupational fatalities in agricultural regions. Fatalities typically result from being run over or crushed by the tractor, becoming entangled in the moving parts of the tractor, accidents on roadways, and tractor rollovers, which involve the tractor tipping sideways or backwards and crushing the operator. In this study, tractor-related fatalities in the Konya province of Turkey are retrospectively evaluated. Out of the 3940 cases on which a death examination and/or autopsy was performed between the years 2000 and 2007 at The Konya Branch of Forensic Medicine Council, 86 (2.2%) of the death cases were caused by tractor accidents and are included in this study. The ages of the victims varied between 3 and 80 years old with a mean age of 31.7 + or - 22.3. Sixty-eight (79.1%) of the cases involved males, while 18 (20.9%) of the cases involved females. In 32 (37.2%) of the cases, the deaths due to tractor accidents occurred when the tractor overturned. In 37 (43.0%) of the cases, the tractor-related fatalities involved the passengers and the drivers were involved in 34 (39.5%) of the cases. In conclusion, tractor accidents are preventable and deaths from tractor accidents can be significantly reduced if drivers are required to wear safety belts and helmets and frequent checks are implemented to enforce the ban on carrying passengers.

  4. A powered roller/crimper for walk-behind tractors to terminate cover crops in conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller/crimper implements have been used in large conservation farming systems to terminate cover crops near maturity and flatten them down to create a mulch through which cash crops can be planted directly into the cover residue. On small farms, tractors are usually small and less powerful relative...

  5. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  6. Tractors and rollover protection in the United States.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis J; Myers, John; McKenzie, E A; Cavaletto, Richard; May, John; Sorensen, Julie

    2010-07-01

    There are approximately 4.2 million tractors on farms and ranches across the United States. The average age of tractors is over 25 years and some of the oldest models are the most popular. Older tractors are less safe than newer tractors, and many older tractors are operated by individuals with increased risk of being injured or killed on a tractor. A key tractor safety device, a rollover protective structure (ROPS), is missing from most tractors manufactured before 1985. Data from the US Department of Labor's Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) suggest that the production agriculture sector accounts for approximately 70.3% of the 3299 work deaths in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing industry between 2003 and 2007. Nearly 900 of these incidents involve farm tractors and of these, approximately 43% were from tractor overturns. Efforts to reduce both the number of tractor overturn fatalities and injuries have been underway for years. These efforts primarily encompass worker education/training programs and activities, ROPS design and engineering applications, and research on more effective ways of encouraging tractor owners to retrofit their older tractors with ROPS. This paper reviews various approaches available to reduce the fatalities, serious injuries, and economic burden associated with tractor overturns. Past and current efforts to promote ROPS in the United States and in other countries, current safe tractor operations education and training programs, and ROPS-related safety engineering projects are discussed. Recommendations for advancing safe tractor operation and the number of tractors protected by ROPS are given. This review was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 2010.

  7. Narrative text analysis of accident reports with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery in Austrian agriculture from 2008 to 2010 - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Hannes; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of accident scenarios and causes by analysing existing accident reports of recognized agricultural occupational accidents with tractors, self-propelled harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery from 2008 to 2010. As a result of a literature-based evaluation of past accident analyses, the narrative text analysis was chosen as an appropriate method. A narrative analysis of the text fields of accident reports that farmers used to report accidents to insurers was conducted to obtain detailed information about the scenarios and causes of accidents. This narrative analysis of reports was made the first time and yielded first insights for identifying antecedents of accidents and potential opportunities for technical based intervention. A literature and internet search was done to discuss and confirm the findings. The narrative text analysis showed that in more than one third of the accidents with tractors and materials handling machinery the vehicle rolled or tipped over. The most relevant accident scenarios with harvesting machinery were being trapped and falling down. The direct comparison of the analysed machinery categories showed that more than 10% of the accidents in each category were caused by technical faults, slippery or muddy terrain and incorrect or inappropriate operation of the vehicle. Accidents with tractors, harvesting machinery and materials handling machinery showed similarities in terms of causes, circumstances and consequences. Certain technical and communicative measures for accident prevention could be used for all three machinery categories. Nevertheless, some individual solutions for accident prevention, which suit each specific machine type, would be necessary.

  8. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings V : Clark Y Biplane Cellule - NACA Cowled Nacelle - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, E Floyd

    1935-01-01

    This report is the fifth of a series giving the results obtained from wind tunnel tests on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. This report gives results of tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 12 positions with reference to a Clark Y biplane cellule.

  9. Tractor overturn concerns in Iowa: perspectives from the Keokuk county rural health study.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Madsen, M D; Rautiainen, R; Kelly, K M; Zwerling, C; Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J; Stromquist, A M; Burmeister, L F; Merchant, J A

    2006-02-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous industries in the U.S., with tractor overturns producing the greatest number of agricultural machinery-related fatalities. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seatbelts effectively reduce tractor overturn deaths. However, a large proportion of tractors in use in American agriculture are older tractors without ROPS and seatbelts. This article describes the tractor-related responses from participants in a population-based study conducted in Keokuk County, Iowa. This study was designed to measure rural and agricultural adverse health and injury outcomes and their respective risk factors. Questionnaires were partially developed from well-documented national surveys. Questions about agricultural machinery use, presence of safety equipment on the machinery, work practices, and attitudes about farm safety were included. Study participants on farms who owned tractors had an average of 3.1 tractors with an average age of 27 years. Only 39% of the 665 tractors had ROPS. Tractor age was associated with the presence of ROPS; 84% of tractors manufactured after 1984 were ROPS-equipped, whereas only 3% of tractors manufactured before 1960 were ROPS-equipped. ROPS-equipped tractors were significantly more common on larger farms and households with higher income. Only 4% of the farmers reported that their tractors had seatbelts and they wore them when operating their tractors. The results of this study support the findings of other studies, which indicate that many older tractors without ROPS and seatbelts remain in use in American agriculture. Until a dramatic reduction in the number of tractors in the U.S. operated without ROPS and seatbelts is achieved, the annual incidence of 120 to 130 deaths associated with tractor overturns will persist.

  10. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings III : Clark Y Wing - Various Radial-engine Cowlings - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1933-01-01

    This report is the third of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel on the interference drag, and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The second report gave the results for several engine cowlings and nacelles with tractor propeller located in four positions with reference to same wing. The present report gives results of tests of the same nacelles and cowlings in the same positions with reference to a smaller wing of Clark y section. The lift, drag, and propulsive efficiency were determined at several angles of attack for each cowling and in each nacelle location.

  11. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  12. 4-H Tractor Operator Program Teaches Employability Skills and Safety to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Debra K.

    2013-01-01

    For Michigan State University Extension, the Berrien County 4-H Tractor Operator Program has provided tractor safety education to teens for over 30 years. The certification training satisfies current requirements for operation of a 20 PTO HP or greater agricultural tractor by 14- and 15-year-old youth employed on property "not" owned,…

  13. Wind-Tunnel Tests of Several Model Tractor-Propeller and Pusher-Propeller Wing Extension-Shaft Arrangements, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Hubert N.

    1941-01-01

    Tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel to investigate the possibility of obtaining increased net efficiencies of propeller-nacelle units by enclosing the engines in the wings and by using extension shafts. A wing of 5-foot chord was fitted with a propeller drive assembly providing for several axial locations of tractor propellers and pusher propellers. A three-blade 4-foot propeller and a three-blade 3 1/2-foot propeller of special design were tested in this wing with spinners and fairings ranging in diameter from 6 to 16 inches. A 16-inch NACA cowling was tested for comparative purposes. Two types of cuffs were also employed. It was found that the net efficiency of a conventional round-shank propeller mounted on an extension shaft in front of or behind a wing increased with an increase in the diameter of the spinner and the shaft housing within the scope of the tests. The largest spinner used had a diameter that might favorably compare with that of a radial engine cowling. The efficiencies for the pusher position appeared to be more critically affected by spinner size than those for the tractor position. The spinners with large diameters for the pusher position resulted in a higher efficiency than those for the corresponding tractor arrangements; the reverse was true for the small spinners. The use of propeller cuffs in combination with a spinner of small diameter generally resulted in net efficiencies that were comparable with those found for the large-spinner combinations.

  14. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on

  15. Ability of youth operators to reach farm tractor controls.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, F A; Chang, J H; Pickett, W; Marlenga, B

    2009-06-01

    Farm tractor work is commonly assigned to young people on North American farms, where tractors account for the majority of deaths and major portions of non-fatal trauma to working youths. However, little is known about the potential mismatch between the anthropometric and physical characteristics of children and tractor characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of children of varying ages and percentiles to reach major controls on 45 tractors in common use in the US. The main study finding was that many tractor controls, especially those that are hand-operated, may not be effectively reached by the majority of youth operators aged 12 to 16 years. The study raises further serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms and calls for reconsideration of age guidelines for the assignment of children to tractor work on farms. This study provides novel ergonomic evidence about the ability of children to reach controls inside agricultural tractor cabins. The approach could be applied in similar situations where youths may operate other vehicles or machines. Study findings support the establishment and refinement of policies and guidelines related to youth tractor operation.

  16. A stochastic analysis of tractor overturn costs on catfish farms.

    PubMed

    Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L

    2012-10-01

    An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.

  17. Potential exposure to hazardous work activities: tractor usage among farmwomen.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Ann K; Skarke, Lana; Gilmore, Karen; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2006-01-01

    Farmwomen are often an unacknowledged workforce, leading to a lack of targeted safety interventions. This study examined the involvement and work patterns of 665 women in Texas and 657 women in Louisiana who were 18 years old and older and whose family participated in farming operations. Surveys were used to gather specific data regarding tractor work patterns, tractor knowledge, sources of information about tractors, and demographic information in two southern states in which cattle and dairy were the major agricultural commodity. Among the sample of 1,322 women, 577 (43.6%) reported driving tractors at least one day a year. This subset was used to describe characteristics of tractors and tractor-related activities. Findings indicate that women learn to drive tractors in their 20s, use husbands as the primary source of their information about tractors, engage in a wide variety of farm activities including bush-hogging and plowing, and acknowledge knowing an average or less than an average amount about driving tractors. Women most often reported driving between 1 to 12 days/year (n = 321, 55.6%). When examining patterns of ROPS-equipped tractor use, women were 1.47 times more likely to drive a tractor without ROPS or enclosed when driving less than 12 days a year as opposed to 13-103 days/year or greater than 104 days/year. The results of this study support the need for health care professionals and safety specialists to design appropriate interventions that target women to become more knowledgeable regarding the injury risks associated with farm work while driving tractors.

  18. Improving tractor safety warnings: readability is missing.

    PubMed

    Tebeaux, E

    2010-07-01

    Research on tractor safety has not focused on user manuals. This study focuses on tractor operator manuals, specifically safety warnings, selected from the files of the Tractor Test facility at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Analysis of many common warnings, based on readability and legibility research, shows that many warnings contain excessive information, confusing visuals and safety icons, poor document design, and illegible typefaces. The result is unreadable warnings that do not communicate quickly and correctly, and discourage readers rather than clarify critical information. Many tractor operator warnings are cluttered, "over-written," and contain information needed to protect the manufacturer rather than to inform operators. What is needed is a careful analysis and revision of many safety warnings with the goal of encouraging operators to read the warnings and follow their message.

  19. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  20. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Ferrante, Todd A.; Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  1. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    PubMed Central

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor

  2. Wi-Fi and satellite-based location techniques for intelligent agricultural machinery controlled by a human operator.

    PubMed

    Drenjanac, Domagoj; Tomic, Slobodanka; Agüera, Juan; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2014-10-22

    In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems' (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor. From

  3. A Spatial Cluster Analysis of Tractor Overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Saman, Daniel M.; Cole, Henry P.; Odoi, Agricola; Myers, Melvin L.; Carey, Daniel I.; Westneat, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Methods A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Results The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55) and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97). Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002) and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study reveals that geographic hotspots of tractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions) with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky. PMID:22291980

  4. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saman, D.M.; Cole, H.P.; Odoi, A.; Myers, M.L.; Carey, D.I.; Westneat, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Methods: A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns. Results: The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55) and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97). Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002) and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (p<0.0001). Conclusions: This study reveals that geographic hotspots of tractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions) with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky. ?? 2012 Saman et al.

  5. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  6. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  7. Evaluation of a tractor cab using real-time aerosol counting instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ronald M; Heitbrink, William A; Reed, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol instrumentation was used to evaluate air infiltration into tractor cabs that are used to protect the agricultural worker during pesticide applications. Preliminary surveys were conducted on three different manufactured agriculture enclosures. The results of these preliminary surveys indicated that aerosols are entering the cab through leak sources or are being generated inside the cab. These results identified the need for in-depth field evaluations of tractor cabs to identify any leak sources. To evaluate the ability of tractor cabs to reduce operator air contaminant exposure, field evaluations were conducted on two tractor cabs. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) the particle size distribution and the effectiveness of the filter system; and 2) air infiltration into the cab. These evaluations were also conducted to demonstrate the ease and practicality of using optical particle counters to evaluate the ability of cabin filtration systems. Pesticide particle size distribution during an air blast spray operation was also evaluated during the study. The field tests were conducted on a John Deere 7000 series tractor cab (tractor manufacturer's cab) and a Nelson spraycab (retrofit cab). Both cabs were equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media which were assumed to be 99.97 percent efficient at removing the test aerosol, atmospheric condensation nuclei. Thus, the major source of aerosols inside the cab was assumed to be leakage around filters at the seals. Using a portable dust monitor (PDM), the ratio of the outside to inside aerosol measurements was used to calculate a cab protection factor. During the evaluations, one PDM was placed inside the tractor cab (near the tractor operator) and one PDM was placed outside (near the air intake) to count particles. During the evaluations, the instruments were switched to prevent instrument bias from affecting the findings. The ratio of the two measurements (i.e., protection factor = outside

  8. [The differential diagnosis of the types of trauma caused by wheeled tractors].

    PubMed

    Zaval'niuk, A Kh

    1993-01-01

    Examinations of 23 corpses and study of 282 expert conclusions concerning the deaths of subjects aged 6 to 78 dead because of wheeled tractor injuries under agricultural conditions helped detect the specific characteristic signs of tractor injury types. Mathematical method of analysis of the characteristic features' quantitative parameters permitted the author to find statistically reliable criteria for differential diagnosis of the types of injuries inflicted by wheeled tractors. The possibility of correct conclusions of an expert using this method is at least 95%.

  9. Evaluation of mechanical tractor pedal extensions.

    PubMed

    Kelso, S A; Stangherlin, A M; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    Many farmers with disabilities choose to modify their work environments to accommodate their personal abilities; however, modified tractors may present greater risk to the operator as they are often one-of-a-kind designs that have not been subjected to rigorous safety testing. The objective of this research was to evaluate mechanical tractor pedal , extensions from a safety perspective. This objective was achieved by identifying potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab environment so that both existing and novel designs could be compared using a common methodology. Based on review of the published literature, 19 potential hazards associated with the introduction of a pedal extension into the cab of a tractor were identified. A hazard self-assessment worksheet (HSAW), created based on the 19 hazards, was validated through a pilot study. The overall inter-rater reliability and concurrent criterion validity proved to be acceptable. With the use of the HSAW six pedal extensions (three existing designs and three novel designs) were evaluated by 14 experts. Statistical analysis of the results did not identify a "best" design; however, several important trends were observed. Four of the six designs tended to block access to the exit path. The two designs that did not block access to the exit path might be considered to be the best designs for the tractors used in this study, but other designs likely would have been acceptable if they had been custom-fit for these tractors. The results of this research suggest that custom fabrication of pedal extensions for each specific tractor will likely yield the safest work environment for those who choose to use this assistive technology.

  10. Dealing with pre-ROPS tractors: is a trade-in program the solution?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Julie A; Conway, George A; DeSpain, Michael S; Wyckoff, Sherry; Bayes, Barbara; May, John J

    2011-01-01

    Tractor overturns are the leading cause of work-related death in an industry with the highest occupational fatality rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seatbelts are 99% effective in reducing the risk of an overturn fatality. However, kits are not available for 20% of tractors currently lacking ROPS. For these tractor owners, two potential solutions have been discussed: (1) technology for reinforcing tractor axles to accommodate ROPS and (2) a pre-ROPS tractor removal program. The purpose of this study was to conduct preliminary research to assess the feasibility of a tractor trade-in program. Focus groups were conducted with pre-ROPS tractor owners and tractor dealers. The data were analyzed using a concept development analytical approach and results were reviewed in an industry stakeholder's workgroup session. Data from the research indicates that tractor owners and dealers would need persuasive financial incentives to participate in a trade-in program. The workgroup session also indicated that it would be difficult to fund or support a large-scale initiative, and the economics of removing a large group of older tractors from the marketplace may exacerbate financial roadblocks. However, the data from this study could be used to pilot test a small-scale, focused, tractor buy-back program.

  11. Retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures: perspective of equipment dealers.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, S M; Donham, K J; Leedom-Larson, K; Sanderson, W; Purschwitz, M

    2009-10-01

    This study was one of a cluster of studies that originated via requests for proposals from the NIOSH National Agricultural Tractor Safety Initiative. The present study design consisted of several steps: (1) formation of an advisory group, (2) development and testing of a standard paper self-responding survey instrument, (3) sample selection of farm equipment dealers, (4) administration of the survey, (5) assessment and analysis of the survey, and (6) in-person response panel of dealers (n = 80) to review results of the questionnaire for further definition and sharpening of the recommendations from the survey. A key finding is that most dealers do not currently sell or install ROPS retrofit kits. Barriers cited by dealers included (1) actual or perceived lack of farmer demand, (2) injury liability, (3) expensive freight for ordering ROPS, (4) lack of dealer awareness of the magnitude of deaths from tractor overturns and the high life-protective factor of ROPS, and (5) difficulty and incursion of non-recoverable expenses in locating and obtaining specific ROPS. Despite not currently selling or installing ROPS, dealers responded favorably about their future potential role in ROPS promotion and sales. Dealers were willing to further promote, sell, and install ROPS if there was demand from farmers. Recommendations include establishing a ROPS "clearing house" that dealers could contact to facilitate locating and obtaining ROPS orders from customers. Additional recommendations include education and social marketing targeting farm machinery dealers as well farmers, manufacturers, and policy makers.

  12. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  13. Seatbelt use during tractor overturns.

    PubMed

    Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Westneat, S C

    2006-02-01

    In 2002, the Kentucky Farm Tractor Overturn Survey was administered, in which 6,063 randomly selected farm operators responded to questions that addressed the presence and use of seatbelts in the event of a tractor overturn. Data were analyzed to determine the proportion of seatbelt presence and use on tractors that overturned differentiated by whether they were equipped or not equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS). In 537 overturns reported for which the ROPS status was known, 92 involved ROPS-equipped tractors, of which 60 had a functioning seatbelt, and 19 operators of these tractors used the seatbelt that was present during the overturn. However, of the 445 overturns of non-ROPS tractors, eight had a functioning seatbelt, and three of these operators wore the seatbelt. Two of the three operators that wore seatbelts on non-ROPS tractors suffered a permanent disability. In contrast, of the 19 operators who wore a seatbelt on ROPS-equipped tractors, 18 experienced no or minor injuries, and one required outpatient care. Seatbelts are known to save lives but are a secondary safety device to ROPS, for ROPS alone saves lives and is a necessary pre-condition for seatbelt presence and use.

  14. Rollover protection on New York tractors and farmers' readiness for change.

    PubMed

    May, J J; Sorensen, J A; Burdick, P A; Earle-Richardson, G B; Jenkins, P L

    2006-08-01

    Tractor overturns contribute significantly to fatalities in New York State agriculture. On-site inspections a decade ago indicated that approximately 60% of tractors were without effective rollover protection. Our objectives were: to describe the current prevalence and distribution of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on New York farm tractors, to identify characteristics associated with the absence of ROPS, to explore segmenting the New York farm community on readiness for ROPS retrofitting, and to identify demographic characteristics that might assist in this segmenting. A random selection of 644 livestock, dairy, fruit, cash crop, vegetable, and organic farms were contacted for a telephone survey. Of 562 farms (87%) participating, 102 (18.1%) had all tractors equipped with ROPS and 138 (24.6%) had none. A disproportionate number of livestock, cash crop, and organic operations had no ROPS. Rates of ROPS-equipped tractors correlated directly with farm size and annual hours of tractor operation. Older farmers had a lower proportion of ROPS tractors. The presence of a child operator did not affect the proportion of ROPS tractors. After weighting the sample, the total number of non-ROPS tractors in New York is estimated at more than 80,000. In addition to providing key farm demographics, the survey enabled placement of farmers on a "stage of change" continuum related to readiness for retrofitting. Three-quarters of New York farmers are in the "precontemplation" stage of change relative to ROPS retrofitting, and this varies little by size of operation, age of farmer, or the presence of child tractor operators. Stage of change may relate to hours of tractor operation (p = 0.05) and does relate to commodity (p = 0.003) due primarily to the higher proportion of crop farmers in the earliest stage of change. The goal of retrofitting all New York farm tractors with ROPS appears nearly as daunting as it did a decade ago.

  15. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  16. Fatalities associated with improper hitching to farm tractors--New York, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    1996-04-19

    Approximately half of all injury-related fatalities in the agricultural industry are associated with farm tractors (1). Since April 1991, the New York State Department of Health's Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities (OHNAC) program has investigated 27 incidents of sudden rear rollover of farm tractors (i.e., incidents in which the tractor flips backward, rotating around its rear axle); these incidents resulted in 15 fatalities. This report describes four of these incidents, summarizes the characteristics of the 16 incidents that involved improper hitching, and outlines strategies for reducing the risk for their occurrence.

  17. Tractor Mechanic--Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Edward W.

    Developed to assist vocational agricultural mechanics students in learning to be tractor mechanics, this curriculum guide contains all the student competency sheets which comprise this competency-based curriculum. These competency sheets are categorized under sixteen instructional units. The first two units cover employment opportunities and…

  18. Tractor controls actuating force limits for Indian operators.

    PubMed

    Mehta, C R; Pandey, M M; Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Khadatkar, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    In four-wheel tractors, proper design of controls is important for comfortable and safe operation of the tractor. The design involves location and dimensions of controls as well as strength limits for operating these controls. The present study was aimed to quantify human strength for operation of tractor controls and to recommend the maximum control actuating forces for normal operation of tractors based on strength capability of 3,423 Indian male agricultural workers. The 5th percentile values of strength parameters i.e. leg strength sitting (left and right), foot strength sitting (right), torque strength (both hands) sitting, push strength (left hand and right hand) sitting and pull strength (left hand and right hand) sitting of agricultural workers collected using a strength measurement set-up were taken into consideration for the study. It was recommended that the maximum actuating forces for normal operation of frequently operated brake and clutch pedals of tractors should not exceed 260 N and 125 N based on 5th percentile values of right and left leg strength of male agricultural workers, respectively. The maximum actuating force required in steering wheel operation should not exceed 51 N based on 5th percentile value of torque strength (both hands) sitting of workers. The maximum actuating forces required for operating frequently operated levers viz. gear selection, speed selection, hydraulic control and hand throttle of Indian tractors should not exceed 46 N, 46 N, 25 N and 25 N, respectively. It may be concluded that the maximum actuating force limits as given in Bureau of Indian Standards IS 10703 are very high as compared to the findings of the study based on strength data of Indian male operators, which highlight the need to revise the standard.

  19. Assessing farm tractor incidents and awareness levels of operators for tractor safety issues in the Hatay province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, S Görücü; Keskin, M; Soysal, Y

    2012-04-01

    Studies and statistical data on safety issues related to farm tractors and machinery are very limited in developing countries, including Turkey. This study was carried out to investigate tractor-related incidents in the Hatay province, located in the mid-south of Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted with 107 tractor operators using face-to-face interviews. Data were evaluated according to the incident type, machinery involved, and mechanism of injury or fatality. A total of 101 incidents were reported by 77 of the 107 respondents. Most of the incidents were due to tractor rollovers (65.4%), 14.8% of the incidents were due to entanglement of body parts in moving machinery, and 12.9% involved crashing into other vehicles or obstacles. The leading cause of the incidents was personal mistakes (60.4%). Fatalities resulted from 25.7% of the incidents, while 45.5% of the incidents caused non-fatal injuries. Only 5.6% of the tractors had a ROPS-enclosed cab. The percentage of ROPS-equipped tractors was 19.6%, while 41.3% of the tractors had a shade cover and 33.6% had no protective structure. Only one of the respondents used a seatbelt, although 44.9% of them stated that seatbelts should be used. It was also found that only 13.5% of the operators had training in work safety, while 95.1% stated that incidents might be reduced if people were trained. Development of appropriate policies and training programs are needed for safer operation of agricultural machinery to reduce injuries and fatalities due to farm accidents.

  20. Forces required to operate controls on farm tractors: implications for young operators.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, F A; Chang, J H; Berg, R L; Pickett, W; Marlenga, B

    2008-07-01

    Farm tractors account for the majority of fatal injuries to adolescents working in agriculture and therefore remain a leading occupational priority. The question of whether these injuries occur because adolescents are assigned tractor jobs beyond their physical capabilities has not been answered. The purpose of this study was to estimate the activation forces required to operate controls on 40 tractors in common use in the US and compare them with existing estimates of physical strength for children of varying ages and with recommended ergonomic force limits for repeatedly engaging controls. Activation forces for steering, brakes and clutch were measured on each tractor. The main study finding was that the activation forces required to operate tractors typically exceeded the physical abilities of most children aged 13 to 17 years. This raises serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms. This study provides an ergonomic approach for evaluating the potential mismatch between young people's strength capabilities and forces required in operating farm tractors. This approach could be used in similar situations where adolescents may operate vehicles (e.g. all-terrain vehicles), machinery or other mechanical devices requiring activation of levers and controls. Study findings potentially inform the establishment of occupational policies surrounding tractor operation by young people.

  1. Wind-tunnel Tests of Eight-blade Single and Dual-rotating Propellers in the Tractor Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W.H.; Biermann, David

    1941-01-01

    Tests of 10-ft. diameter, eight-blade, single - and dual - rotating propellers were conducted in 20-ft propeller research tunnel. Propellers were mounted at front end of a streamline body in spinners that covered hubs and parts of shanks. Effect of a symmetrical wing mounted in slipstream was investigated. Blade-angle settings ranged from 20 Degrees to 65 Degrees. Results indicated that dual rotation resulted in gains of from 1 to 8 percent in efficiency over single rotation for eight-blade propellers, but presence of a wing reduced gain about one-half. Greater power absorption caused by dual rotation over flight range and higher efficiency or thrust for range of take-off and climb was indicated

  2. Wind-Tunnel Tests of Four- and Six-Blade Single- and Dual-Rotating Tractor Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P

    1942-01-01

    Test of 10-foot diameter, four and six blade single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers were conducted in the NACA propeller-research tunnel. The propellers were mounted at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners to house the hub portions. The effect of a symmetrical wing mounted in the slipstream ranged from 20 degrees to 65 degrees setting corresponds to airplane speeds greater than 500 miles per hour. The results indicate that dual-rotating propellers were from 0 to 6 percent more efficient than single-rotating ones; but, when the propellers operated in the presence of a wing, the gain was reduced by about one-half. Other advantages of dual-rotating propellers were found to include greater power absorption and greater efficiency at the low V/nD operating range of high-pitch propellers.

  3. Action Learning: a new method to increase tractor rollover protective structure (ROPS) adoption.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem.

  4. Prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors in U.S. aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, M L; Westneat, S C; Myers, J R; Cole, H P

    2009-04-01

    Aquaculture involves the production of plant and animal products that are cultured in water. The principal freshwater fishes raised in the U.S. are catfish (raised mainly in ponds) and trout (raised mostly in concrete raceways), and the principal crustaceans grown are shrimp, crayfish, oysters, and clams. Tractors are used on aquaculture farms mostly in pond culture. Ponds present overturn hazards because of the slopes of levees, slippery conditions, and nighttime driving. Protection is afforded to the tractor operator when a rollover protective structure (ROPS) is attached to the tractor. The purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors on farms engaged in aquaculture in the U.S. The analysis concluded that 78% of tractors used in aquaculture were equipped with a ROPS, in contrast with the prevalence of ROPS at 49% for all of agriculture. Moreover, 91% of the tractors in the South used for aquaculture were equipped with a ROPS. The national sample for aquaculture included 75 farms and 137 tractors, which is small, but nonetheless, several hypotheses can be generated as a result of this descriptive study.

  5. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

    2012-09-01

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  6. ROPS deficiency of gray-market tractors.

    PubMed

    Myers, M L; Purschwitz, M A

    2012-04-01

    Many used tractors that are imported from Japan are adding to the current national inventory in the U.S. and Canada of farm tractors that lack a rollover protective structure (ROPS). Gray-market tractors are built for use by the manufacturer for a certain country but are imported against the manufacture's wishes to a second country for use there, usually as a used tractor. Gray-market tractors may lack ROPS and seatbelts, depending on the date of manufacturer. The objective of this investigation is to describe the gray market for tractors imported from Japan into the U.S. and the policy implications regarding the hazards associated with these imports. Operator manuals and warning labels are typically not written in English. Foreign manufacturers that market tractors in the U.S. have established a variety of disincentives for the importation of gray-market tractors, including issuing warnings, not servicing or providing parts for these tractors, and banning their importation through actions by the U.S. International Trade Commission. Nonetheless, a U.S. market has developed that imports and provides services and parts for gray-market tractors, and some companies provide certified ROPS on the tractors that they sell. A product safety perspective and related policies are presented as an approach to ensuring that these imports are equipped with ROPS and seatbelts.

  7. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  8. Preventing tractor rollover fatalities: performance of the NIOSH AutoROPS

    PubMed Central

    Powers, J; Harris, J; Etherton, J; Ronaghi, M; Snyder, K; Lutz, T; Newbraugh, B

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best known method for preventing these fatalities. One impediment to ROPS use, however, is low clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), developed an automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (AutoROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. If a rollover condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The design of the retractable ROPS and sensor, as well as the results of the different testing phases are discussed. PMID:11565973

  9. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    PubMed

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways.

  10. Farm tractors and mandatory roll-over protection retrofits: potential costs of the policy in New York.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, T W; Jenkins, P L

    1991-07-01

    Tractor roll-overs are the leading cause of fatal farm accidents, accounting for more than one-fourth of all agriculturally related deaths. Most of these deaths could be prevented if the tractors were equipped with roll-over protective structures (ROPS). This study estimates the number of tractors in New York without ROPS, projects their retirement, and then estimates the number of lives which would be saved if ROPS were retrofitted on old tractors. The basic costs associated with mandating ROPS are calculated from these estimates. The minimum economic cost of mandating ROPS is $511,136 per life saved for the retrofits, and an additional $253,254 per life saved for every $1 million spent annually on enforcement. It is concluded that a policy mandating ROPS on all tractors would be expensive, but should be considered with particular attention to the need for and cost effectiveness of enforcement.

  11. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  12. Tractors, mass, and Weyl invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, A. R.; Shaukat, A.; Waldron, A.

    2009-05-01

    Deser and Nepomechie established a relationship between masslessness and rigid conformal invariance by coupling to a background metric and demanding local Weyl invariance, a method which applies neither to massive theories nor theories which rely upon gauge invariances for masslessness. We extend this method to describe massive and gauge invariant theories using Weyl invariance. The key idea is to introduce a new scalar field which is constant when evaluated at the scale corresponding to the metric of physical interest. This technique relies on being able to efficiently construct Weyl invariant theories. This is achieved using tractor calculus—a mathematical machinery designed for the study of conformal geometry. From a physics standpoint, this amounts to arranging fields in multiplets with respect to the conformal group but with novel Weyl transformation laws. Our approach gives a mechanism for generating masses from Weyl weights. Breitenlohner-Freedman stability bounds for Anti-de Sitter theories arise naturally as do direct derivations of the novel Weyl invariant theories given by Deser and Nepomechie. In constant curvature spaces, partially massless theories—which rely on the interplay between mass and gauge invariance—are also generated by our method. Another simple consequence is conformal invariance of the maximal depth partially massless theories. Detailed examples for spins s⩽2 are given including tractor and component actions, on-shell and off-shell approaches and gauge invariances. For all spins s⩾2 we give tractor equations of motion unifying massive, massless, and partially massless theories.

  13. Agricultural machineries wheeling and soil qualities mapping in climatic changes conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergonzoli, S.; Servadio, P.

    2012-04-01

    As argued in the Fourth Assessment Report of the UN International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2007 the global climate is changing and will continue to change in the near future. Due to the changing in time distribution and intensity of rainfall, the available time to carry out soil tillage operations, seedbed preparation and fertilizers distribution is becoming shorter. These issues are worsened by soil compaction that is one of the major problems facing modern agriculture. Soil compaction impedes infiltration of rainfall, so the increasing scale of mechanization might well be responsible for greater runoff, soil loss by water erosion and water-logging. Overuse of machinery, intensive cropping, short crop rotations, intensive grazing and inappropriate soil management leads to compaction. The objective of this research was to study the compacting effect of two wheeled tractors fitted with different type of tires during fertilizing operations with soil water content over field capacity. Field tests were carried out in a farm near Rome (41°52'502'' Latitude (N); 12°12'866" Longitude (E)) in March 2010 on a clay soil (Vertic Cambisol) during wheat fertilizing. One tractor was fitted with very narrow and high aspect ratio tires with mounted broadcaster coded (WTN), the other tractor was equipped with extra large and low aspect ratio tires with trailed broadcaster for a total of four axles coded (WTEL). Immediately after fertilising operations, such effects have been quantified through spatial variation of some soil parameters: soil water content, soil penetration resistance (CI) and soil shear strength (SS). Soil samplings have been carried out on the tracks left by the tractors and on soil not interested by the passage (control). To monitor all tractors passes across the field and to compute the total area covered by tractors tires a DGPS receiver was placed into the tractors; to map soil parameters studied, both on tracks left by the tractors passes

  14. System identification, adaptive control and formation driving of farm tractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekow, Andrew Karl Wilhelm

    Great increases in agricultural productivity and profitability can be gained by increasing the navigational control accuracy of a farm tractor. To maximize accuracy in the presence of environmental uncertainties, a novel technique for on-line parameter identification has been developed. This method combines the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms and is used to identify key parameters which describe the dynamics of a farm tractor. This algorithm provides a 15:1 improvement in computational efficiency over the traditional EKF, while offering comparable convergence rates and noise rejection properties. Experimental data on a full-sized John Deere tractor shows a 25 percent improvement in lateral accuracy when using then adaptive controller versus a fixed controller over identical trajectories. In addition to parameter identification, farmers require formation driving capability for routine operations. Multiple farm vehicles work cooperatively together to accomplish a common goal. Several formation driving algorithms were developed for these varying requirements. An experimental implementation of a fully autonomous farm vehicle following a human operated lead vehicle demonstrated an accuracy of 10 centimeters in the in-track direction and 10 centimeters in the cross track direction.

  15. Assessment of controls layout of Indian tractors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Bhaskar, Gaikwad; Singh, J K

    2009-01-01

    Tractors in low-income countries are used both for farm and non-farm activities. Most of the tractors being manufactured in India are products of collaboration with other countries. The design of tractors manufactured in India has not changed much in the past five decades especially from an ergonomics point of view, because of economic considerations. This paper describes a tractor control layout assessment with respect to the Indian population and compares the location of controls with workspace envelopes and the IS12343 standard for commonly used tractors on Indian farms. Controls like steering, foot clutch, foot brake, foot accelerator are located in areas defined by IS12343 standard in some tractors but these are not placed in the workspace envelopes of the Indian population. This results in a mismatch between the workspace envelope and location of controls as defined by the standard. The controls need a complete change in their layout to be in the workspace envelopes, as this cannot be achieved by providing seat movement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the present tractor design.

  16. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  17. Keys to Successful Tractor Maintenance Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, William A.

    1979-01-01

    To prevent problems with teaching plans, supplement class instruction, and stimulate use of the operator's manual, the teacher can use a series of leaflets. The first leaflet describes the activities and what is expected of the tractor operator's manual. (LRA)

  18. Making 'Tractor Beams' a Reality (Eventually)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tractor beams -- the ability to trap and move objects using laser light -- are the stuff of science fiction, but a team of NASA scientists has won funding to study the concept for remotely capturin...

  19. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  20. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering. PMID:22164006

  1. Steering a tractor by means of an EMG-based human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver's scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering.

  2. 77 FR 54557 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...-54558] [FR Doc No: 2012-21740] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing AGENCY: National Agricultural..., Associate Administrator. [FR Doc. 2012-21740 Filed 9-4-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-20-P...

  3. Prevalence of ROPS--equipped tractors and farm/farmer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, J R; Engelhardt, H L; Bean, T L; Byers, M V; Crawford, J M

    2003-05-01

    Data were collected on tractor safety status and the prevalence of ROPS as part of the Ohio Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Program (FFHHSP) "walk-around" hazard assessments of cash grain farms in central Ohio. Principal operator (PO) characteristics thought a priori to have a possible association with ROPS utilization included age, education, percent time spent farming, total years in agriculture, and previous training in occupational injury prevention. Farm characteristics of interest were farm size, acres of cropland in use, sales value during the past 12 months, and current number of farm workers. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential associations between these factors and ROPS utilization patterns. Of 1,044 tractors encountered on 306 farms, 359 (34.4%) were equipped with ROPS, 29 (9.5%) had nothing but ROPS-equipped tractors, and 117 (38.2%) did not have any ROPS-equipped tractors. The absence/presence of ROPS-equipped tractors in our sample was found to vary by several factors, and over a wide range. Results of invariable logistic regression analyses (excluding the relatively small number of tractors manufactured after 1985) indicated that younger POs with at least a high school education who spent more than half their time working in agriculture, employed three or more workers, had 500 or more acres of total farm land and cropland in use, and had a 12-month sales value exceeding $250,000 were more likely to have at least one ROPS-equipped tractor on their farms. However, time spent farming, number of workers, and the 12-month sales value were not strongly predictive in multivariable models. Although more than 20% of the POs in our sample reported having had training in occupational injury prevention, this factor had essentially no value in predicting the absence/presence of ROPS-equipped tractors on their farms. The results of this study illustrate the need for interventions to encourage ROPS

  4. The U.S. Department of Labor's Tractor and Machinery Certification Program: management styles and perceptions held by community stakeholders and instructors.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, S D

    2012-07-01

    A mixed-mode, descriptive study was conducted on the U.S. Department of Labor's (DOL) Tractor and Machinery Certification Program. Legislated by the Fair Labors Standards Act, the Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (HOOA) was enacted in 1968 as a public policy measure to reduce the number of injuries to youth on farms. An educational exemption allows youth 14 and 15 years of age to work for hire after they successfully complete a training program. In the 40+ years since the legislation went into effect prescribing such training exemptions, deficiencies and variations have occurred in the quality of the educational program and the system by which agencies certify young people. To gain a better understanding of the DOL Tractor and Machinery Certification program, community stakeholders were asked to identify management practices, curriculum resources, and perceptions of the DOL program. The study design used qualitative data from 49 agricultural representatives participating in regional focus groups and quantitative data from 330 community instructors responding to an electronic-formatted questionnaire (representing a 70.7% response rate) in an effort to answer the question: "What is the current status of the DOL Tractor and Machinery Certification program in the United States?" The findings revealed that 55.2% of the instructors taught a qualifying DOL program. Of these, the certification was administered through an Extension or 4-H program (68.7%), an agricultural education program (24.7%), or as a combination of Extension and agricultural education (6.0%). Course instructors believed the training was beneficial to students and had opportunity to attract more students than currently enrolled These instructors placed a higher value on standardized teaching materials than on standardized testing procedures; they also supported the need for additional teaching aids, which included hands-on activities, videotapes, student workbooks, and DVDs. Study participants

  5. Solar charged agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Heckeroth, S.

    1999-07-01

    It is becoming obvious that the developed world's reliance on petroleum for transportation and agricultural production is not sustainable. Industrial agriculture currently uses an average of 200 gallons of diesel per acre (1,900 liters per hectare) per year. Sustainability requires a transition to the use of non-polluting renewable energy sources, as well as small scale farming techniques. This paper outlines the tremendous potential electric tractors offer in a variety of applications all over the world, including greenhouses and organic farms, toxic cleanup, bomb disposal and mine sweeping, as well as use as a mobile power source in remote areas and in emergency applications. An electric tractor can be charged from photovoltaic panels, either on the tractor in the form of a shade canopy or mounted on the roof of a building.

  6. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  7. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Greig-Smith, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  8. North and east elevations of tractor shed facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and east elevations of tractor shed facing southwest - Norris Farm, Tractor Shed-Combine Barn, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  9. South and west elevations of tractor shed facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and west elevations of tractor shed facing northeast - Norris Farm, Tractor Shed-Combine Barn, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  10. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  12. Miniature Tractor Pull Helps Teach Mechanical Power Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.

    1996-01-01

    A miniature tractor pull was developed as a high school activity, enabling students to assess a tractor's pulling capabilities and determine subsequent horsepower. The activity takes the textbook concept of horsepower and makes it come alive. (JOW)

  13. 30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shovels, draglines, and tractors. 77.409... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.409 Shovels, draglines, and tractors. (a) Shovels, draglines, and tractors shall not be operated in the presence of any person exposed to a hazard from...

  14. Tractor Mechanic--Teacher's Guide. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Edward W.

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the Tractor Mechanic Competency Based Education (CBE) Curriculum (CE 022 480). The following information is included: a discussion of the uses of the Tractor Mechanic CBE curriculum; definitions of related terms; the table of contents for the Tractor Mechanic CBE curriculum; a list of competencies by…

  15. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  16. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  17. A Kalman filter implementation for precision improvement in low-cost GPS positioning of tractors.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier

    2013-11-08

    Low-cost GPS receivers provide geodetic positioning information using the NMEA protocol, usually with eight digits for latitude and nine digits for longitude. When these geodetic coordinates are converted into Cartesian coordinates, the positions fit in a quantization grid of some decimeters in size, the dimensions of which vary depending on the point of the terrestrial surface. The aim of this study is to reduce the quantization errors of some low-cost GPS receivers by using a Kalman filter. Kinematic tractor model equations were employed to particularize the filter, which was tuned by applying Monte Carlo techniques to eighteen straight trajectories, to select the covariance matrices that produced the lowest Root Mean Square Error in these trajectories. Filter performance was tested by using straight tractor paths, which were either simulated or real trajectories acquired by a GPS receiver. The results show that the filter can reduce the quantization error in distance by around 43%. Moreover, it reduces the standard deviation of the heading by 75%. Data suggest that the proposed filter can satisfactorily preprocess the low-cost GPS receiver data when used in an assistance guidance GPS system for tractors. It could also be useful to smooth tractor GPS trajectories that are sharpened when the tractor moves over rough terrain.

  18. A Kalman Filter Implementation for Precision Improvement in Low-Cost GPS Positioning of Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Low-cost GPS receivers provide geodetic positioning information using the NMEA protocol, usually with eight digits for latitude and nine digits for longitude. When these geodetic coordinates are converted into Cartesian coordinates, the positions fit in a quantization grid of some decimeters in size, the dimensions of which vary depending on the point of the terrestrial surface. The aim of this study is to reduce the quantization errors of some low-cost GPS receivers by using a Kalman filter. Kinematic tractor model equations were employed to particularize the filter, which was tuned by applying Monte Carlo techniques to eighteen straight trajectories, to select the covariance matrices that produced the lowest Root Mean Square Error in these trajectories. Filter performance was tested by using straight tractor paths, which were either simulated or real trajectories acquired by a GPS receiver. The results show that the filter can reduce the quantization error in distance by around 43%. Moreover, it reduces the standard deviation of the heading by 75%. Data suggest that the proposed filter can satisfactorily preprocess the low-cost GPS receiver data when used in an assistance guidance GPS system for tractors. It could also be useful to smooth tractor GPS trajectories that are sharpened when the tractor moves over rough terrain. PMID:24217355

  19. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings II : Thick Wing - Various Radial-Engine Cowlings - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1932-01-01

    This report is the second of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the test of a N.A.C.A. cowled air-cooled engine nacelle located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The present report gives results of tests of a normal engine nacelle with several types of cowling and fairings in four of the positions with reference to the same wing. (author)

  20. Massive higher spins from BRST and tractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Waldron, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    We obtain the higher spin tractor equations of motion conjectured by Gover et al. from a BRST approach and use those methods to prove that they describe massive, partially massless and massless higher spins in conformally flat backgrounds. The tractor description makes invariance under local choices of unit systems manifest. In this approach, physical models are described by conformal, rather than (pseudo-)Riemannian geometry. In particular masses become geometric quantities, namely the weights of tractor fields. Massive models can therefore be handled in a unified and simple manner mimicking the gauge principle usually employed for massless models. From a holographic viewpoint, these models describe both the bulk and boundary theories in terms of conformal geometry. This is an important advance, because tying the boundary conformal structure to that of the bulk theory gives greater control over a bulk-boundary correspondence.

  1. Approximating Phosphorus Leaching from Agricultural Organic Soils by Soil Testing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z M; Zhang, T Q; Kessel, C; Tan, C S; O'Halloran, I P; Wang, Y T; Speranzini, D; Van Eerd, L L

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus applied to soils in excess of crop requirement could create situations favorable to P enrichment in subsurface flow that contributes to eutrophication of surface water. This pathway of P loss can be more severe in muck (i.e., organic) soils where agricultural production is intensive. This study evaluated the suitability of various environmental and agronomic soil P tests initially designed for mineral soils to predict dissolved reactive P (DRP) in subsurface flow from organic soils. Intact soil columns were collected from 44 muck soils in Ontario to provide a wide range of soil test P levels. A lysimeter leaching study was conducted by evenly adding water in an amount equivalent to 5 mm of rainfall. The leachate DRP concentration was linearly related to soil water-extractable P and CaCl-extractable P with values of 0.90 and 0.93, respectively, and to Bray-1 P and FeO-impregnated filter paper extractable P in a split-line model with a change point. Mehlich-3 P and Olsen P, a method recommended for agronomic P calibration in Ontario, were not related to leachate DRP concentration. All P sorption index (PSI) based degree of P saturation (DPS) values were closely related to leachate DRP in split-line models, with the DPS indices expressed as Bray-1 P/PSI and FeO-P/PSI having the highest correlation with leachate DRP concentration. Because it is desirable from practical and economic standpoints that the environmental risk assessment shares the same soil test with agronomic P calibration, the two PSI-based DPS indices as presented can be considered as environmental risk indicators of DRP subsurface loss from organic soils.

  2. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  3. Analytical evaluation of the protection offered by sealed tractor cabins during crop pulverization with fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Michelle; Faletti, Milena Michele; Madureira, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos; Bauer, Fernando Cesar

    2016-12-01

    The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion. In this study, fenitrothion was used as a marker to evaluate the protection afforded inside a sealed tractor cabin. To simulate the pesticide exposure, tests were performed using artificial cotton targets as passive adsorptive agents inside the cabin during the pesticide application. Samples were extracted according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) procedure using ultrasonic extraction and as proposed by the Brazilian Standard for Solid Waste Classification (NBR 10004). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The chromatographic method was optimized using a factorial design. The combined results indicated that the best conditions were achieved using a mobile phase with a water/acetonitrile ratio of 35:65, a column temperature of 40 °C, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a total analysis time of <10 min. The method was evaluated in the linear range of 0.50 to 2.01 mg/kg, with a determination coefficient of 0.9886. The precision was evaluated on different days and the relative standard deviations were between 0.17 and 3.41 %. In relation to the accuracy, recovery values of 95 to 104 % were obtained. The detection and quantification limits were 0.18 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. None of the target cottons showed concentrations of

  4. Soil compaction and structural morphology under tractor wheelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Peter; Quinton, John; Binley, Andrew; Silgram, Martyn

    2010-05-01

    Compaction of cultivated soils is a major problem for agriculture in terms of yield decline and sustainable soil resource management. Tramline wheelings exacerbate runoff and increase erosion from arable land. The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) LINK Project - a joint venture between agri-business, land managers and research groups - is currently evaluating a number of methods for alleviating compaction in tractor wheelings across a range of soil types in England. Using innovative applications of agri-geophysics (e.g. ground penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, acoustics and x-ray tomography), this current project aims to determine relationships between properties derived from geophysical methods (e.g. soil moisture, porosity), soil compaction and structural morphology. Such relationships are important for a clearer understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in compacted soils, to address land management practices and develop cost-effective mitigation measures. Our poster will present some early results of this study.

  5. Tractor Trailer Driver's Training Programs. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Vocational Technical Coll., Nashua.

    This document describes a project to develop a 320-hour tractor trailer driver training program and a 20-hour commercial driver licensing upgrade training program. Of 34 graduates from the training program, 28 secured employment in the trucking industry. From August 1989 to June 1990, 725 students were trained in the upgrade training program with…

  6. Sonic tractor beam costs less than 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    A single-sided sonic tractor beam that can levitate objects without the need for complex phase-shifting electronics has been developed by researchers in the UK, who say that it can be made for less than 90 with readily available components and a 3D printer.

  7. Goods handling: tugs, trailers and tractors.

    PubMed

    Grayson, H

    1980-09-26

    Ease of handling ought to be a priority in any supply and disposal system. Hazel Grayson, senior research officer at the Medical Architecture Research Unit, Polytechnic of North London, suggests that even where driver-operated electric tow tractors cannot be used, other types of electric pulling device should be considered.

  8. Polyhedron tracking and gravity tractor asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummen, N.; Lappas, V.

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the defense against hazardous asteroids is becoming a topic of high interest. This work improves the gravity tractor asteroid deflection approach by tracking realistic small body shapes with tilted ion engines. An algorithm for polyhedron tracking was evaluated in a fictitious impact scenario. The simulations suggest a capability increase up to 38.2% with such improved tilting strategies. The long- and short-term effects within polyhedron tracking are illustrated. In particular, the orbital reorientation effect is influential when realistic asteroid shapes and rotations are accounted for. Also analyzed is the subject of altitude profiles, a way to tailor the gravity tractor performance, and to achieve a steering ability within the B-plane. A novel analytical solution for the classic gravity tractor is derived. It removes the simulation need for classic tractor designs to obtain comparable two body model Δv figures. This paper corroborates that the asteroid shape can be exploited for maximum performance. Even a single engine tilt adjustment at the beginning of deflection operations yields more deflection than a fixed preset tilt.

  9. Plans for Learning Stations. Tractor Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This shop guide gives graphic illustration of twenty-eight learning stations in a tractor mechanics shop, at each of which a specific learning activity occurs. The authors suggest that each station (most of them constructed of plywood or sheet metal and angle iron) be self-contained, having its own appropriate tools, supplies, parts, and set of…

  10. V-TECS Guide for Tractor Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    This guide contains a course outline for a tractor mechanic course. The outline is organized by 15 duties: performing general skills and maintaining and servicing storage battery, ignition circuit, the cooling system, the charging circuit, the starting circuit, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel system, basic engine, lubrication system, clutches,…

  11. The Tractor Electrical System. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The fundamental principles underlying the application of electricity to tractors and farm equipment are presented. An understanding of the material in the basic manual will enable the service man to understand better the service procedures covered in service manuals on electrical equipment. Topics dealt with are fundamentals of electricity,…

  12. Extra-safe tractor-trailer coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, W. P.; Sparks, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    Built-in safety mechanism for tractor-trailer "fifth-wheel" coupling keeps rig together in case kingpin failure. Modified coupling utilizes all standard components, such as two wear plates, kingpin, and kingpin latch. It is modified by adding semicircular lip to top wear plate, matching semicircular slot to bottom wear plate, and two latching stop mechanisms.

  13. Tractor Mechanic Check Sheets for Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Forms for student self-checks and the instructor's final checklist (student evaluation) are provided for use with thirty-three learning modules on maintaining and servicing fuel and electrical systems in tractor mechanics. The student self-check asks the students questions about their understanding of the modules' content. The instructor's…

  14. Structural strength evaluation of driver's protective structures for self-propelled agricultural machines.

    PubMed

    Molari, G; Badodi, M; Guarnieri, A; Mattetti, M

    2014-07-01

    The high number of accidents due to rollovers of agricultural machines has increased the interest of researchers and organizations for standardization in this field. In the 1960s, standards to test rollover protective structures (ROPS) for tractors were designed and approved. Similar standards were introduced in the 1990s for earth-moving machinery, but ROPS standards were not defined for self-propelled agricultural machines. In the present work, the driver's protective structures of five different categories of self-propelled agricultural machines were analyzed with the goal of introducing ROPS with a strength level in accordance with the standards used for tractors while maintaining the same shape as the existing structure. The results show a low resistance level of the present structures on the machines selected for the tests. New structures that are able to sustain the loads specified by the tractor standard are not different in design from the existing structures, but an increase of the resistance of the materials or an increase of the thickness of the mountings is necessary.

  15. Career Preparation in Agricultural Resources: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Larry

    This curriculum guide in agricultural resources is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes eight occupational subgroups: fish, forestry, mining area restoration, outdoor recreation, soil, range, water, and wildlife. It is…

  16. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  17. Adoption of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on U.S. farm tractors by state: 1993-1995, 2001, and 2004.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R

    2011-04-01

    This research compares state-level rollover protective structure (ROPS) prevalence rates from the early and mid-1990s to those observed in the years 2001 and 2004. In addition, state-level ROPS prevalence rates are compared to state-level tractor overturn fatality rates. Tractor data for 1993-1995 and for 2001 and 2004 for all tractors and ROPS-equipped tractors in use on U.S. farms were derived from surveys conducted for NIOSH by the USDA-NASS. Changes in ROPS prevalence rates at the state level between the two time periods were assessed using a two-sample paired t-test with unequal sample sizes. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between ROPS prevalence rates and tractor overturn fatality rates at the state level. Overall, 49 of the 50 states had an observed increase in the percentage of farm tractors equipped with ROPS from 1993-1995 to 2001 and 2004. This increase was statistically significant for 34 states. Large shifts in ROPS prevalence were found within individual states and in clusters of states. These include a major increase in the southeastern U.S. and some western states. However, a core of states in the northeast (many of them in or near the Appalachian Mountains) through the upper midwest remain in the bottom quartile for ROPS prevalence. For the years 1992 through 2004, the highest fatality rates were observed in many of the same states that were identified previously as having persistently low ROPS prevalence rates. There is a clear relationship between low state-level ROPS prevalence rates and high state-specific tractor overturn fatality rates. While progress has been made in increasing the percentage of ROPS-equipped farm tractors, it is projected that ROPS prevalence rates will not reach a protective level nationally until after 2015. Regionally, the northeast and midwest will not reach protective levels of ROPS-equipped tractors until after 2020. Based on the adoption rates observed, tractor overturn rates will likely

  18. Tractor beam in micro-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzobohatý, O.; Karásek, V.; Šiler, M.; Chvátal, L.; Čižmár, T.; Zemánek, P.

    2014-12-01

    Following the Keplerian idea of radiative forces one would intuitively expect that an object illuminated by sunlight radiation or a laser beam is accelerated along the direction of the photon flow. Such radiation pressure forms the basis for the concept of solar sail, or laser acceleration of micro-particles. In contrast, a hypothetical optical field known from the realm of science-fiction as the "tractor" beam attracts the matter from large distances against the beam propagation. We present a geometry of such"tractor" beam in micro-scale and experimentally demonstrate how it acts upon spherical micro-particles of various sizes or optically self-arranged structures of micro-particles.

  19. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1978-01-01

    Force and moment data were obtained from a one-twenty-fifth scale wind tunnel model of a cab-over-engine tractor trailer combination. The tests define the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline (unmodified) vehicle and several modified configurations. The primary modifications consist of: (1) greatly increased forebody corner radii, (2) a smooth fairing over the cab-to-trailer gap, (3) a smoothed underbody, and (4) rear streamlining (boattailing)of the trailer. Tests were conducted for yaw angles from 0 deg to 30 deg. The reduction in drag, relative to the baseline, obtained by combining the modifications are compared for the zero yaw condition with full scale coast down drag results for similar configurations. The drag reductions obtained from the model and full scale tests are in good agreement.

  20. Prevalence of drug use in commercial tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Pemberton, Melissa; Jarvis, Anjanette; Hughes, Marty; Logan, Barry K

    2002-05-01

    An enforcement emphasis project, "Operation Trucker Check," was established in order to determine the extent to which commercial tractor-trailer drivers were operating their vehicles while impaired by drugs. A total of 1079 drivers and their vehicles were assessed for driver and equipment violations, and drivers additionally underwent preliminary field sobriety tests conducted by drug recognition expert (DRE) officers. Anonymous urine specimens for drug analysis were requested, and 822 urine specimens were obtained in total. Compliance with the drug-testing portion was voluntary, and there was a 19% refusal rate. Overall, 21% of the urine specimens tested positive for either illicit, prescription, and/or over-the-counter drugs, and 7% tested positive for more than one drug. Excluding caffeine and nicotine, the largest number of positive findings (9.5%) were for CNS stimulants, such as methamphetamine, amphetamine, phentermine, ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, and cocaine. The second most frequently encountered drug class were the cannabinoids, with 4.3% of drivers testing positive for marijuana metabolites. Only 11 drivers (1.3%) were positive for alcohol. Sixteen truck drivers (1.6%) were charged with driving under the influence of drugs after a full DRE evaluation was conducted. The results indicate that in spite of comprehensive drug testing in the trucking industry, some tractor-trailer drivers are continuing to take illicit and other drugs with the potential of having a negative effect on their driving ability. On the other hand, only a few drivers were, in fact, deemed to be under the influence of drugs at the time of driving when evaluated by DRE officers.

  1. Test Item Construction and Validation: Developing a Statewide Assessment for Agricultural Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    The State of New York Agriculture Science Education secondary program is required to have a certification exam for students to assess their agriculture science education experience as a Regent's requirement towards graduation. This paper focuses on the procedure used to develop and validate two content sub-test questions within a…

  2. Energy for agriculture in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, M.

    1982-05-01

    The energy implications of different farm mechanization and macronutrient supply scenarios were examined. Results show that up to the year 2000, fertilizer production and irrigation-drainage account for 45 % and 40 %, respectively, of total energy input to agriculture. Tractors, threshers, and pesticides share the rest.

  3. Farm Tractor Tune-Up and Service Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, J. G.; And Others

    Tune-up and service specifications for 10 major tractor manufacturers are presented in the handbook. In addition, the following tables are included: (1) spark plug heat-range comparisons, (2) freezing protection, (3) pressures for farm tractor tires, (4) use of calcium chloride for liquid weighting, (5) comparisons of American Petroleum Institute…

  4. Single wheel testers, single track testers, and instrumented tractors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single wheel testers and single track testers are used for determining tractive performance characteristics of tires and tracks. Instrumented tractors are useful in determining the tractive performance of tractors. These machines are also used for determining soil-tire and soil-track interactions,...

  5. 40 CFR 1037.630 - Special purpose tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special purpose tractors. 1037.630 Section 1037.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... tractors intended for intra-city pickup and delivery, such as those that deliver bottled beverages...

  6. Traction and braking force on three surfaces of agricultural tire lug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the performance of an agricultural tractor drive tire on soil and in particular, to investigate performance aspects of tire lugs. A 160/85R14 radial-ply tractor drive tire was used. Pressure sensors were mounted in the leading lug side and the traili...

  7. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, H C; Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is approximately 10% higher in the tractor drivers than in workers not exposed to vibration. The increase is mainly due to more pain in the lower back and more pain lasting at least several days. A vibration dose was calculated by assigning each vehicle driven a vibration magnitude, estimated on the base of vibration measurements. The prevalence of back pain increases with the vibration dose. The highest prevalence odds ratios are found for the more severe types of back pain. These prevalence odds ratios do not increase with the vibration dose. This might be due to health-related selection which is more pronounced for severe back pain than for back pain in general. The two components of the vibration dose, duration of exposure and estimated mean vibration magnitude, have also been considered separately. Back pain increases with duration of exposure but it does not increase with the estimated mean magnitude of vibration. This is probably due to the inaccuracy of this estimate. The higher prevalence of back pain in tractor drivers might be (partly) caused by whole-body vibration, but prolonged sitting and posture might also be of influence.

  8. USSR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: SOVIET TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY NO. 57.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    by I. I. Trepenenkov The conditions and prospects of work on the development of mechanization means for harvest ing ensilage crops, by K. Klement’ev PPN-30 picker loader, by I. P. Shvetsov and A. V. Petrovskii

  9. Reducing costs with well tractors for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Well Tractor is a new concept for a down hole tool that significantly reduces operation costs for servicing horizontal wells. The Well Tractor is a cost effective alternative to the very expensive and time consuming conventional drill pipe conveyed operations. The Well Tractor is capable of pulling coiled tubing and/or wireline horizontally beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractor is capable of pulling more then 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tool is designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g. logging tools, video cameras. The lateral reach capacity with coiled tubing is therefore increased considerably. Time consuming production logging operations of horizontal wells utilizing jointed pipe can be carried out by the Well Tractor as a wireline job.

  10. Development of an ergonomic evaluation facility for Indian tractors.

    PubMed

    Patel, R; Kumar, A; Mohan, D

    2000-06-01

    The design of tractors manufactured in low-income countries like India has not changed much in the past two decades, especially from an ergonomic point of view. Moreover, in these countries tractors are used for transportation purposes in addition to farming operations. Therefore, the design criteria for these tractors need to be different from those in high-income countries. This paper describes the development of an ergonomic facility for improvement of tractor design. An ergonomic evaluation facility has been developed consisting of a work place envelope for the Indian population, a layout measuring device and an ergonomic rig. This facility can be used for comparative evaluation of the display and control layouts of different tractors in order to develop an optimum layout. The ergonomic rig has the facility to simulate the improved layout for subjective evaluation.

  11. Integrating Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structure Installation in High School Agricultural Mechanics: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan; Vincent, Stacy; Watson, Jennifer; Westneat, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study with three Appalachian county agricultural education programs examined the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of integrating a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project into high school agricultural mechanics classes. The project aimed to (1) reduce the exposure to tractor overturn hazards in three rural counties through the installation of CROPS on seven tractors within the Cumberland Plateau in the east region; (2) increase awareness in the targeted rural communities of cost-effective ROPS designs developed by the National Institution for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to encourage ROPS installations that decrease the costs of a retrofit; (3) test the feasibility of integration of CROPS construction and installations procedures into the required agricultural mechanics classes in these agricultural education programs; and (4) explore barriers to the implementation of this project in high school agricultural education programs. Eighty-two rural students and three agricultural educators participated in assembly and installation instruction. Data included hazard exposure demographic data, knowledge and awareness of CROPS plans, and pre-post knowledge of construction and assessment of final CROPS installation. Findings demonstrated the feasibility and utility of a CROPS education program in a professionally supervised secondary educational setting. The project promoted farm safety and awareness of availability and interest in the NIOSH Cost-effective ROPS plans. Seven CROPS were constructed and installed. New curriculum and knowledge measures also resulted from the work. Lessons learned and recommendations for a phase 2 implementation and further research are included.

  12. Enhanced Gravity Tractor Technique for Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Wade, Darren W.; Tantardini, Marco; Shen, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Given sufficient warning time, Earth-impacting asteroids and comets can be deflected with a variety of different "slow push/pull" techniques. The gravity tractor is one technique that uses the gravitational attraction of a rendezvous spacecraft to the impactor and a low-thrust, high-efficiency propulsion system to provide a gradual velocity change and alter its trajectory. An innovation to this technique, known as the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT), uses mass collected in-situ to augment the mass of the spacecraft, thereby greatly increasing the gravitational force between the objects. The collected material can be a single boulder, multiple boulders, regolith or a combination of different sources. The collected mass would likely range from tens to hundreds of metric tons depending on the size of the impactor and warning time available. Depending on the propulsion system's capability and the mass collected, the EGT approach can reduce the deflection times by a factor of 10 to 50 or more, thus reducing the deflection times of several decades to years or less and overcoming the main criticism of the traditional gravity tractor approach. Additionally, multiple spacecraft can orbit the target in formation to provide the necessary velocity change and further reduce the time needed by the EGT technique to divert hazardous asteroids and comets. The robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) will collect a multi-ton boulder from the surface of a large Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and will provide the first ever demonstration of the EGT technique and validate one method of collecting in-situ mass on an asteroid of hazardous size.

  13. Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.

  14. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  15. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E

    1993-06-01

    Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

  16. A Simple Method to Improve Autonomous GPS Positioning for Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gómez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Stombaugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Error is always present in the GPS guidance of a tractor along a desired trajectory. One way to reduce GPS guidance error is by improving the tractor positioning. The most commonly used ways to do this are either by employing more precise GPS receivers and differential corrections or by employing GPS together with some other local positioning systems such as electronic compasses or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, both are complex and expensive solutions. In contrast, this article presents a simple and low cost method to improve tractor positioning when only a GPS receiver is used as the positioning sensor. The method is based on placing the GPS receiver ahead of the tractor, and on applying kinematic laws of tractor movement, or a geometric approximation, to obtain the midpoint position and orientation of the tractor rear axle more precisely. This precision improvement is produced by the fusion of the GPS data with tractor kinematic control laws. Our results reveal that the proposed method effectively reduces the guidance GPS error along a straight trajectory. PMID:22163917

  17. A simple method to improve autonomous GPS positioning for tractors.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio; Gómez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Stombaugh, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Error is always present in the GPS guidance of a tractor along a desired trajectory. One way to reduce GPS guidance error is by improving the tractor positioning. The most commonly used ways to do this are either by employing more precise GPS receivers and differential corrections or by employing GPS together with some other local positioning systems such as electronic compasses or Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, both are complex and expensive solutions. In contrast, this article presents a simple and low cost method to improve tractor positioning when only a GPS receiver is used as the positioning sensor. The method is based on placing the GPS receiver ahead of the tractor, and on applying kinematic laws of tractor movement, or a geometric approximation, to obtain the midpoint position and orientation of the tractor rear axle more precisely. This precision improvement is produced by the fusion of the GPS data with tractor kinematic control laws. Our results reveal that the proposed method effectively reduces the guidance GPS error along a straight trajectory.

  18. Risk analysis of tractor overturns on catfish farms.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Walter B; Ibendahl, Gregory A; Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2010-10-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries occur on catfish farms as a result of tractor overturns, but these injuries can be greatly mitigated when a tractor is equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS) and seatbelt. This study analyzed the proportion of tractors on catfish farms in Mississippi not equipped with ROPS and the cost of retrofitting those tractors with a ROPS and seatbelt as compared to the expected benefits gained from adding the protection. To determine if farmers have the financial incentive to retrofit older tractors, a net present value framework was used because the expected benefits occur over a number of years. The ROPS retrofit is a one-time cost that occurs immediately, and thus the present value does not need to be calculated, i.e., time period 0. According to this study adding ROPS will provide a net benefit of $22,877 in the event of an overturn. When dealing with small farms (<125 acres) where an average tractor is used for approximately twice as many hours compared to an average tractor on large farms, the extra hours worked by a single tractor resulted in total benefits of retrofitting ROPS of $9.45 per year, whereas for large farms the net benefit is $4.70 (=125 acres). Given that the least expensive retrofit is $147, it would take 15.5 years of tractor use on the small farms for the expected benefits to outweigh the cost. Given the large range of costs that could occur due to an overturn, there could be a significant premium for not having ROPS protection. In other words, there likely is a smaller range of costs from an overturn with ROPS than without ROPS because ROPS reduces the more serious incidents.

  19. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Engine, Learning Activity Packages 78-89; Lubricating the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 90-94; Painting the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 95-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on three areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the engine, (2) lubricating the tractor, and (3) painting the tractor. Each of the nineteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  20. Comparison of agriculture biology and general biology testing outcomes in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despain, Deric Walter

    Agriculture education can take scientific topics to higher levels, emphasize scientific concepts, involve hands-on learning, and develop interrelationships with the other sciences, thus making the living and non-living world around them relevant for students. Prior to 1996, agriculture education was not considered adequate to prepare Utah high school students to meet state biology requirements. The appropriateness of making that equalizing decision in 1996 was not tested until this 2014 study, comparing student test scores on the state biology test for general biology and agriculture biology students. The 2008-2012 data were collected from the Utah Department of Education Data and Statistics, utilizing a descriptive comparative post-test only analysis. As seen in this study, not only did B/AS students tend to score lower than their General Biology counterparts, in multiple cases this difference was significant (p ≤ .05). This contrary finding challenges the theoretical foundation of this study. As a result of this study three implications were made; (a) the Utah CRT-Biology test is not a reliable gauge of academic achievement in agriculture biology, (b) agriculture students in the sample population have not been taught with rigorous biology standards, and (c) biology standards taught in agricultural biology classes are not aligned with content tested by the biology portion of the Utah CRT-Biology test standards. The results of this study indicate to stakeholders that there is a gap occurring within the B/AS education, and the need to reevaluate the biology curriculum delivery to its population may possibly be in need of immediate action.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM TRACTOR "OLD DINAH," LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM TRACTOR "OLD DINAH," LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS STEAM TRACTOR WAS USED TO REPLACE THE HORSE WAGON TRAINS THAT CARRIED SUPPLIES AND CRUDE OIL THE 26 MILES FROM BEATTY, NEVADA TO KEANE WONDER. THE TRACTOR ONLY MADE ONE RUN IN 1909 BEFORE THE BOILER EXPLODED ENROUTE, AND IT WAS ABANDONED THERE ON THE TRAIL TODAY IT STANDS ON DISPLAY AT THE FURNACE CREEK RANCH IN DEATH VALLEY NATIONAL PARK, AS SEEN IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Factors associated with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Myers, J R

    2010-10-01

    Rollover protective structures (ROPS) are an effective engineering control known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, the leading cause of occupational fatalities for farmers and farm workers in the U.S. However, the use of ROPS is known to vary greatly from farm to farm. A national sample of 11,458 farm operators from the 2004 Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture (OISPA) survey was used to assess the association between the prevalence of ROPS and ten farm operator and farm demographic variables using logistic regression. The variable were: operator's age, operator's sex, operator's education, farm sales, full- or part-time farming, acreage, type of operation, number of hired workers, number of injuries, and region. All ten variables were found to have significant associations with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the univariate logistic regressions. For the multivariate model, all variables except for the sex of the farm operator remained significant. Farms with less than three adult injuries, no hired workers, less than 300 acres in size, a Midwest location, and a primary farm type of tobacco, fruit and nuts, dairy, or poultry and eggs all had adjusted odds ratios of 2 or greater. Increasing the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors is essential for reducing the leading cause of death on farms, tractor overturns. Economic factors play a major role in the prevalence and distribution of non-ROPS tractors on farms. The identified associations can be used to effectively target areas of the U.S. for ROPS promotion activities.

  3. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    PubMed

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working.

  4. Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental perspective facing south showing chicken house, tractor shed, and homestead - Norris Farm, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  5. Learn about SmartWay Tractors and Trailers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Companies that lease or purchase tractors or trailers that meet EPA's designated SmartWay standards are using more efficient equipment and may be eligible to put the SmartWay logo on the exterior of their equipment.

  6. VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STACK WITH AUTOMOBILE AND TRACTOR REPAIR SHOP TO THE FAR RIGHT. WAREHOUSE WITH ITS RIDGELINE ROTARY VENTS TO RIGHT OF STACK. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  7. 17. TRACTOR ENGINE POWERING SHAFT SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, BELT CONNECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TRACTOR ENGINE POWERING SHAFT SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, BELT CONNECTS WITH MAIN SHAFT LOOKING EAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  8. Safe tractor access platforms: from guidance material to implementation.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Rechnitzer, G

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the implementation of published guidelines for retrofitting tractors with safe access platforms, which were developed to reduce the risk of serious injuries and deaths associated with mounting and dismounting. Farmer interviews and engineering-based inspections of ten retrofitted tractors were conducted to gather information regarding benefits and disadvantages of the retrofitting and to assess the construction of the platforms. A scoring system was developed for platform retrofitting, and weighted scores between zero and ten were calculated for tractor access before and after retrofitting. Access was improved on all tractors, although to varying degrees. The average post-retrofit weighted score was 6.3 (range 2.6 to 9.7), compared with the pre-retrofit average of 0.9 (range 0.3 to 1.6). Five tractors received a post-retrofit score of 8.0 or higher. None of the lower-scoring tractors fully met the specifications for placement of the bottom step or rear wheel guard, two key characteristics for runover prevention. Other characteristics associated with a lower post-retrofit score included a low bottom step, high step rises, absence of colored nosing, and the front handrail space not being filled in. Platform retrofitting had little effect on tractor operations and substantially improved ease of access. This is the first published evaluation of a design-based solution for tractor runover injuries. This study shows that general guidelines for retrofitting of safe access platforms can be successfully applied. Mechanisms to increase adherence to the key criteria of bottom step positioning and rear wheel guarding should be included in future promotion.

  9. An approach for modeling the influence of wheel tractor loads and vibration frequencies on soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verotti, M.; Servadio, P.; Belfiore, N. P.; Bergonzoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Both soil compaction and ground vibration are forms of environmental degradation that may be understood in the context of the vehicle-soil interaction process considered (Hildebrand et al., 2008). The transit of tractors on agricultural soil is often the main cause of soil compaction increasing. As known, this can be a serious problems for tillage and sowing and therefore the influence of all the affecting factors have been extensively studied in the last decades in order to understand their impact on the biosystem. There are factors related to the climate, namely to the rainfalls and temperature, and many others. Hence, it is not simple to figure out a complete model for predicting an index of compaction, for a given situation. Soil compaction models are important tools for controlling soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic and they are potentially useful technique to provide information concerning correct soil management. By means of such models, strategies and recommendations for prevention of soil compaction may be developed and specific advice may be given to farmers and advisers. In order to predict field wheeled and tracked vehicle performance, some empirical methods, used for off-road vehicle, were applied by Servadio (2010) on agricultural soil. The empirical indexes included, besides the soil strength, the load carried by the tire or track, some technical characteristics of the tire or track of the vehicle (tire or track width, tire or track wheel diameter, unloaded tire section height, number of wheel station in one track, tire deflection, total length of the belt track, the track pitch) as well as the vehicle passes. They have been validated with the tests results of agricultural vehicles over a range of soil in central Italy. Among the parameters which affect soil compaction, the water content of the soil, the axle load and number of vehicle passes proved to be the most important ones. The present paper concerns mainly vehicle

  10. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  11. Modelling of agricultural combination driver behaviour from the aspect of safety of movement.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Tadeusz; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Statistics show that the travel of agricultural machinery to a work area and their movement during labour is the source of many serious accidents. The most dangerous in consequences prove to be those that occur during transport and associated with maneuvering tractors and machinery (about 30% of all fatal accidents). It can be assumed that at least some of these accidents were caused indirectly by the specific design features of agricultural machines which adversely affect the driveability. The single- and multi-loop structures of the driver-vehicle system models are formulated to study the contributions of various preview and prediction strategies to the path tracking and dynamic performance of the articulated vehicle. In the presented study the compensatory model of driver utilizes the lateral acceleration of the tractor, roll angle of trailer sprung mass and the articulation rate as the internal motion feedback variables. The control model of steering of an agricultural set has been implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The model has been constructed with the use of stochastic methods and operational transmittances describing the various components of the system. The model operational transmittances has been estimated using Box-Jenkins and continuous-time process models from input-output data. The model has been tested using experimental data from road investigation of the agricultural set.

  12. The influence of tractor-seat height above the ground on lateral vibrations.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca

    2014-10-22

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  13. Development and testing of crop monitoring methods to improve global agricultural monitoring in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliams, S. J. B.; Bydekerke, L.

    2014-12-01

    The SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) is funded through the EC FPY7 Research programme with the particular aim to contribute to the GEOGLAM Research Agenda. It is a partnership of globally distributed expert organizations, focusses on developing innovative techniques and datasets in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterize cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, are used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series are be explored to better assess crop yield gaps and shifts in cultivation. The third research topic entails the development of best practices for assessing the impact of crop land and cropping system change on the environment. In support of the GEO JECAM (Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring) initiative, case studies in Ukraine, Russia, Europe, Africa, Latin America and China are carried out in order to explore possible methodological synergies and particularities according to different cropping systems. This presentation will report on the progress made with respect to the three topics above.

  14. Mission Designs for Demonstrating Gravity Tractor Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M.; Faber, N.; Eggl, S.; Morrison, D.; Clark, A.; Frost, C.; Jaroux, B. A.; Khetawat, V.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity tractor asteroid deflection relies on the gravitational attraction between the target and a nearby spacecraft; using low-thrust propulsion to change the target's trajectory slowly but continuously. Our team, based at the NASA Ames Mission Design Center, prepared designs for a Gravity Tractor Demonstration Mission (GTDM) for the European Commission's NEOShield initiative. We found five asteroids with well-known orbits and opportunities for efficient stand-alone demonstrations in the 2020s. We selected one object, 2000 FJ10, for a detailed design analysis. Our GTDM design has a 4 kW solar-electric propulsion system and launch mass of 1150 kg. For a nominal asteroid mass of 3 x 109 kg and diameter 150 m, and a hovering altitude 125 m above the asteroid's surface, GTDM would change FJ10's semi-major axis by 10 km over 2 years. To measure the deflection clearly and to permit safe hovering by the spacecraft, several months of survey and characterization are required prior to the active tractoring phase of the mission. Accurate tracking is also required after the tractoring phase, to ensure that the asteroid has indeed been deflected as intended. The GTDM design includes both spacecraft and Earth-based observations of FJ10 to verify the deflection. The estimated cost of GTDM is $280 million. Trajectory analysis for GTDM confirmed that the outcome of a deflection of any asteroid depends on when that deflection is performed. Compared to kinetic impactor deflection, the gradual deflection from a gravity tractor produces comparable results for a given total momentum transfer. However, a gravity tractor can have greater flexibility in the direction in which the target asteroid can be deflected. Asteroid deflection scenarios must be modeled carefully on a case-to-case basis. We will review implications of the results of the GTDM study to other proposed gravity tractor demonstrations, such as that included in NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission.

  15. MAC Europe 1991 campaign: AIRSAR/AVIRIS data integration for agricultural test site classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangiovanni, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiumara, A.

    1993-01-01

    During summer 1991, multi-sensor data were acquired over the Italian test site 'Otrepo Pavese', an agricultural flat area in Northern Italy. This area has been the Telespazio pilot test site for experimental activities related to agriculture applications. The aim of the investigation described in the following paper is to assess the amount of information contained in the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) and AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data, and to evaluate classification results obtained from each sensor data separately and from the combined dataset. All classifications are examined by means of the resulting confusion matrices and Khat coefficients. Improvements of the classification results obtained by using the integrated dataset are finally evaluated.

  16. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  17. Design and Analysis of an Active Helical Drive Downhole Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Yujia; LIU, Qingyou; CHEN, Yonghua; REN, Tao

    2017-03-01

    During oil-gas well drilling and completion, downhole tools and apparatus should be conveyed to the destination to complete a series of downhole works. Downhole tractors have been used to convey tools in complex wellbores, however a very large tractive force is needed to carry more downhole tools to accomplish works with high efficiency. A novel serial active helical drive downhole tractor which has significantly improved performance compared with previous work is proposed. All previously reported helical drive downhole tractors need stators to balance the torque generated by the rotator. By contrast, the proposed serial downhole tractor does not need a stator; several rotator-driven units should only be connected to one another to achieve a tractive force multifold higher than that was previously reported. As a result, the length of a single unit is shortened, and the motion flexibility of the downhole tractor is increased. The major performance indicators, namely, gear ratio, velocity, and tractive force, are analyzed. Experimental results show that the maximum tractive force of a single-unit prototype with a length of 900 mm is 165.3 kg or 1620 N. The analysis and experimental results show that the proposed design has considerable potential for downhole works.

  18. 75 FR 2153 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Tractor Tug FORTE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Tractor Tug FORTE AGENCY: Coast Guard... was issued for the tractor tug FORTE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The... Purpose The tractor tug FORTE will be used for offshore supply operations. The horizontal distance...

  19. A survey of tractors and rollover protective structures in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, P; Sjostrom, T; Clark, R E; Adams, D A

    2006-11-01

    A survey of farms in Washington State was conducted to determine tractor characteristics and the presence of rollover protective structures (ROPS) in a state with more inclusive rules on tractor retrofitting than federal regulations. A total of 544 valid surveys were completed from a proportional random sample across different types of farms. Responders indicated that 58% of tractors overall were equipped with ROPS, and 42% of the tractors without ROPS were exempt from the state rules. Seatbelts on tractors equipped with ROPS were reportedly used "sometimes" or more 30% of the time, and 17% of these tractors had no seatbelt installed. Tractors used for row crop farming were significantly more likely to be equipped with ROPS than those used for tree, vine, or hops farming. Older tractors were used for fewer hours, were less likely to be ROPS-equipped, and were less likely to be operated while wearing a seatbelt. The results were consistent with a positive effect of the Washington State ROPS requirements, demonstrated by the increased percentage of ROPS-equipped pre-1976 tractors, as compared to other states, and by the difference between ROPS-equipped tractors in exempt and non-exempt types of farming. The results point to the need for prevention activities to increase seatbelt use on ROPS-equipped tractors, and for further development of practical protection for tractors operating under overhead obstacles.

  20. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Glazing and Window Construction § 393.61 Truck and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  1. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Glazing and Window Construction § 393.61 Truck and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  2. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (<0.7-μm GF filter), and, to a lesser extent bound to the suspended-particle phase. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  3. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  4. Whole-Body Vibration Assessment of the M915A2 Truck Tractor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    lam, s Pd ImJ V: T* am U.34. embalm b*t Z..Vag" Febnmry 14, IM M915Z2 buck Xxpnut h :•lIFb haS I 1 0.0t/0.391 1.0 2 Y 0.04/0.191 .. ’• >:T: Z 0,03...15 Appendix A: List of manufacturers .............. 16 Appendix B: ISO tables and graphs ... ........... .. 17 List of figures Figure Page 1 ...M915A2 truck tractor .............. ............... 4 2. Data acquisition system ............. .............. 7 List of tables Table Page 1 . WBV test

  5. The rod of Aesculapios: John Haygarth (1740-1827) and Perkins' metallic tractors.

    PubMed

    Booth, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    James Gillray's cartoon Metallic Tractors, published in 1801, portrays Benjamin Perkins treating a boil on the nose of an alcoholic John Bull with a pair of metallic tractors. The tractors had been invented by his father, Elisha Perkins of Connecticut, and were supposed to relieve pain and other symptoms through the agency of animal magnetism. The tractors were revealed as nothing more than an expensive sham by Dr John Haygarth in Bath, who showed that wooden tractors were equally effective. Thus, he was one of the first to use a placebo in a single-blind clinical trial.

  6. Mission concepts and operations for asteroid mitigation involving multiple gravity tractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Mauro, David; Jaroux, Belgacem

    2013-09-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  7. Mission Concepts and Operations for Asteroid Mitigation Involving Multiple Gravity Tractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Jaroux, Belgacem; Mauro, David

    2012-01-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  8. Hands-On Activities and Challenge Tests in Agricultural and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poudel, D. D.; Vincent, L. M.; Anzalone, C.; Huner, J.; Wollard, D.; Clement, T.; DeRamus, A.; Blakewood, G.

    2005-01-01

    Many agricultural and environmental problems are interrelated and overlapping. Several agencies, including nonprofit organizations, have developed programs to educate schoolchildren about agricultural and environmental issues; however, programs that integrate both agricultural and environmental learning, especially among middle and high school…

  9. Image Processing Method for Automatic Straight Line Travel of an Agricultural Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Keiji; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Makino, Eiji; Kaneko, Shunich

    This paper describes an image processing method for the detection of the lateral displacement of an agricultural vehicle, such as a tractor. It achieves this by tracking the movement of the ground on images while detecting a lamp placed at a target point in a field by means of a computer vision system mounted on the tractor. The aim of this technology is to enable tractors to automatically travel in a straight line with high accuracy towards the target lamp. Some experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. [The potentials for errors in the hygienic assessment of the general vibrations in tractors].

    PubMed

    Ivanovich, E; Goranova, L; Enev, S

    1991-01-01

    The data for the parameters of the general vibrations in tractors are comparatively scanty and contradictory. In the present work are analyzed the most frequently met omissions and errors in the measurement and evaluation of the general vibrations, as well as the factors, which can effect the intensity of the general vibrations; constructive and technological peculiarities, technical state, rate of machine amortization, construction, damping qualities, and regulation of the seat, motion velocity, relief, type of the performed agricultural activity. The necessity for taking under consideration these factors in measuring the general vibrations and the hygiene interpretation of the data, as well as precise report on the daily, weekly and general exposure, in view of defining the total vibration loading, is underlined.

  11. Math on the Job. Tractor-Trailer Driver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of tractor-trailer drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to…

  12. Application of step-drawdown test for planning agricultural groundwater well maintenance in S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Sun

    2015-04-01

    Well efficiency decreases with time after development and the pumping rate is reduced sharply at a certain point. However, the rapid decrease of the efficiency definitely depends upon the physical characteristics of the aquifer, chemical properties of groundwater, pore clogging by adsorptive/precipitable materials, and use of groundwater well. In general, it is expected that an adequate and ongoing maintenance for the well is effective in extension of operating periods because major maintenance frequency requirement at municipal wells placed in the crystalline rock aquifer is known to be relatively longer. The proportion of agricultural wells (583,748) against the total groundwater ones (1,380,715) is 42.3% in 2011, S. Korea. Groundwater use accounts for 1.9 billion m3/year which indicates 48.9% of total amount available groundwater resources. Approximate 69% of the total agricultural public wells placed in crystalline rock aquifer have passed more than 10 years after development. In this study, the increase of well efficiency before and after the well disinfection/cleaning for agricultural groundwater wells in the mountains, plains, and coastal aquifer with the data of step-drawdown test was evaluated, respectively. With the concept of critical yield, the increase of available amount of groundwater was quantitatively analyzed after treatment. From the results, well efficiency increased approximately 1.5 to 4 times depending on pumping rate when the proper disinfection/cleaning methods to the wells were applied. In addition, it showed that the pumping rate of approximate 4-8% with the critical yield from step-drawdown test increased and these effects were the highest in wells which are more than 10 years elapsed. Therefore, it would be concluded that the well disinfection/cleaning methods for the purpose of increasing the efficiency are more effective for the wells that are older than 10 years.

  13. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  14. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    PubMed Central

    Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A. Javier; Boné, Antonio; Vidal, Mariano; García-Ramos, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus) in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM) and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h), three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m), and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy) were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed. PMID:25602272

  15. Design and testing of an agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait.

    PubMed

    Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A Javier; Boné, Antonio; Vidal, Mariano; García-Ramos, F Javier

    2015-01-16

    An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus) in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM) and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h), three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m), and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy) were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  16. Safety status of farm tractors that operate on public highways in four rural Kentucky counties.

    PubMed

    Cole, H P; Piercy, L R; Heinz, K L; Westneat, S C; Arrowsmith, H E; Raymond, K M

    2009-07-01

    Kentucky FFA students inspected 153 farm tractors for safety features that prevent operator injuries during tractor overturns, highway collisions, runovers, and power take-off (PTO) entanglements. Tractor mean age was 23.6 years (SD = 20.9). Rollover protective structures (ROPS) were present on 50.66% of tractors, but only 33.33% of these had functional seatbelts. Loose and damaged seats were found on 30.46% of tractors. In 38.99% of cases, tractor rear-wheel fenders exposed operators to moving tractor tires, and 48.67% of tractors had dangerously worn or damaged tires. Tractors with a narrow front-end stance comprised 16.11% of the total. Only 53.06% of the tractors had starters with secure hard cover by-pass starting shields that fully covered the starter terminals, and 37.37% had fully exposed terminals with no cover. PTO master shields with all parts present and undamaged were present on only 29.27% of the tractors, and in 39.02% of cases the entire shield was missing. Only 44.67% of the tractors had properly mounted and fully functional mounting and dismounting access steps and handholds. SMV emblems were missing on 53.64% of tractors and in the proper place and condition in only 25.83% of cases. Tractors with properly mounted and fully functional head and tail lights comprised 40.94% of the sample, and tractors with no functional lights comprised 24.16%. Properly mounted, clean, and functional rearview mirrors were present on only 19.87% of the tractors, and 69.54% had no rearview mirrors. The project increased farming and non-farming students' awareness of tractor safety issues, provided empirical data about the safety status of a sample of tractors that frequently travel public highways in four rural Kentucky farming counties, and promoted dialog about these issues with adult farmers and other community members with whom the students interacted.

  17. Hand-transmitted vibration from the steering wheel to drivers of a small four-wheel drive tractor.

    PubMed

    Goglia, V; Gospodarić, Z; Kosutić, S; Filipović, D

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents research results of the vibration transmitted from the steering wheel of the small tractor with a 4-wheel drive to the driver's hands. The vibration measurements were carried out on the tractor randomly chosen from the producer's store-house. Before testing the tractor was examined and adjusted following the producer's recommendations. The vibration levels were measured at idling and at full load. The vibration level on the steering wheel was measured and analyzed and the frequency spectra for the chosen working conditions were obtained. The frequency-weighted acceleration, given in m/s(-2), was calculated. The vibration total value was defined as the root-mean-square of the three component values. The obtained values are graphically represented in accordance with ISO/DIS 5349-1979 and ISO5349-1-2001. The vibration exposure for the predicted 10% prevalance of vibration-induced white finger in accordance with Annex C of the same standard was also tested.

  18. The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria).

    PubMed

    Grüneis, Heidelinde; Penker, Marianne; Höferl, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our scientific view on climate change adaptation (CCA) is unsatisfying in many ways: It is often dominated by a modernistic perspective of planned pro-active adaptation, with a selective focus on measures directly responding to climate change impacts and thus it is far from real-life conditions of those who are actually affected by climate change. Farmers have to simultaneously adapt to multiple changes. Therefore, also empirical climate change adaptation research needs a more integrative perspective on real-life climate change adaptations. This also has to consider "hidden" adaptations, which are not explicitly and directly motivated by CCA but actually contribute to the sector's adaptability to climate change. The aim of the present study is to develop and test an analytic framework that contributes to a broader understanding of CCA and to bridge the gap between scientific expertise and practical action. The framework distinguishes three types of CCA according to their climate related motivations: explicit adaptations, multi-purpose adaptations, and hidden adaptations. Although agriculture is among the sectors that are most affected by climate change, results from the case study of Tyrolean mountain agriculture show that climate change is ranked behind other more pressing "real-life-challenges" such as changing agricultural policies or market conditions. We identified numerous hidden adaptations which make a valuable contribution when dealing with climate change impacts. We conclude that these hidden adaptations have not only to be considered to get an integrative und more realistic view on CCA; they also provide a great opportunity for linking adaptation strategies to farmers' realities.

  19. Development of an agricultural biotechnology crop product: testing from discovery to commercialization.

    PubMed

    Privalle, Laura S; Chen, Jingwen; Clapper, Gina; Hunst, Penny; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Zhong, Cathy X

    2012-10-17

    "Genetically modified" (GM) or "biotech" crops have been the most rapidly adopted agricultural technology in recent years. The development of a GM crop encompasses trait identification, gene isolation, plant cell transformation, plant regeneration, efficacy evaluation, commercial event identification, safety evaluation, and finally commercial authorization. This is a lengthy, complex, and resource-intensive process. Crops produced through biotechnology are the most highly studied food or food component consumed. Before commercialization, these products are shown to be as safe as conventional crops with respect to feed, food, and the environment. This paper describes this global process and the various analytical tests that must accompany the product during the course of development, throughout its market life, and beyond.

  20. Farm tractors, and the use of seat belts and roll-over protective structures.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, T W; May, J J; Jenkins, P L

    1996-10-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) on farm tractors could significantly reduce the rate of fatal occupational injury on farms, but comparatively few tractors have them. Many of the policy discussions have focused on trying to identify the percentage of tractors that do not have ROPS, even though such a focus probably does not accurately represent effective protection by ROPS. This study investigates whether including differences in hours of usage, tractor activities, and seat belt use affects estimates of farm operators' protection by ROPS. In general, tractors used more hours a year were more likely to have ROPS. ROPS status also varied by tractor activity. When adjusting for seat belt use, effective ROPS protection is much less than when considering just ROPS status. Measures of the effective coverage of ROPS and policy responses should reflect these differences in hours, activities, and seat belt use.

  1. Operational characteristics of tractors driven by children on farms in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Marlenga, B; Pickett, W; Berg, R L; Murphy, D

    2004-01-01

    Farm tractors are an important source of traumatic injury for children on farms. There is, however, no documentation about the age and size of tractors that children are operating and little information about the frequency with which rollover protective structures (ROPS) are used. This study described tractors that children on farms in the U.S. and Canada were operating by age, horsepower, and the presence of ROPS, according to the age and gender of the farm children involved. As a sub-analysis of data compiled during a randomized controlled trial, a descriptive analysis was completed on work exposure data collected by telephone interview. Of the 1,113 children involved in the trial, 522 (47%) were reported to perform at least one job that involved the operation of a farm tractor, and 408 (36.7%) were operating tractors of at least 20 horsepower. The majority of these children were male. There was a wide range of ages and sizes of tractors operated. However, the majority of tractors were between 20 and 70 horsepower and manufactured after 1970. Nearly one-half of the tractors were equipped with ROPS, and these tended to be newer and larger tractors. This analysis provides new data about the broad range of tractors driven by farm children in the U.S. and Canada. The findings point to a need to re-examine the reliance on a single voluntary standard to mitigate the hazard of tractor rollovers and the need for an enhanced safety policy requiring all tractors operated by children be equipped with ROPS.

  2. Teachers' Use of Test-Item Banks for Student Assessment in North Carolina Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joy Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Higher expectations are on all parties to ensure students successfully perform on standardized tests. Specifically in North Carolina agriculture classes, students are given a CTE Post Assessment to measure knowledge gained and proficiency. Prior to students taking the CTE Post Assessment, teachers have access to a test item bank system that…

  3. Helical tractor beam: analytical solution of Rayleigh particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Luis; Acebal, Pablo; Garcia, Celia; Blaya, Salvador

    2015-08-10

    We analyze particle dynamics in an optical force field generated by helical tractor beams obtained by the interference of a cylindrical beam with a topological charge and a co-propagating temporally de-phased plane wave. We show that, for standard experimental conditions, it is possible to obtain analytical solutions for the trajectories of particles in such force field by using of some approximations. These solutions show that, in contrast to other tractor beams described before, the intensity becomes a key parameter for the control of particle trajectories. Therefore, by tuning the intensity value the particle can describe helical trajectories upstream and downstream, a circular trajectory in a fixed plane, or a linear displacement in the propagation direction. The approximated analytical solutions show good agreement to the corresponding numerical solutions of the exact dynamical differential equations.

  4. Using Tracer Tests to Estimate Vertical Recharge and Evaluate Influencing Factors for Irrigated Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled

  5. The Effect of Propellers and Nacelles on the Landing Speeds of Tractor Monoplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windler, Ray

    1932-01-01

    This paper reports wind-tunnel tests giving the lift coefficients of large-scale wing-nacelle combinations both with and without the propeller. The tests were made to show the effect of nacelles, and idling and stopped propellers on the landing speeds of tractor monoplanes. Four types of nacelles with various cowlings were used in numerous positions with respect to both a Clark Y and a thick airfoil. The effect of both the idling and stopped propeller on lift, and consequently on landing speed, was negligible. A nacelle with exposed engine cylinders when placed directly in front of an airfoil caused a slight reduction in lift, consequently an increase in landing speed, over the condition with the wing alone. With this exception no appreciable effect on landing speed was indicated for any of the other combinations.

  6. Competency Test Items for Applied Principles of Agribusiness and Natural Resources Occupations. Agricultural Production Component. A Report of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Jimmy G.; McGhee, Max B.

    An activity was undertaken to develop written criterion-referenced tests for the agricultural production component of Applied Principles of Agribusiness and Natural Resources Occupations. Intended for tenth grade students who have completed Fundamentals of Agribusiness and Natural Resources Occupations, applied principles were designed to consist…

  7. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted a tractor-trailer greenhouse gas emission regulation applicable to new and in-use 53-foot and longer box-type trailers and...

  8. 75 FR 52255 - Airworthiness Directives; Air Tractor, Inc. Models AT-802 and AT-802A Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...; AD 2010-17-18] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Air Tractor, Inc. Models AT-802 and AT- 802A... to read as follows: 2010-17-18 Air Tractor, Inc.: Amendment 39-16412; Docket No. FAA- 2010-0827...) Ensure that the hopper is empty. (3) Limit airspeed to 135 miles per hour (mph) indicated airspeed...

  9. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  10. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  11. CO{sub 2} Laser Ablation Propulsion Tractor Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sinko, John E.; Schlecht, Clifford A.

    2010-05-06

    Manipulation of objects at a distance has already been achieved with no small measure of success in the realm of microscopic objects on the scale size of nanometers to micrometers in applications including laser trapping and laser tweezers. However, there has been relatively little effort to apply such remote control to macroscopic systems. A space tractor beam could be applied to a wide range of applications, including removal of orbital debris, facilitation of spacecraft docking, adjustment of satellite attitude or orbital position, etc. In this paper, an ablative laser propulsion tractor beam is demonstrated based on radiation from a CO{sub 2} laser. Cooperative, layered polymer targets were used for remote impulse generation using a CO{sub 2} laser. The use of a structured ablatant enabling switching between thrust directional parity (i.e., forward or reverse) and imparting torque to a remote target. Fluence-dependent results are presented in the context of polymer ablation modeling work and with consideration of confined ablation effects.

  12. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  13. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFERY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  14. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  15. Development and testing of method for assessing and mapping agricultural areas susceptible to atrazine leaching in the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.

    2003-01-01

    In a joint effort by the Washington State Department of Agriculture, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency's Pesticide Root Zone Model and a Geographic Information System were used to develop and test a method for screening and mapping the susceptibility of ground water in agricultural areas to pesticide contamination. The objective was to produce a map that would be used by the Washington State Department of Agriculture to allocate resources for monitoring pesticide levels in ground water. The method was tested by producing a map showing susceptibility to leaching of the pesticide atrazine for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project, which encompasses an area of intensive agriculture in eastern Washington. The reliability of the atrazine map was assessed by using statistical procedures to determine whether the median of the percentage of atrazine simulated to leach below the root zone in wells where atrazine was detected was statistically greater than the median percentage at wells where atrazine was not detected (at or above 0.001 microgram per liter) in 134 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey. A statistical difference in medians was not found when all 134 wells were compared. However, a statistical difference was found in medians for two subsets of the 134 wells that were used in land-use studies (studies examining the quality of ground water beneath specific crops). The statistical results from wells from the land-use studies indicate that the model potentially can be used to map the relative susceptibility of agricultural areas to atrazine leaching. However, the distinction between areas of high and low susceptibility may not yet be sufficient to use the method for allocating resources to monitor water quality. Several options are offered for improving the reliability of future simulations.

  16. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  17. The relationship between agricultural intensification and biological control: experimental tests across Europe.

    PubMed

    Thies, Carsten; Haenke, Sebastian; Scherber, Christoph; Bengtsson, Janne; Bommarco, Riccardo; Clement, Lars W; Ceryngier, Piotr; Dennis, Christopher; Emmerson, Mark; Gagic, Vesna; Hawro, Violetta; Liira, Jaan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Winqvist, Camilla; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural intensification can affect biodiversity and related ecosystem services such as biological control, but large-scale experimental evidence is missing. We examined aphid pest populations in cereal fields under experimentally reduced densities of (1) ground-dwelling predators (-G), (2) vegetation-dwelling predators and parasitoids (-V), (3) a combination of (1) and (2) (-G-V), compared with open-fields (control), in contrasting landscapes with low vs. high levels of agricultural intensification (AI), and in five European regions. Aphid populations were 28%, 97%, and 199% higher in -G, -V, and -G-V treatments, respectively, compared to the open fields, indicating synergistic effects of both natural-enemy groups. Enhanced parasitoid: host and predator: prey ratios were related to reduced aphid population density and population growth. The relative importance of parasitoids and vegetation-dwelling predators greatly differed among European regions, and agricultural intensification affected biological control and aphid density only in some regions. This shows a changing role of species group identity in diverse enemy communities and a need to consider region-specific landscape management.

  18. Traumatic injuries in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; Myers, J R; Gerberich, S G

    2002-02-01

    The National Coalition for Agricultural Safety and Health (NCASH) in 1988 addressed issues in agriculture and noted "a sense of urgency... arose from the recognition of the unabating epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming . . ." This article provides an update to the NCASH conference on traumatic injuries in agriculture, a history on how the facts and figures were arrived at for the NCASH conference, and a current report on the status of traumatic injuries in agriculture in the U.S. Fatal and nonfatal injuries are addressed along with national and regional surveillance systems. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) was used for reporting national agricultural production fatal injuries from 1992-1998 (25.8 deaths per 100,000 workers), the Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF) 1993-1995 was used to report nonfatal injuries occurring nationally (7.5/100 workers), and Regional Rural Injury Studies I and II (RRIS-I and RRIS-II) were used to illustrate a regional approach along with in-depth, specific analyses. Fatality rates, which showed some decline in the 1980s, were fairly constant during the 1990s. Changes in nonfatal injury rates for this sector could not be assessed due to a lack of benchmark data. The main concerns identified in the 1989 NCASH report continue today: tractors are the leading cause of farm-related death due mostly to overturns; older farmers continue to be at the highest risk for farm fatalities; and traumatic injuries continue to be a major concern for youth living or working on U.S. farms. Fatal and nonfatal traumatic injuries associated with agricultural production are a major public health problem that needs to be addressed through comprehensive approaches that include further delineation of the problem, particularly in children and older adults, and identification of specific risk factors through analytic efforts. Continued development of relevant surveillance systems and implementation of appropriate

  19. The smooth (tractor) operator: insights of knowledge engineering.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Ralph H; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Serrano-Baquero, Daniel; McBride, Sara E; Beer, Jenay M; Rogers, Wendy A

    2012-11-01

    The design of and training for complex systems requires in-depth understanding of task demands imposed on users. In this project, we used the knowledge engineering approach (Bowles et al., 2004) to assess the task of mowing in a citrus grove. Knowledge engineering is divided into four phases: (1) Establish goals. We defined specific goals based on the stakeholders involved. The main goal was to identify operator demands to support improvement of the system. (2) Create a working model of the system. We reviewed product literature, analyzed the system, and conducted expert interviews. (3) Extract knowledge. We interviewed tractor operators to understand their knowledge base. (4) Structure knowledge. We analyzed and organized operator knowledge to inform project goals. We categorized the information and developed diagrams to display the knowledge effectively. This project illustrates the benefits of knowledge engineering as a qualitative research method to inform technology design and training.

  20. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-21

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold (23)Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.

  1. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  2. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one

  3. [Risk of noise-induced hearing loss in farm tractor operators].

    PubMed

    Solecki, L

    2001-01-01

    Studies of noise at work site of tractor operators showed that this parameter exceeds allowable values. In order to evaluate the risk of hearing loss in this occupational group, noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) values were determined. This parameter is a function of the audiometric frequency, duration of occupational exposure and noise exposure level (LEX,8 h). The procedure recommended by ISO-1999/1990 was used for calculations. The study covered two groups of operators: operators of ZM "Ursus" medium-power tractors (noise exposure level: LEX,8 h = 96.6 dB) and operators of high-power tractors of the same manufacture (LEX,8 h = 89.6 dB) The risk of hearing impairment was determined for the group of men aged 50 years, occupationally exposed to noise for a period of 30 years. The calculation was based on the mean value of expected hearing loss for three selected audiometric frequencies: 1000; 2000; and 4000 Hz. The study showed that the average (median; N0.50) expected hearing loss, excluding that associated with age, after 30 years of employment was 15 dB for operators of medium-power farm tractors, and 6 dB for operators of high-power tractors. The risk of hearing impairment due to occupational exposure to noise (exceeding the maximum allowable hearing loss of 27 dB; according to ISO-1999/1990) that may cause an acoustic trauma was 37.9% for medium-power tractors and 13.0% for high-power tractors. The results of the study show that noise at workplaces of farm tractor operators creates a high risk of hearing impairment.

  4. Formation flying solar-sail gravity tractors in displaced orbit for towing near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng; Baoyin, Hexi

    2009-11-01

    Several methods of asteroid deflection have been proposed in literature and the gravitational tractor is a new method using gravitational coupling for near-Earth object orbit modification. One weak point of gravitational tractor is that the deflection capability is limited by the mass and propellant of the spacecraft. To enhance the deflection capability, formation flying solar sail gravitational tractor is proposed and its deflection capability is compared with that of a single solar sail gravitational tractor. The results show that the orbital deflection can be greatly increased by increasing the number of the sails. The formation flying solar sail gravitational tractor requires several sails to evolve on a small displaced orbit above the asteroid. Therefore, a proper control should be applied to guarantee that the gravitational tractor is stable and free of collisions. Two control strategies are investigated in this paper: a loose formation flying realized by a simple controller with only thrust modulation and a tight formation realized by the sliding-mode controller and equilibrium shaping method. The merits of the loose and tight formations are the simplicity and robustness of their controllers, respectively.

  5. TRACTOR_DB: a database of regulatory networks in gamma-proteobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    González, Abel D; Espinosa, Vladimir; Vasconcelos, Ana T; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data on the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory system has been used in the past years to predict new regulatory elements (promoters, transcription factors (TFs), TFs' binding sites and operons) within its genome. As more genomes of gamma-proteobacteria are being sequenced, the prediction of these elements in a growing number of organisms has become more feasible, as a step towards the study of how different bacteria respond to environmental changes at the level of transcriptional regulation. In this work, we present TRACTOR_DB (TRAnscription FaCTORs' predicted binding sites in prokaryotic genomes), a relational database that contains computational predictions of new members of 74 regulons in 17 gamma-proteobacterial genomes. For these predictions we used a comparative genomics approach regarding which several proof-of-principle articles for large regulons have been published. TRACTOR_DB may be currently accessed at http://www.bioinfo.cu/Tractor_DB, http://www.tractor.lncc.br/ or at http://www.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Genomics/tractorDB. Contact Email id is tractor@cifn.unam.mx.

  6. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume I. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the first volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the 12 lessons included in this volume are selecting tractors and engines, diagnosing engine conditions, servicing electrical systems, servicing cooling systems, servicing fuel and…

  7. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  8. Design of a new sensor for determination of the effects of tractor field usage in southern Spain: soil sinkage and alterations in the cone index and dry bulk density.

    PubMed

    Valera, Diego L; Gil, Jesús; Agüera, Juan

    2012-10-08

    Variations in sinkage and cone index are of crucial importance when planning fieldwork, and for determining the trafficability of farm machinery. Many studies have highlighted the link between higher values of these parameters and dramatic decreases in crop yield. Variations in the dry bulk density and cone index of clayey soil in Southern Spain were measured following each of five successive passes over the same land with the three types of tractor most widely used in the area (tracked, two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive). In addition, sinkage (rut depth) of the running gear was measured using a laser microrelief profile meter. This device, which integrates three sensors, was specifically designed for these experiments, as was an electrical penetrometer to determine the cone index, and both instruments proved reliable and accurate in the field. The main goal of this study was to design, manufacture and test these new devices. The first pass caused most soil alteration when compared to successive passes for all types of tractor tested and soil conditions prevailing during the tests. (Heavier) four-wheel drive tractors were found to cause greater soil damage (sinkage, cone index and dry bulk density) than two-wheel drive and track tractors. There was no statistically significant difference between the two latter types. The greatest alterations were recorded in the top 10 cm of the soil. The results show that soil compaction should be avoided as much as possible. This can be achieved by ensuring that tractors always travel along the same tracks, especially in the wet season. At present these aspects are not considered by farmers in this area.

  9. Health hazards to children in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wilk, V A

    1993-09-01

    Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture.

  10. Operation of agricultural test fields for study of stressed crops by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toler, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A test site for the study of winter wheat development and collection of ERTS data was established in September of 1973. The test site is a 10 mile square area located 12.5 miles west of Amarillo, Texas on Interstate Hwy. 40, in Randall and Potter counties. The center of the area is the Southwestern Great Plains Research Center at Bushland, Texas. Within the test area all wheat fields were identified by ground truth and designated irrigated or dryland. The fields in the test area other than wheat were identified as to pasture or the crop that was grown. A ground truth area of hard red winter wheat was established west of Hale Center, Texas. Maps showing the location of winter wheat fields in excess of 40 acres in size within a 10 mile radius were supplied NASA. Satellite data was collected for this test site (ERTS-1).

  11. Multi-frequency and polarimetric radar backscatter signatures for discrimination between agricultural crops at the Flevoland experimental test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Villasenor, J.; Klein, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the calibration and analysis of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar backscatter signatures over an agriculture test site in the Netherlands. The calibration procedure involved two stages: in the first stage, polarimetric and radiometric calibrations (ignoring noise) were carried out using square-base trihedral corner reflector signatures and some properties of the clutter background. In the second stage, a novel algorithm was used to estimate the noise level in the polarimetric data channels by using the measured signature of an idealized rough surface with Bragg scattering (the ocean in this case). This estimated noise level was then used to correct the measured backscatter signatures from the agriculture fields. We examine the significance of several key parameters extracted from the calibrated and noise-corrected backscatter signatures. The significance is assessed in terms of the ability to uniquely separate among classes from 13 different backscatter types selected from the test site data, including eleven different crops, one forest and one ocean area. Using the parameters with the highest separation for a given class, we use a hierarchical algorithm to classify the entire image. We find that many classes, including ocean, forest, potato, and beet, can be identified with high reliability, while the classes for which no single parameter exhibits sufficient separation have higher rates of misclassification. We expect that modified decision criteria involving simultaneous consideration of several parameters increase performance for these classes.

  12. Frequency and severity of injuries to operators during overturns of farm tractors.

    PubMed

    Cole, H P; Myers, M L; Westneat, S C

    2006-05-01

    Previous estimates of operator death from farm tractor overturn events range from 0.03 to 0.68. This study provided population-based estimates of the denominator of total farm tractor overturns and the frequency of six classes of overturn injury outcomes for tractors with and without rollover protective structures (ROPS). A 40-item telephone survey collected information from a random sample of 6,063 (8.0%) Kentucky farms about each farm's most recent overturn. A total of 551 (9.1%) farms reported overturns, and 5,512 (90.1%) reported no overturns. Injury outcomes for 443 overturns of non-ROPS tractors and 89 ROPS tractors were distributed as follows: no or minor injury (non-ROPS: 70.43%; ROPS: 82.02%), outpatient treatment (non-ROPS: 21.90%; ROPS: 9.00%), hospital admission (non-ROPS: 15.35%; ROPS: 3.37%), temporary disability (non-ROPS: 13.54%; ROPS: 14.61%), permanent disability (non-ROPS: 3.16%; ROPS: 0.00%), and death (non-ROPS: 5.42%; ROPS: 1.12%). (Percents total to more than 100 because some operators treated as outpatients were subsequently hospitalized, disabled, or died.) The observed 0.054 probability of death from overturn of non-ROPS tractors in this sample was corrected for the proportion of farms that went out of business prior to the survey and thus were excluded from the sampling frame. The adjusted 0.08 probability of death from overturn of a non-ROPS tractor is five times smaller than the NIOSH estimate of 0.40. The discrepancy lies in the much larger denominator of all non-fatal and fatal overturns than assumed previously.

  13. Proposed modification to avoidance test with Eisenia fetida to assess metal toxicity in agricultural soils affected by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Víctor; Verdejo, José; Mondaca, Pedro; Verdugo, Gabriela; Gaete, Hernán; Hodson, Mark E; Neaman, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Use of avoidance tests is a quick and cost-effective method of assessing contaminants in soils. One option for assessing earthworm avoidance behavior is a two-section test, which consists of earthworms being given the choice to move between a test soil and a control substrate. For ecological relevance, tested soils should be field-contaminated soils. For practical reasons, artificial soils are commonly used as the control substrate. Interpretation of the test results compromised when the test soil and the artificial substrate differ in their physico-chemical properties other than just contaminants. In this study we identified the physico-chemical properties that influence avoidance response and evaluated the usefulness of adjusting these in the control substrate in order to isolate metal-driven avoidance of field soils by earthworms. A standardized two-section avoidance test with Eisenia fetida was performed on 52 uncontaminated and contaminated (Cu >155mgkg(-1), As >19mgkg(-1)) agricultural soils from the Aconcagua River basin and the Puchuncaví Valley in Chile. Regression analysis indicated that the avoidance response was determined by soil organic matter (OM), electrical conductivity (EC) and total soil Cu. Organic matter content of the artificial substrate was altered by peat additions and EC by NaCl so that these properties matched those of the field soils. The resultant EC80 for avoidance (indicative of soils of "limited habitat") was 433mg Cu kg(-1) (339 - 528mgkg(-1) 95% confidence intervals). The earthworm avoidance test can be used to assess metal toxicity in field-contaminated soils by adjusting physico-chemical properties (OM and EC) of the artificial control substrate in order to mimic those of the field-collected soil.

  14. Complementing computationally predicted regulatory sites in Tractor_DB using a pattern matching approach.

    PubMed

    Guía, Marylens Hernández; Pérez, Abel González; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Vasconcelos, Ana T; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2005-01-01

    Prokaryotic genomes annotation has focused on genes location and function. The lack of regulatory information has limited the knowledge on cellular transcriptional regulatory networks. However, as more phylogenetically close genomes are sequenced and annotated, the implementation of phylogenetic footprinting strategies for the recognition of regulators and their regulons becomes more important. In this paper we describe a comparative genomics approach to the prediction of new gamma-proteobacterial regulon members. We take advantage of the phylogenetic proximity of Escherichia coli and other 16 organisms of this subdivision and the intensive search of the space sequence provided by a pattern-matching strategy. Using this approach we complement predictions of regulatory sites made using statistical models currently stored in Tractor_DB, and increase the number of transcriptional regulators with predicted binding sites up to 86. All these computational predictions may be reached at Tractor_DB (www.bioinfo.cu/Tractor_DB, www.tractor.lncc.br, www.ccg.unam.mx/Computational_Genomics/tractorDB/). We also take a first step in this paper towards the assessment of the conservation of the architecture of the regulatory network in the gamma-proteobacteria through evaluating the conservation of the overall connectivity of the network.

  15. Tractor Supply Company Agrees to Implement Company-Wide Compliance Program to Resolve Clean Air Act Violations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice today announced a settlement with Tractor Supply Company Inc. and Tractor Supply Company of Texas L.P., that resolves allegations that the companies impor

  16. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for tractors above 26,000...

  17. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for tractors above 26,000...

  18. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for tractors above 26,000...

  19. Performance Objectives, Task Analysis, Learning Content, Content Limits, and Domain Referenced Tests for the Agricultural Chemicals Catalog. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William; And Others

    This document contains Indiana agricultural chemicals curriculum materials based on the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (VTECS) Agricultural Chemicals Catalog. It is intended to improve preparation of high school and adult students for handling and using agricultural chemicals and for jobs as chemical salespersons or chemical…

  20. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  1. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  2. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  3. Encouraging farmers to retrofit tractors: a qualitative analysis of risk perceptions among a group of high-risk farmers in New York.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J A; May, J J; Paap, K; Purschwitz, M A; Emmelin, M

    2008-01-01

    Tractor rollovers continue to be one of the most frequent causes of agricultural fatalities. Despite knowledge of rollovers and the efficacy of rollover protective structures (ROPS), few New York farmers have considered installing ROPS on their unprotected tractors. Qualitative interviews conducted with an "at-risk" segment of the New York farming community indicate that there are a number of barriers to safety in general and to retrofitting, in particular. The following themes and categories emerged in relation to safety and risk taking: constant exposures to risk with positive outcomes normalizes risk; the modeling of risk by significant others positions risk as part of a farming identity; and the pressure to reduce costs, save time, and accept risk frames risk-taking as the cost-effective option (especially in regard to retrofitting, which farmers believe is both expensive and time-consuming). Recommendations for researchers planning retrofitting interventions would be to focus safety messages on the risk to significant others or on the financial impact of rollovers, and to provide financial incentives and assistance to farmers considering retrofitting.

  4. Tractors and twistors from conformal Cartan geometry: a gauge theoretic approach II. Twistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, J.; François, J.

    2017-04-01

    Tractor and Twistor bundles provide natural conformally covariant calculi on 4D-Riemannian manifolds. They have different origins but are closely related, and usually constructed bottom–up through prolongation of defining differential equations. We propose alternative top–down gauge theoretic constructions, starting from the conformal Cartan bundle P and its vectorial E and spinorial {E associated bundles. Our key ingredient is the dressing field method of gauge symmetry reduction, which allows tractors and twistors and their associated connections to exhibit as gauge fields of a non-standard kind as far as Weyl rescaling transformation is concerned. By non-standard we mean that they implement the gauge principle of physics, but are of a different geometric nature than the well-known differential geometric objects usually underlying gauge theories. We provide the corresponding BRST treatment. In a companion paper we dealt with tractors, in the present one we address the case of twistors.

  5. Evaluation of Corrosion Failure in Tractor-Trailer Brake System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, DF

    2002-10-22

    As reported to ORNL, concomitant with the introduction of different deicing and anti-icing compounds, there was an increase in the brake failure rate of tractor-trailer trucks. A forensic evaluation of a failed brake system was performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopic evaluation showed corrosion to be mostly confined to the brake table/lining interface. The corrosion is non-uniform as is to be expected for plain carbon steel in chloride environments. This initial analysis found no evidence for the chlorides of calcium and magnesium, which are the newly introduced deicing and antiicing compounds and are less soluble in water than the identified chlorides of sodium and potassium, in the scale. The result could be as a result of non-exposure of the examined brake table to calcium and magnesium chloride. The mechanisms for the increased failure rate are postulated as being an increased rate of corrosion due to positive shifts in the corrosion potential, and an increased amount of corrosion due to an increased ''time of wetness'' that results from the presence of hygroscopic salts. Laboratory scale evaluation of the corrosion of plain carbon steel in simulated deicing and anti-icing solutions need to be performed to determine corrosion rates and morphological development of corrosion product, to compare laboratory data to in-service data, and to rank economically feasible replacement materials for low carbon steel. In addition, the mechanical behavior of the lining attached to the brake shoe table needs to be assessed. It is opined that an appropriate adjustment of materials could easily allow for a doubling of a brake table/lining lifetime. Suggestions for additional work, to clarify the mechanisms of rust jacking and to develop possible solutions, are described.

  6. Testing the Need for Replication of Eddy Covariance Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurements over Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. M.; Amiro, B. D.; Gervais, M.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance method directly measures carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes for long periods of time and with footprints up to hundreds of meters in size. Any ecosystem process that alters how gases and energy move between the atmosphere and soil/vegetation can affect these fluxes. Eddy covariance is vulnerable to systematic errors and uncertainy, particular through relying on assumptions about surface characteristics. Additionally, spatial variation within a site can cause more uncertainty in these measurements and lack of replication in many eddy covariance studies makes statistical analysis of carbon fluxes challenging. We tested if there are significant differences between co-located and simultaneous CO2 flux measurements over a uniform crop surface, and if the differences increase if we measure different flux footprint areas over the same field. During the summer of 2014, three matched instrumented 2.5-m high towers were co-located and then periodically separated by moving at 50 m intervals along a north-south transect on an alfalfa/trefoil field and a spring wheat field in Southern Manitoba, Canada to compare CO­2 fluxes. Georeferenced leaf area index measurements were taken in 50 m grid of each field to establish uniformity of the source/sink within a footprint. Diurnal differences of similar magnitude in the CO2 ­fluxes were found in both the co-located experiment and the spatially separated intervals. Despite rigorous calibration during the experiment, some differences were caused by the measurement systems rather than by variation within the field. Interpretation of the spatial variation in leaf area index is being used to determine the contribution caused by difference in source/sink contributions to the flux footprint areas when the towers were spatially separated.

  7. Towing Asteroids with Gravity Tractors Enhanced by Tethers and Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Haijun; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Material collected from an asteroid's surface can be used to increase gravitational attraction between the asteroid and a Gravity Tractor (GT); the spacecraft therefore operates more effectively and is referred to as an Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT). The use of tethers and solar sails to further improve effectiveness and simplify operations is investigated. By employing a tether, the asteroidal material can be placed close to the asteroid while the spacecraft is stationed farther away, resulting in a better safety margin and improved thruster efficiency. A solar sail on a spacecraft can naturally provide radial offset and inter-spacecraft separation required for multiple EGTs.

  8. A three body dynamic simulation of a seated tractor rocket escape system for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondler, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    In the tractor-rocket seated-extraction candidate system for Space Shuttle Orbiter crew escape, the crewmember is pulled from his seat and away from the Orbiter via an elastic pendant, using a system of rails to guide the extraction trajectory through an opening on the window frame for flight deck crew and through the side hatch for the middeck crew. A three-body simulation has been developed to model the flight-mechanics aspects of the concept, where the three bodies are the astronaut (six DOF), the tractor rocket (six DOF), and the Shuttle Orbiter (three DOF); attention is given to crewmembers' clearance of the Orbiter structure and engine plumes.

  9. Testing the effect of a science-enhanced curriculum on the science achievement and agricultural competency of secondary agricultural education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, James Christopher

    Scope and Method of Study. The purpose of this study was to determine if a science-enhanced curriculum produced by the Center for Agricultural and Environmental Research and Training (CAERT) taught in a secondary level animal science or horticulture course would improve students' understanding of selected scientific principles significantly, when compared to students who were instructed using a traditional curriculum. A secondary purpose was to determine the effect that the science-enhanced CAERT curriculum would have on students' agricultural knowledge when compared to students who were instructed using a traditional curriculum. The design of the study was ex post facto, causal comparative because no random assignment of the treatment group occurred. Findings and Conclusions. No statistically significant difference was found between the treatment and comparison groups regarding science achievement. However, the mean score of the treatment group was slightly larger than the comparison group indicating a slightly higher achievement level; a "Small" effect size (d = .16) for this difference was calculated. It was determined that a statistically significant difference (p < .05) existed in agriculture competency scores in animal science (p = .001) and horticulture (p = .000) as a result of the treatment. Moreover, this was considered to be a "very large" effect (d = 1.18) in animal science and a "large" effect (d = .92) in horticulture. When considering student achievement in science, this study found that the use of the science-enhanced CAERT curriculum did not result in a statistically significant increase (p < .05) in student performance as determined by the TerraNova3 science proficiency examination. However, students who were instructed using the CAERT curriculum scored better overall than those who were instructed using a "traditional" curriculum.

  10. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  11. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal*

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition—specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  12. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary; Knee, Bill; Franzese, Oscar; Pollock, Paul; Coleman, Daniel; Janajreh, Ibrahim; Haas, Steven; Frey, Norm; Law, Harry; Johnson, Eric; Lawson, Robert; Petrolino, Joe; Rice, Dave

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  13. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... inches). The maximum radius of the corner arcs shall not exceed 152 mm (6 inches). The long axis of...

  14. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... inches). The maximum radius of the corner arcs shall not exceed 152 mm (6 inches). The long axis of...

  15. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... inches). The maximum radius of the corner arcs shall not exceed 152 mm (6 inches). The long axis of...

  16. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  17. The Development of Procedural Knowledge in Adults Engaged in a Tractor-Trailer Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Nelson

    1994-01-01

    Studied development of procedural knowledge in 14 adults, aged 18 to 35 years, engaged in a novel task using a toy tractor-trailer rig. Results revealed three phases of development in subjects' knowledge of steering procedures and the rig's movement patterns, and their use of feedback information. Subjects also manifested different levels of…

  18. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  19. A History of the Caterpillar Tractor Company's Use of Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeder, Gerry A.

    Film historians have tended to overlook the industrial film even though it has been widely used as a sales tool since early in this century. The Caterpillar Tractor Company was one of the first to adopt this medium as a means of demonstrating what its machines could do in a variety of situations. While other types of films have been made by…

  20. The Mechanization of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Wayne D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses technological innovations affecting the economic and social basis of farm life, focusing on trends, farm equipment (plows, reaping tools, tractors, and harvesters), productivity, and influence of computers in all phases of agribusiness. (JN)

  1. A Summary of the Experimental Results for a Generic Tractor-Trailer in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot and 12-Foot Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Satran, Dale R.; Heineck, James T.; Walker, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental measurements of a generic tractor-trailer were obtained in two wind tunnels at Ames Research Center. After a preliminary study at atmospheric conditions in the 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel, additional testing was conducted at Reynolds numbers corresponding to full-scale highway speeds in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel. To facilitate computational modeling, the 1:8-scale geometry, designated the Generic Conventional Model, included a simplified underbody and omitted many small-scale details. The measurements included overall and component forces and moments, static and dynamic surface pressures, and three-component particle image velocimetry. This summary report highlights the effects of numerous drag reduction concepts and provides details of the model installation in both wind tunnels. To provide a basis for comparison, the wind-averaged drag coefficient was tabulated for all configurations tested. Relative to the baseline configuration representative of a modern class-8 tractor-trailer, the most effective concepts were the trailer base flaps and trailer belly box providing a drag-coefficient reduction of 0.0855 and 0.0494, respectively. Trailer side skirts were less effective yielding a drag reduction of 0.0260. The database of this experimental effort is publicly available for further analysis.

  2. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  3. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  4. Wind-drag estimation in a traffic accident involving a motor scooter and a tractor-trailer.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Seung-Won; Lee, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Jae-Geun; Park, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hong-Seok; Choi, Young-Shik

    2012-07-01

    This case report describes a noncontact traffic accident involving a motor scooter and a tractor-trailer with a focus on the wind-drag effect. We used load cells to measure the drag force acting on a substantially similar motor scooter when a substantially similar tractor-trailer passes by it, taking into consideration various speeds of the tractor-trailer and distances between the two vehicles. A three-dimensional steady-state flow analysis was also performed by using the CFX program for computational fluid dynamics to examine the streamlines and the pressure distribution around the tractor-trailer at various speeds. From the experiment, for a separation distance of 1.0 m (3.28 ft) and a speed of 90 km/h (55.9 mph), the maximum resultant drag force is 124.5 N (28 lb); this constitutes a degree of force that could abruptly disrupt the stability in maneuvering by an operator who is unaware of the approaching tractor-trailer. In addition, a single equation that relates the tractor-trailer speed to the drag force that acts on the motor scooter was derived on the basis of the Reynolds number (Re) and the wind-drag coefficient (C(d)): C(d) = 1.298 × 10(-7) Re.

  5. Wind tunnel measurements of the dilution of tailpipe emissions downstream of a car, a light-duty truck, and a heavy-duty truck tractor head.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor W C; Hildemann, Lynn M; Chang, Cheng-hisn

    2009-06-01

    The particle and gaseous pollutants in vehicle exhaust emissions undergo rapid dilution with ambient air after exiting the tailpipe. The rate and extent of this dilution can greatly affect both the size evolution of primary exhaust particles and the potential for formation of ultrafine particles. Dilution ratios were measured inside of a wind tunnel in the region immediately downstream of the tailpipe using model vehicles (approximately one-fifth to one-seventh scale models) representing a light-duty truck, a passenger car, and a heavy-duty tractor head (without the trailer). A tracer gas (ethene) was released at a measured flow rate from the tailpipe, and 60 sampling probes placed downstream of the vehicle simultaneously sampled gas tracer concentrations in the near-wake (first few vehicle heights) and far-wake regions (beyond 10 vehicle heights). Tests using different tunnel wind speeds show the range of dilution ratios that can be expected as a function of vehicle type and downstream distance (i.e., time). The vehicle shape quite strongly influences dilution profiles in the near-wake region but is much less important in the far-wake region. The tractor generally produces higher dilution rates than the automobile and light-duty truck under comparable conditions.

  6. The sustainability of changes in agricultural technology: The carbon, economic and labour implications of mechanisation and synthetic fertiliser use.

    PubMed

    Gathorne-Hardy, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    New agricultural technologies bring multiple impacts which are hard to predict. Two changes taking place in Indian agriculture are a transition from bullocks to tractors and an associated replacement of manure with synthetic fertilisers. This paper uses primary data to model social, environmental and economic impacts of these transitions in South India. It compares ploughing by bullocks or tractors and the provision of nitrogen from manure or synthetic urea for irrigated rice from the greenhouse gas (GHG), economic and labour perspective. Tractors plough nine times faster than bullocks, use substantially less labour, with no significant difference in GHG emissions. Tractors are twice as costly as bullocks yet remain more popular to hire. The GHG emissions from manure-N paddy are 30 % higher than for urea-N, largely due to the organic matter in manure driving methane emissions. Labour use is significantly higher for manure, and the gender balance is more equal. Manure is substantially more expensive as a source of nutrients compared to synthetic nutrients, yet remains popular when available. This paper demonstrates the need to take a broad approach to analysing the sustainability impacts of new technologies, as trade-offs between different metrics are common.

  7. A Benchmark of Tractor Trailer Operator Training Between the United States Army’s 37th Transportation Command and a Selected Civilian Industry Leader

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    ELECTE n "FEB 22 1994j3 A BENCHMARK OF TRACTOR TRAILER OPERATOR TRAINING BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES ARMY’S 37TH TRANSPORTATION COMMAND AND , 4 !*-" A...TRACTOR TRAILER OPERATOR TRAINING BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES ARMY’S 37TH TRANSPORTATION COMMAND AND A SELECTED CIVILIAN INDUSTRY LEADER THESIS Stephen J...LAL/93S-29 A BENCHMARK OF TRACTOR TRAILER OPERATOR TRAINING BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES ARMY’S 37TH TRANSPORTATION COMMAND AND A SELECTED CIVILIAN

  8. Quantifying driver's field-of-view in tractors: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Issachar; Byran, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    When driving a car, the visual awareness is important for operating and controlling the vehicle. When operating a tractor, it is even more complex. This is because the driving is always accompanied with another task (e.g., plough) that demands constant changes of body postures, to achieve the needed Field-of-View (FoV). Therefore, the cockpit must be well designed to provide best FoV. Today, the driver's FoV is analyzed mostly by computer simulations of a cockpit model and a Digital Human Model (DHM) positioned inside. The outcome is an 'Eye view' that displays what the DHM 'sees'. This paper suggests a new approach that adds quantitative information to the current display; presented on three tractor models as case studies. Based on the results, the design can be modified. This may assist the engineer, to analyze, compare and improve the design, for better addressing the driver needs.

  9. Co-Simulation Research of the Mechanical-Hydraulic-Control Coupling System of ITER Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Luo, Minzhou; Mei, Tao; Yao, Damao

    2009-06-01

    The virtual prototyping models of the mechanical, hydraulic and control system of the ITER tractor were built with CATIA, ADAMS and MATLAB/Simulink respectively according to its heavy load and high precision characteristics, and the data transfer between the different models was accomplished by the integration interface between different software. Consequently the virtual experimental platform for the multi-disciplinary co-simulation was established. A co-simulation study of the mechanical-hydraulic-control coupling system of the ITER tractor was carried out. The synchronization servo control of parallel hydraulic cylinders was implemented, and the tracking control of the preconcerted trajectory of the hydraulic cylinders was realized on the established experimental platform. This paper presents the optimization design and technology rebuilding for the complicated coupling system with its theoretic foundation and co-simulation virtual experimental platform.

  10. Optical pulling force on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh sphere in Bessel tractor polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Yang, R. P.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    The optical radiation force induced by Bessel (vortex) beams on a magneto-dielectric subwavelength sphere is investigated with particular emphasis on the beam polarization and order l (or topological charge). The analysis is focused on identifying the regions and some of the conditions to achieve retrograde motion of the sphere centered on the axis of wave propagation of the incident beam, or shifted off-axially. Exact non-paraxial analytical solutions are established, and computations for linear, circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane wave components forming the Bessel (vortex) beams by means of the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the tractor (i.e. reversal) behavior of the force. This effect results in the pulling of the magneto-dielectric sphere against the forward linear momentum density flux associated with the incoming waves. Should some conditions related to the choice of the beam parameters as well as the permittivity and permeability of the sphere be met, the optical force vanishes and reverses sign. Moreover, the beam polarization is shown to affect differently the axial negative pulling force for either the zeroth- or the first-order Bessel beam. When the sphere is centered on the beam‧s axis, the axial force component is always negative for the zeroth-order Bessel beam except for the radial and azimuthal polarization configurations. Nonetheless, for the first-order Bessel beam, the axial force is negative for the radial polarization case only. Additional tractor beam effects arise when the sphere departs from the center of the beam. It is also demonstrated that the tractor beam effect arises from the force component originating from the cross-interaction between the electric and magnetic dipoles. Potential applications are in particle manipulation, optical levitation, tractor beam tweezers, and other emergent technologies using polarized Bessel beams on

  11. Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

  12. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  13. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  14. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  15. Gravity, two times, tractors, Weyl invariance, and six-dimensional quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, R.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2010-09-01

    Fefferman and Graham showed some time ago that four-dimensional conformal geometries could be analyzed in terms of six-dimensional, ambient, Riemannian geometries admitting a closed homothety. Recently, it was shown how conformal geometry provides a description of physics manifestly invariant under local choices of unit systems. Strikingly, Einstein’s equations are then equivalent to the existence of a parallel scale tractor (a six-component vector subject to a certain first order covariant constancy condition at every point in four-dimensional spacetime). These results suggest a six-dimensional description of four-dimensional physics, a viewpoint promulgated by the 2 times physics program of Bars. The Fefferman-Graham construction relies on a triplet of operators corresponding, respectively, to a curved six-dimensional light cone, the dilation generator and the Laplacian. These form an sp(2) algebra which Bars employs as a first class algebra of constraints in a six-dimensional gauge theory. In this article four-dimensional gravity is recast in terms of six-dimensional quantum mechanics by melding the 2 times and tractor approaches. This parent formulation of gravity is built from an infinite set of six-dimensional fields. Successively integrating out these fields yields various novel descriptions of gravity including a new four-dimensional one built from a scalar doublet, a tractor-vector multiplet and a conformal class of metrics.

  16. Local unit invariance, back-reacting tractors and the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Waldron, A.

    2012-02-01

    When physics is expressed in a way that is independent of local choices of unit systems, Riemannian geometry is replaced by conformal geometry. Moreover masses become geometric, appearing as Weyl weights of tractors (conformal multiplets of fields necessary to keep local unit invariance manifest). The relationship between these weights and masses is through the scalar curvature. As a consequence mass terms are spacetime dependent for off-shell gravitational backgrounds, but happily constant for physical, Einstein manifolds. Unfortunately this introduces a naturalness problem because the scalar curvature is proportional to the cosmological constant. By writing down tractor stress tensors (multiplets built from the standard stress tensor and its first and second derivatives), we show how back-reaction solves this naturalness problem. We also show that classical back-reaction generates an interesting potential for scalar fields. We speculate that a proper description of how physical systems couple to scale, could improve our understanding of naturalness problems caused by the disparity between the particle physics and observed, cosmological constants. We further give some ideas how an ambient description of tractor calculus could lead to a Ricci-flat/CFT correspondence which generalizes the AdS side of Maldacena's duality to a Ricci-flat space of one higher dimension.

  17. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  19. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  20. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  1. Visualization of Agriculture Data Using Self-Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruß, Georg; Kruse, Rudolf; Schneider, Martin; Wagner, Peter

    The importance of carrying out effective and sustainable agriculture is getting more and more obvious. In the past, additional fallow ground could be tilled to raise production. Nevertheless, even in industrialized countries agriculture can still improve on its overall yield. Modern technology, such as GPS-based tractors and sensor-aided fertilization, enables fanners to optimize their use of resources, economically and ecologically. However, these modern technologies create heaps of data that are not as easy to grasp and to evaluate as they have once been. Therefore, techniques or methods are required which use those data to their full capacity — clearly being a data mining task. This paper presents some experimental results on real agriculture data that aid in the first part of the data mining process: understanding and visualizing the data. We present interesting conclusions concerning fertilization strategies which result from data mining.

  2. Impact of Automation on Drivers' Performance in Agricultural Semi-Autonomous Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, B; Mann, D D

    2015-04-01

    Drivers' inadequate mental workload has been reported as one of the negative effects of driving assistant systems and in-vehicle automation. The increasing trend of automation in agricultural vehicles raises some concerns about drivers' mental workload in such vehicles. Thus, a human factors perspective is needed to identify the consequences of such automated systems. In this simulator study, the effects of vehicle steering task automation (VSTA) and implement control and monitoring task automation (ICMTA) were investigated using a tractor-air seeder system as a case study. Two performance parameters (reaction time and accuracy of actions) were measured to assess drivers' perceived mental workload. Experiments were conducted using the tractor driving simulator (TDS) located in the Agricultural Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba. Study participants were university students with tractor driving experience. According to the results, reaction time and number of errors made by drivers both decreased as the automation level increased. Correlations were found among performance parameters and subjective mental workload reported by the drivers.

  3. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  4. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop.

    PubMed

    Recatalá, L; Sánchez, J; Arbelo, C; Sacristán, D

    2010-12-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC(50)) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  5. Towards Autonomous Agriculture: Automatic Ground Detection Using Trinocular Stereovision

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Giulio; Milella, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a challenging problem, particularly when the domain is unstructured, as in an outdoor agricultural setting. Thus, advanced perception systems are primarily required to sense and understand the surrounding environment recognizing artificial and natural structures, topology, vegetation and paths. In this paper, a self-learning framework is proposed to automatically train a ground classifier for scene interpretation and autonomous navigation based on multi-baseline stereovision. The use of rich 3D data is emphasized where the sensor output includes range and color information of the surrounding environment. Two distinct classifiers are presented, one based on geometric data that can detect the broad class of ground and one based on color data that can further segment ground into subclasses. The geometry-based classifier features two main stages: an adaptive training stage and a classification stage. During the training stage, the system automatically learns to associate geometric appearance of 3D stereo-generated data with class labels. Then, it makes predictions based on past observations. It serves as well to provide training labels to the color-based classifier. Once trained, the color-based classifier is able to recognize similar terrain classes in stereo imagery. The system is continuously updated online using the latest stereo readings, thus making it feasible for long range and long duration navigation, over changing environments. Experimental results, obtained with a tractor test platform operating in a rural environment, are presented to validate this approach, showing an average classification precision and recall of 91.0% and 77.3%, respectively.

  6. Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B.; Blower, D.F.

    1994-04-01

    Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

  7. The analysis of work-related injuries in a tractor factory.

    PubMed

    Nikoli, N; Mavrić, T

    1994-05-01

    An analysis of work-related injuries and absenteeism was carried out in a steel production and tractor manufacturing factory from 1982 to 1986. During that period there were 1152 injuries and 16,798 working days lost. Foundry workers were the most frequently injured; fists and fingers were the most frequently affected parts of the body. The number of injuries at work as well as the number of lost working days were highly influenced by the low socio-economic position of workers and by a general recession.

  8. Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder

  9. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  10. Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.

  11. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  13. Influence of Agricultural Developments on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in the Semi-arid Region of India: A Study using GloPEM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholkar, M. D.; Goroshi, S.; Singh, R. P.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to assess the effect of agricultural developments on inter-annual variations in the agricultural Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of selected districts of the semi-arid region of India by using GloPEM model. Advancements in farming practices have been contributing to the increase of net primary productivity, which ultimately leads to increase in the agricultural production. The study shows that increase in the gross irrigated area, fertilizer consumption, use of high yielding crop varieties and adoption of agricultural mechanization in terms of tractors and irrigation pumps have contributed significantly in the increase in agricultural NPP in the semi-arid region of India. The agricultural NPP of the semi-arid region of India has shown a very good correlation with the gross irrigated area (R2 = 0.668) and fertilizer use (R2 = 0.701). The anthropogenic factors influencing the agricultural NPP were grouped in 3 major Factor Components (FC) (eigenvalues > 1) as: FC1-nutrients application, FC2-irrigation potential and agricultural mechanization (irrigation pumps and tractors) and irrigated area while FC3-cultivated area and area under high yielding crop varieties. The study showed that most of the semi-arid region of India has a good agricultural production potential which needs to harness by increasing the supply of irrigation water, promoting agricultural mechanization and adoption of integrated nutrient management approach.

  14. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in.

  15. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  16. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  17. Repower and Regear on an M915 Line Haul Tractor to Demonstrate Feasibility of Commercial Electronic Controls and Air Starters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    traction limit coefficient 1.4000 road surface factor 13.50 x 8.00 ft. vehicle height x width 0.7500 air resistance coefficient DIESEL ENGINE: CUMM NTC...MILITARY WHEELED VEHICLE-SUPPORT TACOM PROPULSION LAB. M915A1 LINEHAUL TRACTOR Engine CUMM NTC-400 CYSO, CYSI (20163) (Clutch fan ENGAGED) (engine

  18. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  19. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  20. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead... of a solid material. When grid or mesh is used, the largest permissible opening shall be such that the maximum circle that can be inscribed between the elements of the grid or mesh is 1.5 in. (38...

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  3. Toxicological effects of the waste of the sugarcane industry, used as agricultural fertilizer, on the test system Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Anacleto, Leonardo Ramos; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane is cultivated in tropical countries for sugar and ethanol production. In Brazil, this culture is among the most profitable with a production of 658.7 million tons/harvest. Sugarcane filter cake (SCFC) is a waste rich in organic matter and micronutrients, but also contains toxic metals. As it has been used as fertilizer and there is not enough knowledge about its environmental impacts, this work assessed the genotoxicogenetic effects of raw SCFC and associations with soil and sugarcane bagasse (SCB), by Allium cepa tests. Six associations of SCFC + soil and five associations of SCFC + soil + SCB were tested at three moments of degradation: initial (T0), 3 and 6 months (T1 and T2). Genotoxicogenetic assays were performed with solid substrates of these associations and with their respective aqueous extracts. Chemical analysis showed a decrease in metals, total organic carbon and nitrogen after 6 months of biodegradation, complying with Brazilian laws. In general, the combination of SCFC + soil + SCB was better than using only SCFC. T0 solubilized samples of different associations composed by highest quantities of SCFC inhibited the MI and induced CA without presenting mutagenicity (except for 75%-SCFC + soil + SCB). T1 samples showed more cytotoxicity than T0 samples, and also presented genotoxic and mutagenic effects. Solid substrate and solubilized associations of SCFC + soil + SCB of T2 samples had no toxicity. These results suggest 6 months of biodegradation and the SCB adding as effective to reduce toxicogenetic effects induced by SCFC. Also, small proportions of SCFC interfered less on the A. cepa test-system when compared with those containing high quantities of residue.

  4. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  5. Aerodynamic drag reduction apparatus for gap-divided bluff bodies such as tractor-trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2006-07-11

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff-bodied vehicle such as a tractor-trailer in a flowstream, the bluff-bodied vehicle of a type having a leading portion, a trailing portion connected to the leading portion, and a gap between the leading and trailing portions defining a recirculation zone. The apparatus is preferably a baffle assembly, such as a vertical panel, adapted to span a width of the gap between the leading and trailing portions so as to impede cross-flow through the gap, with the span of the baffle assembly automatically adjusting for variations in the gap width when the leading and trailing portions pivot relative to each other.

  6. Maximum forces sustained during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers and trucks.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, F A; Cotnam, J P

    2000-02-01

    Many commercial vehicles have steps and grab-rails to assist the driver in safely entering/exiting the vehicle. However, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to compare impact forces experienced during various exit methods from commercial equipment. The study investigated impact forces of ten male subjects while exiting two tractors, a step-van, a box-trailer, and a cube-van. The results showed that exiting from cab-level or trailer-level resulted in impact forces as high as 12 times the subject's body weight; whereas, fully utilizing the steps and grab-rails resulted in impact forces less than two times body weight. An approach that emphasizes optimal design of entry/exit aids coupled with driver training and education is expected to minimize exit-related injuries.

  7. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration.

  8. Computational Flow Modeling of a Simplified Integrated Tractor-Trailer Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; McWherter-Payne, M

    2003-09-15

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been part of a consortium funded by the Department of Energy to improve fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles such as Class 8 trucks through aerodynamic drag reduction. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict the flow field around heavy vehicles, with special emphasis on the base region of the trailer, and to compute the aerodynamic forces. In particular, Sandia's computational fluid dynamics code, SACCARA, was used to simulate the flow on a simplified model of a tractor-trailer vehicle. The results are presented and compared with NASA Ames experimental data to assess the predictive capability of RANS to model the flow field and predict the aerodynamic forces.

  9. Computational flow modeling of a simplified integrated tractor-trailer geometry.

    SciTech Connect

    McWherter-Payne, Mary Anna; Salari, Kambiz

    2003-09-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been part of a consortium funded by the Department of Energy to improve fuel efficiency of heavy vehicles such as Class 8 trucks through aerodynamic drag reduction. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to predict the flow field around heavy vehicles, with special emphasis on the base region of the trailer, and to compute the aerodynamic forces. In particular, Sandia's computational fluid dynamics code, SACCARA, was used to simulate the flow on a simplified model of a tractor-trailer vehicle. The results are presented and compared with NASA Ames experimental data to assess the predictive capability of RANS to model the flow field and predict the aerodynamic forces.

  10. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.; McKenzie, E. A.; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Wyckoff, Sherry; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS “cost too much” was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were “ROPS wasn’t available” for Virginia (80%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were “not enough time to find ROPS” for New York (67%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for Virginia

  11. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; McKenzie, E A; Cantis, D; May, J; Sorensen, J; Bayes, B; Madden, E; Wyckoff, S; Stone, B; Maass, J

    2015-07-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS. demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS "cost too much" was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were "ROPS wasn't available" for Virginia (80%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were "not enough time to find ROPS" for New York (67%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for Virginia (79%). All

  12. Epidemiological study on healthy subjects affected by agriculture crop-residue burning episodes and its relation with their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Singh, Nirankar; Mittal, Susheel K; Gupta, Prabhat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Impact of agriculture crop-residue burning (ACRB) was studied on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 50 healthy subjects (13-53 years). Human subjects with no previous history of lung disease were residents of five sampling sites. Investigations were carried out from February 2007 to January 2010 using spirometry. Simultaneously, concentration levels of suspended particulate matter (PM) and fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) were monitored using high volume sampler and Anderson Cascade Impactor, respectively. The PFTs show a significant (p < 0.05) decrease, while PM shows momentous increase during exhaustive burning of wheat and rice crop residues. Effect of ACRB on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) is more than that on force expiratory flow (FEF25-75%). The PEF and FEF25-75% recovered to some extent on completion of burning period, while PFTs like force vital capacity and force expiratory volume did not show a significant improvement. Due to greater concentration of fine particulates during rice crop-residue burning (CRB) than wheat CRB, there was a greater effect on pulmonary functions. The ACRB, in general, poses more effect on the lower and upper age groups in comparison to the middle age group subjects. All the analyses are well supported with large significant levels (p < 0.05) obtained by using the paired t-test.

  13. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    GMT) Altay machine operators have repaired 43,000 tractors, 85 percent of the total. (1100 GMT) In Turkmenia mass potato planting has begun in...the Kopet-Dag foothills, where another 200 hectares of virgin land have been brought under cultivation. In the republic as a whole potatoes ...ready. Repairs of potato -seeders are faster than last year, and also of sprinklers and hay-harvesters. (0500 GMT) Kurgan Oblast is preparing

  14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  15. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  16. Soil structural changes caused by agricultural machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of tractor traffic with high axle load on the aggregate size distribution, the total soil porosity, and the aggregate porosity were studied in a field experiment on a silty clay loam Greyzem soil. One and three tractors passes were made at pre-irrigated and non-irrigated 10x10 m plots. The v...

  17. Calibration and Algorithm Development for Estimation of Nitrogen in Wheat Crop Using Tractor Mounted N-Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjeet; Kumar, Rajneesh; Sharma, Ankit; Singh, Bhupinder; Thind, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was planned to investigate the tractor mounted N-sensor (Make Yara International) to predict nitrogen (N) for wheat crop under different nitrogen levels. It was observed that, for tractor mounted N-sensor, spectrometers can scan about 32% of total area of crop under consideration. An algorithm was developed using a linear relationship between sensor sufficiency index (SIsensor) and SISPAD to calculate the Napp as a function of SISPAD. There was a strong correlation among sensor attributes (sensor value, sensor biomass, and sensor NDVI) and different N-levels. It was concluded that tillering stage is most prominent stage to predict crop yield as compared to the other stages by using sensor attributes. The algorithms developed for tillering and booting stages are useful for the prediction of N-application rates for wheat crop. N-application rates predicted by algorithm developed and sensor value were almost the same for plots with different levels of N applied. PMID:25811039

  18. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  19. Influence on operator's health of hand-transmitted vibrations from handles of a single-axle tractor.

    PubMed

    Goglia, Vlado; Gospodaric, Zlatko; Filipovic, Dubravko; Djukic, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The operators of the single-axle tractors are especially exposed to hand-arm transmitted vibrations. These vibrations can cause the complex of vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, collectively named hand-arm vibration syndrome. Among these, the most common disorder is vibration-induced white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). The vibration levels were measured in three tractor's working conditions, namely idling, transportation and soil tillage. The vibration level on the handles was measured and analysed and the frequency spectra for the chosen working conditions were obtained. The frequency-weighted acceleration, given in m/s2, was calculated and the obtained values are graphically presented. The measured vibration levels are then discussed with regard to the operator's daily exposure limits recommended by the ISO 5349. The vibration levels were much higher in the x and y directions than the z-direction in all working conditions. The vibration total values in idling, transportation and soil tillage were 3.37, 8.37 and 9.62 m/s2, respectively. Results showed that the 10% of workers are exposed to a risk of vibration-induced white finger disorder of the hands after relatively short periods (3-4 years), if the tractor is used 8 hour per day in soil tillage and transportation at full load. Considering the criteria of the ISO 5349, the daily working time with the single-axle tractor should be limited in order to protect the operator and work schedules should be arranged to include vibration-free periods.

  20. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-09-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  1. Steels for parts of the propulsion system of industrial caterpillar tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkina, G.V.; Efimova, L.B.

    1988-05-01

    New steels were developed for the track shoes and track links of tractors used for the mining of ore, coal, and gold and for the construction of gas and oil lines in the Soviet Union. Steels 40KhFR (for the shoes) and 40GMFR (for the links), alloyed with chromium (up to 1.0%) or manganese (up to 1.2%) with additional microalloying with boron, titanium, and aluminum and with small additions of vanadium (up to 0.10%) and molybdenum (up to 0.16%), were used as base steels. The influence of microalloying was revealed in increases in the depth of hardenability and in impact strength. The steels are fine grained with increased cold resistance both in the high strength and hardened and tempered conditions. Optimum final heat-treat cycles were determined. An analysis of service data showed that the life of parts of the new steels is more than twice as long as of parts of the previously used steels.

  2. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies.

  3. Agricultural application of SWECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.

    Principal applications of wind energy for agriculture are (1) farmstead power, mainly electrical, (2) building heating, (3) irrigation pumping, (4) product storage and processing, (5) hot water for residences and dairies, and (6) associated industries of agribusiness such as feedlots, fertilizer elevators, greenhouses, etc. Field experiments show that wind energy is a viable alternative, however, reliability and maintenance are still major problems. Test results of the various experiments are described.

  4. Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Robert A.

    This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

  5. A numerical study of scale effects on performance of a tractor type podded propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Kyu; Park, Hyoung-Gil; Kim, Hyoung-Tae

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the scale effect on the performance of the podded propeller of tractor type is investigated. Turbulent flow computations are carried out for Reynolds numbers increasing progressively from model scale to full scale using the CFD analysis. The result of the flow calculation for model scale Reynolds numbers agrees well with that of the experiment of a large cavitation tunnel. The existing numerical analysis indicates that the performance of the podded propeller blades is mainly influenced by the advance coefficient and relatively little by the Reynolds number. However, the drag of pod housing with propeller in operation is different from that of pod housing without propeller due to the acceleration and swirl of propeller slipstream which is altered by propeller loading as well as the pressure recovery and friction according to Reynolds number, which suggests that the pod housing drag under the condition of propeller in operation is the key factor of the scale effect on the performance between model and full scale podded propellers. The so called `drag ratio', which is the ratio of pod housing drag to total thrust of podded propeller, increases as the advance coefficient increases due to accelerated flow in the slipstream of the podded propeller. However, the increasing rate of the drag ratio reduces continuously as the Reynolds number increases from model to full scale progressively. The contribution of hydrodynamic forces, which acts on the parts composed of the pod housing with propeller operating in various loading conditions, to the thrust and the torque of the total propeller unit are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers from model to full scales.

  6. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sold or labeled as â100 percent organic,â âorganic,â or âmade with organic (specified ingredients or... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative... products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic...

  7. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sold or labeled as â100 percent organic,â âorganic,â or âmade with organic (specified ingredients or... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative... products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic...

  8. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  9. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  10. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  11. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  12. Dairy barns and roll-over protection on farm tractors: work environment impacts on the adoption of roll-over protective structures.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, T W; Dennis, J W; Jenkins, P L

    1994-04-01

    A mailed survey of one group of dairy farmers supports the informal perception that roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors are considered unusable for in-barn tasks. This attitude must be addressed in order to achieve greater use of safety equipment.

  13. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  14. Establishing the need for an engineering standard for agricultural hitch pins.

    PubMed

    Deboy, G R; Knapp, W M; Field, W E; Krutz, G W; Corum, C L

    2012-04-01

    Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. These replacement hitch pins provided no specifications other than diameter, length, and, in some cases, labeling that indicated that the pins had been "heat treated. " Testing of a sample of 11 commercially available replacement hitch pins found variation along the length of the pin shaft and between individual pins in surface hardness, a potential predictor of pin failure. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.g., "heat treated." None of the pins examined provided any specifications on loading capacity. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch

  15. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870-2000.

    PubMed

    Parton, William J; Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily R; Hartman, Melannie D; Adler, Paul R; McNeal, Frederick M; Lutz, Susan M

    2015-08-25

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices.

  16. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000

    PubMed Central

    Parton, William J.; Gutmann, Myron P.; Merchant, Emily R.; Hartman, Melannie D.; Adler, Paul R.; McNeal, Frederick M.; Lutz, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices. PMID:26240366

  17. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health. PMID:26981119

  18. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  19. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  20. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  1. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  2. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    In the field of precision-farming research, solutions are worked out to combine ecological and economical requirements in a harmonic way. Integrating hightech in agricultural machinery, natural differences in the fields (biodiversity) can be detected and considered to economize agricultural resources and to give respect to natural ecological variability at the same time. Using precision farming resources, machining - and labour time can be economized, productivness can be improved, environmental burden can be discharged and documentation of production processes can be improved. To realize precision farming it is essential to make contemporary large scale data of the biodiversity in the field available. In the last years effectual traktor based equipment for real time precision farming applications was developed. Using remote sensing, biomass diversity of the field can be considered while applicating operating ressources economicly. Because these large scale data aquisition depends on expensive tractor based inspections, capable Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could complement or in special situations even replace such tractor based data aquisition needed for the realization of precision farming strategies. The specific advantages and application slots of UAVs seems to be ideal for the usage in the field of precision farming. For example the size of even large agricultural fields in germany can be managed even by smaller UAVs. Data can be captured spontaneously, promptly, in large scale, with less respect of weather conditions. In agricultural regions UAV flights can be arranged in visual range as actually the legislator requires in germany, especially because the use of autopilotsystems in fact is nessecary to assure regular area-wide data without gaps but not to fly in non-visible regions. Also a minimized risk of hazard is given, flying UAVs over deserted agricultural areas. In a first stage CIS GmbH cooperated with "Institute For Flightsystems" of the University

  3. Climate change and agricultural transformation in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dilley, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Valley of Oaxaca, a semi-arid region in the central highlands of southern Mexico, provides a case study through which to develop a methodology for climate change impact assessment. The causes and impacts of climate change originate in dialectic processes within a nexus of inter-dependent social, technical, environmental, cultural and academic production relations. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in the Valley, and rain-fed maize the most important crop. Harvest failures from droughts occur one year in four. Annual rainfall varies with large-scale convection of water vapor transported from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico during summer, upper-air disturbances caused by hurricanes and El Ninos. Variations in maize yields and losses have roughly moisture availability during August. Yields and losses can be predicted using precipitation during this time, or directly from atmospheric circulation. Contemporary agriculture in the Valley of Oaxaca has both traditional and modern sectors, of which both may appear within individual communities and households. The traditional sector consists of semi-autonomous rural communities using traditional technology for subsistence farming. The modern sector uses tractors, irrigation pumps, agricultural chemicals and hybrid seeds to produce cash crops and dairy products. The evidence for climate change in the Valley is ambiguous and contradictory. Under wet or dry scenarios, climate change affects the rate and pathway of the absorption of Oaxaca's traditional rural communities into the wage labor market of the larger capitalist system. Increased moisture availability would raise land productivity, promoting cash cropping and development of the modern market-oriented agricultural sector and leading to land consolidation and rural-to-urban migration. Decreased moisture availability would inhibit cash-cropping but also lead to rural-to-urban migration due to decreased land productivity.

  4. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  5. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  6. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  7. A system of regional agricultural land use mapping tested against small scale Apollo 9 color infrared photography of the Imperial Valley (California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Claude W.; Browden, Leonard W.; Pease, Robert W.

    1969-01-01

    Interpretation results of the small scale ClR photography of the Imperial Valley (California) taken on March 12, 1969 by the Apollo 9 earth orbiting satellite have shown that world wide agricultural land use mapping can be accomplished from satellite ClR imagery if sufficient a priori information is available for the region being mapped. Correlation of results with actual data is encouraging although the accuracy of identification of specific crops from the single image is poor. The poor results can be partly attributed to only one image taken during mid-season when the three major crops were reflecting approximately the same and their ClR image appears to indicate the same crop type. However, some incapacity can be attributed to lack of understanding of the subtle variations of visual and infrared color reflectance of vegetation and surrounding environment. Analysis of integrated color variations of the vegetation and background environment recorded on ClR imagery is discussed. Problems associated with the color variations may be overcome by development of a semi-automatic processing system which considers individual field units or cells. Design criteria for semi-automatic processing system are outlined.

  8. Core Curriculum in Agriculture. Phase I Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and field test a core curriculum in agriculture for rural secondary schools and a core curriculum in agriculture for metropolitan or urban schools in Illinois. Activities of Phase 1 of the project were reviewing literature and interviewing industry representatives to identify pertinent research and…

  9. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  10. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  11. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  12. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  13. NREL Highlight: Truck Platooning Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-21

    NREL's fleet test and evaluation team assesses the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning of line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics. Platooning reduces aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and safely decreasing the distance between them via electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. In 2014, the team conducted track testing of three SmartWay tractor - two platooned tractors and one control tractor—at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights. While platooning improved fuel economy at all speeds, travel at 55 mph resulted in the best overall miles per gallon. The lead truck demonstrated fuel savings up to 5.3% while the trailing truck saved up to 9.7%. A number of conditions impact the savings attainable, including ambient temperature, distance between lead and trailing truck, and payload weight. Future studies may look at ways to optimize system fuel efficiency and emissions reductions.

  14. Efficient mapping of agricultural soils using a novel electromagnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Pregesbauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    depth. Instead of being towed several metres behind the tractor, as common with traditional EMI systems used in precision farming, the novel device is conveniently mounted on the front hitch of a tractor and operated from a terminal in the driver's cabin. A major improvement compared with existing EMI systems is the system's capability to cope with the induced noise from the tractor, through integration of a mechanical shielding mechanism into the sensor housing. Any remaining vehicle induced high-frequency electromagnetic noise is filtered out on-the-fly by the data acquisition software, logging the data and positioning information on a ruggedized small computer. The main purpose of this system is to permit the land owner or farmer the efficient mapping of the electrical soil conductivity across agricultural fields on the scale of the entire acreage. The main objective of the measurements is to obtain detailed information on the long wavelength variability of soil structure, while eliminating short wavelength variations. The calculation of the depth of the agricultural layer, or topsoil thickness, has been implemented by inverting the cumulative response function for all coil configurations. The resulting inverted models of the soil conductivity display the vertical distribution of agriculturally relevant soil parameters and improve the chances to identify different subsoil features. By providing this information on the shallow subsurface in real-time, while passing across the field, permits the agriculturist to variably adjust for instance tillage depth or to control other agricultural implements and machines based to the derived information, rendering the soil cultivation both ecologically as well as economically more efficient. We present the TSM system as well as derived data examples.

  15. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  16. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  17. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  18. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  19. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  20. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  1. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  2. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUCK EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGIES IN CLASS 8 TRACTOR-TRAILERS BASED ON A TRACTIVE ENERGY ANALYSIS USING MEASURED DRIVE CYCLE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua S.; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings that can be achieved from different truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet s specific usage allows the fleet to select the combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. This paper presents an analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and an assessment of advanced efficiency technologies using an analysis of measured drive cycle data for a class 8 regional commercial shipping fleet. Drive cycle measurements during a period of a full year from six tractor-trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload (LTL) carrier were analyzed to develop a characteristic drive cycle that is highly representative of the fleet s usage. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. The drive cycle and mass data were analyzed using a tractive energy analysis to quantify the fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions benefits that can be achieved on class 8 tractor-trailers when using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist among class 8 tractor-trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application.

  4. Use of Dieselized Farm Equipment and Incident Lung Cancer: Findings from the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tual, Séverine; Silverman, Debra T.; Koutros, Stella; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Lebailly, Pierre; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust is a known lung carcinogen. Farmers use a variety of dieselized equipment and thus may be at increased risk of lung cancer, but farm exposures such as endotoxins may also be protective for lung cancer. Objectives: We evaluated the relative risk of incident lung cancer, including histological subtype, from enrollment (1993–1997) to 2010–2011 in relation to farm equipment use in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. Methods: Farm equipment use was reported by 21,273 farmers and 29,840 spouses. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated separately for farmers and spouses with Poisson regression models adjusted for smoking and other confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by exposure to animals or stored grain, a surrogate for endotoxin exposure. Results: Daily diesel tractor use (vs. no use) was positively associated with lung cancer in farmers (RR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.50; 35 exposed, 32 unexposed cases), particularly adenocarcinoma (RR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.23, 9.33; 12 exposed, 7 unexposed cases). The association of adenocarcinoma with daily (vs. low/no) use of diesel tractors was stronger for farmers with no animal or stored grain exposures (RR = 6.23; 95% CI: 2.25, 17.25; 5 exposed, 18 unexposed cases) than among farmers with these exposures (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.51, 2.79; 7 exposed, 27 unexposed cases) (p-interaction = 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of an increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma among daily drivers of diesel tractors and suggests that exposure to endotoxins may modify the impact of diesel exposure on lung cancer risk. Confirmation of these findings with more exposed cases and more detailed exposure information is warranted. Citation: Tual S, Silverman DT, Koutros S, Blair A, Sandler DP, Lebailly P, Andreotti G, Hoppin JA, Beane Freeman LE. 2016. Use of dieselized farm equipment and incident lung

  5. Risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, LAS, in agricultural soil revisited: robust chronic toxicity tests for Folsomia candida (Collembola), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Enchytraeidae).

    PubMed

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Lopez, Coral Verge; Cassani, Giorgio; Jensen, John; Holmstrup, Martin; Schraepen, Nathalie; Jørgensen, Elin; Gavor, Zdenek; Temara, Ali

    2007-10-01

    To obtain robust data on the toxicity of LAS, tests with the collembolan Folsomia candida L., the oligochaetes Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny (earthworm) and Enchytraeus crypticus Westheide and Graefe (enchytraeid) were performed in a sandy loam soil. Additionally limited tests with LAS spiked to sewage sludge, and subsequently mixed into soil, were performed. For the endpoint of interest, reproduction in soil, we found an EC10 of 205 mg LAS kg(-1) soil [8.6-401] [95% confidence limits] for F. candida and an EC10 of 46 mg LAS kg(-1) soil [13-80] for A. caliginosa after 28 days. E. crypticus was not affected by concentrations up to 120 mg LAS kg(-1) soil. When adding (low contaminated) non-spiked sludge to soil, high stimulation of reproduction was observed for E. crypticus and A. caliginosa but not for F. candida. We argue that this difference in stimulative response between the tested species is related to the difference in feeding behaviour. Sludge spiked with LAS did not significantly affect the reproduction of F. candida (fertility: number of juvenile offspring) and A. caliginosa (fecundity: number of cocoons) (dose equivalent to 181 g and 91 g LAS kg(-1) sludge, respectively). Significantly reduced reproduction was observed for E. crypticus (at 120 mg LAS kg(-1) soil+sludge corresponding to 72 g LAS kg(-1) sludge) compared to non-spiked sludge. The reproduction by E. crypticus was, however, comparable to the reproduction observed in the control soil without sludge. Compared to LAS directly spiked to soil, the reproductive output of organisms exposed to spiked sludge was either not significantly different (F. candida, E. crypticus) or significantly improved (A. caliginosa). More studies are needed in order to make firm conclusions on the potential effect of artificially contaminated sludge in soil systems.

  6. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  7. Guidelines for children's work in agriculture: implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to assist parents in assigning developmentally appropriate and safe farm work to their children aged 7-16 years. Since their release in 1999, a growing body of evidence has accumulated regarding the content and application of these guidelines to populations of working children on farms. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific and programmatic evidence about the content, efficacy, application, and uptake of NAGCAT and propose key recommendations for the future. The methods for this review included a synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature and programmatic evidence gathered from safety professionals. From the review, it is clear that the NAGCAT tractor guidelines and the manual material handling guidelines need to be updated based upon the latest empirical evidence. While NAGCAT do have the potential to prevent serious injuries to working children in the correct age range (7-16 years), the highest incidence of farm related injuries and fatalities occur to children aged 1-6 years and NAGCAT are unlikely to have any direct effect on this leading injury problem. It is also clear that NAGCAT, as a voluntary educational strategy, is not sufficient by itself to protect children working on farms. Uptake of NAGCAT has been sporadic, despite being geographically widespread and has depended, almost solely, on a few interested and committed professionals. Key recommendations for the future are provided based upon this review.

  8. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  9. The NIOSH CROPS Demonstration Project: A Study in New York and Virginia with an Emphasis on Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.; McKenzie, Eugene A.; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The agriculture, forestry, and fishing (AgFF) industry sector has had the highest rate of work-related deaths over the past several years. Tractors are the single largest source of occupational fatalities in this industry sector, and tractor rollovers are the largest category of tractor fatalities. The risk of death due to tractor rollovers has been found to be reduced considerably when rollover protective structures (ROPS) are used in conjunction with seatbelts. Increasing the number of tractors with ROPS and seatbelts is one way in which tractor rollover fatalities can be mitigated. The NIOSH cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project was designed as a demonstration project to determine if CROPS, a type of ROPS, could be retrofitted in the field and were acceptable to farmers. To this end, the CROPS project was successful, with 50 tractors being retrofitted with CROPS in the field. All study participants were asked to complete a pretest, test, and posttest regarding the CROPS retrofit demonstration and their knowledge and attitudes toward ROPS. CROPS demonstrators were the participants who retrofitted their tractors with CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to recruit three to five other participants, known as observers, to watch the demonstration. The rationale was to generate interest in ROPS/CROPS among other farmers and community leaders. Overall, 16% of the participants had youth operating tractors on their farms. Participants reported that 44 youth operated tractors on their farms, more than 25% of these young tractor operators were 4 to 10 years old, and half of the youth operating tractors on participant farms were 13 years old or younger. Only one participant group (demonstrators) included individuals who had all of their tractors protected with ROPS/CROPS for young tractor operators (28%), but they accounted for only one farm each among the New York and Virginia demonstrators. The survey question on ROPS importance did not show an overall

  10. The NIOSH CROPS Demonstration Project: A Study in New York and Virginia with an Emphasis on Youth.

    PubMed

    Hard, David L; McKenzie, Eugene A; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The agriculture, forestry, and fishing (AgFF) industry sector has had the highest rate of work-related deaths over the past several years. Tractors are the single largest source of occupational fatalities in this industry sector, and tractor rollovers are the largest category of tractor fatalities. The risk of death due to tractor rollovers has been found to be reduced considerably when rollover protective structures (ROPS) are used in conjunction with seatbelts. Increasing the number of tractors with ROPS and seatbelts is one way in which tractor rollover fatalities can be mitigated. The NIOSH cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) project was designed as a demonstration project to determine if CROPS, a type of ROPS, could be retrofitted in the field and were acceptable to farmers. To this end, the CROPS project was successful, with 50 tractors being retrofitted with CROPS in the field. All study participants were asked to complete a pretest, test, and posttest regarding the CROPS retrofit demonstration and their knowledge and attitudes toward ROPS. CROPS demonstrators were the participants who retrofitted their tractors with CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to recruit three to five other participants, known as observers, to watch the demonstration. The rationale was to generate interest in ROPS/CROPS among other farmers and community leaders. Overall, 16% of the participants had youth operating tractors on their farms. Participants reported that 44 youth operated tractors on their farms, more than 25% of these young tractor operators were 4 to 10 years old, and half of the youth operating tractors on participant farms were 13 years old or younger. Only one participant group (demonstrators) included individuals who had all of their tractors protected with ROPS/CROPS for young tractor operators (28%), but they accounted for only one farm each among the New York and Virginia demonstrators. The survey question on ROPS importance did not show an overall

  11. Crew escape system test at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of a crew escape system (CES) test program, a lifelike dummy is pulled by a tractor rocket from an airborne Convair-240 (C-240) aircraft at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. A P-3 chase plane accompanies the C-240. The C-240 was modified with a space shuttle side hatch mockup for the tests which will evaluate candidate concepts developed to provide crew egress capability during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight.

  12. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  13. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  14. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  15. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  16. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  17. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  18. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  19. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  20. Agriculture in the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...

  1. USSR Report Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the last century one of the first Russian agronomists, M. G. Pavlov , in speaking about efficient agriculture, was asked the question, is agriculture...three are agronomists in enterprises--Nikolay Georgiyevich Kovalev, Fedor Akimovich Ivashchenko and Ivan Kirillovich Okhrimenko. All three work under the

  2. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  3. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  4. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  5. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  6. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  7. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  8. Development of a Short-Duration Drive Cycle to Represent Long-Term Measured Drive Cycle Data: Evaluation of Truck Efficiency Technologies in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

    DOE PAGES

    LaClair, Tim; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua; ...

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings and emissions reductions that can be achieved from truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet's specific usage allows the fleet to select a combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. An accurate characterization of usage for the fleet is critical for such an evaluation; however, short-term measured drive cycle data do not generally reflect overall usage very effectively. This study presents a detailed analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and demonstrates the development of a short-duration synthetic drive cycle with measured drive cycle data collected over an extendedmore » period of time. The approach matched statistical measures of the vehicle speed with acceleration history and integrated measured grade data to develop a compressed drive cycle that accurately represents total usage. Drive cycle measurements obtained during a full year from six tractor trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload carrier were analyzed to develop a synthetic drive cycle. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. These drive cycle and mass data were analyzed with a tractive energy analysis to quantify the benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions that can be achieved on Class 8 tractor trailers by using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist between Class 8 tractor trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application. Finally, the methodology employed for generating the synthetic drive cycle serves as a rigorous approach to develop an accurate usage characterization that can be used to effectively compress large quantities of drive cycle data.« less

  9. Development of a Short-Duration Drive Cycle to Represent Long-Term Measured Drive Cycle Data: Evaluation of Truck Efficiency Technologies in Class 8 Tractor Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim; Gao, Zhiming; Fu, Joshua; Calcagno, Jimmy; Yun, Jeongran

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the fuel savings and emissions reductions that can be achieved from truck fuel efficiency technologies for a fleet's specific usage allows the fleet to select a combination of technologies that will yield the greatest operational efficiency and profitability. An accurate characterization of usage for the fleet is critical for such an evaluation; however, short-term measured drive cycle data do not generally reflect overall usage very effectively. This study presents a detailed analysis of vehicle usage in a commercial vehicle fleet and demonstrates the development of a short-duration synthetic drive cycle with measured drive cycle data collected over an extended period of time. The approach matched statistical measures of the vehicle speed with acceleration history and integrated measured grade data to develop a compressed drive cycle that accurately represents total usage. Drive cycle measurements obtained during a full year from six tractor trailers in normal operations in a less-than-truckload carrier were analyzed to develop a synthetic drive cycle. The vehicle mass was also estimated to account for the variation of loads that the fleet experienced. These drive cycle and mass data were analyzed with a tractive energy analysis to quantify the benefits in terms of fuel efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions that can be achieved on Class 8 tractor trailers by using advanced efficiency technologies, either individually or in combination. Although differences exist between Class 8 tractor trailer fleets, this study provides valuable insight into the energy and emissions reduction potential that various technologies can bring in this important trucking application. Finally, the methodology employed for generating the synthetic drive cycle serves as a rigorous approach to develop an accurate usage characterization that can be used to effectively compress large quantities of drive cycle data.

  10. Prediction of the effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes with flaps retracted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Joseph; Sleeman, William C , Jr

    1949-01-01

    The effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes are analyzed, and a simple method is presented for computing power-on pitching-moment curves for flap-retracted flight conditions. The methods evolved are based on the results of powered-model wind-tunnel investigations of 28 model configurations. Correlation curves are presented from which the effects of power on the downwash over the tail and the stabilizer effectiveness can be rapidly predicted. The procedures developed enable prediction of power-on longitudinal stability characteristics that are generally in very good agreement with experiment.

  11. An Analysis of Once-per-revolution Oscillating Aerodynamic Thrust Loads on Single-Rotation Propellers on Tractor Airplanes at Zero Yaw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Vernon L; Yaggy, Paul F; Mccloud, John L , III

    1956-01-01

    A simplified procedure is shown for calculating the once-per-revolution oscillating aerodynamic thrust loads on propellers of tractor airplanes at zero yaw. The only flow field information required for the application of the procedure is a knowledge of the upflow angles at the horizontal center line of the propeller disk. Methods are presented whereby these angles may be computed without recourse to experimental survey of the flow field. The loads computed by the simplified procedure are compared with those computed by a more rigorous method and the procedure is applied to several airplane configurations which are believed typical of current designs. The results are generally satisfactory.

  12. Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

  13. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  14. Nonpoint Source: Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural runoff as a nonpoint source category of pollution. Resouces to learn more a bout conservation practices to reduce water quality impacts from storm water run off and ground water infiltration

  15. Agricultural Education and OSHA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

  16. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This is USSR Report for Agriculture. It contains the issues with different topics on Major Crop Progress and Weather Reporting, Livestock, Regional Development , Agro-Economics and Organization, Tilling and Cropping Technology.

  17. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  18. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  19. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  20. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  1. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  2. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-06

    simultaneous freeing of production resources for the achievement of other social goals of public development involves improving the structure of the food...in agriculture it becomes possible to free about 2 million hectares of arable land for the purpose of cultivating other crops, about 200,000 persons...insufficient application of mineral fertilizers. The structural changes in agriculture proposed by us, based on the freeing of 2 million hectares of

  3. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, VIRGIL EARL

    A PRETEST, POST-TEST, AND RETENTION TEST OF 481 SOPHOMORE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 33 WISCONSIN HIGH SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL, HOME-FARM SITUATION, AND STUDENT SUPERVISED FARMING EXPERIENCE DIFFERENCES UPON ACQUIRING AND RETAINING LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSROOMS. EACH…

  5. Solar stills for agricultural purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Tran, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concepts of using desalinated water for agricultural purposes are outlined. A mathematical model describing heat and mass transfer in a system combining a solar still with a greenhouse, its solution, and test results of a small-scale unit built at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, are discussed. The unit was employed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the system. Further development and modifications are necessary for larger-scale operations. The basis of an optimization study which is underway at the Brace Research Institute of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, aimed at finding the best combination of design and operation parameters is also presented.

  6. Agricultural chemical utilization and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, E W; Piver, W T

    1992-01-01

    The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466

  7. Ergonomic risks and musculoskeletal disorders in production agriculture: recommendations for effective research to practice.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R; Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Banks, R J

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are increasingly recognized as a significant hazard of agricultural occupation. In agricultural jobs with significant physical labor, MSDs are typically the most frequently reported injury. Although not as lethal as tractor roll-overs, MSDs can result in disability, lost work time, and increased production costs. MSDs increase production costs as a result of worker absence, medical and insurance costs, decreased work capacity, and loss of employees to turnover and competition from other less physically demanding industries. This paper will provide an overview of what is currently known about MSDs in agriculture, including high-risk commodities, tasks and work practices, and the related regulatory factors and workers' compensation costs. As agricultural production practices evolve, the types of MSDs also change, as do ergonomic risk factors. One example is the previous higher rates of knee and hip arthritis identified in farmers in stanchion dairies evolving into upper extremity tendonitis, arthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome now found in milking technicians in dairy milking parlors. This paper summarizes the presentation, "Musculoskeletal Disorders in Labor-Intensive Operations," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The primary focus of the paper is to address current research on ergonomic solutions for MSDs in agriculture. These include improved tools, carts or equipment, as well as work practices. One of the key challenges in this area pertains to measurement, due to the fact that musculoskeletal strain is a chronic condition that can come and go, with self-reported pain as its only indicator. Alternative measurement methods will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of research into practice is reviewed, with an emphasis on best

  8. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  9. Safety in High School Supervised Agricultural Experiences: Teachers' Training and Students' Injury Awareness.

    PubMed

    Pate, M L; Lawver, R G; Sorensen, T J

    2016-01-01

    This research study sought to gather evidence of school-based agriculture teachers' hazard perceptions, safety practices, training experiences, and awareness of student injuries related to supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs. Teachers agreed that students should follow safety guidelines developed by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Safety and Health during SAE work. Approximately 66% (f = 153) of teachers reported having general training in first aid, CPR, and AED. Twenty participants (8.6%) indicated having no safety certifications or training. Abrasions, lacerations, bites/stings, and burns accounted for a majority of the student SAE-related injuries that were reported. There were 82 participants (35.5%) who stated that no injuries had been reported or they were not aware of any injuries that occurred. The majority of teachers (66%) had received some form offirst aid or first response training, but fewer teachers had received safety training for ATVs (f = 25, 10.8%), tractors (f = 48, 20.7%), and livestock (f = 39, 16.8%). Results indicated a disparity between required safe work habits and the types of hazardous tasks students should be allowed to complete alone while participating in SAE activities. It appears most responding teachers in this study agreed to allow students to operate equipment and machinery alone. Recommendations for teachers include attending professional development training specific to SAE safety and keeping records of any risk assessments conducted during SAE supervision. Further development of best practices for SAE supervision and safety are needed to assist agricultural education professionals in protecting and shaping our future leaders in agriculture.

  10. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  11. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  12. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    equivalents need to be tracked in parallel to assess climate impacts. For livestock systems it is unclear which metrics are most important to track, GHGs per unit of meat or milk or perhaps per calorie? Different metrics are likely needed for different uses. 3.6. Capacity development in developing countries There is need to improve on the current lack of capacities to monitor land use and land-use change and their associated GHG emissions and removals for national inventories (UNFCCC 2008, Romijn et al 2012). Since there are ongoing efforts to improve, data, methods and capacities for monitoring forests in the context of REDD+ (Herold and Skutsch 2011), synergies should be sought to use and build upon joint data sources and approaches, such as remote sensing, field inventories, crowd sourcing. and human capacities to estimate and report on GHG balance in both forests and agriculture. A number of specific objectives to meet these challenges are discussed in this special issue. Improve the accuracy of emissions factors across regional differences. Improve national inventory data of management activities, crop type and variety, and livestock breeds. Use historical data and data collection over time to show trends. Test the extent of model applications through field validation (e.g., can they be used in regions with less data?). Enhance technical capacity and infrastructure for data acquisition and for application of mitigation strategies in field programs. Increase understanding of which mitigation practices result in more resilient systems. Improve understanding of the GHG tradeoffs of expanding fertilizer use. While data sources and methods are improving and research and operational monitoring are increasing, the international community can be strategic in targeting support for this work and coordinating data and information collection to move toward revised good practice guidelines that would address the particular circumstances and practices dominant in developing countries

  13. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  14. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  15. Agriculture and water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    The attempt by certain jurisdictions to preserve a rural lifestyle by means of farmland preservation may produce some unwanted side effects, such as polluted water supplies. While there are many excellent and important reasons to preserve high-quality agricultural land for food production, efforts to retain or encourage agricultural activities in areas experiencing rapid population growth may produce some serious environmental problems.For the entire post-WW II period the United States has experienced almost continuous suburban sprawl. Many incorporated areas, experiencing rapid development, have attempted to preserve open-space and less-developed land uses by actively attempting to preserve agricultural activities. Often the most recent migrants to a growing municipality exemplify the ‘last in’ syndrome by being among the most vociferous in attempting to halt further development.

  16. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  17. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  18. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  19. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  20. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  1. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  2. 7 CFR 75.43 - Laboratory testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laboratory testing. 75.43 Section 75.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Fees and Charges § 75.43...

  3. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  4. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  5. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  6. Vocational Agriculture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

    This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

  7. Agriculture, Forestry, Range Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 observations of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are summarized. Four major parts are covered: (1) crop classification and mensuration; (2) timber and range resources survey and classification; (3) soil survey and mapping; and (4) subdiscipline areas.

  8. Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan; Wager, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Agricultural biotechnology, especially genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM), is a topic of considerable controversy worldwide. The public debate is fraught with polarized views and opinions, some are held with religious zeal. Unfortunately, it is also marked with much ignorance and misinformation. Here we explore some popular misconceptions encountered in the public debate.

  9. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David; Walsh, Fiona

    2016-04-19

    In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans.

  11. Curriculum Guide for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem. Div. of Community Colleges and Career Education.

    Developed through a cooperative effort by industry and education, this curriculum guide outlines the basic knowledge and skills necessary for entry-level competencies in the broad field of agriculture, or for entrance into a post-high school program. This guide is one of several developed for Oregon's new approach to secondary education called…

  12. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  13. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  14. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  15. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  16. Agriculture Education. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

  17. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-04

    exists beyond the Urals. Extensive flooding is expected here on the Lower Tunguska . Spring upper levels will be surpassed on the rivers of...extraordinary event . Allow me to cite an example involving another oblast and another branch of agriculture. In 1982, 55 farms in Orel Oblast obtained

  18. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  19. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  20. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  1. Agriculture Sales and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Robert

    Designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in agriculture and related areas, this curriculum guide is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives, and is a suggested method of group instruction for students who are employed in an agribusiness program. The material is intended to cover those items which every…

  2. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  3. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  4. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    evaluation of the phyto- sanitary condition of the fields were not coordinated with the calendar- phenological schedules, some agronomists were unable...During the first year following its introduction, an intensified variation of this agricultural technology enabled the Tambov grain growers to produce

  5. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  6. Analysis of results from wind tunnel tests of inlets for an advanced turboprop nacelle installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, J. P.; Lyman, V.; Pennock, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Inlets for tractor installations of advanced turboprop propulsion systems were tested in three phases, covering a period from November, 1982 to January, 1984. Nacelle inlet configuration types included single scoop, twin scoop, and annular arrangements. Tests were performed with and without boundary layer diverters and several different diverter heights were tested for the single scoop inlet. This same inlet was also tested at two different axial positions. Test Mach numbers ranged from Mach 0.20 to 0.80. Types of data taken were: (1) internal and external pressures, including inlet throat recoveries; (2) balance forces, including thrust-minus-drag; and (3) propellar blade stresses.

  7. Agricultural Awareness Days: Integrating Agricultural Partnerships and STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States there is a need to educate young children in science, technology, and agriculture. Through collaboration with many agricultural groups, the Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Education Center has set up a program that works with 3rd grade students and teachers to reinforce the science that has been taught in the…

  8. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  9. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-24

    following fallow with minimal soil cultivation are damaged to a lesser degree by click beetles and darkling beetles and the harm caused by root rots...receipts and so forth); LPKh specialization and cooperation; the creation of organized forms for supplying them with feed, light mechanization equipment...Llnterview with V.G. Shuntova, chief of the Department of Agricultural Implements and Light Mechanization Equipment of the Central Union of Consumer’s

  10. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  11. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broad- casts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This document includes articles concerning agriculture issues in the USSR. Topics include: crop progress and weather reporting, livestock, regional development , agro-economicss and organizations, tilling and cropping technology.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  13. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-03

    peas and barley. (0204 GMT) In Bryansk Oblast potato field work is under way. Field work is under way on sunflower plantations in the Ukraine...part of the country. Haymowing is rapidly gain- ing speed. Stocks of silage are being procured earlier than usual. (1800 GMT) 29 June-1 July...earmarked for agriculture was directed into this branch . During the years of the 10th Five- Year Plan the proportion of gross livestock production within

  14. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    obtained from copyright owner, JPRS-UAG-84-021 12 June 1984 USSR REPORT AGRICULTURE CONTENTS MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING Details...KHOZYAYSTVA, No 3, Mar 84) - b - MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING DETAILS OF SOWING PROGRESS IN ROSTOVSKAYA OBLAST Moscow SEL’SKAYA ZHIZN1...MAJOR CROP PROGRESS AND WEATHER REPORTING SPRING SOWING OPERATIONS IN BELORUSSIAN SSR REVIEWED Minsk SEL’SKAYA GAZETA in Russian 20 Apr 84 p 1

  15. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  16. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Per hectare of sown area Per ruble of expenditures Winter rye Central taiga -forest Forest steppe Steppe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22...South Siberian Pro- vince Spring barley Central taiga Semidesert, with irrigation Corn for silage Natural-agricultural mountain regions...harvest increments reach 12.9 quintals per hectare (50.8 percent) on soddy-podzolic soil in the European Province and the Central taiga zone and 9.4 to

  17. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  18. 7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING...

  19. Informing Lake Erie agriculture nutrient management via scenario evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Kalcic, Margaret; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Aloysius, Noel; Arnold, Jeffrey; Boles, Chelsie; Confesor, Remegio; DePinto, Joseph; Gildow, Marie; Martin, Jay; Read, Jennifer; Redder, Todd; Robertson, Dale; Sowa, Scott P.; Wang, Yu-Chen; White, Michael; Yen, Haw

    2016-01-01

    Therefore, the overall goal of this study was to identify potential options for agricultural management to reduce phosphorus loads and lessen future HABs in Lake Erie. We applied multiple watershed models to test the ability of a series of land management scenarios, developed in consultation with agricultural and environmental stakeholders, to reach the proposed targets. 

  20. Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

  1. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  2. Agricultural Program Aides - Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Vance W.; Ladewig, Howard

    1973-01-01

    The authors report the results of a pilot research program in Texas involving the use of local low-income farmers as agricultural program aides to bring about changes in agricultural production and management and level of living. (Editor)

  3. Development and validation of a computer program to design and calculate ROPS.

    PubMed

    Mangado, J; Arana, I; Jarén, C; Arnal, P; Arazuri, S; Ponce de León, J L

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, there are more than 250,000 tractors built before 1980, when it became mandatory for all new tractors to be equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS). A similar situation is found in the European Union, but the situation is worse in the U.S. and in developing countries. Directive 2003/37/EEC establishes that tractors over 800 kg weight can be homologated by using the OECD standard code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (static test), called Code 4. A ROPS attachable to the rear axle of different tractor models has been designed, and a computer program for the calculation of the ROPS design has been developed. The program, named ESTREMA, is available at: www.cfnavarra.es/insl. Using this program, it has been possible to design a ROPS for the Massey Ferguson model 178 tractor, one of the most common tractor models without a ROPS in Spain. After the tractor was equipped with the designed ROPS, it was tested at the Spanish Authorized Station for testing ROPS and passed the homologation test (OECD Code 4), the main results being a maximum distortion of 21.3 cm when the absorbed energy was 5437 N and the maximum force applied was 34 kN during loading from the side. The ROPS was improved, redesigned, and remounted on the tractor, the tractor was tested in a real overturn, and no part of the structure intruded on the driver's clearance zone during the test. In conclusion, the ESTREMA program worked correctly, and the designed ROPS was able to pass the authorized test and provide adequate protection to the operator during a real overturn.

  4. Strategies To Promote Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller…

  5. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  6. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  7. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  8. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  9. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  11. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  12. High speed wind tunnel tests of the PTA aircraft. [Propfan Test Assessment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljabri, A. S.; Little, B. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Propfans, advanced highly-loaded propellers, are proposed to power transport aircraft that cruise at high subsonic speeds, giving significant fuel savings over the equivalent turbofan-powered aircraft. NASA is currently sponsoring the Propfan Test Assessment Program (PTA) to provide basic data on the structural integrity and acoustic performance of the propfan. The program involves installation design, wind-tunnel tests, and flight tests of the Hamilton Standard SR-7 propfan in a wing-mount tractor installation on the Gulfstream II aircraft. This paper reports on the high-speed wind-tunnel tests and presents the computational aerodynamic methods that were employed in the analyses, design, and evaluation of the configuration. In spite of the complexity of the configuration, these methods provide aerodynamic predictions which are in excellent agreement with wind-tunnel data.

  13. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  14. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  15. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... published Notice, the Agricultural Research Service receives written evidence and argument which...

  16. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  17. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  18. Community Agricultural Processing Services: A Reflection of Urban Differentiation or County Agricultural Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Calloway, Michael O.

    Questionnaire data from 81 North Carolina communities were analyzed in 1981 to test the hypothesis that 5 institutional subcategories (education, general community services, transportation, agricultural services, and health and sanitation) exhibit the underlying characteristic of unidimensionality and that they reflect comparable levels of…

  19. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  20. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies.

  1. Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agriculture.

    This report presents findings of a study to examine agricultural education at the secondary level and to make recommendations for program improvement. It focuses on the two major elements of agricultural education--agricultural literacy (education about agriculture) and vocational agriculture (education in agriculture). An executive summary sets…

  2. Comparison of Online Agricultural Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; Patterson, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Outlines major online agricultural information services--agricultural databases, databases with agricultural services, educational databases in agriculture--noting services provided, access to the database, and costs. Benefits of online agricultural database sources (availability of agricultural marketing, weather, commodity prices, management…

  3. The farm apprentice: agricultural college students recollections of learning to farm "safely".

    PubMed

    Sanderson, L L; Dukeshire, S R; Rangel, C; Garbes, R

    2010-10-01

    A consistent message in the farm safety literature is the need to develop effective interventions to manage the unacceptably high rate of injury and death among farm children. To better understand the influence of childhood farm experiences on safety beliefs, attitudes, and practices, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 farm youth attending the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. The interviews were designed to elicit information pertaining to participants' earliest memories of involvement in farm activities, the decision-making processes that led them to assume work-related responsibilities, and the roles that their parents played in their safety training. A common theme of experiencing childhood as a "farm apprentice" emerged across all narratives whereby farm activities were learned primarily through observational learning and modeling of parents and then mastered through repetition. As "farm apprentices," the youths' involvement in dangerous activities such as tractor driving and livestock handling began at early ages, with very little formal training and supervision. Although participants clearly described themselves as being exposed to dangerous activities, they believed that they had the capacity to control the risks and farm safely. Based on our findings, the concept of the "farm apprentice" appears to be integral to the social context of the farming community and should be considered in the design of interventions to reduce child injury and death.

  4. Nastran's Application in Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwicklen, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element analysis has been recognized as a valuable solution method by agricultural engineers. NASTRAN has been obtained by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Georgia. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has been used in the teaching program for an undergraduate course in heat transfer and will be used for a new graduate course in finite element analysis. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has also been applied to several research problems in the Agricultural Engineering Department.

  5. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  6. Conducting Summer School in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Melvin

    1976-01-01

    Course objectives, student competencies, and class session schedules are outlined for two high school vocational agriculture summer courses: Livestock and Livestock Products Evaluation and Agribusiness Leadership Seminar. (MS)

  7. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  8. Inservice Education of Vocational Agriculture Teachers on New Curriculum Materials for Adult Class Instruction: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, J. David, Ed.; Newcomb, L. H., Ed.

    Twenty-two field-tested instructional units were developed for use in adult and young farmer education by 20 specially trained agriculture teachers in Ohio. The resource units were developed in the following agriculture areas of instruction: corn and soybean production, agriculture mechanics, swine production, farm management, and horticulture.…

  9. Agricultural Mechanics. V-A-1 to V-E-1. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains five units of informational materials and transparency masters with accompanying scripts, skill sheets, and safety tests for teacher and student use in an agricultural mechanics course in vocational agriculture. The first unit introduces the agricultural mechanics shop, covering the following topics: importance of agricultural…

  10. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  11. Milk Processing Plant Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaschke, Nolan; Page, Foy

    This course of study is designed for the vocational agricultural student enrolled in an agricultural cooperative part-time training program in the area of milk processing occupations. The course consists of 11 units, each with 4 to 13 individual topics that milk processing plant employees should know. Subjects covered by the units are the…

  12. Agricultural Production. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for an agricultural production program is one in a series of such guides for agricultural education. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for a program directed toward helping students to become proficient in animal, plant, and soil sciences and…

  13. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  14. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of minimal quantities. 983.53 Section 983.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing of minimal quantities. 983.53 Section 983.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 28.957 - Special tests and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tests and fees. 28.957 Section 28.957 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD...

  17. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following machines: (i) Corn picker, cotton picker, grain combine, hay mower, forage harvester, hay baler... a ladder or scaffold (painting, repairing, or building structures, pruning trees, picking fruit, etc... riding on a tractor as a passenger or helper. (8) Working inside: (i) A fruit, forage, or grain...

  18. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following machines: (i) Corn picker, cotton picker, grain combine, hay mower, forage harvester, hay baler... a ladder or scaffold (painting, repairing, or building structures, pruning trees, picking fruit, etc... riding on a tractor as a passenger or helper. (8) Working inside: (i) A fruit, forage, or grain...

  19. The application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaqin; Luo, Ying

    The quality and security of agricultural products is the hot issue with public attention in China and also one of the issues that Chinese government attaches great importance to. This paper describes the principle of data mining technology and based on the environmental information data of agricultural production and the quality-security testing data of agricultural products, analyses the application of data mining technology in the quality and security of agricultural products.

  20. Making agriculture greener.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta

    2015-01-01

    The application of sewage sludge has been a worldwide agricultural practice for many years. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sewage sludge (Ss) has on the physiological parameters of maize (Zea mays L cvs. PR37NO1). 2 g dm(-3) and 4 g dm(-3) of sewage sludge were examined in hydroponic experiment. Some metal contents (Al, Cr, Mn, Na, Zn) in the shoots and roots of maize were taken. Living bacteria containing fertilizers (LBCF) were examined on how the treatments modify heavy metal uptakes. Dry matter accumulations in shoots and roots, length of shoots and roots of maize were measured. Chlorophyll contents were determined by using spectrophotometer methods. The dry matter accumulation and length of shoots decreased, the dry matter of roots increased in all of the treatments compared to the nutrient solution without treatment (control). Increased chlorophyll a, b and carotene contents were observed at 4 g dm(-3) Ss and 4 g dm(-3) Ss + bio fertilizer treatments.