Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural trade emergency

  1. Emergency China Trade Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sherman, Brad [D-CA-27

    2011-09-13

    09/19/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 19, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Trade, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal AGENCY: Foreign... Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC). DATES: Effective... Secretary and the USTR concerning agricultural trade policy. The committee is intended to ensure...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the...

  6. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  7. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  8. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  9. Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960–2050

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and—in the case of farm products—by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties. PMID:20713399

  10. Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960-2050.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-09-27

    Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and-in the case of farm products-by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties.

  11. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  12. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  13. 75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton... the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees (ATAC) for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and... representation of the planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS)...

  14. Agriculture emergencies: a primer for first responders.

    PubMed

    Gilpen, Johnnie L; Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L; Burden, Ray W

    2009-06-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health.

  15. Agriculture Emergencies: A Primer for First Responders

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L.; Burden, Ray W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  16. 75 FR 80038 - Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade... compromise the development by the U.S. Government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or... connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United...

  17. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices.

  18. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

  19. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  20. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  1. Emerging Educational and Agricultural Trends and their Impact on the Secondary Agricultural Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ralsa Marshall, Jr.; Moore, Gary E.; Flowers, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the emerging trends in education and agriculture and to determine their implications on the secondary agricultural education program. For this study, the researchers did a national solicitation for nominations with 1,160 national agricultural education leaders, state agricultural education leaders,…

  2. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports AGENCY: United...: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports. DATES: May 25, 2010: Deadline for filing requests to... on the conditions of competition in China's agricultural market and trade and their effect on...

  3. Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

    A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

  4. Government Intervention in Agriculture. Measurement, Evaluation, and Implications for Trade Negotiations. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 229.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis that defines and quantifies the extent of government intervention in the agricultural sectors of the market-oriented countries most active in trade. One aim is to provide usable economic information for the multilateral trade negotiations (MTN), recently launched under the auspices of the General Agreement on…

  5. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  6. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-08-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce the concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides released in streams and aquifers to the allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on global trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  7. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  8. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  9. Agricultural greenhouse gas trading markets in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have assembled evidence of climate change and emphasized its anthropogenic causes. Carbon (C) management and an emissions trading system may be a way to address concerns about climate change and associated environmental impacts. Limited experience has shown a practical policy approach t...

  10. 77 FR 73509 - Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading December 6, 2012. It appears to the... securities of Emerging World Pharma, Inc. (``Emerging World''). Emerging World is a Florida corporation... and accuracy of press releases and other public statements concerning Emerging World's...

  11. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y.; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture–environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence. PMID:23671097

  12. Emerging Pathogen in Wild Amphibians and Frogs (Rana catesbeiana) Farmed for International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Rolando; Daszak, Peter; Apolo, Ada; Perdomo, Eugenio; Speranza, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is an emerging disease responsible for global decline and extinction of amphibians. We report the causative agent, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for the international restaurant trade. Our findings suggest that international trade may play a key role in the global dissemination of this and other emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. PMID:12967500

  13. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  14. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. PMID:26994788

  15. Detection, Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants in Agricultural Environments.

    PubMed

    Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Li, Xu; D'Alessio, Matteo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett

    2016-10-01

    A total of 59 papers published in 2015 were reviewed ranging from detailed descriptions of analytical methods, to fate and occurrence studies, to ecological effects and sampling techniques for a wide variety of emerging contaminants likely to occur in agricultural environments. New methods and studies on veterinary pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural environments continue to expand our knowledge base on the occurrence and potential impacts of these compounds. This review is divided into the following sections: Introduction, Analytical Methods, Steroid Hormones, Pharmaceutical Contaminants, Transformation Products, and "Antibiotic Resistance, Drugs, Bugs and Genes".

  16. Detection, Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants in Agricultural Environments.

    PubMed

    Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Li, Xu; D'Alessio, Matteo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett

    2016-10-01

    A total of 59 papers published in 2015 were reviewed ranging from detailed descriptions of analytical methods, to fate and occurrence studies, to ecological effects and sampling techniques for a wide variety of emerging contaminants likely to occur in agricultural environments. New methods and studies on veterinary pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural environments continue to expand our knowledge base on the occurrence and potential impacts of these compounds. This review is divided into the following sections: Introduction, Analytical Methods, Steroid Hormones, Pharmaceutical Contaminants, Transformation Products, and "Antibiotic Resistance, Drugs, Bugs and Genes". PMID:27620078

  17. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  18. 17 CFR 3.13 - Registration of agricultural trade option merchants and their associated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; provided, however, no such certification is required when the associated person becomes associated with the... accepted accounting principles; (ii) The agricultural trade option merchant must identify each of the... certifications from each natural person that he or she is not disqualified for any of the reasons listed...

  19. Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV) in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV), WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts. PMID:20377873

  20. Workshop 7 (synthesis): trade-offs in water for food and environmental security--urban/agricultural trade-off.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ausaf-ur; Kadi, Mohammad Ait; Rockström, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Severe stresses are being generated by increasing demand for competing water uses, above all between agriculture and urban needs. Amongst potential solutions considered, two dominated the workshop: virtual water and water reuse. Virtual water implies indirect water use: water-poor countries importing food rather than attempting self-sufficiency and thereby keeping their real water resources for economically more beneficial uses. There are serious political and economic risks associated; one proposed solution is an international virtual water trading council. Improved forms of water reuse, particularly use of treated urban wastewater for irrigation, can maximise the use made of limited supply.

  1. Land Conservation in an Evolving Agricultural Industry: Trade-offs to Consider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. S.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Jackson, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    This study analyzes the interactions of land conservation policy with biofuel expansion using an economic model of the U.S. forest and agricultural sectors. The world agricultural industry is changing rapidly under emerging market and policy-based pressures. An important driver in the U.S. is the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), which mandates significant expansion in biofuels production (up to 36 billion gallons/year by 2022). Traditional land conservation practices such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) are at risk in this changing agricultural climate, as the opportunity costs of reverting to cropland continue to rise. Large- scale reversion of CRP acreage is likely to lead to substantial losses in soil carbon, biodiversity, soil erosion protection, and water quality. However, given the increased competition for land resources, continued efforts to maintain the CRP could induce land use change (LUC) and agricultural development from even more sensitive ecosystems, including native grasslands and forests. This study uses economic modeling to study CRP reversion and LUC under multiple scenarios, including: 1) Baseline assumptions of growth in world agricultural demand and energy prices, with and without CRP reversion; 2) Implementation of the RFS while maintaining the CRP; and 3) RFS with CRP reversion allowed. The study is done using the FASOMGHG model (Lee, McCarl et al, 2008), which is well suited for this analysis as it: 1) Depicts land use competition between crops, pasture, CRP, and forestry over a 100 year period 2) Contains comprehensive GHG accounting across the sectors, 3) Allows land in the CRP to revert to cultivation at an economically optimal rate as land values increase, and 4) Extensively models biofuel and conventional agricultural production possibilities. Results generated to date show significant reversion to cultivation, even under the baseline (36% of the total CRP stock by 2020). Implementing the RFS further pressures conservation

  2. A new method for assessing the impact of emerging infections on global trade.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A M; Taneda, K

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new method for assessing the impact of emerging infections on global trade flows. When one compares notifications to the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the emergency measures taken to control certain animal and plant diseases with the trade values of certain products from the United Nation's Commodity Trade Statistics Database (Comtrade) (identified through the World Customs Organization's harmonised system of tariff product codes [HS]), it is possible to estimate the extent to which trade has been diverted from the affected economies. The authors study in detail the example of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). When member countries of the WTO change their import policies towards the goods of a trading partner, as the result of an emerging disease such as BSE, they must file notifications of such changes through the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee of the WTO. To quantify the impact of BSE on trade, the authors compared these notifications against Comtrade statistics, using the HS 1996 tariff code variable. (The HS 1996 tariff codes allow the tracking and recording of the volumes of exports and imports, in quantity and value, between any two member countries between 1998 and 2000 in the database.) The authors then used this linked dataset to describe the dollar impact of the BSE-related notifications filed in 2000 on the trade flow of imports. The results of this study suggest that economies affected by BSE notifications saw a decline of US$5.6 billion from hypothetical projections in designated products. At the same time, unaffected economies saw an increase of US$1.5 billion from hypothetical projections in the same products. Thus, it may be concluded that import restrictions to control the spread of emergent spongiform encephalopathy infection had a significant effect on trade flows. These results also emphasise the interconnectedness of global trade: trade restrictions for some economies may enhance trade

  3. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  4. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  5. Soil water and carbon management for agricultural resilience in a key node in the global virtual water trade network: Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Speratti, A. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon region is globally connected through agricultural exports, with the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso in particular emerging as a key node in the global virtual water trade network in recent years, based largely on rainfed agriculture. The anticipated growth in the world's population suggests that virtual water trade will only become more important to global food security. In this presentation we will evaluate strategies for improving the resilience of rainfed agriculture in the region, particularly for the nearly 12 million hectares of sandy soil with low water holding capacity within Mato Grosso that has largely been converted to agricultural use. We will review land use change trajectories and present results from soil water balance modeling and carbon fluxes for a range of future scenarios, including continued agricultural extensification, potential strategies for agricultural intensification, and novel water and carbon management strategies including biochar use in sandy soils to improve soil water holding capacities and soil carbon sequestration. We will also consider the role that irrigation might play in the future in the Amazon for improving agricultural resilience to climate change and feedbacks between irrigation and land use change pressures, noting that groundwater resources in the region are presently among the least exploited on the planet.

  6. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  7. The historical impact of climate extremes on global agricultural production and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T. J.; Pal, I.; Block, P. J.; Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    How does climate variability at interannual time scales impact the volume and prices of key agricultural products on the global market? Do concurrent climate shocks in major breadbaskets of the world have serious impacts on global stocks and food prices? To what extent may irrigated agriculture or food storage buffer such impacts? Is there evidence of such impacts and/or buffering in the publicly available historical data? This talk explores these questions through empirical data analysis. During the past two years, we have seen drought in China, Europe, and Russia and floods in the United States and Australia. In this study, we examine the relationship between climate and crop yields, focusing on three main grain staples: wheat, rice, and maize. To do this, we use global production, trade, and stock data from the Food and Agricultural Organization and the United States Department of Agriculture for agriculture information and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation from 1960 through 2008. We focus on the impact of climate shocks (extreme temperatures, drought, and floods) on the agricultural production for the top exporting countries and quantify how these shocks propagate through the country's exports, imports, and grain stocks in order to understand the effect climate variability and extremes have on global food security. The ability to forecast these climate shocks at seasonal to longer lead times would significantly improve our ability to cope with perturbations in the global food supply, and we evaluate the ability of current models to produce skillful seasonal forecasts over the major grain producing regions.

  8. [Agriculture in Italy nowadays: ancient risks and emerging diseases].

    PubMed

    Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Since produce food using the environment, agricultural activities are fundamental for human and environmental health. They expose workers to all the known health and safety risks: pesticides and other chemicals, noise, vibrations, solar radiation, climate changes, organisational factors, biological, biomechanical and allergic risks. Also the risk of accidents is very relevant. Apart for these well-known risks, new risks and diseases are emerging, such as biological risk from vectors, modulated by climate changes, or risks related to new production modalities, such as the cases of peripheral neuropathy observed in pig butchers. The risks can affect particularly vulnerable groups, such as seasonal, temporary workers and migrants. Currently, in Italy, an increase in reports of occupational diseases in the sector is being observed, in particular for musculoskeletal disorders. Such increase finds an explanation not in a worsening situation at the workplace but in an increasing attention for rural workers accompanied by an increased reporting of occupational diseases. PMID:24303715

  9. No Free Lunch - Trading Away Ecosystem Services from Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaks, D.; Foley, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the age of globalization, many crops and animal products are transported across the long distances for consumption elsewhere. The alteration of water, soil and climate systems from agricultural practices can be attributed to both exporting and importing countries. Quantities of water, carbon and nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus) can be tracked throughout the production process and be aggregated from field to table. The synthesis of this data can be used to inform markets to appropriately price the most ecologically efficient production.While agricultural land is undergoing changes around the world, the Brazilian Amazon has seen a dramatic conversion of forest and grassland due to the expanding agricultural frontier, and intense growth in the future has been predicted in the region. As a proof of concept, I plan to study the flow of ecosystem services from the Amazon rainforest basin to the world market. Cattle and soybeans are the two main agricultural products of the region and are produced for both internal consumption and for export. This work quantifies agricultural production and its associated ecosystem services using socio-economic and commodity trade data, numerical ecosystem models and remote sensing products.

  10. Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

    2009-01-01

    With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educational…

  11. Emerging Occupations in Agriculture: Impact upon Curricula and People, Part I. Yolo County, 1979. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Applied Behavioral Sciences.

    A study was conducted to identify competencies needed by workers in new and emerging occupations in agriculture; to identify occupations in agriculture that are on the decline and occupations that may no longer be needed; to work toward the elimination of sex bias in preparation for entry into occupations in agriculture; and to assess the…

  12. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and Development"…

  13. Emerging National Research Needs for Agricultural Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.; Niyogi, Dev; Jennings, Greg; Gilliam, Wendell; Knighton, Raymond E.; Duke, Clifford S.; Blunden, Jessica; Krishnan, Srinath

    2006-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, the Earth's human population is predicted to increase from the current 6.1 billion to more than 9 billion, creating a parallel increase in demand for agricultural commodities. Satisfying the demand for food is already driving changes in crop and livestock production methods that may have profound environmental effects. Increased consumption of animal protein in developed and developing countries, for example, has resulted in concentrated production of poultry and livestock, which has led to concentrated emissions of pollutants from these production facilities and has created regulatory concerns for agriculture. Development of land for nonagricultural uses has placed more pressure on marginal agricultural lands and has caused environmental degradation including the emission of trace gases (e.g., carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen species) into the atmosphere.

  14. Emergence of the global research alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing human population pressure on the Earth is of great concern and a key reason why agricultural and natural resource sciences must be fully engaged to develop solutions for a sustainable future. Increasing population puts pressure on the demand for food, clean water, healthy soil, and a sta...

  15. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  16. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed.

  17. A preliminary survey of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch and trade in China: an emerging crisis.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Wang, Y; Norman, B

    2012-04-01

    This study gives an account of spatial and temporal distribution of whale shark Rhincodon typus catch events in China on the basis of historical records and information obtained from interviews with fishing industry stakeholders. A total of 186 R. typus were recorded with key harvest areas identified as in Hainan and Zhejiang, and the peak catching seasons were May to June and September to October. Aspects of the R. typus trade are discussed, including products, markets and the process. The results suggest that R. typus is increasingly becoming a targeted resource in China as a consequence of fierce competition for large shark fins and an emerging local market for consumption of all body parts. Current obstacles and potential measures for sustainable exploitation and trade of R. typus are discussed. PMID:22497400

  18. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P N; Jha, D K

    2012-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that can enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms like phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, biological nitrogen fixation, rhizosphere engineering, production of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC), quorum sensing (QS) signal interference and inhibition of biofilm formation, phytohormone production, exhibiting antifungal activity, production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), induction of systemic resistance, promoting beneficial plant-microbe symbioses, interference with pathogen toxin production etc. The potentiality of PGPR in agriculture is steadily increased as it offers an attractive way to replace the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other supplements. Growth promoting substances are likely to be produced in large quantities by these rhizosphere microorganisms that influence indirectly on the overall morphology of the plants. Recent progress in our understanding on the diversity of PGPR in the rhizosphere along with their colonization ability and mechanism of action should facilitate their application as a reliable component in the management of sustainable agricultural system. The progress to date in using the rhizosphere bacteria in a variety of applications related to agricultural improvement along with their mechanism of action with special reference to plant growth-promoting traits are summarized and discussed in this review.

  19. [Research on the virtual water composition and virtual water trade for agriculture in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun-hong; Dong, Yan-yan; Han, Zhao-xing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the irrigation norm of typical district and county, and revised by the isoline map of Chinese crops water demand, the change of crops program was analyzed as well as the agricultural water use and its GDP benefits. Then the virtual water was calculated for years. At last, the input-output method was used to calculate the trade of virtual water in Beijing. As the results, the virtual water for cereal crops has been decreasing in Beijing, from 1.832 x 10(9) m3 in 1990 to 4.283 x 10(8) m3 in 2004. Otherwise the virtual water for technical crops has been increasing, which is from 9.06 x 10(8) m3 in 1990 to 1.492 x 10(9) m3 in 2004. On the whole, the virtual water for crops has been decreasing in Beijing. From the angle of primary products Beijing is a virtual water importing area. Virtual water importing of annual average is 2.37 x 10(8) m3, which is about 5.93% of the total water of Beijing. Virtual water has been an important supplement of local real water of Beijing.

  20. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  1. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  2. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  3. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  4. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  5. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  6. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  7. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  8. Emerging technologies in ethanol production. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hohmann, N.; Rendleman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel ethanol industry is poised to adopt a wide range of technologies that would reduce costs at every stage of the production process. Improved enzymes and fermenter designs can reduce the time needed to convert corn to ethanol and lower capital costs. Membrane filtration can allow the recovery of high-value coproducts such as lactic acid. Adoption of these and other innovations in the next 5 years is expected in new ethanol plants constructed to cope with new demand resulting from Clean Air Act stipulations for cleaner burning fuel. Biomass (agricultural residues, municipal and yard waste, energy crops like switchgrass) can also be converted to ethanol, although commercial-scale ventures are limited by current technology. While biomass requires more handling and sorting before conversion, those costs may be offset by the abundance of biomass relative to corn.

  9. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food.

  10. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. PMID:24814860

  11. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change.

    PubMed

    Seebens, Hanno; Essl, Franz; Dawson, Wayne; Fuentes, Nicol; Moser, Dietmar; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Winter, Marten; Blasius, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    Trade plays a key role in the spread of alien species and has arguably contributed to the recent enormous acceleration of biological invasions, thus homogenizing biotas worldwide. Combining data on 60-year trends of bilateral trade, as well as on biodiversity and climate, we modeled the global spread of plant species among 147 countries. The model results were compared with a recently compiled unique global data set on numbers of naturalized alien vascular plant species representing the most comprehensive collection of naturalized plant distributions currently available. The model identifies major source regions, introduction routes, and hot spots of plant invasions that agree well with observed naturalized plant numbers. In contrast to common knowledge, we show that the 'imperialist dogma,' stating that Europe has been a net exporter of naturalized plants since colonial times, does not hold for the past 60 years, when more naturalized plants were being imported to than exported from Europe. Our results highlight that the current distribution of naturalized plants is best predicted by socioeconomic activities 20 years ago. We took advantage of the observed time lag and used trade developments until recent times to predict naturalized plant trajectories for the next two decades. This shows that particularly strong increases in naturalized plant numbers are expected in the next 20 years for emerging economies in megadiverse regions. The interaction with predicted future climate change will increase invasions in northern temperate countries and reduce them in tropical and (sub)tropical regions, yet not by enough to cancel out the trade-related increase.

  12. Exploring the Linkages: Trade Policies, Third World Development, and U.S. Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trade and Development Program, Washington, DC.

    This resource, a publication of the Trade and Development Program, was designed by a coalition of 10 farm and church groups to help U.S. citizens discover the connections between their lives, world food trade, and the needs of developing nations; it can be used for a single program, a multi-session workshop, or a study series. Targeted for high…

  13. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  14. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  15. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  16. Shade Trading: An Emerging Riparian Forest-Based Payment for Ecosystem Services Market in Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillozet, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the regulatory and compliance context for Oregon's emerging ecosystem services (ES) market in riparian shade to meet water quality obligations. In Oregon's market as with many other ES programs, contracts and other regulatory documents not only delimit the obligations and liabilities of different parties, but also constitute a primary mechanism through which ES service delivery is measured. Through a review of compliance criteria I find that under Oregon's shade trades, permittees are held to a number of input-based criteria, which essentially affirm that parties comply with predetermined practices and procedures, and one `pseudo output based' criterion, in which ES delivery is estimated through a model. The case presented in the paper critically engages with the challenges of measuring ES and in assessing the outcomes of ES projects. It places these challenges as interrelated and proposes that market designers, policymakers, and other stakeholders should consider explicit efficacy, efficiency, and equity targets.

  17. Shade Trading: An Emerging Riparian Forest-Based Payment for Ecosystem Services Market in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Guillozet, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the regulatory and compliance context for Oregon's emerging ecosystem services (ES) market in riparian shade to meet water quality obligations. In Oregon's market as with many other ES programs, contracts and other regulatory documents not only delimit the obligations and liabilities of different parties, but also constitute a primary mechanism through which ES service delivery is measured. Through a review of compliance criteria I find that under Oregon's shade trades, permittees are held to a number of input-based criteria, which essentially affirm that parties comply with predetermined practices and procedures, and one 'pseudo output based' criterion, in which ES delivery is estimated through a model. The case presented in the paper critically engages with the challenges of measuring ES and in assessing the outcomes of ES projects. It places these challenges as interrelated and proposes that market designers, policymakers, and other stakeholders should consider explicit efficacy, efficiency, and equity targets.

  18. Wood products trade and foreign markets. Annual production, consumption, and trade issue. Principal countries impacting US trade in wood products. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Forest Products Division has compiled production, consumption, and trade data on selected wood products for twenty eight significant countries. The data, collected from various sources, is not necessarily compatible with US export and import data normally published in this circular, which comes from the US Census Bureau. To supplement this data, the following perspectives offer a comparative snapshot of conditions in these countries, both in the general economy and the wood products sector. Economic information was extracted from the 1992 World Factbook; Central Intelligence Agency.

  19. Rapid growth in agricultural trade: effects on global area efficiency and the role of management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Thomas; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2014-03-01

    Cropland is crucial for supplying humans with biomass products, above all, food. Globalization has led to soaring volumes of international trade, resulting in strongly increasing distances between the locations where land use takes place and where the products are consumed. Based on a dataset that allows tracing the flows of almost 450 crop and livestock products and consistently allocating them to cropland areas in over 200 nations, we analyze this rapidly growing spatial disconnect between production and consumption for the period from 1986 to 2009. At the global level, land for export production grew rapidly (by about 100 Mha), while land supplying crops for direct domestic use remained virtually unchanged. We show that international trade on average flows from high-yield to low-yield regions: compared to a hypothetical no-trade counterfactual that assumes equal consumption and yield levels, trade lowered global cropland demand by almost 90 Mha in 2008 (3-year mean). An analysis using yield gap data (which quantify the distance of prevailing yields to those attainable through the best currently available production techniques) revealed that differences in land management and in natural endowments contribute almost equally to the yield differences between exporting and importing nations. A comparison of the effect of yield differences between exporting and importing regions with the potential of closing yield gaps suggests that increasing yields holds greater potentials for reducing future cropland demand than increasing and adjusting trade volumes based on differences in current land productivity.

  20. Rome was not built in one day: Underlying biological and cognitive factors responsible for the emergence of agriculture and ultrasociality.

    PubMed

    Grotuss, Jason; Beard, Sarah Jean

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture represented a major transition in human evolution, but the appearance of ultrasociality must have included previous steps. We argue that ultrasociality would not have suddenly emerged with agriculture, but rather developed from pre-existing cognitive and social mechanisms. Discussions must include necessary depth about the historical origins of human ultrasociality, and agriculture's aftereffects on large-scale social organization. PMID:27562680

  1. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, R

    1999-01-01

    Foreign pest introductions and outbreaks represent threats to agricultural productivity and ecosystems, and, thus, to the health and national security of the United States. It is advisable to identify relevant techniques and bring all appropriate strategies to bear on the problem of controlling accidentally and intentionally introduced pest outbreaks. Recent political shifts indicate that the U.S. may be at increased risk for biological terrorism. The existing emergency-response strategies of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) will evolve to expand activities in coordination with other emergency management agencies. APHIS will evolve its information superstructure to include extensive application of simulation models for forecasting, meteorological databases and analysis, systems analysis, geographic information systems, satellite image analysis, remote sensing, and the training of specialized cadres within the emergency-response framework capable of managing the necessary information processing and analysis. Finally, the threat of key pests ranked according to perceived risk will be assessed with mathematical models and "what-if" scenarios analyzed to determine impact and mitigation practices. An infrastructure will be maintained that periodically surveys ports and inland regions for the presence of exotic pest threats and will identify trend abnormalities. This survey and monitoring effort will include cooperation from industry groups, federal and state organizations, and academic institutions.

  2. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    for irrigation can already be documented. Due to drier summers induced by climate change, this phenomenon is expected to gain more importance in the future. Related to water quantity and quality it is crucial to think about the diverging interests between the supply of the population with national agricultural products and the preservation of the water bodies, their ecological value and their other ecosystem services (e.g. drinking water supply). The project AProWa attempts to elucidate trade-offs of national goals for water protection and agricultural production in Switzerland by involving stakeholders from agricultural administration (Federal Office for Agriculture, FOAG), agricultural research (Agroscope), water research (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag) and environmental protection (Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN). This is done by applying multi-criteria decision analysis facilitating consensus regarding goals and possible activities and alternatives to reach these goals. This is followed by an evaluation of main conflicts and prioritized research gaps. We present preliminary results from workshops and interdisciplinary discussion groups that encompass an objectives hierarchy reflecting agricultural production and water conservation goals. Furthermore, an inventory of agricultural practices and water protection measures is presented, enabling their evaluation for the provision of agricultural production while sustaining aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Determinants of immediate price impacts at the trade level in an emerging order-driven market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2012-02-01

    Common wisdom argues that, in general, large trades cause large price changes, whereas small trades cause small price changes. However, for extremely large price changes, the trade size and news play a minor role, while liquidity (especially price gaps on the limit order book) is a more influential factor. Hence, there might be other factors influencing the immediate price impacts of trades. In this paper, through mechanical analysis of price variations before and after a trade of arbitrary size, we identify that the trade size, the bid-ask spread, the price gaps and the outstanding volumes at the bid and ask sides of the limit order book have an impact on the changes in prices. We propose two regression models to investigate the influence of these microscopic factors on the price impact of buyer-initiated partially filled trades, seller-initiated partially filled trades, buyer-initiated filled trades and seller-initiated filled trades. We find that they have quantitatively similar explanatory powers and these factors can account for up to 44% of the price impacts. Large trade sizes, wide bid-ask spreads, high liquidity at the same side and low liquidity at the opposite side will cause a large price impact. We also find that the liquidity at the opposite side has a more influential impact than the liquidity at the same side. Our results shed new light on the determinants of immediate price impacts.

  4. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them. PMID:27559064

  5. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them.

  6. Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.

    PubMed

    Rollin, B E

    2004-03-01

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization.

  7. Trade-offs between agricultural production and biodiversity for biofuel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing energy demands and concerns for climate change have pushed forward the time line for biofuel production. However, the effect of large-scale biofuel production in the U.S. on the agricultural industry, primarily responsible for food production and livestock feed, and biodiversity levels of ma...

  8. Ethanol production, corn gluten feed, and EC trade. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.

    1993-07-01

    The profitability of ethanol depends not only on sales of ethanol, but on sales of several coproducts of corn wet-milling such as corn gluten feed (CGF). CGF demand and supply are affected by several European Community (EC) and US policies, such as EC grain price supports and US energy policies. Changes in existing policies and programs could have a significant effect on the CGF market and, consequently, on the profitability of ethanol production. The report examines the implications of several policy options on demand, supply, and price of CGF and on the profitability of ethanol production. The policy changes examined include: (1) the effect of proposed changes in EC farm and trade policies, and (2) the effect of increased ethanol production due to proposed US environmental policies, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Air Act.

  9. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  10. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  11. Quantification of phosphorus transport from a karstic agricultural watershed to emerging spring water.

    PubMed

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Murphy, Paul N C; Wall, David P; Mechan, Sarah; Meehan, Robert; Kelly, Coran; Shine, Oliver; Shortle, Ger

    2013-06-18

    The degree to which waters in a given watershed will be affected by nutrient export can be defined as that watershed's nutrient vulnerability. This study applied concepts of specific phosphorus (P) vulnerability to develop intrinsic groundwater vulnerability risk assessments in a 32 km(2) karst watershed (spring zone of contribution) in a relatively intensive agricultural landscape. To explain why emergent spring water was below an ecological impairment threshold, concepts of P attenuation potential were investigated along the nutrient transfer continuum based on soil P buffering, depth to bedrock, and retention within the aquifer. Surface karst features, such as enclosed depressions, were reclassified based on P attenuation potential in soil at the base. New techniques of high temporal resolution monitoring of P loads in the emergent spring made it possible to estimate P transfer pathways and retention within the aquifer and indicated small-medium fissure flows to be the dominant pathway, delivering 52-90% of P loads during storm events. Annual total P delivery to the main emerging spring was 92.7 and 138.4 kg total P (and 52.4 and 91.3 kg as total reactive P) for two monitored years, respectively. A revised groundwater vulnerability assessment was used to produce a specific P vulnerability map that used the soil and hydrogeological P buffering potential of the watershed as key assumptions in moderating P export to the emergent spring. Using this map and soil P data, the definition of critical source areas in karst landscapes was demonstrated. PMID:23672730

  12. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from <1 to 7677 ng kg(-1), with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. PMID:22030249

  13. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from <1 to 7677 ng kg(-1), with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  14. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  15. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  16. Emergent insect production in post-harvest flooded agricultural fields used by waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Richard C.; Blumenshine, Steven C.; Yee, Julie; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    California’s Tulare Lake Basin (TLB) is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America even though most wetlands there have been converted to cropland. To guide management programs promoting waterbird beneficial agriculture, which includes flooding fields between growing periods, we measured emergence rates of insects, an important waterbird food, in three crop types (tomato, wheat, alfalfa) in the TLB relative to water depth and days flooded during August–October, 2003 and 2004. We used corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion values to compare a set of models that accounted for our repeated measured data. The best model included crop type and crop type interacting with days flooded and depth flooded. Emergence rates (mg m−2 day−1) were greater in tomato than wheat or alfalfa fields, increased with days flooded in alfalfa and tomato but not wheat fields, and increased with water depth in alfalfa and wheat but not tomato fields. To investigate the relationship between the range of diel water temperatures and insect emergence rates, we rearedChironomus dilutus larvae in environmental chambers under high (15–32°C) and low fluctuation (20–26°C) temperature regimes that were associated with shallow and deep (respectively) sampling sites in our fields. Larval survival (4×) and biomass (2×) were greater in the low thermal fluctuation treatment suggesting that deeply flooded areas would support greater insect production.

  17. Parameter trade-offs for imaging spectroscopy systems. [application of HIRIS instrument model to agricultural remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekes, John P.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the EOS era and of configurable sensors, users of these instruments are faced with the twin problems of specifying data acquisition parameters and extracting desired information from the voluminous data. An application of a system model is made to explore system parameter trade-offs for a model sensor based on the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. Radiometric performance was studied, along with the effect on classification accuracy of several system parameters. Using a model scene based on typical agricultural reflectance and atmospheric conditions, the atmosphere and sensor are seen to have significant effects on the mean received signal and noise performance. The effect of random uncorrelated errors in the radiometric calibration of the detector array is seen to degrade system performance, especially in the spectral bands below 1 micron. Accurate pixel-to-pixel relative radiometric calibration and the use of the Image Motion Compensation option are seen to improve classification accuracy, especially at high solar zenith angles. Feature sets chosen from characteristics of the scene performed best overall, but ones chosen based on signal-to-noise ratios were seen to be more robust.

  18. Review and Meta-analysis of Emerging Risk Factors for Agricultural Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Rohan; Achutan, Chandran; Haynatzki, Gleb; Rajaram, Shireen; Rautiainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural injury is a significant public health problem globally. Extensive research has addressed this problem, and a growing number of risk factors have been reported. The authors evaluated the evidence for frequently reported risk factors earlier. The objective in the current study was to identify emerging risk factors for agricultural injury and calculate pooled estimates for factors that were assessed in two or more studies. A total of 441 (PubMed) and 285 (Google Scholar) studies were identified focusing on occupational injuries in agriculture. From these, 39 studies reported point estimates of risk factors for injury; 38 of them passed the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria for quality and were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Several risk factors were significantly associated with injury in the meta-analysis. These included older age (vs. younger), education up to high school or higher (vs. lower), non-Caucasian race (vs. Caucasian), Finnish language (vs. Swedish), residence on-farm (vs. off-farm), sleeping less than 7-7.5 hours (vs. more), high perceived injury risk (vs. low), challenging social conditions (vs. normal), greater farm sales, size, income, and number of employees on the farm (vs. smaller), animal production (vs. other production), unsafe practices conducted (vs. not), computer use (vs. not), dermal exposure to pesticides and/or chemicals (vs. not), high cooperation between farms (vs. not), and machinery condition fair/poor (vs. excellent/good). Eighteen of the 25 risk factors were significant in the meta-analysis. The identified risk factors should be considered when designing interventions and selecting populations at high risk of injury.

  19. Review and Meta-analysis of Emerging Risk Factors for Agricultural Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Rohan; Achutan, Chandran; Haynatzki, Gleb; Rajaram, Shireen; Rautiainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural injury is a significant public health problem globally. Extensive research has addressed this problem, and a growing number of risk factors have been reported. The authors evaluated the evidence for frequently reported risk factors earlier. The objective in the current study was to identify emerging risk factors for agricultural injury and calculate pooled estimates for factors that were assessed in two or more studies. A total of 441 (PubMed) and 285 (Google Scholar) studies were identified focusing on occupational injuries in agriculture. From these, 39 studies reported point estimates of risk factors for injury; 38 of them passed the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria for quality and were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Several risk factors were significantly associated with injury in the meta-analysis. These included older age (vs. younger), education up to high school or higher (vs. lower), non-Caucasian race (vs. Caucasian), Finnish language (vs. Swedish), residence on-farm (vs. off-farm), sleeping less than 7-7.5 hours (vs. more), high perceived injury risk (vs. low), challenging social conditions (vs. normal), greater farm sales, size, income, and number of employees on the farm (vs. smaller), animal production (vs. other production), unsafe practices conducted (vs. not), computer use (vs. not), dermal exposure to pesticides and/or chemicals (vs. not), high cooperation between farms (vs. not), and machinery condition fair/poor (vs. excellent/good). Eighteen of the 25 risk factors were significant in the meta-analysis. The identified risk factors should be considered when designing interventions and selecting populations at high risk of injury. PMID:27088816

  20. Environmental assessment of anaerobically digested sludge reuse in agriculture: potential impacts of emerging micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hospido, Almudena; Carballa, Marta; Moreira, Maite; Omil, Francisco; Lema, Juan M; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural application of sewage sludge has been emotionally discussed in the last decades, because the latter contains organic micropollutants with unknown fate and risk potential. In this work, the reuse of anaerobically digested sludge in agriculture is evaluated from an environmental point of view by using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. More specifically, the potential impacts of emerging micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, present in the sludge have been quantified. Four scenarios were considered according to the temperature of the anaerobic digestion (mesophilic or thermophilic) and the sludge retention time (20 or 10d), and they have been compared with the non-treated sludge. From an environmental point of view, the disposal of undigested sludge is not the most suitable alternative, except for global warming due to the dominance (65-85%) of the indirect emissions associated to the electricity use. Nutrient-related direct emissions dominate the eutrophication category impact in all the scenarios (>71.4%), although a beneficial impact related to the avoidance of industrial fertilisers production is also quantified (up to 6.7%). In terms of human and terrestrial toxicity, the direct emissions of heavy metals to soil dominate these two impact categories (>70%), and the contribution of other micropollutants is minimal. Moreover, only six (Galaxolide, Tonalide, Diazepam, Ibuprofen, Sulfamethoxazole and 17alpha-ethinyloestradiol) out of the 13 substances considered are really significant since they account for more than 95% of the overall micropollutants impact.

  1. Special welfare concerns in countries dependent on live animal trade: the real foreign animal disease emergency for Canada.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Terry L

    2008-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Epizooties trade-disrupting (previously List-A) disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease in a previously disease-free region can have severe consequences for nonhuman animal welfare. In addition to animals destroyed for the purposes of disease eradication, certain preexisting trade patterns may result in welfare slaughter programs affecting many more animals than the disease eradication effort. Welfare slaughter is the destruction of healthy animals to prevent overcrowding on farms under movement restriction and as a consequence of loss of access to live animal export markets. Governments of European countries have anticipated welfare slaughter as part of their disease eradication preparedness. The concept of welfare slaughter and the resource implications thereof have not been included in current, published, livestock disease emergency-planning documents in Canada or the United States. Animal welfare, specifically the killing of healthy animals (not foreign animal disease eradication) has been the focus of public concern in recent disease-eradication efforts in Europe. North American organizations responsible for livestock exotic disease emergency preparedness need to expand their plans to include welfare slaughter.

  2. Emerging asymmetric interactions between forage and predator fisheries impose management trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Houle, J E; Andersen, K H; Farnsworth, K D; Reid, D G

    2013-10-01

    A size and trait-based marine community model was used to investigate interactions, with potential implications for yields, when a fishery targeting forage fish species (whose main adult diet is zooplankton) co-occurs with a fishery targeting larger-sized predator species. Predicted effects on the size structure of the fish community, growth and recruitment of fishes, and yield from the fisheries were used to identify management trade-offs among the different fisheries. Results showed that moderate fishing on forage fishes imposed only small effects on predator fisheries, whereas predator fisheries could enhance yield from forage fisheries under some circumstances.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND MODELING ASSOCIATED WITH NATIONAL EMERGENCIES - EXPERIENCES GAINED FROM THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop was held in Research Triangle Park, NC on November 18-19, 2002 to discuss scientific issues associated with measuring, modeling, and assessing exposure and risk to air containing contaminants generated as a result of national emergencies and disasters. Participants wer...

  4. Phytoplankton size-diversity mediates an emergent trade-off in ecosystem functioning for rare versus frequent disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S. Lan; Vallina, Sergio M.; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity is known to be an important determinant of ecosystem-level functions and processes. Although theories have been proposed to explain the generally positive relationship between, for example, biodiversity and productivity, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie the observed variations in Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function (BEF) relationships. Using a continuous trait-distribution model for a phytoplankton community of gleaners competing with opportunists, and subjecting it to differing frequencies of disturbance, we find that species selection tends to enhance temporal species complementarity, which is maximised at high disturbance frequency and intermediate functional diversity. This leads to the emergence of a trade-off whereby increasing diversity tends to enhance short-term adaptive capacity under frequent disturbance while diminishing long-term productivity under infrequent disturbance. BEF relationships therefore depend on both disturbance frequency and the timescale of observation. PMID:27748359

  5. Effectiveness of capture techniques for rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Linscombe, J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable and effective technique for capturing rails would improve researchers' ability to study these secretive marsh birds. The time effectiveness and capture success of four methods for capturing rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands in southern Louisiana and Texas were evaluated during winter and breeding seasons. Methods were hand and net capture from an airboat at night, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) at night, an ATV during daylight rice harvest and passive capture using drop-door traps with drift fencing. Five hundred and twenty rails were captured (and 21 recaptures): 192 King Rails (Rallus elegans), 74 Clapper Rails (R. longirostris), 110 Virginia Rails (R. limicola), 125 Sora (Porzana Carolina) and 40 Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Methods used at night were effective at capturing rails: capture from airboats yielded 2.13 rails per hour each airboat was operated and capture from ATVs yielded 1.80 rails per hour each ATV was operated. During daylight, captures from ATVs during rice harvest (0.25 rails per hour each ATV was operated) and passive drop-door traps with drift fencing (0.0054 rails per trap hour) were both inefficient.

  6. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in agricultural soils, sewage sludge and waters in Valencia (E Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluda, Rafael; Marimon, Lupe; Atzeni, Stefania; Mormeneo, Salvador; Iranzo, María; Zueco, Jesús; Gamón, Miguel; Sancenón, José; Romera, David; Gil, Carlos; Amparo Soriano, Maria; Granell, Clara; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, studies into the presence and distribution of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceutical products, some pesticides and mycotoxins in the natural environment, are receiving considerable attention. Thus, the presence of these compounds in waters, soils and wastes in different locations including agricultural systems has been stressed; very few studies into this matter are available in Spain. The main source of ECs in the environment is wastewater spillage from wastewater treatment plants (WTP), where these compounds arrive from the sewer system network. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 35 ECs constituted by nine pharmaceutical products, 23 fungicides and three mycotoxins in soils, sewages sludge and waters adjacent to WTP from an agriculture area of Valencia (E Spain) influenced by intense urban and industrial activity. Seven samples from sludge, 13 soil samples and eight samples of waters from the area of influence of WTP were collected. The ECs extraction were performed using 5 g of fresh sample and a mixture of acetonitrile with 1% formic acid and water at the 3:1 ratio by shaking for 45 min and then centrifuging at 4,000 rpm for 5 min. The extract was filtered and determination was done by HPLC system connected to a 3200-Qtrap de triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source. The results showed that soil-ECs concentrations were 10 times lower that in sewage sludge. The smaller number of detections and detected compounds should also be stressed. As in previous cases, fungicides azole (tebuconazole and tricyclazole), along with boscalid, were the most detected compounds with concentrations of between 100 and 400 µg kg-1 dw. In second place, propiconazole and azoxystrobin stood out, followed by carbendazim, dimetomorph, pyraclostrobin and propamocarb. The following drugs and mycotoxins were detected to have a higher to lower concentration (1-40 µg kg-1): telmisartan, irbesartan, venlafaxine

  7. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    PubMed

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems. PMID:26803737

  8. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    PubMed

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems.

  9. Random-walk model to study cycles emerging from the exploration-exploitation trade-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimierski, Laila D.; Abramson, Guillermo; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for a random walk with memory, phenomenologically inspired in a biological system. The walker has the capacity to remember the time of the last visit to each site and the step taken from there. This memory affects the behavior of the walker each time it reaches an already visited site modulating the probability of repeating previous moves. This probability increases with the time elapsed from the last visit. A biological analog of the walker is a frugivore, with the lattice sites representing plants. The memory effect can be associated with the time needed by plants to recover its fruit load. We propose two different strategies, conservative and explorative, as well as intermediate cases, leading to nonintuitive interesting results, such as the emergence of cycles.

  10. A review of green- and blue-water resources and their trade-offs for future agricultural production in the Amazon Basin: what could irrigated agriculture mean for Amazonia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Coe, Michael T.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon Basin is a region of global importance for the carbon and hydrological cycles, a biodiversity hotspot, and a potential centre for future economic development. The region is also a major source of water vapour recycled into continental precipitation through evapotranspiration processes. This review applies an ecohydrological approach to Amazonia's water cycle by looking at contributions of water resources in the context of future agricultural production. At present, agriculture in the region is primarily rain-fed and relies almost exclusively on green-water resources (soil moisture regenerated by precipitation). Future agricultural development, however, will likely follow pathways that include irrigation from blue-water sources (surface water and groundwater) as insurance from variability in precipitation. In this review, we first provide an updated summary of the green-blue ecohydrological framework before describing past trends in Amazonia's water resources within the context of land use and land cover change. We then describe green- and blue-water trade-offs in light of future agricultural production and potential irrigation to assess costs and benefits to terrestrial ecosystems, particularly land and biodiversity protection, and regional precipitation recycling. Management of green water is needed, particularly at the agricultural frontier located in the headwaters of major tributaries to the Amazon River, and home to key downstream blue-water users and ecosystem services, including domestic and industrial users, as well as aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Trading drift and fluctuations in entropic dynamics: quantum dynamics as an emergent universality class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomeo, Daniel; Caticha, Ariel

    2016-03-01

    Entropic Dynamics (ED) is a framework that allows the formulation of dynamical theories as an application of entropic methods of inference. In the generic application of ED to derive the Schrödinger equation for N particles the dynamics is a non-dissipative diffusion in which the system follows a “Brownian” trajectory with fluctuations superposed on a smooth drift. We show that there is a family of ED models that differ at the “microscopic” or sub-quantum level in that one can enhance or suppress the fluctuations relative to the drift. Nevertheless, members of this family belong to the same universality class in that they all lead to the same emergent Schrödinger behavior at the “macroscopic” or quantum level. The model in which fluctuations are totally suppressed is of particular interest: the system evolves along the smooth lines of probability flow. Thus ED includes the Bohmian or causal form of quantum mechanics as a special limiting case. We briefly explore a different universality class - a nondissipative dynamics with microscopic fluctuations but no quantum potential. The Bohmian limit of these hybrid models is equivalent to classical mechanics. Finally we show that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is unaffected either by enhancing or suppressing microscopic fluctuations or by switching off the quantum potential.

  12. USDA-ARS Highlights and emerging research on agricultural water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture production accounts for 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of exports and 17% of employment. Although less than 2% of Americans work on farms, 100% of citizens are users of farm products. Since WWII, the growth of agricultural inputs has remained flat, while productivity h...

  13. Emerging Themes in Integrating Mathematics into Agricultural Education: A Qualitative Study of Star Teachers in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ryan; Anderson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze outstanding agricultural education teachers' attitudes towards mathematics integration. An investigation into the collaboration efforts being made between the agricultural education and mathematics departments was also included. The objective of this study was to identify the primary themes to integration…

  14. Beyond land application: Emerging technologies for the treatment and reuse of anaerobically digested agricultural and food waste.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Yebo

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment and reuse of the massive quantities of agricultural and food wastes generated daily has the potential to improve the sustainability of food production systems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used throughout the world as a waste treatment process to convert organic waste into two main products: biogas and nutrient-rich digestate, called AD effluent. Biogas can be used as a source of renewable energy or transportation fuels, while AD effluent is traditionally applied to land as a soil amendment. However, there are economic and environmental concerns that limit widespread land application, which may lead to underutilization of AD for the treatment of agricultural and food wastes. To combat these constraints, existing and novel methods have emerged to treat or reuse AD effluent. The objective of this review is to analyze several emerging methods used for efficient treatment and reuse of AD effluent. Overall, the application of emerging technologies is limited by AD effluent composition, especially the total solid content. Some technologies, such as composting, use the solid fraction of AD effluent, while most other technologies, such as algae culture and struvite crystallization, use the liquid fraction. Therefore, dewatering of AD effluent, reuse of the liquid and solid fractions, and land application could all be combined to sustainably manage the large quantities of AD effluent produced. Issues such as pathogen regrowth and prevalence of emerging organic micro-pollutants are also discussed.

  15. Beyond land application: Emerging technologies for the treatment and reuse of anaerobically digested agricultural and food waste.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Yebo

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment and reuse of the massive quantities of agricultural and food wastes generated daily has the potential to improve the sustainability of food production systems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used throughout the world as a waste treatment process to convert organic waste into two main products: biogas and nutrient-rich digestate, called AD effluent. Biogas can be used as a source of renewable energy or transportation fuels, while AD effluent is traditionally applied to land as a soil amendment. However, there are economic and environmental concerns that limit widespread land application, which may lead to underutilization of AD for the treatment of agricultural and food wastes. To combat these constraints, existing and novel methods have emerged to treat or reuse AD effluent. The objective of this review is to analyze several emerging methods used for efficient treatment and reuse of AD effluent. Overall, the application of emerging technologies is limited by AD effluent composition, especially the total solid content. Some technologies, such as composting, use the solid fraction of AD effluent, while most other technologies, such as algae culture and struvite crystallization, use the liquid fraction. Therefore, dewatering of AD effluent, reuse of the liquid and solid fractions, and land application could all be combined to sustainably manage the large quantities of AD effluent produced. Issues such as pathogen regrowth and prevalence of emerging organic micro-pollutants are also discussed. PMID:26235446

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  17. Aquatic Insect Emergence in Post-Harvest Flooded Agricultural Fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, R. C.; Blumenshine, S.; Fleskes, J.

    2005-05-01

    California's Southern San Joaquin Valley is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America, but has suffered a disproportionate loss of wetlands when compared to other California regions. This project analyzes the habitat value of post-harvest flooded cropland by measuring the emergence of aquatic insects across multiple crop types. Aquatic insect emergence was sampled from post-harvest flooded fields of four crop types (alfalfa, corn, tomato, wheat), August-October, 2003-2004. Emergence was measured using traps deployed with a stratified random distribution to sample between and within field variation. Emergence rate and emergent biomass was significantly higher in flooded tomato fields. Results from corn fields indicate that flooding depth was correlated (r=0.095) with both diel temperature fluctuation and emergence rate. Chironomus dilutus larvae were grown in environmental chambers, under two thermal treatments with the same mean but different amplitudes (high: 15°-32°C, low: 20°-26°C) to investigate thermal fluctuation effects on survival and biomass. Larval survival (4x) and biomass (2x) were significantly greater in the low versus high temperature fluctuation treatment. This research has the potential to affect agricultural management throughout the 12,600 km2 region, increase aquatic insect production and aid in the recovery of declining bird populations.

  18. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  19. How agricultural management shapes soil microbial communities: patterns emerging from genetic and genomic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Amanda; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is a predominant land use and thus a large influence on global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances, climate, and human health. If we are to produce food, fiber, and fuel sustainably we must maximize agricultural yield while minimizing negative environmental consequences, goals towards which we have made great strides through agronomic advances. However, most agronomic strategies have been designed with a view of soil as a black box, largely ignoring the way management is mediated by soil biota. Because soil microbes play a central role in many of the processes that deliver nutrients to crops and support their health and productivity, agricultural management strategies targeted to exploit or support microbial activity should deliver additional benefits. To do this we must determine how microbial community structure and function are shaped by agricultural practices, but until recently our characterizations of soil microbial communities in agricultural soils have been largely limited to broad taxonomic classes due to methodological constraints. With advances in high-throughput genetic and genomic sequencing techniques, better taxonomic resolution now enables us to determine how agricultural management affects specific microbes and, in turn, nutrient cycling outcomes. Here we unite findings from published research that includes genetic or genomic data about microbial community structure (e.g. 454, Illumina, clone libraries, qPCR) in soils under agricultural management regimes that differ in type and extent of tillage, cropping selections and rotations, inclusion of cover crops, organic amendments, and/or synthetic fertilizer application. We delineate patterns linking agricultural management to microbial diversity, biomass, C- and N-content, and abundance of microbial taxa; furthermore, where available, we compare patterns in microbial communities to patterns in soil extracellular enzyme activities, catabolic profiles, inorganic nitrogen pools, and nitrogen

  20. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156

  1. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services.

  2. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A.; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A.; Hyatt, Alex D.; Field, Hume E.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens. PMID:21632614

  3. Trade in Educational Services: An Overview of GATS and Policy Implications for Higher Agricultural Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soam, S. K.; Sastry, R. Kalpana; Rashmi, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is a service that contributes to national development, integration and regional cohesion. Agricultural education in particular has been viewed in many developing countries as a significant contributor to sustainable development and poverty alleviation. In view of its public mandate, higher education in most countries is regulated…

  4. Contrasting nutrient mitigation and denitrification potential of agricultural drainage environments with different emergent aquatic macrophytes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remediation of excess nitrogen (N) in agricultural runoff can be enhanced by establishing wetland vegetation but the role of denitrification in N removal is not well understood in drainage ditches. We quantified differences in N retention during experimental runoff events followed by stagnant period...

  5. Emergence of the chicken as a model organism: implications for agriculture and biology.

    PubMed

    Burt, D W

    2007-07-01

    Many of the features of the chicken make it an ideal model organism for phylogenetics and embryology, along with applications in agriculture and medicine. The availability of new tools such as whole genome gene expression arrays and single nucleotide polymorphism panels, coupled with the genome sequence, will enhance this position. These advances are reviewed and their implications are discussed.

  6. 78 FR 41384 - Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Agricultural Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTC) Agricultural...

  7. Household expansion linked to agricultural intensification during emergence of Hawaiian archaic states

    PubMed Central

    Field, Julie S.; Ladefoged, Thegn N.; Kirch, Patrick V.

    2011-01-01

    The Leeward Kohala Field System (LKFS) covering ∼60 km2 on Hawai‘i Island is one of the world's best-studied archaeological examples of preindustrial agricultural intensification. Archaeological correlates for households over a 400-y period of intensification of the LKFS (A.D. 1400–1800) indicate that household age, number, and distribution closely match the expansion of agricultural features at both macro- and microscales. We excavated and dated residential complexes within portions of five traditional Hawaiian land units (ahupua‘a), two in the central core of the field system and three in the southern margins. Forty-eight radiocarbon dates from 43 residential features indicate an overall pattern of exponential increase in the numbers of households over time. Spatial distribution of these dates suggests that the core of the LKFS may have reached a population saturation point earlier than in the southern margins. Bayesian statistical analysis of radiocarbon dates from residential features in the core region, combined with spatial analysis of agricultural and residential construction sequences, demonstrates that the progressive subdivision of territories into smaller socioeconomic units was matched by addition of new residences, probably through a process of household fissioning. These results provide insights into the economic processes underlying the sociopolitical transformation from chiefdom to archaic state in precontact Hawai‘i. PMID:21502516

  8. Household expansion linked to agricultural intensification during emergence of Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Field, Julie S; Ladefoged, Thegn N; Kirch, Patrick V

    2011-05-01

    The Leeward Kohala Field System (LKFS) covering ∼ 60 km(2) on Hawai'i Island is one of the world's best-studied archaeological examples of preindustrial agricultural intensification. Archaeological correlates for households over a 400-y period of intensification of the LKFS (A.D. 1400-1800) indicate that household age, number, and distribution closely match the expansion of agricultural features at both macro- and microscales. We excavated and dated residential complexes within portions of five traditional Hawaiian land units (ahupua'a), two in the central core of the field system and three in the southern margins. Forty-eight radiocarbon dates from 43 residential features indicate an overall pattern of exponential increase in the numbers of households over time. Spatial distribution of these dates suggests that the core of the LKFS may have reached a population saturation point earlier than in the southern margins. Bayesian statistical analysis of radiocarbon dates from residential features in the core region, combined with spatial analysis of agricultural and residential construction sequences, demonstrates that the progressive subdivision of territories into smaller socioeconomic units was matched by addition of new residences, probably through a process of household fissioning. These results provide insights into the economic processes underlying the sociopolitical transformation from chiefdom to archaic state in precontact Hawai'i.

  9. Household expansion linked to agricultural intensification during emergence of Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Field, Julie S; Ladefoged, Thegn N; Kirch, Patrick V

    2011-05-01

    The Leeward Kohala Field System (LKFS) covering ∼ 60 km(2) on Hawai'i Island is one of the world's best-studied archaeological examples of preindustrial agricultural intensification. Archaeological correlates for households over a 400-y period of intensification of the LKFS (A.D. 1400-1800) indicate that household age, number, and distribution closely match the expansion of agricultural features at both macro- and microscales. We excavated and dated residential complexes within portions of five traditional Hawaiian land units (ahupua'a), two in the central core of the field system and three in the southern margins. Forty-eight radiocarbon dates from 43 residential features indicate an overall pattern of exponential increase in the numbers of households over time. Spatial distribution of these dates suggests that the core of the LKFS may have reached a population saturation point earlier than in the southern margins. Bayesian statistical analysis of radiocarbon dates from residential features in the core region, combined with spatial analysis of agricultural and residential construction sequences, demonstrates that the progressive subdivision of territories into smaller socioeconomic units was matched by addition of new residences, probably through a process of household fissioning. These results provide insights into the economic processes underlying the sociopolitical transformation from chiefdom to archaic state in precontact Hawai'i. PMID:21502516

  10. Synchronous Environmental and Cultural Change in the Emergence of Agricultural Economies 10,000 Years Ago in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Ferran; Junno, Aripekka; Barceló, Joan Antón

    2015-01-01

    The commonly held belief that the emergence and establishment of farming communities in the Levant was a smooth socio-economic continuum during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 12,000-9,000 cal BP) with only rare minor disruptions is challenged by recently obtained evidence from this region. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates and diagnostic material culture records from a series of key sites in the northern Levant we show that the hitherto apparent long-term continuity interpreted as the origins and consolidation of agricultural systems was not linear and uninterrupted. A major cultural discontinuity is observed in the archaeological record around 10,000 cal BP in synchrony with a Holocene Rapid Climate Change (RCC), a short period of climatic instability recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the first agricultural economies and the ecosystems they inhabited, and emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change during the Neolithic period in the Levant. Moreover, it provides a new environmental-cultural scenario that needs to be incorporated in the models reconstructing both the establishment of agricultural economy in southwestern Asia and the impact of environmental changes on human populations.

  11. Synchronous Environmental and Cultural Change in the Emergence of Agricultural Economies 10,000 Years Ago in the Levant

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Ferran; Junno, Aripekka; Barceló, Joan Antón

    2015-01-01

    The commonly held belief that the emergence and establishment of farming communities in the Levant was a smooth socio-economic continuum during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 12,000-9,000 cal BP) with only rare minor disruptions is challenged by recently obtained evidence from this region. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates and diagnostic material culture records from a series of key sites in the northern Levant we show that the hitherto apparent long-term continuity interpreted as the origins and consolidation of agricultural systems was not linear and uninterrupted. A major cultural discontinuity is observed in the archaeological record around 10,000 cal BP in synchrony with a Holocene Rapid Climate Change (RCC), a short period of climatic instability recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the first agricultural economies and the ecosystems they inhabited, and emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change during the Neolithic period in the Levant. Moreover, it provides a new environmental-cultural scenario that needs to be incorporated in the models reconstructing both the establishment of agricultural economy in southwestern Asia and the impact of environmental changes on human populations. PMID:26241310

  12. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  13. Emerging diseases: the global express.

    PubMed

    Brown, C

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of global trade has ensured that the global economy continues to improve and that political liberalization promotes changes toward democracy and enhanced world peace. However, the inherent risks due to pathogens moving from one country to another within this global trade have expanded accordingly as well. International guidelines for safe trade, promulgated by the World Trade Organization, and interpreted by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Organization for Animal Health, have undergone fast-paced changes in an effort to stay current with rapidly evolving emerging disease concerns. But serious gaps remain, and the threat of pathogens moving to new areas or emerging in new ways is considerable.

  14. Emerging diseases: the global express.

    PubMed

    Brown, C

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of global trade has ensured that the global economy continues to improve and that political liberalization promotes changes toward democracy and enhanced world peace. However, the inherent risks due to pathogens moving from one country to another within this global trade have expanded accordingly as well. International guidelines for safe trade, promulgated by the World Trade Organization, and interpreted by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Organization for Animal Health, have undergone fast-paced changes in an effort to stay current with rapidly evolving emerging disease concerns. But serious gaps remain, and the threat of pathogens moving to new areas or emerging in new ways is considerable. PMID:20080479

  15. Holocene pedogenic change and the emergence and decline of rain-fed cereal agriculture on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zhou, Qunying; Chen, Shu'e.

    2004-12-01

    Multi-disciplinary investigations were carried out in a Holocene eolian loess-soil profile in the centre of the Chinese Loess Plateau at the transition between the arid Mongolian steppe and the semi-arid mixed forest, and also the transitional zone between nomadism and the rain-fed cereal agriculture in history. The cultural remains of an earliest rain-fed cereal agriculture, and also the remains of a Bronze Age nomadic community identified in the profile indicate that the regional emergence and decline of the rain-fed cereal agriculture was closely connected with the change in dust accumulation and soil formation. The climatic proxies derived from the profile show that monsoonal climatic variation, especially precipitation behind the pedogenic change, was ultimately responsible for the cultural and land-use change over the Loess Plateau. Increased precipitation brought on by southeast monsoon, conditioned the domestication and cultivation of millets in the southern part of the region during 8000-7000 a BP at the beginning of the Holocene climatic optimum. Sufficient precipitation and the well-developed fertile soils facilitated the expansion of millets cultivation to the northern Loess Plateau and the southern Mongolian Plateau between 7000 a BP and 3600 a BP. Reduced precipitation and deteriorated land-use conditions because of intensified northwest monsoon at the end of the Holocene climatic optimum caused a regional desertion by the arable farming communities and the invasion of the nomads in the northern part of the Loess Plateau from ca. 3600 a BP during the Bronze Age. Monsoonal climatic change and the resultant pedogenic change dramatically affected the cultural development over the Loess Plateau during the Holocene.

  16. The impact of agricultural emergence on the genetic history of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Patin, Etienne; Siddle, Katherine J; Laval, Guillaume; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; Becker, Noémie; Froment, Alain; Régnault, Béatrice; Lemée, Laure; Gravel, Simon; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Perry, George H; Barreiro, Luis B; Verdu, Paul; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of agriculture in West-Central Africa approximately 5,000 years ago, profoundly modified the cultural landscape and mode of subsistence of most sub-Saharan populations. How this major innovation has had an impact on the genetic history of rainforest hunter-gatherers-historically referred to as 'pygmies'-and agriculturalists, however, remains poorly understood. Here we report genome-wide SNP data from these populations located west-to-east of the equatorial rainforest. We find that hunter-gathering populations present up to 50% of farmer genomic ancestry, and that substantial admixture began only within the last 1,000 years. Furthermore, we show that the historical population sizes characterizing these communities already differed before the introduction of agriculture. Our results suggest that the first socio-economic interactions between rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers introduced by the spread of farming were not accompanied by immediate, extensive genetic exchanges and occurred on a backdrop of two groups already differentiated by their specialization in two ecotopes with differing carrying capacities.

  17. Emerging aspects of nanotoxicology in health and disease: From agriculture and food sector to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Docea, Anca Oana; Vynios, Demitrios H; Pavão, Mauro S G; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Shtilman, Mikhail I; Argiris, Athanassios; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner. PMID:26969113

  18. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES... partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

  19. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  20. 17 CFR 32.13 - Exemption from prohibition of commodity option transactions for trade options on certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preserve information relating to its written policies, procedures, or systems concerning the agricultural... created by the agricultural trade option merchant's activities, including systems and policies for supervising, monitoring, reporting and reviewing trading activities in agricultural trade options;...

  1. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds (kernelweight basis) which commercial distributors and users such as the wholesale, chain store,...

  2. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics. PMID:23356378

  3. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics.

  4. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  5. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    PubMed Central

    Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented. PMID:17370509

  6. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  7. 7 CFR 1580.201 - Petitions for trade adjustment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions for trade adjustment assistance. 1580.201 Section 1580.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.201 Petitions for...

  8. 7 CFR 1580.301 - Application for trade adjustment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for trade adjustment assistance. 1580.301 Section 1580.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.301 Application...

  9. 7 CFR 1580.201 - Petitions for trade adjustment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for trade adjustment assistance. 1580.201... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.201 Petitions for trade... States or their authorized representative may file a petition for trade adjustment assistance....

  10. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  11. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  12. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  13. Impacts of intensification of pastoral agriculture on soils: current and emerging challenges and implications for future land uses.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Ad

    2008-12-01

    It is widely believed that New Zealand is blessed with large areas of versatile and élite soils, but the reality is that more than 65% of New Zealand's soils have some physical limitation to their use for pastoral agriculture. Failure to build this constraint into farm-system designs compromises the current production base, ongoing production gains and, increasingly, the wider environment in which we live. Pastoral agriculture is placing mounting pressure on soil pore structure and function, a key attribute that governs a wide range of soil services and ecosystem functions. Combatting accelerated soil erosion in hill land, soil compaction on flat and rolling landscapes, emissions from land to air and water and increasing competition from other land uses are issues that will shape the future of the pastoral industry. Pastoral agriculture will continue to be the dominant land use in hill land. The same cannot be said of lowland, where animals might be seen less as they spend more time on feed pads or indoors, or not seen at all as the animals have been replaced by fodder and grain crops. In keeping with the concept of matching land use to inherent land-use capability, production technologies which are employed to lift production must be matched by technologies to mitigate the additional emissions to air and water. As we seek to produce beyond current ceilings, consideration needs to be given to the suitability of some soils for intensification.

  14. Co-benefits, trade-offs, barriers and policies for greenhouse gas mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mercedes; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Harper, Richard; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranat, Nijavalli H; Sperling, Frank; Haberl, Helmut; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Smith, Pete

    2014-10-01

    The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for approximately 25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management. Mitigation from the sector is thus extremely important in meeting emission reduction targets. The sector offers a variety of cost-competitive mitigation options with most analyses indicating a decline in emissions largely due to decreasing deforestation rates. Sustainability criteria are needed to guide development and implementation of AFOLU mitigation measures with particular focus on multifunctional systems that allow the delivery of multiple services from land. It is striking that almost all of the positive and negative impacts, opportunities and barriers are context specific, precluding generic statements about which AFOLU mitigation measures have the greatest promise at a global scale. This finding underlines the importance of considering each mitigation strategy on a case-by-case basis, systemic effects when implementing mitigation options on the national scale, and suggests that policies need to be flexible enough to allow such assessments. National and international agricultural and forest (climate) policies have the potential to alter the opportunity costs of specific land uses in ways that increase opportunities or barriers for attaining climate change mitigation goals. Policies governing practices in agriculture and in forest conservation and management need to account for both effective mitigation and adaptation and can help to orient practices in agriculture and in forestry towards global sharing of innovative technologies for the efficient use of land resources. Different policy instruments, especially economic incentives and regulatory approaches, are currently being applied however, for its successful implementation it is critical to understand how land-use decisions are made and how new social, political and economic forces

  15. Co-benefits, trade-offs, barriers and policies for greenhouse gas mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mercedes; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Harper, Richard; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranat, Nijavalli H; Sperling, Frank; Haberl, Helmut; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Smith, Pete

    2014-10-01

    The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for approximately 25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management. Mitigation from the sector is thus extremely important in meeting emission reduction targets. The sector offers a variety of cost-competitive mitigation options with most analyses indicating a decline in emissions largely due to decreasing deforestation rates. Sustainability criteria are needed to guide development and implementation of AFOLU mitigation measures with particular focus on multifunctional systems that allow the delivery of multiple services from land. It is striking that almost all of the positive and negative impacts, opportunities and barriers are context specific, precluding generic statements about which AFOLU mitigation measures have the greatest promise at a global scale. This finding underlines the importance of considering each mitigation strategy on a case-by-case basis, systemic effects when implementing mitigation options on the national scale, and suggests that policies need to be flexible enough to allow such assessments. National and international agricultural and forest (climate) policies have the potential to alter the opportunity costs of specific land uses in ways that increase opportunities or barriers for attaining climate change mitigation goals. Policies governing practices in agriculture and in forest conservation and management need to account for both effective mitigation and adaptation and can help to orient practices in agriculture and in forestry towards global sharing of innovative technologies for the efficient use of land resources. Different policy instruments, especially economic incentives and regulatory approaches, are currently being applied however, for its successful implementation it is critical to understand how land-use decisions are made and how new social, political and economic forces

  16. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    PubMed

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks.

  17. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Ecological and Air Quality Trade-offs of Agricultural Burning in the Flint Hills of Eastern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, B. L.; Mckane, R.; Brookes, A.; Schumaker, N.; Papenfus, M.; Pettus, P.; Halama, J.; Powers, B.; Djang, K.; Groskinsky, B.; Grier, G.; Hawkins, A.; Tapp, J.; Watson, D.; Gross, T.; Goodin, D.; Mohler, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Flint Hills of eastern Kansas and northern Oklahoma is home to the largest remaining contiguous grassland prairie in the United States. Throughout the prairie, burning is a common practice used to preserve the prairie from encroachment of woody species such as eastern Red Cedar, and to enhance the quantity and quality of the grass grown for cattle grazing in the region. However, widespread annual burning in early spring has led to air quality exceedances and pollution impacts in urban areas such as Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita. Our research effort focuses on developing a modelling environment that simulates the effects of burning in the Flint Hills using an integrated modeling system, including an eco-hydrological model, an air quality and dispersion model, an economic and health effects model, and a terrestrial-species model. Using this integrated system, we can model historical burning practices as well as hypothetical variations in timing and quantity of burns. Then, we can investigate the relative trade-offs between farm productivity, ecological effects, urban health effects, and habitat diversity for terrestrial species given different burning scenarios. The results from this systems approach will provide land managers with information about the relative trade-offs associated with burning considering multiple elements of sustainability throughout the Flint Hills.

  18. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  19. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... (No. 2011016) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for northeast multi-species fish filed under the... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must...

  20. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  1. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  2. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  3. The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Isaac K; Ngowi, Helena; Afonso, Sonia; Matenga, Elizabeth; Boa, Mathias; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Githigia, Samuel; Saimo, Margaret; Sikasunge, Chummy; Maingi, Ndichu; Lubega, George W; Kassuku, Ayub; Michael, Lynne; Siziya, Seter; Krecek, Rosina C; Noormahomed, Emilia; Vilhena, Manuela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, A Lee

    2003-06-01

    pigs positive. In Zimbabwe, a retrospective study in official abattoirs around the country from 1994 to 2001 reported a mean prevalence of 0.34% which is in contrast to a post-mortem survey in 1999, which showed that the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in rural west Zimbabwe where smallholder pig keeping is popular was 28.6%. In Zambia, abattoir records reported porcine cysticercosis in six of the nine provinces. Routine meat inspection of 1316 pigs at a slaughter slab in Lusaka showed that 20.6% of the pigs had cysticercosis whereas serological testing of 874 pigs at the same abattoir indicated that 56.6% were found to have circulating antigens of Taenia solium. Field surveys based on lingual palpation in Southern and Eastern Provinces of Zambia revealed prevalences of 8.2-28.4 and 5.2%, respectively. South Africa has the largest number of pigs in Southern Africa and cysticercosis has been recognised as a problem in the country for many decades. There is strong evidence supporting the high prevalence of neurocysticercosis infecting humans from resource-poor areas of the country where pigs are being raised under smallholder conditions. In spite of this community-based surveys on porcine cysticercosis have never been conducted in South Africa and the last slaughterhouse survey was conducted nearly 40 years ago. The prevalences of porcine cysticercosis found in these ESA countries rank among the highest in the world and the disease is emerging as an important constraint for the nutritional and economic well being of resource-poor smallholder farming communities. The current findings suggest the widespread presence of human tapeworm carriers and thus a high risk of human cysticercosis in both rural areas and urban centres in the ESA region. More research is required in the region to assess the extent and public health and economic impact of T. solium infection in order to determine whether and what prevention and control efforts are needed.

  4. The molecular epidemiology of iridovirus in Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) and dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) from distant biogeographical regions suggests a link between trade in ornamental fish and emerging iridoviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Go, Jeffrey; Lancaster, Malcolm; Deece, Kylie; Dhungyel, Om; Whittington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Iridoviruses have emerged over 20 years to cause epizootics in finfish and amphibians in many countries. They may have originated in tropical Asia and spread through trade in farmed food fish or ornamental fish, but this has been difficult to prove. Consequently, MCP, ATPase and other viral genes were sequenced from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from farmed Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) that died during an epizootic in 2003 and from diseased gouramis that had been imported from Asia. There was almost complete homology (99.95%) over 4,527 bp between Murray cod iridovirus (MCIV) and an iridovirus (DGIV) present in dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia) that had died in aquarium shops in Australia in 2004, and very high homology with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) (99.9%). These viruses are most likely to be a single species within the genus Megalocytivirus and probably have a common geographic origin. Primers for genus-specific PCR and for rapid discrimination of MCIV/DGIV/ISKNV and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), a notifiable pathogen, were developed. These were used in a survey to determine that the prevalence of DGIV infection in diseased gourami in retail aquarium shops in Sydney was 22% (95% confidence limits 15-31%). The global trade in ornamental fish may facilitate the spread of Megalocytivirus and enable emergence of disease in new host species in distant biogeographic regions.

  5. 15 CFR 265.13 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency vehicles. 265.13 Section 265.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle...

  6. 15 CFR 265.13 - Emergency vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency vehicles. 265.13 Section 265.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... Emergency vehicles. No person shall fail or refuse to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle...

  7. 15 CFR 705.9 - Emergency action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency action. 705.9 Section 705.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.9 Emergency action. In emergency situations, or when...

  8. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  9. The Political Trade-offs of Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, William

    1996-01-01

    Examines important trade issues and explains why the debate on trade policy will continue as a major political topic. Discusses the efficacy of recent trade agreements and the use of trade sanctions to encourage political change in other countries. Reviews several models of trade theory. (MJP)

  10. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  11. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  12. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  13. Emerging trade-offs - impact of photoprotectants (PsbS, xanthophylls, and vitamin E) on oxylipins as regulators of development and defense.

    PubMed

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Cohu, Christopher M; Amiard, Véronique; Zadelhoff, Guusvan; Veldink, Gerrit A; Muller, Onno; Adams, William W

    2013-02-01

    This review summarizes evidence for a mechanistic link between plant photoprotection and the synthesis of oxylipin hormones as regulators of development and defense. Knockout mutants of Arabidopsis, deficient in various key components of the chloroplast photoprotection system, consistently produced greater concentrations of the hormone jasmonic acid or its precursor 12- oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), both members of the oxylipin messenger family. Characterized plants include several mutants deficient in PsbS (an intrinsic chlorophyll-binding protein of photosystem II) or pigments (zeaxanthin and/or lutein) required for photoprotective thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy in the chloroplast and a mutant deficient in reactive oxygen detoxification via the antioxidant vitamin E (tocopherol). Evidence is also presented that certain plant defenses against herbivores or pathogens are elevated for these mutants. This evidence furthermore indicates that wild-type Arabidopsis plants possess less than maximal defenses against herbivores or pathogens, and suggest that plant lines with superior defenses against abiotic stress may have lower biotic defenses. The implications of this apparent trade-off between abiotic and biotic plant defenses for plant ecology as well as for plant breeding/engineering are explored, and the need for research further addressing this important issue is highlighted.

  14. 77 FR 38776 - Reestablishment of the Agricultural Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Reestablishment of the Agricultural Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Reestablishment. SUMMARY: The Commodity...

  15. Increasing Susceptibility of the Global Network of Food Trade to Climate Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puma, M. J.; Bose, S.; Chon, S.; Cook, B.

    2013-12-01

    Globalization of agriculture through trade liberalization has led to a dramatic transformation of the global network of food trade. The many benefits of this globalization include greater and more efficient global agricultural production, reduced variability of regional and global food supplies, and savings in global water resources. However, a potential hidden cost is an increasingly fragile network that is more susceptible to shocks or disruptions. Recent studies suggest that complex systems, like the global food trade network, may have architectural features typically associated with the existence of tipping points and susceptibility to collapse. Here we present evidence that this global agricultural network is increasingly connected, homogeneous, and in a state where network nodes (here countries) can flip between alternate states. We use production and trade data from 1986 to 2009 to identify shifts in national self sufficiency and to quantify changes in connectivity and homogeneity of the wheat, maize and rice trade. We then simulate the possible impacts of climate and crop-disease disruptions, which could potentially trigger a global food crisis through an export-restriction-induced domino effect. Changes in self-sufficiency ratio (SSR) over time for various country groups. The SSR is computed based on production and trade of cereals and starchy roots. (Top row) Time series of SSR for the Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) countries. The '+ Five' refers to the five leading emerging economies in the world. (Bottom row) Boxplots of average SSR over two periods (1986-1990 and 2005-2009) for countries designated as 'Annex I' and 'Least Developed Countries' (LDC) by the United Nations.

  16. Insights from life history theory for an explicit treatment of trade-offs in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As economic and social contexts become more embedded within biodiversity conservation, it becomes obvious that resources are a limiting factor in conservation. This recognition is leading conservation scientists and practitioners to increasingly frame conservation decisions as trade-offs between conflicting societal objectives. However, this framing is all too often done in an intuitive way, rather than by addressing trade-offs explicitly. In contrast, the concept of trade-off is a keystone in evolutionary biology, where it has been investigated extensively. I argue that insights from evolutionary theory can provide methodological and theoretical support to evaluating and quantifying trade-offs in biodiversity conservation. I reviewed the diverse ways in which trade-offs have emerged within the context of conservation and how advances from evolutionary theory can help avoid the main pitfalls of an implicit approach. When studying both evolutionary trade-offs (e.g., reproduction vs. survival) and conservation trade-offs (e.g., biodiversity conservation vs. agriculture), it is crucial to correctly identify the limiting resource, hold constant the amount of this resource when comparing different scenarios, and choose appropriate metrics to quantify the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Insights from studies in evolutionary theory also reveal how an inadequate selection of conservation solutions may result from considering suboptimal rather than optional solutions when examining whether a trade-off exits between 2 objectives. Furthermore, the shape of a trade-off curve (i.e., whether the relationship between 2 objectives follows a concave, convex, or linear form) is known to affect crucially the definition of optimal solutions in evolutionary biology and very likely affects decisions in biodiversity conservation planning too. This interface between evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation can therefore provide methodological guidance to

  17. Insights from life history theory for an explicit treatment of trade-offs in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As economic and social contexts become more embedded within biodiversity conservation, it becomes obvious that resources are a limiting factor in conservation. This recognition is leading conservation scientists and practitioners to increasingly frame conservation decisions as trade-offs between conflicting societal objectives. However, this framing is all too often done in an intuitive way, rather than by addressing trade-offs explicitly. In contrast, the concept of trade-off is a keystone in evolutionary biology, where it has been investigated extensively. I argue that insights from evolutionary theory can provide methodological and theoretical support to evaluating and quantifying trade-offs in biodiversity conservation. I reviewed the diverse ways in which trade-offs have emerged within the context of conservation and how advances from evolutionary theory can help avoid the main pitfalls of an implicit approach. When studying both evolutionary trade-offs (e.g., reproduction vs. survival) and conservation trade-offs (e.g., biodiversity conservation vs. agriculture), it is crucial to correctly identify the limiting resource, hold constant the amount of this resource when comparing different scenarios, and choose appropriate metrics to quantify the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Insights from studies in evolutionary theory also reveal how an inadequate selection of conservation solutions may result from considering suboptimal rather than optional solutions when examining whether a trade-off exits between 2 objectives. Furthermore, the shape of a trade-off curve (i.e., whether the relationship between 2 objectives follows a concave, convex, or linear form) is known to affect crucially the definition of optimal solutions in evolutionary biology and very likely affects decisions in biodiversity conservation planning too. This interface between evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation can therefore provide methodological guidance to

  18. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  19. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  20. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  1. 48 CFR 18.118 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.118 Section 18.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.118 Trade...

  2. 48 CFR 18.119 - Trade agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Trade...

  3. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  4. Agricultural biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Mumford, J D

    2008-02-27

    The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge. Bio-economic modelling of risk will be a valuable tool in guiding the allocation of limited resources for biosecurity. The future of prevention and management systems will be strongly influenced by new technology and the growing role of the private sector. Overall, today's biosecurity systems are challenged by changing national priorities regarding trade, by new concerns about environmental effects of biological invasions and by the question 'who pays?'. Tomorrow's systems may need to be quite different to be effective. We suggest three changes: an integration of plant and animal biosecurity around a common, proactive, risk-based approach; a greater focus on international cooperation to deal with threats at source; and a commitment to refocus biosecurity on building resilience to invasion into agroecosystems rather than building walls around them.

  5. The emergence and evolution of swine viral diseases: to what extent have husbandry systems and global trade contributed to their distribution and diversity?

    PubMed

    Drew, T W

    2011-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, pig production has been characterised by a rapid increase in the volume of pig meat produced, greater intensification of the pig-rearing process and much greater international movement of products. There have also been many novel viral diseases that challenge the industry. Are these two developments linked and, if so, how? To understand how changes in the industry may influence the evolution of viruses, it is important to understand something of evolutionary theory. For RNA viruses, the concept of 'quasispecies' has moved solidly from theory to fact. Such viruses do not exist as a single entity, but as a 'cloud' of viruses, whose degree of diversity is influenced by a number of factors. Chief among these are the size and rate of the replicating population, along with the availability and diversity of susceptible hosts. A feature of RNA viruses is a high level of mutation, due to lack of capability to correct errors on the part of the host cell. Both in vivo and in vitro, RNA viruses have been shown to accumulate and fix these mutations, leading to bottleneck events and fitness loss, the phenomenon known as'Muller's ratchet'. Likewise, the opposite effect, fitness gain, can be achieved in an environment providing for high levels of replication and the generation of large populations of virus. This has been shown to be possible in vitro by high-volume passage. It is possible that the regular introduction of diverse viruses within large-scale pig production provides an in vivo equivalent that could drive quasispecies populations to increased fitness, and may explain why emergent viruses, either new to science or with new synergies and presentation, seem to be appearing more commonly.

  6. The emergence and evolution of swine viral diseases: to what extent have husbandry systems and global trade contributed to their distribution and diversity?

    PubMed

    Drew, T W

    2011-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, pig production has been characterised by a rapid increase in the volume of pig meat produced, greater intensification of the pig-rearing process and much greater international movement of products. There have also been many novel viral diseases that challenge the industry. Are these two developments linked and, if so, how? To understand how changes in the industry may influence the evolution of viruses, it is important to understand something of evolutionary theory. For RNA viruses, the concept of 'quasispecies' has moved solidly from theory to fact. Such viruses do not exist as a single entity, but as a 'cloud' of viruses, whose degree of diversity is influenced by a number of factors. Chief among these are the size and rate of the replicating population, along with the availability and diversity of susceptible hosts. A feature of RNA viruses is a high level of mutation, due to lack of capability to correct errors on the part of the host cell. Both in vivo and in vitro, RNA viruses have been shown to accumulate and fix these mutations, leading to bottleneck events and fitness loss, the phenomenon known as'Muller's ratchet'. Likewise, the opposite effect, fitness gain, can be achieved in an environment providing for high levels of replication and the generation of large populations of virus. This has been shown to be possible in vitro by high-volume passage. It is possible that the regular introduction of diverse viruses within large-scale pig production provides an in vivo equivalent that could drive quasispecies populations to increased fitness, and may explain why emergent viruses, either new to science or with new synergies and presentation, seem to be appearing more commonly. PMID:21809756

  7. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  8. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  9. Inservice Workshops on New and Emerging Agriculture/Natural Resources Occupation Instructional Materials. Final Report, January 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leising, J.; Wilkins, Russell

    This document contains the final report and appendixes from a project to develop resources for use by community college agricultural education instructors in better utilizing computer technology in instruction and to provide inservice workshops to make the instructors aware of available hard- and software. The four-page narrative lists objectives,…

  10. Trading up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Corey

    2011-01-01

    As the U.S. economy slowly rebounds, the nation's community colleges are focused on putting Americans back to work. Across the country, training programs in emerging career fields, including nuclear, wind, and clean coal production, vie for the attention of job seekers in search of a more secure financial future. But these shiny new careers aren't…

  11. Bats and emerging zoonoses: henipaviruses and SARS.

    PubMed

    Field, H E

    2009-08-01

    Nearly 75% of all emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that impact or threaten human health are zoonotic. The majority have spilled from wildlife reservoirs, either directly to humans or via domestic animals. The emergence of many can be attributed to predisposing factors such as global travel, trade, agricultural expansion, deforestation/habitat fragmentation, and urbanization; such factors increase the interface and/or the rate of contact between human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations, thereby creating increased opportunities for spillover events to occur. Infectious disease emergence can be regarded as primarily an ecological process. The epidemiological investigation of EIDs associated with wildlife requires a trans-disciplinary approach that includes an understanding of the ecology of the wildlife species, and an understanding of human behaviours that increase risk of exposure. Investigations of the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia in 1999 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China in 2003 provide useful case studies. The emergence of Nipah virus was associated with the increased size and density of commercial pig farms and their encroachment into forested areas. The movement of pigs for sale and slaughter in turn led to the rapid spread of infection to southern peninsular Malaysia, where the high-density, largely urban pig populations facilitated transmission to humans. Identifying the factors associated with the emergence of SARS in southern China requires an understanding of the ecology of infection both in the natural reservoir and in secondary market reservoir species. A necessary extension of understanding the ecology of the reservoir is an understanding of the trade, and of the social and cultural context of wildlife consumption. Emerging infectious diseases originating from wildlife populations will continue to threaten public health. Mitigating and managing the risk requires an appreciation of the connectedness between human

  12. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  13. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  14. 7 CFR 989.62 - Authorization for prohibition of trade practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... committee or other information, that continuance of certain practices in trade channels would tend...

  15. [Emergence of "new" viral zoonoses].

    PubMed

    Greiser-Wilke, I; Haas, L

    1999-08-01

    In the last two to three decades a significant increase of viral zoonotic infections was observed. These zoonoses are not only newly (or previously unrecognized) emerging diseases, but also due to the reappearance of diseases thought to have been defeated (re-emerging diseases). "New" viral diseases can arise when viruses broaden their host-range (monkey poxvirus; equine morbillivirus), or can be a consequence of intrinsic properties of the virus itself, such as high mutation rates (influenza A virus). Most new or reemerging viral zoonoses are due to infections with hemorrhagic viruses. Many of them are transmitted by insects (arboviruses, e.g. yellow fever virus) or by rodents (e.g. Hanta viruses), others by contact with patients and nosocomial infections (e.g. Ebola virus). The emergence and increase of these diseases are a consequence of anthropogenic environmental changes, such as distortions of the ecological balance and changes in agriculture. In addition, the uncontrolled growth of the cities in tropical and subtropical regions without improvement of the public health measures and the increasing international animal trade and travel also favour the spread and recurrence of these diseases.

  16. Ensuring safe international trade: how are the roles and responsibilities evolving and what will the situation be in ten years' time?

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2011-04-01

    The roles of the international standard-setting bodies that are mandated to facilitate safe trade, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention and the World Trade Organization, are well documented, as are the roles of the international organisations responsible for global health issues: the OIE, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, developments in international trade, such as accelerating globalisation and the frequent emergence and re-emergence of diseases affecting both humans and animals, have brought new challenges and the need to reconsider the future roles of such organisations. New participants and new demands have also emerged to challenge these mandates, leading to potential areas of conflict. The need for countries to establish themselves as new trade partners, or to strengthen their positions while still maintaining safe trade, poses a challenge to standard-setting organisations, which must meet these demands while still remaining sensitive to the needs of developing countries. In this paper, the author describes and discusses some of these challenges and suggests how international organisations could evolve to confront such issues. PMID:21809774

  17. Ensuring safe international trade: how are the roles and responsibilities evolving and what will the situation be in ten years' time?

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2011-04-01

    The roles of the international standard-setting bodies that are mandated to facilitate safe trade, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention and the World Trade Organization, are well documented, as are the roles of the international organisations responsible for global health issues: the OIE, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, developments in international trade, such as accelerating globalisation and the frequent emergence and re-emergence of diseases affecting both humans and animals, have brought new challenges and the need to reconsider the future roles of such organisations. New participants and new demands have also emerged to challenge these mandates, leading to potential areas of conflict. The need for countries to establish themselves as new trade partners, or to strengthen their positions while still maintaining safe trade, poses a challenge to standard-setting organisations, which must meet these demands while still remaining sensitive to the needs of developing countries. In this paper, the author describes and discusses some of these challenges and suggests how international organisations could evolve to confront such issues.

  18. Near-Channel Sediment Sources Now Dominate in Many Agricultural Landscapes: The Emergence of River-Network Models to Guide Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Gran, K. B.; Belmont, P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed sediment budgets for many agricultural watersheds are revealing a surprising story - that sediment is no longer primarily sourced from upland fields, but instead from near-channel sources. This is the case for the Minnesota River Basin (MRB) where an intensification and expansion of agricultural drainage combined with increased precipitation has (1) reduced surface runoff and erosion, (2) amplified streamflows, and (3) accelerated both near-channel sediment generation and sediment transport. Bluffs and streambanks in the MRB are now the dominant sources of sediment, but these features are not easily incorporated into traditional watershed-scale, sediment-transport models. Instead, we are advancing a network-based modeling framework that explicitly considers sediment sources, transport, and storage along a river network. We apply this framework to bed-material sediment transport in the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, the major sediment-generating subbasin of the MRB, where a recent sediment budget has quantified the locations and rates of erosion and deposition of major sediment sources and sinks (i.e., bluffs, streambanks/floodplains, agricultural fields, and ravines) over millennial and decadal timescales. With the river network as the basis of a simple model, inputs of sediment to the network are informed by the sediment budget and these inputs are tracked through the network using process-based time delays that incorporate uniform-flow hydraulics and at-capacity sediment transport. We explore how this sediment might move through the network and affect the variability of bed elevations under cases where the mechanisms of in-channel and floodplain storage are turned on and off. We will discuss timescales of movement of sediment through the system to better inform legacy effects and hysteresis, and also discuss targeted management actions that will most effectively reduce the detrimental effects of excess sediment.

  19. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  20. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  1. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  2. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  3. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  4. 7 CFR 982.16 - Inshell trade acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a...

  5. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use. PMID:22474363

  6. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-04-17

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use.

  7. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  8. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... petition (No. 2010001) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for catfish that was filed by the Catfish... Agricultural Service. Upon a review, the Administrator (FAS) determined that increased imports of catfish... requirements stipulated in Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Individual...

  9. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Megan; Hussein, Zekarias; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as `virtual water trade'. We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  10. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Hussein, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2013-12-01

    The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as `virtual water trade'. We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  11. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Hussein, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2013-08-01

    The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as "virtual water trade". We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  12. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  13. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  14. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and its territories. (b) Shelled. The quantity of merchantable shelled walnuts that...

  15. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and its territories. (b) Shelled. The quantity of merchantable shelled walnuts that...

  16. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and its territories. (b) Shelled. The quantity of merchantable shelled walnuts that...

  17. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and its territories. (b) Shelled. The quantity of merchantable shelled walnuts that...

  18. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and its territories. (b) Shelled. The quantity of merchantable shelled walnuts that...

  19. Applied Art in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Annie; Zirkle, Chris

    Ohio Hi-Point Joint Vocational School (JVS) has developed a comprehensive art program within the vocational setting. Selected trade and industrial programs at the school, as well as programs in agriculture and home economics, incorporate art instruction. The goals of the applied art program are as follows: to give students the opportunity to…

  20. Contesting the Neoliberal Project for Agriculture: Productivist and Multifunctional Trajectories in the European Union and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibden, Jacqui; Potter, Clive; Cocklin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of agricultural trade is strongly contested as an international policy project. In the context of the current World Trade Organisation (WTO) Doha trade round, concerns revolve around the implications of freer trade for rural livelihoods and environments. Analysis of this complex and morally charged issue offers important…

  1. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  2. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  3. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  4. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  5. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  6. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  7. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  8. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  9. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  10. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  11. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  12. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  13. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  14. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  15. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  16. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  18. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  19. A theoretical model of water and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie

    2016-03-01

    Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  20. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  1. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  2. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  3. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated.

  4. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  5. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade.

  6. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. PMID:26249172

  7. Human Resource Development for Modernizing the Agricultural Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agriculture workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and the dramatic advancements in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce…

  8. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  9. OIE List A disease as a constraint to international trade.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2000-01-01

    World Trade Organisation agreements have swept aside many of the previous constraints to international trade in animals and animal products and have looked critically at those that still survive. The presence of disease, in particular the OIE list A diseases, still provide legitimacy for barriers to trade, and as a consequence the importance of reliable animal disease surveillance has increased. However, the economic consequences of reporting the occurrence of a List A disease have also increased, as this provides trading partners with sufficient reason to impose an embargo that could severely compromise the national agricultural industry. The dilemma for some developing economies, reliant on agricultural exports, is how to balance a transparent and efficient disease reporting service, sufficient to provide the necessary information for importing countries to make realistic risk assessments, with the perceived political damage from being honest with trading partners who might take advantage of the information to require additional safeguards and health certification. PMID:11193664

  10. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM... General § 701.44 Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. Contracts for ACP that are, or...

  11. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM... General § 701.44 Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. Contracts for ACP that are, or...

  12. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM... General § 701.44 Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. Contracts for ACP that are, or...

  13. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM... General § 701.44 Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. Contracts for ACP that are, or...

  14. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  15. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  16. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  18. Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the next ten years, colleges of agriculture will be challenged to transform their role in higher education and their relationship to the evolving global food and agricultural enterprise. If successful, agriculture colleges will emerge as an important venue for scholars and stakeholders to address some of the most complex and urgent problems…

  19. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key "trade talk" terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalization treaties.

  20. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  2. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  3. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  4. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  5. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  6. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  7. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  8. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  9. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  10. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  11. Propagation of crises in the virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.

  12. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  13. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  14. 7 CFR 1940.332 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Emergencies. 1940.332 Section 1940.332 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.332 Emergencies. (a) Action requiring EIS. When an emergency circumstance makes it necessary to take an action with significant environmental...

  15. Drivers of the virtual water trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, S.; Carr, J. A.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Through the international trade of food commodities, countries virtually export or import the water used for food production, known as "virtual water." The international trade network thus implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries. The purpose of this study is to identify some controlling factors of the virtual water network by means of multivariate regression analyses, or gravity laws, as often named in economics. Starting from the FAOSTAT database, we reconstruct 25 years (1986-2010) of international virtual water trade values; we then analyze the dependence of the exchanged fluxes on: population, gross domestic product, arable land, virtual water embedded in agricultural production and dietary demand, and geographical distance between countries. Significant drivers are identified for each country considering separately export and import fluxes; temporal trends are outlined and the relative importance of drivers is assessed by a commonality analysis. Results indicate that population, gross domestic product and geographical distance are the major drivers of virtual water fluxes, with a minor (nonnegligible) contribution given by the agricultural production of exporting countries. Such drivers have become relevant for an increasing number of countries throughout the years, with an increasing variance explained by the distance between countries and a decreasing role of the gross domestic product. The worldwide adjusted coefficient of determination of fitted gravity-law model is 0.57 (in 2010), and it has increased in time, confirming the good descriptive capability of selected drivers for the virtual water trade.

  16. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC. PMID:27543749

  17. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC.

  18. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  19. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  20. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  1. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  2. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  3. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  4. Universal scaling behaviour in weighted trade networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. Q.

    2007-09-01

    Identifying universal patterns in complex economic systems can reveal the dynamics and organizing principles underlying the process of system evolution. We investigate the scaling behaviours that have emerged in the international trade system by describing them as a series of evolving weighted trade networks. The maximum-flow spanning trees (constructed by maximizing the total weight of the edges) of these networks exhibit two universal scaling exponents: (1) topological scaling exponent η = 1.30 and (2) flow scaling exponent zeta = 1.03.

  5. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  6. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Franzluebbers, Alan J; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C

    2007-11-01

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O. It can also be a sink for CO(2) through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH(4) consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N(2)O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH(4) and N(2)O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint.

  7. 7 CFR 46.13 - Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members of partnership, and bankruptcy. 46.13 Section 46.13 Agriculture... Address, ownership, changes in trade name, changes in number of branches, changes in members...

  8. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Progress and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a distributed climate-scenario simulation exercise for historical model intercomparison and future climate change conditions with participation of multiple crop and agricultural trade modeling groups around the world. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of risk of hunger and world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Recent progress and the current status of AgMIP will be presented, highlighting three areas of activity: preliminary results from crop pilot studies, outcomes from regional workshops, and emerging scientific challenges. AgMIP crop modeling efforts are being led by pilot studies, which have been established for wheat, maize, rice, and sugarcane. These crop-specific initiatives have proven instrumental in testing and contributing to AgMIP protocols, as well as creating preliminary results for aggregation and input to agricultural trade models. Regional workshops are being held to encourage collaborations and set research activities in motion for key agricultural areas. The first of these workshops was hosted by Embrapa and UNICAMP and held in Campinas, Brazil. Outcomes from this meeting have informed crop modeling research activities within South America, AgMIP protocols, and future regional workshops. Several scientific challenges have emerged and are currently being addressed by AgMIP researchers. Areas of particular interest include geospatial weather generation, ensemble methods for climate scenarios and crop models, spatial aggregation of field-scale yields to regional and global production, and characterization of future changes in climate variability.

  9. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  10. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

  11. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  12. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations for ACP contracts and the ACP program that were contained in the 7 CFR, parts 700 to 899, edition... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM...

  13. Tension on the Farm Fields: The Death of Traditional Agriculture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguamanam, Chidi

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the historic transitions and progressions in agricultural science, this article examines the emergence of the phenomenon of agricultural biotechnology. It identifies pivotal sites of tension between agricultural biotechnology and alternative approaches to agriculture. The article identifies two distinct sources of contemporary…

  14. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORANDO, ROCCO V.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    DEVELOPED AT THE STATE LEVEL BY SQUADMEN AND TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL, THIS MANUAL IS FOR USE BY A QUALIFIED SQUADMAN IN TEACHING FULL-TIME AND VOLUNTEER EMERGENCY AND RESCUE WORKERS IN AN EMERGENCY SQUAD STATION OR TRAINING CENTER. TEACHING GUIDES ARE PROVIDED FOR A 30-HOUR COURSE ON EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND A 20-HOUR COURSE ON VICTIM…

  15. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section... Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss... relevant Federal agency and the Governor of the State of Hawaii. Emergency regulations shall not...

  16. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to a..., respectively, for the authority to issue emergency regulations with respect to those sanctuaries....

  17. 27 CFR 40.251 - Emergency storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency storage. 40.251 Section 40.251 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... § 40.251 Emergency storage. In cases of emergency, the appropriate TTB officer may authorize, for...

  18. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  19. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency restoration. 990.26 Section... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration. (a) Trustees may take emergency restoration action before completing the process established under this part, provided that:...

  20. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  1. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  2. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  3. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  4. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  5. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  6. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  7. 40 CFR 350.15 - Public petitions requesting disclosure of chemical identity claimed as trade secret.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET... information for EPA to identify the chemical identity the petitioner is seeking to have released. (e)...

  8. Global trade in exotic pets 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Bush, Emma R; Baker, Sandra E; Macdonald, David W

    2014-06-01

    International trade in exotic pets is an important and increasing driver of biodiversity loss and often compromises the standards required for good animal welfare. We systematically reviewed the scientific and gray literature and used the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) trade database to establish temporal and geographical trade patterns of live exotic birds, mammals, and reptiles and to describe trends in research, taxonomic representation, and level of threat and legal protection of species traded. Birds were the most species-rich and abundant class reported in trade; reptiles were second most abundant but unusually the most studied in this context; and mammals were least abundant in trade. Mammalian and reptilian species traded as pets were more likely to be threatened than expected by random. There have been a substantial number of Appendix I listed captive-bred mammals and birds and wild-caught birds and reptiles reported in trade to CITES. We identified the Middle East's emerging role as a driver of demand for exotic pets of all taxa alongside the well-established and increasing role of South America and Southeast Asia in the market. Europe, North America, and the Middle East featured most heavily in trade reports to CITES, whereas trade involving South America and Southeast Asia were given most emphasis in the literature. For effective monitoring of and appropriate response to the international exotic pet trade, it is imperative that the reliability and detail of CITES trade reports improve and that scientific research be directed toward those taxa and locations that are most vulnerable.

  9. Global trade in exotic pets 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Bush, Emma R; Baker, Sandra E; Macdonald, David W

    2014-06-01

    International trade in exotic pets is an important and increasing driver of biodiversity loss and often compromises the standards required for good animal welfare. We systematically reviewed the scientific and gray literature and used the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) trade database to establish temporal and geographical trade patterns of live exotic birds, mammals, and reptiles and to describe trends in research, taxonomic representation, and level of threat and legal protection of species traded. Birds were the most species-rich and abundant class reported in trade; reptiles were second most abundant but unusually the most studied in this context; and mammals were least abundant in trade. Mammalian and reptilian species traded as pets were more likely to be threatened than expected by random. There have been a substantial number of Appendix I listed captive-bred mammals and birds and wild-caught birds and reptiles reported in trade to CITES. We identified the Middle East's emerging role as a driver of demand for exotic pets of all taxa alongside the well-established and increasing role of South America and Southeast Asia in the market. Europe, North America, and the Middle East featured most heavily in trade reports to CITES, whereas trade involving South America and Southeast Asia were given most emphasis in the literature. For effective monitoring of and appropriate response to the international exotic pet trade, it is imperative that the reliability and detail of CITES trade reports improve and that scientific research be directed toward those taxa and locations that are most vulnerable. PMID:24661260

  10. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  11. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  12. A Good Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

  13. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  14. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  15. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

  16. Distinguishing manipulated stocks via trading network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2011-10-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. For the study of manipulation, it is critical to analyze investor behavior in the stock market. In this paper, an analysis of the full transaction records of over a hundred stocks in a one-year period is conducted. For each stock, a trading network is constructed to characterize the relations among its investors. In trading networks, nodes represent investors and a directed link connects a stock seller to a buyer with the total trade size as the weight of the link, and the node strength is the sum of all edge weights of a node. For all these trading networks, we find that the node degree and node strength both have tails following a power-law distribution. Compared with non-manipulated stocks, manipulated stocks have a high lower bound of the power-law tail, a high average degree of the trading network and a low correlation between the price return and the seller-buyer ratio. These findings may help us to detect manipulated stocks.

  17. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information. PMID:26457747

  18. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  19. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  20. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  1. A Theoretical Model of Water and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Q.; Konar, M.; Reimer, J.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Lin, X.; Zeng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Water is an essential factor of agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of food commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model of a small open economy that explicitly incorporates water resources. The model emphasizes three tradeoffs involving water decision-making that are important yet not always considered within the existing literature. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different sectors when there is a shock to one of the sectors only, such as trade liberalization and consequent higher demand for the product. A second tradeoff concerns the possibility that there may or may not be substitutes for water, such as increased use of sophisticated irrigation technology as a means to increase crop output in the absence of higher water availability. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using products. A number of propositions are proven. For example, while trade liberalization tends to increase water use, increased pressure on water supplies can be moderated by way of a tax that is derivable with observable economic phenomena. Another example is that increased riskiness of water availability tends to cause water users to use less water than would be the case under profit maximization. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  2. Trade, development, and regulatory issues in food.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Sunder; Viswanathan, Brinda

    2007-03-01

    Trade in food and animal products has increased several-fold in the past decade, and simultaneously regulations governing the movement of such products across national boundaries have also increased. The present study reviews harmonization in food trade regulation by focusing on nutritional aspects to understand its role in enhancing world trade on the one hand and consumer interest and welfare on the other. Harmonization to a large extent brings in more regulation from the developed world acting through their governments, consumer organizations, and multinational companies; it does not seem to address, in general, the concerns of the large segments of the poor population for whom agriculture and food trade are the main sources of livelihood. There is a lack of quantifiable estimates of the loss in well-being of the disadvantaged. However, there is substantial research focused on the potential harm to developed nations as a result of nonadherence to the rules. Clearly, lack of adequate infrastructure, resource constraints, and weak institutions not only result in poor food safety regulation within developing countries but also remain barriers to realizing the greater potential benefits from increased trade. Harmonization of standards would have some losers and some winners, but to make it more inclusive, scientific knowledge alone may not be adequate; social and cultural aspects also need to be considered, since food systems differ among regions, with varying preferences, local resource availability, and levels of economic development. Improvement in governance in many countries not only would ensure better participation in international rule-making and the negotiation process for fairer trade but also would result in effective domestic legislation to ensure safer health for citizens, resulting in higher overall well-being. PMID:17521124

  3. 30 CFR 47.84 - Non-emergency disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.84 Non-emergency disclosure. Upon request, the operator must disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical in a non-emergency situation to an exposed... reasonable detail an occupational health need for the information, as follows: (1) To assess the...

  4. 30 CFR 47.84 - Non-emergency disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.84 Non-emergency disclosure. Upon request, the operator must disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical in a non-emergency situation to an exposed... reasonable detail an occupational health need for the information, as follows: (1) To assess the...

  5. 30 CFR 47.84 - Non-emergency disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.84 Non-emergency disclosure. Upon request, the operator must disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical in a non-emergency situation to an exposed... reasonable detail an occupational health need for the information, as follows: (1) To assess the...

  6. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  7. 3 CFR 13601 - Executive Order 13601 of February 28, 2012. Establishment of the Interagency Trade Enforcement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Enforcement Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United...) the Department of Justice; (iv) the Department of Agriculture; (v) the Department of Commerce; (vi... foreign trade barriers and unfair foreign trade practices. Sec. 4. Administration. (a) Funding...

  8. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  9. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  10. Aflatoxin Regulations in a Network of Global Maize Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000–2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  11. Trade liberalization and the diet transition: a public health response.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Geof; Hawkes, Corinna; Lang, Tim; Bello, Walden

    2006-12-01

    Trade liberalization remains at the forefront of debates around globalization, particularly around the impact on agriculture and food. These debates, which often focus on how poorer countries can 'trade their way' out of poverty, pay limited attention to dietary health, especially in the light of the WHO's Global Strategy for Diet, Physical Activity and Health (2004), which warned that future health burdens will be increasingly determined by diet-related chronic diseases. This article examines the diet transition as the absent factor within debates on liberalizing trade and commerce. We describe the evolution of trade agreements, noting those relevant to food. We review the association between trade liberalization and changes in the global dietary and disease profile. We illustrate some of the complex linkages between trade liberalization and the 'diet transition', illustrated by factors such as foreign direct investment, supermarketization and cultural change. Finally, we offer three scenarios for change, suggesting the need for more effective 'food governance' and engagement by public health advocates in policy making in the food and agriculture arena. PMID:17307959

  12. Trade liberalization and the diet transition: a public health response.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Geof; Hawkes, Corinna; Lang, Tim; Bello, Walden

    2006-12-01

    Trade liberalization remains at the forefront of debates around globalization, particularly around the impact on agriculture and food. These debates, which often focus on how poorer countries can 'trade their way' out of poverty, pay limited attention to dietary health, especially in the light of the WHO's Global Strategy for Diet, Physical Activity and Health (2004), which warned that future health burdens will be increasingly determined by diet-related chronic diseases. This article examines the diet transition as the absent factor within debates on liberalizing trade and commerce. We describe the evolution of trade agreements, noting those relevant to food. We review the association between trade liberalization and changes in the global dietary and disease profile. We illustrate some of the complex linkages between trade liberalization and the 'diet transition', illustrated by factors such as foreign direct investment, supermarketization and cultural change. Finally, we offer three scenarios for change, suggesting the need for more effective 'food governance' and engagement by public health advocates in policy making in the food and agriculture arena.

  13. 76 FR 33701 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... addresses, such as genetically modified organisms, new technologies and international negotiations, are... ATACs: Animals and Animal Products; Fruits and Vegetables; Processed Foods, and; Sweeteners...

  14. Globalization and the trade in human body parts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T

    1999-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, the number and variety of organ transplantations has increased enormously worldwide. Accompanying this increase has been the emergence of a market for human body parts. This paper argues that, while the trade in human body parts is conditioned by technological advances, it must be understood in the broader context of globalization, specifically the extension and intensification of a capitalist mode of exchange. In this regard, it is argued that the trade in human body parts mirrors the "normal" system of unequal exchanges that mark other forms of trade between the developed and undeveloped regions of the world.

  15. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  16. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  17. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  18. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  19. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  20. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    capable of feeding a growing population safeguard both soil fertility and the soil itself? Although the experiences of past societies provide ample historical basis for concern about the long-term prospects for soil conservation, data compiled from recent studies indicate that no-till farming could reduce erosion to levels close to soil production rates. Consequently, agricultural production need not necessarily come at the expense of either soil fertility or the soil itself, even if recent proposals to rely on conventionally grown corn for biofuels exemplify how short-term social and economic trade-offs can de-prioritize soil conservation. Like the issues of climate change and loss of biodiversity, the ongoing global degradation and loss of soil presents a fundamental social challenge in which the slow pace of environmental change counter-intuitively makes solutions all the more difficult to adopt.

  1. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts. PMID:26249847

  2. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  3. 7 CFR 6.3 - Requests by interested persons for action by Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D.C. Such... section 8(a) should be submitted in duplicate to the Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service, United...) submitted in connection with a proposed section 7 (Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1951)...

  4. The trade of virtual water: do property rights matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ankai

    2016-04-01

    My paper examines the determinants of the virtual water trade - embodied in the trade of agriculture products - by estimating a structural gravity model. In particular, it tests the relationship between property rights and the export of water-intensive agricultural products based on water footprint data in Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011, 2012). Using two different measures of property rights protection, I show that countries with weaker property rights have an apparent comparative advantage in the trade of water-intensive products. After controlling for the economic size, natural resource endowments, and possible effects of reverse causality, the trade flow of virtual water is negatively and significantly correlated with the property rights index of the exporting country. Holding other factors constant, one point increase in the property rights index of a country is associated with a 24% - 36% decrease in its virtual water export, whereas a 1% increase in the natural resource protection index of a country is associated with a 16% decrease in its virtual water export. This paper is the first empirical work that tests the relationship between property rights and trade of water-intensive products, offering a new perceptive in the debate of virtual water trade. The findings provide a possible explanation on the paradoxical evidence that some countries with scarce water resources export water-intensive products. The result is important not only in terms of its theoretical relevance, but also its policy implications. As prescribed by the model of trade and property rights, when countries with weaker property rights open to international trade, they are more likely to over-exploit and thus expedite the depletion of natural resources.

  5. Agricultural Virtual Water Flows in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dang, Q.; Lin, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global virtual water trade is an important research topic that has yielded several interesting insights. In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the USA, a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intra-national food flow data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water flows vary across scales. We find that both the value and volume of food flows within the USA are roughly equivalent to half that of international flows. However, USA food flows are more water intensive than international food trade, due to the higher fraction of water-intensive meat trade within the USA. The USA virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  6. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  7. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ... Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be Red Cross Ready Mobile Apps Workplaces & Organizations Resources For ...

  8. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  9. Construction Trades Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

  10. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  11. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  12. Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    The author earned a physics degree in college and then failed to find a job in the aerospace industry. He writes of how he fell back on his training as an electrician for sustenance and from that extrapolates how the trades have become confused with work of the hands rather than of the mind. He uses the venerable debate between Booker T.…

  13. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

  14. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  15. Trade Masonry Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

  16. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  17. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  18. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year`s report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities.

  19. 7 CFR 1730.28 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). 1730.28 Section 1730.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... § 1730.28 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric program...

  20. 7 CFR 1730.28 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). 1730.28 Section 1730.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... § 1730.28 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric program...

  1. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  2. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  3. Trading network predicts stock price.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  4. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  5. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions.

  6. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  7. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to a... all activities are subject to immediate temporary regulation, including prohibition....

  8. 27 CFR 44.112 - Emergency premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency premises. 44.112 Section 44.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.112 Emergency premises. In cases of...

  9. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.

  10. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Conway, D.

    2015-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rainfed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in this region. It is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how intra- and extra-regional trade can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine international food trade data and a global hydrological model to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic changes on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during that period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water resources but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly scarce water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production and water productivity. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and trade with other regions increases, our results point out opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food production via trade.

  11. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  12. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  13. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these commodities in the face of growing land scarcity (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). If high-yield plantations displace low-yield plantations they too may follow the path of industrial agriculture and resume destruction of the forests that conservation efforts aim to protect. Without clear incentives to spare land, we could be trading forest for higher yields. References Angelsen A and Kaimowitz D 2001 Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation (New York: CABI Publishing) (www.cifor.org/publications/pdf files/books/bangelsen0101e0.pdf) Butler R and Laurance W 2010 Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 2 1-10 Gibbs H K, Johnston M, Foley J A, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N and Zaks D 2008 Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001 Gibbs H K, Ruesch A S, Achard F, Clayton M K, Holmgren P, Ramankutty N and Foley J A 2010 Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 107 16732-7 Gutiérrez-Vélez V H, DeFries R, Pinedo-Vásquez M, Uriarte M, Padoch C, Baethgen W, Fernandes K and Lim Y 2011 High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon Environ. Res. Lett. 6 044029 Koh L and Wilcove D 2008 Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity? Conserv. Lett. 1 60-4 Lambin E and Meyfroidt P 2011 Inaugural article: global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 93465-72 Morton D C et al 2006 Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103 14637-41

  14. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  15. Avian influenza: an agricultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Andrea

    2006-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 strains of avian influenza virus in poultry in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East have raised concern over the potential emergence of a pandemic strain that can easily infect humans and cause serious morbidity and mortality. To prevent and control a national outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts measures based on the ecology of avian influenza viruses. To prevent an outbreak in the United States, the USDA conducts surveillance of bird populations, restrictions on bird importation, educational outreach, and regulation of agricultural practices, in collaboration with local, state, and federal organizations. To manage an outbreak, the USDA has in place a well-established emergency management system for optimizing efforts. The USDA also collaborates with international organizations for disease prevention and control in other countries.

  16. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water.

  17. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

  18. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    PubMed

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products. PMID:19967941

  19. Emerging viral infections with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, K

    1996-04-01

    An emerging viral infection may be a totally new disease with undescribed symptomatology as it was in the case of Kyasanur forest disease in Karnataka, but more often it is an introduction of a known or little known disease in an area where the disease did not occur earlier e.g. yellow fever in Kenya or Rift valley fever in Egypt. The virus may show altered degree of virulence due to many changing factors as in the case of the different haemorrhagic fevers. Many factors may contribute to the emergence of viral infections which may be genetic exchanges or mutations; adaptation to new hosts or vectors; and changed social patterns of humans like urbanization, rapid transport, trade, migration of people or of vectors, strain on civic facilities or changing moral values and life-styles. Large scale changes in ecology due to global warming, deforestation or afforestation, building of dams or canals, changed agricultural practices, rearing of livestock or birds may also contribute to emergence of viral diseases. A number of emergent virus infections relatively important to India have been discussed. To combat emergent virus infections, a comprehensive strategy needs to be evolved. A national viral surveillance system needs to be established. Epidemiology of virus diseases needs to be studied in depth. Development of diagnostic reagents and their supply to investigating centres, a Central serum bank, and a virus respository are important factors. Research and development on viruses, as regards the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and vaccinology of virus infections need to be strengthened. An international network of databases of virus infections needs to be instituted. A global network for the diagnosis and containment of emerging viral diseases is advocated.

  20. Agriculture as a subject in primary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Herbert

    1985-12-01

    Many countries have included agriculture as a subject in primary school for a number of reasons. The present article briefly presents five rationales for including agriculture and offers three main approaches which seem to emerge from current practice. The main results of the subsequent discussion can be summarized as follows: integrating education with rural development most of the time would mean including agriculture as a subject in primary schools in rural areas and compensating it in core curriculum with some sort of practical subject taught in urban areas. It becomes clear that narrow vocational and extension-support approaches to school agriculture should be avoided in favour of a more general approach which relates agriculture to science. Unless these problems — curricular, technical, and organizational — are tackled, the results of school agriculture and its acceptance by those concerned will remain far behind expectations and possibilities.

  1. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  2. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  3. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  4. 77 FR 61599 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... information to develop or implement emergency plans, (3) Section 311--Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs... Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental... information collection request (ICR), ``Trade Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and Community...

  5. 40 CFR 170.160 - Emergency assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency assistance. 170.160 Section... WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.160 Emergency assistance. If there is reason to... agricultural establishment, to an appropriate emergency medical facility. (b) Provide to that person or...

  6. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K; Lambin, Eric F

    2010-12-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions--a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation--involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities. PMID:21078977

  7. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K; Lambin, Eric F

    2010-12-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions--a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation--involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities.

  8. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation—involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities. PMID:21078977

  9. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  10. Investigating Vietnam's ornamental bird trade: implications for transmission of zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kelly; Roberton, Scott I; Few, Roger; Mahood, Simon; Bui, Phuong L; Hunter, Paul R; Bell, Diana J

    2011-03-01

    Global wildlife trade is financially lucrative, frequently illegal and increases the risk for zoonotic disease transmission. This paper presents the first interdisciplinary study of Vietnam's illegal wild bird trade focussing on those aspects which may contribute to the transmission of diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1. Comparing January 2009 data with that of May 2007, we found a five-fold increase to 9,117 birds on sale in Hanoi. Ninety-five percent of Hanoian bird vendors appear unaware of trade regulations and across Vietnam vendors buy birds sourced outside of their province. Approximately 25% of the species common to Vietnam's bird trade are known to be HPAI H5N1 susceptible. The anthropogenic movement of birds within the trade chain and the range of HPAI-susceptible species, often traded alongside poultry, increase the risk Vietnam's bird trade presents for the transmission of pathogens such as HPAI H5N1. These results will assist in the control and monitoring of emerging zoonotic diseases and conservation of Southeast Asia's avifauna.

  11. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  12. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  13. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  14. 40 CFR 350.5 - Assertion of claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the specific chemical identity of an extremely hazardous substance under sections 303 (d)(2) and (d)(3... (d)(3), the submitter may claim as trade secret the specific chemical identity of any chemical... local emergency planning committee, with the chemical identity or identities claimed trade...

  15. 40 CFR 350.5 - Assertion of claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the specific chemical identity of an extremely hazardous substance under sections 303 (d)(2) and (d)(3... (d)(3), the submitter may claim as trade secret the specific chemical identity of any chemical... local emergency planning committee, with the chemical identity or identities claimed trade...

  16. 40 CFR 350.5 - Assertion of claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the specific chemical identity of an extremely hazardous substance under sections 303 (d)(2) and (d)(3... (d)(3), the submitter may claim as trade secret the specific chemical identity of any chemical... local emergency planning committee, with the chemical identity or identities claimed trade...

  17. 40 CFR 350.5 - Assertion of claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the specific chemical identity of an extremely hazardous substance under sections 303 (d)(2) and (d)(3... (d)(3), the submitter may claim as trade secret the specific chemical identity of any chemical... local emergency planning committee, with the chemical identity or identities claimed trade...

  18. Research of negotiation in network trade system based on multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Guozheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    A construction and implementation technology of network trade based on multi-agent is described in this paper. First, we researched the technology of multi-agent, then we discussed the consumer's behaviors and the negotiation between purchaser and bargainer which emerges in the traditional business mode and analysed the key technology to implement the network trade system. Finally, we implement the system.

  19. The bushmeat trade: increased opportunities for transmission of zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Karesh, William B; Noble, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Bushmeat is a term that refers to the use of wild animals, ranging from cane rats to gorillas, for food. The term typically refers to the practice in forests of Africa. The bushmeat trade is an example of an anthropogenic factor that provides opportunities for the transmission of diseases from wildlife to humans. The expansion of the bushmeat trade over the past 2 decades has provided a venue for the emergence of zoonotic diseases by providing an increased opportunity for the transmission of organisms known to cause disease and organisms with an unknown impact on humans. Because the bushmeat trade is embedded in a complex cultural, political, and economic context, efforts to prevent the emergence of zoonoses require a multidisciplinary approach. Mt Sinai J Med 76:429-434, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  20. Food security through large scale investments in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the human appropriation of freshwater resources is for food production. There is some concern that in the near future the finite freshwater resources available on Earth might not be sufficient to meet the increasing human demand for agricultural products. In the late 1700s Malthus argued that in the long run the humanity would not have enough resources to feed itself. Malthus' analysis, however, did not account for the emergence of technological innovations that could increase the rate of food production. The modern and contemporary history has seen at least three major technological advances that have increased humans' access to food, namely, the industrial revolution, the green revolution, and the intensification of global trade. Here we argue that a fourth revolution has just started to happen. It involves foreign direct investments in agriculture, which intensify the crop yields of potentially highly productive agricultural lands by introducing the use of more modern technologies. The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of verified land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We

  1. Ecological network analysis on global virtual water trade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhifeng; Mao, Xufeng; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Global water interdependencies are likely to increase with growing virtual water trade. To address the issues of the indirect effects of water trade through the global economic circulation, we use ecological network analysis (ENA) to shed insight into the complicated system interactions. A global model of virtual water flow among agriculture and livestock production trade in 1995-1999 is also built as the basis for network analysis. Control analysis is used to identify the quantitative control or dependency relations. The utility analysis provides more indicators for describing the mutual relationship between two regions/countries by imitating the interactions in the ecosystem and distinguishes the beneficiary and the contributor of virtual water trade system. Results show control and utility relations can well depict the mutual relation in trade system, and direct observable relations differ from integral ones with indirect interactions considered. This paper offers a new way to depict the interrelations between trade components and can serve as a meaningful start as we continue to use ENA in providing more valuable implications for freshwater study on a global scale. PMID:22243129

  2. Ecological network analysis on global virtual water trade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhifeng; Mao, Xufeng; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Global water interdependencies are likely to increase with growing virtual water trade. To address the issues of the indirect effects of water trade through the global economic circulation, we use ecological network analysis (ENA) to shed insight into the complicated system interactions. A global model of virtual water flow among agriculture and livestock production trade in 1995-1999 is also built as the basis for network analysis. Control analysis is used to identify the quantitative control or dependency relations. The utility analysis provides more indicators for describing the mutual relationship between two regions/countries by imitating the interactions in the ecosystem and distinguishes the beneficiary and the contributor of virtual water trade system. Results show control and utility relations can well depict the mutual relation in trade system, and direct observable relations differ from integral ones with indirect interactions considered. This paper offers a new way to depict the interrelations between trade components and can serve as a meaningful start as we continue to use ENA in providing more valuable implications for freshwater study on a global scale.

  3. Attrition in the Trades. NCVER Monograph Series 07/2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom; Lim, Patrick; Misko, Josie

    2011-01-01

    Shortages in the trades are again becoming a prominent issue as Australia emerges from the Global Financial Crisis. The existence of shortages puts the immediate focus on the apparent inability of the training system to supply sufficient skilled tradespersons, but shortages in an occupation are as much related to the rate at which individuals…

  4. Primary health care trading companies for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Soeters, R; Nzala, S

    1994-01-01

    A programme of comprehensive primary health care in Zambia has been accompanied by the emergence of autonomous, non-profit trading and production companies that sell health-related goods to communities and health institutions and find markets for locally produced good.

  5. Primary health care trading companies for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Soeters, R; Nzala, S

    1994-01-01

    A programme of comprehensive primary health care in Zambia has been accompanied by the emergence of autonomous, non-profit trading and production companies that sell health-related goods to communities and health institutions and find markets for locally produced good. PMID:8141978

  6. 7 CFR 502.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 502.4 Section 502.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH..., MARYLAND § 502.4 Conformity with signs and emergency directions. Persons in and on property of BARC...

  7. 7 CFR 500.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 500.4 Section 500.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH... Conformity with signs and emergency directions. Persons in and on property of the USNA shall comply...

  8. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  9. The Prehistory of Potyviruses: Their Initial Radiation Was during the Dawn of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Adrian J.; Ohshima, Kazusato; Phillips, Matthew J.; Gibbs, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Potyviruses are found world wide, are spread by probing aphids and cause considerable crop damage. Potyvirus is one of the two largest plant virus genera and contains about 15% of all named plant virus species. When and why did the potyviruses become so numerous? Here we answer the first question and discuss the other. Methods and Findings We have inferred the phylogenies of the partial coat protein gene sequences of about 50 potyviruses, and studied in detail the phylogenies of some using various methods and evolutionary models. Their phylogenies have been calibrated using historical isolation and outbreak events: the plum pox virus epidemic which swept through Europe in the 20th century, incursions of potyviruses into Australia after agriculture was established by European colonists, the likely transport of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in cowpea seed from Africa to the Americas with the 16th century slave trade and the similar transport of papaya ringspot virus from India to the Americas. Conclusions/Significance Our studies indicate that the partial coat protein genes of potyviruses have an evolutionary rate of about 1.15×10−4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year, and the initial radiation of the potyviruses occurred only about 6,600 years ago, and hence coincided with the dawn of agriculture. We discuss the ways in which agriculture may have triggered the prehistoric emergence of potyviruses and fostered their speciation. PMID:18575612

  10. New technological era for American agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The report examines emerging technologies that may be available to American agriculture in the 1990s, their potential for industry, and consequent policy issues. The report analyzes the technologies and related policy issues Congress may need to resolve. The analysis includes an assessment of adjustments industry must take to capitalize on the new technologies, the scientific and institutional issues relevant to food safety and environmental risk and benefit, and the implications for intellectual property rights and science policy. It is the final report in a series on emerging agricultural issues in the 1990s. Other reports in the series include: Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer Policies for the 1990s; U.S. Dairy Industry at a Crossroad: Biotechnology and Policy Choices; and Agricultural Commodities as Industrial Raw Materials.

  11. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  12. Nitrogen trading tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nitrogen cycle is impacted by human activities, including those that increase the use of nitrogen in agricultural systems, and this impact can be seen in effects such as increased nitrate (NO3) levels in groundwater or surface water resources, increased concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) in th...

  13. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  14. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Products; Fruits and Vegetables; Grains, Feed and Oilseeds; Processed Foods; Sweeteners and Sweetener Products and Tobacco; Peanuts and Planting Seeds. Each is authorized by sections 135(c)(1) and (2) of...

  15. 75 FR 67345 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ..., Feed, Oilseeds and Planting Seeds; Processed Foods; Sweeteners and Sweetener Products; and, Tobacco... of the following sectors: Animals and Animal Products; Fruits and Vegetables; Grains, Feed,...

  16. Childhood Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Tracker Save Your Life in the ER? Abdominal Pain Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring Book Download the Coloring Book » Emergency Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians 2016 Privacy Policy Terms of Use

  17. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  18. Trade policy and public goods.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health. PMID:17208712

  19. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented—there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback. PMID:24790128

  20. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  1. A Trade Secret Model for Genomic Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Conley, John M.; Kenan, William Rand; Mitchell, Robert; Cadigan, R. Jean; Davis, Arlene M.; Dobson, Allison W.; Gladden, Ryan Q.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic biobanks present ethical challenges that are qualitatively unique and quantitatively unprecedented. Many critics have questioned whether the current system of informed consent can be meaningfully applied to genomic biobanking. Proposals for reform have come from many directions, but have tended to involve incremental change in current informed consent practice. This paper reports on our efforts to seek new ideas and approaches from those whom informed consent is designed to protect: research subjects. Our model emerged from semi-structured interviews with healthy volunteers who had been recruited to join either of two biobanks (some joined, some did not), and whom we encouraged to explain their concerns and how they understood the relationship between specimen contributors and biobanks. These subjects spoke about their DNA and the information it contains in ways that were strikingly evocative of the legal concept of the trade secret. They then described the terms and conditions under which they might let others study their DNA, and there was a compelling analogy to the commonplace practice of trade secret licensing. We propose a novel biobanking model based on this trade secret concept, and argue that it would be a practical, legal, and ethical improvement on the status quo. PMID:23061589

  2. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are still understudied. Human (and plant) mobility levels across the planet are unprecedented-there is thus much potential in the use of network theory by plant health authorities and researchers. Given the directed and hierarchical nature of plant trade networks, there is a need for plant epidemiologists to further develop models based on undirected and homogeneous networks. More realistic plant health scenarios would also be obtained by developing epidemic models in dynamic, rather than static, networks. For plant diseases spread by the horticultural and ornamental trade, there is the challenge of developing spatio-temporal epidemic simulations integrating network data. The use of network theory in plant epidemiology is a promising avenue and could contribute to anticipating and preventing plant health emergencies such as European ash dieback.

  3. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  4. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  5. 76 FR 70709 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Emergency Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Emergency Meeting Notice This notice that an emergency meeting was held is... emergency closed meeting on November 9, 2011 at approximately 11:10 a.m. The Commission, by a recorded...

  6. 76 FR 68167 - Sunshine Act Meeting-Emergency Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting--Emergency Meeting Notice This notice that an emergency meeting was held is... emergency closed meeting on October 31, 2011 at 12 p.m. The Commission, by a recorded unanimous...

  7. Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwinckel, Chad; de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel; Perlack, Robert D; West, T. O.

    2010-11-01

    An integrated, socioeconomic biogeophysical model is used to analyze the interactions of cap-and-trade legislation and the Renewable Fuels Standard. Five alternative policy scenarios were considered with the purpose of identifying policies that act in a synergistic manner to reduce carbon emissions, increase economic returns to agriculture, and adequately meet ethanol mandates. We conclude that climate and energy policies can best be implemented together by offering carbon offset payments to conservation tillage, herbaceous grasses for biomass, and by constraining crop residue removal for ethanol feedstocks to carbon neutral level. When comparing this scenario to the Baseline scenario, the agricultural sector realizes an economic benefit of US$156 billion by 2030 and emissions are reduced by 135 Tg C-equivalent (Eq) yr 1. Results also indicate that geographic location of cellulosic feedstocks could shift significantly depending on the final policies implemented in cap and trade legislation. Placement of cellulosic ethanol facilities should consider these possible shifts when determining site location.

  8. Drivers of change in global agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Peter; Wood, Stanley

    2008-02-12

    As a result of agricultural intensification, more food is produced today than needed to feed the entire world population and at prices that have never been so low. Yet despite this success and the impact of globalization and increasing world trade in agriculture, there remain large, persistent and, in some cases, worsening spatial differences in the ability of societies to both feed themselves and protect the long-term productive capacity of their natural resources. This paper explores these differences and develops a countryxfarming systems typology for exploring the linkages between human needs, agriculture and the environment, and for assessing options for addressing future food security, land use and ecosystem service challenges facing different societies around the world.

  9. Cultural Diversity as Resistance to Neoliberal Globalization: The Emergence of a Global Movement and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan-Tibergien, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While there have been numerous discussions of the impact on educational services made by trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization (WTO), this study looks at the emergence of global resistance to the commodification of culture through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) within the WTO. In line with the Council of…

  10. Ecological analysis of world trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems have a high complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. The analysis of their properties uses a concept of mutualistic networks and provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. Using the United Nations COMTRADE database we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade: countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a high nestedness typical for ecological networks. Our approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade.

  11. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Methods Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. Results An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over ‘disguised protectionism’ and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. Conclusion The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue. PMID:20943828

  12. Contemporary global movement of emerging plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, R; Frederiksen, R A

    1999-01-01

    Plant diseases are a significant constraint to agricultural productivity. Exotic plant diseases pose a continued threat to profitable agriculture in the United States. The extent of this threat has increased dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s due to the expansion of international trade in agricultural products and frequent movement of massive volume of people and goods across national boundaries. Introduction of new diseases has not only caused farm losses, but has also diminished export revenue since phytosanitary issues are linked to international commerce. Plant pathogens and their vectors have also moved across national boundaries, sometimes naturally and at other times influenced by the recent changes in trade practices. Sorghum ergot, Karnal bunt of wheat, potato late blight, and citrus tristeza are some of the most recent examples of enhanced importance of diseases due to the introduction of plant pathogens or vectors. PMID:10681966

  13. GIS in the World Trade Center Response: 10 Years after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevany, M.

    2011-08-01

    The World Trade Center attack of 9/11/01 and the response brought major attention to GIS as a valuable tool for supporting emergency management and response. That attention led to the allocation of considerable resources to the enhancement of GIS. This paper is intended to provide a look back at the events prior to and immediately following the attack, review of GIS in the response and recovery efforts, explore the emergence of GIS in Emergency Management from the impetus generated in the NYC experience and explore the challenges yet facing the use of GIS in emergency management. The author participated in the WTC response as a member of the Emergency Mapping and Data Center component of the Emergency Operations Center through which the response was managed.

  14. 30 CFR 47.83 - Disclosure in a medical emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.83 Disclosure in a medical... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure in a medical emergency. 47.83... confidentiality agreement, the operator must immediately disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical to...

  15. To trade or not to trade? Criteria for applying cap and trade.

    PubMed

    Benkovic, S; Kruger, J

    2001-11-30

    The use of emissions trading (cap and trade) is gaining worldwide recognition as an extremely effective policy tool. The U.S. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Trading Program has achieved an unprecedented level of environmental protection in a cost-effective manner. The successful results of the program have led domestic and foreign governments to consider the application of cap and trade to address other air quality issues. Certain analyses are particularly important in determining whether or not cap and trade is an appropriate policy tool. This paper offers a set of questions that can be used as criteria for determining whether or not cap and trade is the preferred policy approach to an environmental problem.

  16. Dynamics of the global virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and climate change. Since agriculture is by far the most freshwater-consuming process, the international food trade may be a way of transferring water resources to water-scarce countries, and of saving water globally by encouraging trade from water-efficient countries to less water-efficient countries. We applied complex network theory to analyze the dynamics of the global virtual water trade network. Our goal was to assess how the properties of the virtual water trade network changed in time, and how these changes are related to national policies, economic and weather conditions or events. We found that, on average, the number of trade partners of each country in the network doubled from 1986 to 2007, while the volume of water associated with food trade tripled. Despite this growth of the network, we found that the shape of the network properties distributions remained similar: for all years studied, the degree distribution is well fitted by an exponential distribution and the strength distribution compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. Other global network structure characteristics, such as the power law relationship between node strength and node degree, dissasortative behavior and weighted rich club phenomenon were also stable through the 22 year-period. However, there are significant changes at the country and link scale of analysis. The USA has remained the world's top exporter of virtual water, while, since 2001, China has been the world's largest virtual water importer, a position formerly occupied by Russia and Japan. The sharp increase in China's virtual water imports is mostly due to its increased soybean imports, following a domestic policy shift regarding the soy trade in 2000 and 2001. Importantly, the food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over the last few

  17. U.S. Trade Policy: Competing in a Global Economy. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This document contains a student text, teacher outline, and lesson plan that places beliefs and values at the center of the national discussion on trade policy. The focus of the unit is particularly relevant with the emergence of U.S. trade policy as a vital public issue. In 1993, two key elements of U.S. trade policy--the North American Free…

  18. 7 CFR 500.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 500.4 Section 500.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property §...

  19. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  20. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  1. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  2. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  3. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  4. 'Crook' pipettes: embryonic emigrations from agriculture to reproductive biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    While cloning, stem cells, and regenerative medicine are often imagined in a futurial idiom--as expectations, hype, hope and promises--this article approaches the remaking of genealogy in such contexts from a historical route. Through a series of somewhat disparate historical connections linking Australian sheep to the development of clinical IVF and the cloning of Dolly at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in 1996, this article explores the linkages through which agriculture, embryology, and reproductive biomedicine are thickly intertwined. Key to this examination is not only the history of experimental sheep breeding, and its somewhat unexpectedly genealogical connections to (Australian) national identity ('wool in the veins'), but also the re-emergence of a distinctive frontier ethos in the context of assisted conception, and later human embryonic stem cell derivation. I have set this scene of genealogical interconnection against the criss-crossing traffic between Britain and Australia, and the wool trade, to emphasise the importance of global, as well as local, connections in the bloodlines of animals such as Dolly. In sum, this article examines the idea of the 'biological frontier' by exploring its histories as a means to offset the assumption that this frequently encountered idiom describes a future that is, or must be, by definition, unknown and unknowable.

  5. 'Crook' pipettes: embryonic emigrations from agriculture to reproductive biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    While cloning, stem cells, and regenerative medicine are often imagined in a futurial idiom--as expectations, hype, hope and promises--this article approaches the remaking of genealogy in such contexts from a historical route. Through a series of somewhat disparate historical connections linking Australian sheep to the development of clinical IVF and the cloning of Dolly at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in 1996, this article explores the linkages through which agriculture, embryology, and reproductive biomedicine are thickly intertwined. Key to this examination is not only the history of experimental sheep breeding, and its somewhat unexpectedly genealogical connections to (Australian) national identity ('wool in the veins'), but also the re-emergence of a distinctive frontier ethos in the context of assisted conception, and later human embryonic stem cell derivation. I have set this scene of genealogical interconnection against the criss-crossing traffic between Britain and Australia, and the wool trade, to emphasise the importance of global, as well as local, connections in the bloodlines of animals such as Dolly. In sum, this article examines the idea of the 'biological frontier' by exploring its histories as a means to offset the assumption that this frequently encountered idiom describes a future that is, or must be, by definition, unknown and unknowable. PMID:17543836

  6. Targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhu; Davis, Steven J.; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Liang, Sai; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chen, Bin; Liu, Jingru; Yan, Jinyue; Guan, Dabo

    2016-02-01

    International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable. However, if carbon-intensive manufacturing in emerging countries such as China entails drastically more CO2 emissions than making the same product elsewhere, then trade increases global CO2 emissions. Here we show that the emissions embodied in Chinese exports, which are larger than the annual emissions of Japan or Germany, are primarily the result of China’s coal-based energy mix and the very high emissions intensity (emission per unit of economic value) in a few provinces and industry sectors. Exports from these provinces and sectors therefore represent targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma by either improving production technologies and decarbonizing the underlying energy systems or else reducing trade volumes.

  7. And the nasty ones lose in the end: foliar pathogenicity trades off with asexual transmission in the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Claudine; Montarry, Josselin; Marquer, Bruno; Andrivon, Didier

    2016-01-01

    A trade-off between pathogenicity and transmission is often postulated to explain the persistence of pathogens over time. If demonstrated, it would help to predict the evolution of pathogenicity across cropping seasons, and to develop sustainable control strategies from this prediction. Unfortunately, experimental demonstration of such trade-offs in agricultural plant pathogens remains elusive. We measured asexual transmission of Phytophthora infestans isolates differing in pathogenicity in two sets of artificial infection experiments under controlled, semi-outdoor conditions. Higher foliar pathogenicity decreased mean daughter tuber weight, increased infection severity in daughter tubers, and increased stem mortality before emergence. The most pathogenic isolates thus suffer a double penalty for asexual transmission: a lower survival probability within small and severely infected tubers; and a lower infection probability of neighbouring healthy plants due to fewer infected stems produced by surviving tubers. Moderate tuber resistance favoured transmission of the least pathogenic isolates, while high levels of resistance almost abolished transmission of all isolates. These data demonstrate a trade-off between foliar pathogenicity and asexual transmission over seasons in P. infestans, which should stabilise pathogenicity over time in the potato late blight pathosystem and possibly favour clone replacement by less pathogenic lineages after demographic bottlenecks.

  8. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2)....

  9. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a...

  10. Federal Trade Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Part XX Federal Trade Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION (FTC) FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Ch. I Semiannual Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... published in accordance with section 22(d)(1) of the Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C.......

  11. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  12. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  13. On financial markets trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matassini, Lorenzo; Franci, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the observation of the real trading activity, we propose a model of a stockmarket simulating all the typical phases taking place in a stock exchange. We show that there is no need of several classes of agents once one has introduced realistic constraints in order to confine money, time, gain and loss within an appropriate range. The main ingredients are local and global coupling, randomness, Zipf distribution of resources and price formation when inserting an order. The simulation starts with the initial public offer and comprises the broadcasting of news/advertisements and the building of the book, where all the selling and buying orders are stored. The model is able to reproduce fat tails and clustered volatility, the two most significant characteristics of a real stockmarket, being driven by very intuitive parameters.

  14. Agricultural diseases on the move early in the third millennium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With few exceptions, the diseases that present the greatest risk to food animal production have been largely similar throughout the modern era of veterinary medicine. The current trend of ever - increasing globalization of trade of animals and animal products ensures that agricultural diseases will ...

  15. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  16. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  17. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  18. Employment Expansion and Metropolitan Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard Victor

    Through empirical investigations of the 1940-50 and 1950-60 decades, the author has developed a framework for analyzing metropolitan trade and determining the employment-related consequences of changes in trade activity. One major trend of this period, especially the second decade, has been the increasing self-sufficiency of all metropolitan…

  19. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  20. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  1. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  2. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  3. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. PMID:25986591

  4. A Qualitative Study of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Grasp of Agricultural and Science Educational Benchmarks for Agricultural Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.; Meischen, Deanna

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with eight preservice elementary teachers regarding benchmarks related to agricultural technology for food and fiber showed that those from rural areas had more complex understanding of the trade-offs in technology use; urban residents were more concerned with ethical dilemmas. Pesticide pollution was most understood, genetic…

  5. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives.

  6. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  7. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  8. 77 FR 31393 - Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... of the Secretary Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Notice of... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy. The Committee will be chartered pursuant to section 135(c... Representative). Purpose: The Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy consults with...

  9. An inexact fuzzy two-stage stochastic model for quantifying the efficiency of nonpoint source effluent trading under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Luo, B; Maqsood, I; Huang, G H; Yin, Y Y; Han, D J

    2005-07-15

    Reduction of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution from agricultural lands is a major concern in most countries. One method to reduce NPS pollution is through land retirement programs. This method, however, may result in enormous economic costs especially when large sums of croplands need to be retired. To reduce the cost, effluent trading can be employed to couple with land retirement programs. However, the trading efforts can also become inefficient due to various uncertainties existing in stochastic, interval, and fuzzy formats in agricultural systems. Thus, it is desired to develop improved methods to effectively quantify the efficiency of potential trading efforts by considering those uncertainties. In this respect, this paper presents an inexact fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming model to tackle such problems. The proposed model can facilitate decision-making to implement trading efforts for agricultural NPS pollution reduction through land retirement programs. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through a hypothetical effluent trading program within a subcatchment of the Lake Tai Basin in China. The study results indicate that the efficiency of the trading program is significantly influenced by precipitation amount, agricultural activities, and level of discharge limits of pollutants. The results also show that the trading program will be more effective for low precipitation years and with stricter discharge limits.

  10. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  11. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights. PMID:23672480

  12. 77 FR 59377 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 32527 (June 1, 2012). The Department received a notice of intent... International Trade Administration Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the... of initiation of the second sunset review of the antidumping duty order on solid agricultural...

  13. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... medical devices to Sudan and Iran. Pursuant to section 906(c) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export... of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to Sudan and Iran are set forth in 31...

  14. Vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  15. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  16. Theme: Delivering Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Warren D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Eight articles in this theme issue deal with the nationwide implementation of agricultural literacy programs--discovering how to do it. Discussed are experiences in planning and conducting agricultural literacy programs at state and local levels. (JOW)

  17. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  18. Vocational Agriculture in Ponape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayrit, Ruben S.

    1975-01-01

    The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

  19. Urban Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  20. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  1. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Poppi, Nilson Tavares; Guimarães, Hélio Penna

    2008-09-01

    Emergencies and hypertensive crises are clinical situations which may represent more than 25% of all medical emergency care. Considering such high prevalence, physicians should be prepared to correctly identify these crises and differentiate between urgent and emergent hypertension. Approximately 3% of all visits to emergency rooms are due to significant elevation of blood pressure. Across the spectrum of blood systemic arterial pressure, hypertensive emergency is the most critical clinical situation, thus requiring special attention and care. Such patients present with high blood pressure and signs of acute specific target organ damage (such as acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pulmonary edema, eclampsia, and stroke). Key elements of diagnosis and specific treatment for the different presentations of hypertensive emergency will be reviewed in this article. The MedLine and PubMed databases were searched for pertinent abstracts, using the key words "hypertensive crises" and "hypertensive emergencies". Additional references were obtained from review articles. Available English language clinical trials, retrospective studies and review articles were identified, reviewed and summarized in a simple and practical way. The hypertensive crisis is a clinical situation characterized by acute elevation of blood pressure followed by clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms may be mild (headache, dizziness, tinnitus) or severe (dyspnea, chest pain, coma or death). If the patient presents with mild symptoms, but without acute specific target organ damage, diagnosis is hypertensive urgency. However, if severe signs and symptoms and acute specific target organ damage are present, then the patient is experiencing a hypertensive emergency. Some patients arrive at the emergency rooms with high blood pressure, but without any other sign or symptom. In these cases, they usually are not taking their medications correctly. Therefore, this is not a

  2. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  3. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  4. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  5. [Agricultural migration has changed face].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, D

    1991-04-01

    Movements related to colonization of new lands for cultivation or pasturing have constituted the dominant form of migration in the Sahel countries since the colonial period. the relative importance of such movements declined with the development of labor migration, but geographic mobility continues to be an integral part of Sahel life. A principal strategy during crises of agricultural production was the vast movement of population toward new lands, but such movements had little macroeconomic or macrosocial importance given the low population density and technical development of the time; the family subsistence enterprise was merely displaced. The artificial division into separate countries in the colonial era brought some control of migratory movements, and especially those across international borders, but such migrations increased again after independence and especially during the prolonged drought. Rural migration has been encouraged by development of transportation and communication facilities and by progress in controlling endemic diseases such as river blindness and sleeping sickness. Contemporary migration differs fundamentally from agricultural migration of the past. Migration has become, in addition to a survival strategy, a strategy of economic and social advancement. The change of residence is often accompanied by a restructuring of economic activities and substantial increases in the household's resources. Migrants attempt to produce enough for their own consumption, with some left for sale. They may also take on secondary employment, especially in the dry season: sale of firewood, petty trading, artisanal production. Spontaneous population movements seem to benefit the migrants, improving family and national agricultural production and contributing to a better distribution of rural population, but they have a high social and ecological cost and should receive more attention from planners and researchers in the context of the current campaign against

  6. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  7. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  8. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  9. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  10. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  11. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  12. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  13. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  14. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  15. Existence and significance of communities in the World Trade Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2012-06-01

    The World Trade Web (WTW), which models the international transactions among countries, is a fundamental tool for studying the economics of trade flows, their evolution over time, and their implications for a number of phenomena, including the propagation of economic shocks among countries. In this respect, the possible existence of communities is a key point, because it would imply that countries are organized in groups of preferential partners. In this paper, we use four approaches to analyze communities in the WTW between 1962 and 2008, based, respectively, on modularity optimization, cluster analysis, stability functions, and persistence probabilities. Overall, the four methods agree in finding no evidence of significant partitions. A few weak communities emerge from the analysis, but they do not represent secluded groups of countries, as intercommunity linkages are also strong, supporting the view of a truly globalized trading system.

  16. Existence and significance of communities in the World Trade Web.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2012-06-01

    The World Trade Web (WTW), which models the international transactions among countries, is a fundamental tool for studying the economics of trade flows, their evolution over time, and their implications for a number of phenomena, including the propagation of economic shocks among countries. In this respect, the possible existence of communities is a key point, because it would imply that countries are organized in groups of preferential partners. In this paper, we use four approaches to analyze communities in the WTW between 1962 and 2008, based, respectively, on modularity optimization, cluster analysis, stability functions, and persistence probabilities. Overall, the four methods agree in finding no evidence of significant partitions. A few weak communities emerge from the analysis, but they do not represent secluded groups of countries, as intercommunity linkages are also strong, supporting the view of a truly globalized trading system.

  17. The topology of African exports: Emerging patterns on spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-11-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analysis of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analysis of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks-together with their corresponding minimal spanning trees-allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown.

  18. Trade and the environment: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, E.

    1992-12-01

    The author presents a synopsis of several papers on the issue of international trade and the environment. The papers address the following topics: the complex interrelationships of international trade, environment, and poverty in developing countries; environmental aspects of economic relations between nations; and the debate between environmentalists and free trade advocates. The author also adds comments about the US embargo on Mexican yellow-fin tuna imports, concluding that this unilateral embargo action, while initially creating tentions, may have provided a useful impetus to working out a multinational environmental standard.

  19. Urologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies.

  20. Urologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785