Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural waste material

  1. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  3. Microbial community structure and dynamics during anaerobic digestion of various agricultural waste materials.

    PubMed

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Liebetrau, Jan; Pröter, Jürgen; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the feedstock type on the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion was investigated in laboratory-scale biogas reactors fed with different agricultural waste materials. Community composition and dynamics over 2 months of reactors' operation were investigated by amplicon sequencing and profiling terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes. Major bacterial taxa belonged to the Clostridia and Bacteroidetes, whereas the archaeal community was dominated by methanogenic archaea of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. Correlation analysis revealed that the community composition was mainly influenced by the feedstock type with the exception of a temperature shift from 38 to 55 °C which caused the most pronounced community shifts. Bacterial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of conventional substrates such as maize silage combined with cattle manure were relatively stable and similar to each other. In contrast, special waste materials such as chicken manure or Jatropha press cake were digested by very distinct and less diverse communities, indicating partial ammonia inhibition or the influence of other inhibiting factors. Anaerobic digestion of chicken manure relied on syntrophic acetate oxidation as the dominant acetate-consuming process due to the inhibition of aceticlastic methanogenesis. Jatropha as substrate led to the enrichment of fiber-degrading specialists belonging to the genera Actinomyces and Fibrobacter.

  4. Removal of basic dye from aqueous medium using a novel agricultural waste material: pumpkin seed hull.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-07-15

    In this work, pumpkin seed hull (PSH), an agricultural solid waste, is proposed as a novel material for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial concentration, agitation time and solution pH were studied in batch experiments at 30 degrees C. The equilibrium process was described well by the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The adsorption kinetics can be predicted by the pseudo-first-order and the modified pseudo-first-order models. The mechanism of adsorption was also studied. It was found that for a short time period the rate of adsorption is controlled by film diffusion. However, at longer adsorption times, pore-diffusion controls the rate of adsorption. Pore diffusion takes place in two distinct regimes, corresponding to diffusion in macro- and mesopores. The results demonstrate that the PSH is very effective in the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  5. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  6. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications. PMID:27087123

  7. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K

    2016-04-18

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  8. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  9. Agricultural waste utilization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    These papers were presented at a symposium on the management and use of agricultural waste products, including food industry wastes. Topics covered include fat and protein recovery from fish wastes, treatments for straw to improve its digestibility, using food industry wastes as animal feeds, various manure treatments and studies of its combustion properties, fermentation, methane and ethanol production, hemp waste water treatment, and heat recovery from manure combustion.

  10. Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Kunwar P; Singh, Vinod K

    2006-07-31

    An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 degrees C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 degrees C: ATFAC--10.97 mg/g, ACF--36.05 mg/g; 40 degrees C: ATFAC--16.10 mg/g, ACF--40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.

  11. Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Wastes in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Dai, X. M.; Zhang, S. H.

    Solid biomass can be converted into liquid fuel through fast pyrolysis, which is convenient to be stored and transported with potential to be used as a fossil oil substitute. In China, agricultural wastes are the main biomass materials, whose pyrolysis process has not been researched adequately compared to forestry wastes. As the representative agricultural wastes in China, peanut shell and maize stalk were involved in this paper and pine wood sawdust was considered for comparing the different pyrolysis behaviors of agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. Fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The bio-oil yieldsof peanut shell and maize stalk were obviously lower than that ofpine sawdust. Compared with pine sawdust, the char yields of peanut shell and maize stalk were higher but the heating value of uncondensable gaswas lower. This means that the bio-oil cost will be higher for agricultural wastes if taking the conventional pyrolysis technique. And the characteristic and component analysis resultsof bio-oil revealed that the quality of bio-oil from agricultural wastes, especially maize stalk, was worse than that from pine wood. Therefore, it is important to take some methods to improve the quality of bio-oilfrom agricultural wastes, which should promote the exploitation of Chinese biomass resources through fast pyrolysis in afluidized bed reactor.

  12. Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng

    1995-12-31

    A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

  13. Optimization of waste combinations during in-vessel composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2017-01-01

    In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process. The model utilizes physico-chemical parameters with different waste materials as input variables and three output variables: volatile solids, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and carbon dioxide evolution. For the selected model, the coefficient of determination reached the high value of 0.997. The complicated interaction of agricultural waste components during composting makes it a nonlinear problem so it is difficult to find the optimal waste combinations for producing quality compost. Optimization of a trained radial basis functional model has yielded the optimal proportion as 62 kg, 17 kg and 9 kg for vegetable waste, cow dung and sawdust, respectively. The results showed that the predictive radial basis functional model described for drum composting of agricultural waste was well suited for organic matter degradation and can be successfully applied.

  14. Waste tank ventilation system waste material accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This paper calculates the amount of material that accumulates in the ventilation systems of various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities and estimates the amount of material that could be released due to a rapid pressurization.

  15. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  17. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  18. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  19. Materials and Waste Management Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.

  20. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  1. Materials with Adsorptive Properties from Agricultural By-Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  2. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  3. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  4. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  5. Management considerations for organic waste use in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Westerman, P W; Bicudo, J R

    2005-01-01

    Organic wastes are utilized in agriculture mainly for improving the soil physical and chemical properties and for nutrient sources for growing crops. The major source of organic waste used in agriculture is animal manure, but small amounts of food processing and other industrial wastes (along with municipal wastes) are also applied to land. In the last 35 years, and especially in the last 10 years, there have been increasing environmental regulations affecting farms that have resulted in more animal manure treatment options, and thus affecting characteristics of residues that are subsequently applied to land. Farms are being assessed for nutrient balances, with the entire nutrient and manure management system evaluated for best management alternatives. Because of inadequate available land on the animal farm in some cases, organic wastes must be treated and/or transported to other farms, or utilized for horticultural or other uses. This paper discusses the various factors and challenges for utilizing organic wastes in agriculture.

  6. Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

  7. Food and agricultural waste: Sources of carbon for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, wastes derived from agriculture products have met with limited success in the production of biofuels. Our objective in this report is to showcase a new and meaningful concept (called “avoidance”), to measure the environmental importance of converting these waste streams into energy. Agr...

  8. Agriculture waste and rising CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there are many uncertainties concerning agriculture’s role in global environmental change including the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. A viable and stable world food supply depends on productive agricultural systems, but environmental concerns within agriculture have to...

  9. CALORIMETRY OF TRU WASTE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    C. RUDY; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Calorimetry has been used for accountability measurements of nuclear material in the US. Its high accuracy, insensitivity to matrix effects, and measurement traceability to National Institute of Standards and Technology have made it the primary accountability assay technique for plutonium (Pu) and tritium in the Department of Energy complex. A measurement of Pu isotopic composition by gamma-ray spectroscopy is required to transform the calorimeter measurement into grams Pu. The favorable calorimetry attributes allow it to be used for verification measurements, for production of secondary standards, for bias correction of other faster nondestructive (NDA) methods, or to resolve anomalous measurement results. Presented in this paper are (1) a brief overview of calorimeter advantages and disadvantages, (2) a description of projected large volume calorimeters suitable for waste measurements, and (3) a new technique, direct measurement of transuranic TRU waste alpha-decay activity through calorimetry alone.

  10. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  11. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  12. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-23

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  13. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  14. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  15. Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwee, Robert; And Others

    This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

  16. In-situ vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1997-10-14

    A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  17. In-situ vitrification of waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris; Barletta, Robert

    1997-11-14

    A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed.

  18. Energy from biological processes. Volume III. Appendixes, Part B: Agriculture, unconventional crops, and select biomass wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains the following working papers written for OTA to assist in preparation of the report, Energy from Biological Processes: The Potential of Producing Energy From Agriculture; Cropland Availability for Biomass Production; Energy From Agriculture: Unconventional Crops; Energy From Aquaculture Biomass Systems: Fresh and Brackish Water Aquatic Plants; Energy From Agriculture: Animal Wastes; and Energy From Agriculture: Agricultural Processing Wastes.

  19. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  20. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Paula; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Santos, Teresa; Palma, Patrícia; Sengo, Joana; Morais, Marie-Christine; Cunha-Queda, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Nine different samples of sewage sludges, composts and other representative organic wastes, with potential interest to be used as agricultural soil amendments, were characterized: municipal sewage sludge (SS1 and SS2), agro industrial sludge (AIS), municipal slaughterhouse sludge (MSS), mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC), agricultural wastes compost (AWC), compost produced from agricultural wastes and sewage sludge (AWSSC), pig slurry digestate (PSD) and paper mill wastes (PMW). The characterization was made considering their: (i) physicochemical parameters, (ii) total and bioavailable heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg), (iii) organic contaminants, (iv) pathogenic microorganisms and (v) stability and phytotoxicity indicators. All the sludges, municipal or other, comply with the requirements of the legislation regarding the possibility of their application to agricultural soil (with the exception of SS2, due to its pathogenic microorganisms content), with a content of organic matter and nutrients that make them interesting to be applied to soil. The composts presented, in general, some constraints regarding their application to soil, and their impairment was due to the existence of heavy metal concentrations exceeding the proposed limit of the draft European legislation. As a consequence, with the exception of AWSSC, most compost samples were not able to meet these quality criteria, which are more conservative for compost than for sewage sludge. From the results, the composting of sewage sludge is recommended as a way to turn a less stabilized waste into a material that is no longer classified as a waste and, judging by the results of this work, with lower heavy metal content than the other composted materials, and without sanitation problems.

  1. Sustainable nanomaterials using waste agricultural residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. Learning from nature, one can produce a wide variety of nanoparticles using completely safe and benign materials such as ...

  2. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1999-10-05

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  3. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1997-12-01

    A process is described for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium, and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  4. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  5. Catalytic oxidation of waste materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

  6. Microbial community succession and lignocellulose degradation during agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyan; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Hongli; Xi, Xingmei; Wang, Renyou; Huang, Danlian; Huang, Guohe; Li, Jianbing

    2007-12-01

    The changes of microbial community during agricultural waste composting were successfully studied by quinone profiles. Mesophilic bacteria indicated by MK-7 and mesophilic fungi containing Q-9 as major quinone were predominant and seemed to be important during the initial stage of composting. Actinobacteria indicated by a series of partially saturated and long-chain menaquinones were preponderant during the thermophilic period. While Actinobacteria, fungi and some bacteria, especially those microbes containing MK-7(H4) found in Gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content or Actinobacteria were found cooperate during the latter maturating period. Since lignocellulose is abundant in the agricultural wastes and its degradation is essential for the operation of composting, it's important to establish the correlation between the quinone profiles changes and lignocellulose degradation. The microbes containing Q-9 or Q-10(H2) as major quinone were found to be the most important hemicellulose and cellulose degrading microorganisms during composting. While the microorganisms containing Q-9(H2) as major quinone and many thermophilic Actinobacteria were believed to be responsible for lignin degradation during agricultural waste composting.

  7. Apparatus and method for separating recyclable material from waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Lybecker, G.W.; Sherrow, T.P.

    1993-08-03

    A method is described for separating a material stream in a material handling system, the method comprising the steps of: feeding the material stream into a screw conveyor; and separating the material stream into a crushable material stream and uncrushable waste material stream while moving with respect to the screw conveyor, the separating step further including the steps of: rotating the screw conveyor about a longitudinal axis to feed the material stream along the screw conveyor from an inlet in a predetermined longitudinally extending conveying direction; passing material small enough to fit through slot means defined by a peripheral surface of the screw conveyor and a feeder plate extending longitudinally along the screw conveyor to form the recyclable material stream, while uncrushable waste material conveys along the slot means in the predetermined longitudinally extending conveying direction; obstructing passage of the recyclable material by retractable cone means supported radially outwardly from at least a portion of the screw conveyor adjacent a longitudinal end downstream from said inlet in the predetermined longitudinally extending conveying direction; and retracting the retractable cone means in response to engagement with uncrushable waste material to allow longitudinal passage of the uncrushable waste material to form the uncrushable waste material stream.

  8. Regulatory Exclusions and Alternative Standards for the Recycling of Materials, Solid Wastes and Hazardous Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Determining the Level of Regulation for Hazardous Waste Recycling, Recycled Materials that are not Subject to RCRA Hazardous Waste Regulation, Materials Subject to Alternative Regulatory Controls, Materials Subject to Full Hazardous Waste Regulations.

  9. Waste ashes for use in agricultural production: I. Liming effect, contents of plant nutrients and chemical characteristics of some metals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Shen; Yamasaki, S; Nanzyo, M

    2002-02-04

    The chemical characteristics of 89 municipal waste ashes, including food scrap ash (FSA), animal waste ash (AWA), horticulture waste ash (HWA), sewage sludge ash (SSA) and incinerator bottom ash (IBA), from various locations in Japan were examined with the aim of evaluating their suitability for use in agriculture. Although the waste ashes came from different sources and consisted of various materials, the gross elemental composition was similar. Acid neutralization capacity (liming effect) for the waste ashes was equivalent to 10-30% of CaO and followed the sequence SSA > IBA > AWA > FSA > HWA. Average P concentrations for the five types of waste ashes ranged from 10 to 29 g kg(-1) and average K concentrations ranged from 14 to 63 g kg(-1), respectively. Metal contents in the waste ashes were compared with levels in Japanese agricultural soils. K in the waste ashes was 1.3-6 times higher and Ca was 3-12 times higher; contents of the other metals in FSA, AWA and HWA were generally less than five times higher, but Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb in SSA or IBA were approximately 10-200 times higher than those in soils. Moreover, the ceiling amounts of waste ashes that may be applied to main Japanese agricultural soils were calculated by using soil contamination standards for Cu. Water solubility of P and metals in the waste ashes were also examined.

  10. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    McLaughlin, David F.; Dighe, Shyam V.; Gass, William R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  11. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Dighe, S.V.; Gass, W.R.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles. 4 figs.

  12. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  13. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  14. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  15. Adsorption of direct dye onto activated carbon prepared from areca nut pod--an agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Gopalswami, P; Sivakumar, N; Ponnuswamy, S; Venkateswaren, V; Kavitha, G

    2010-10-01

    Activated carbons are made from various agricultural wastes by physical and chemical activation. The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and also provides an excellent method for the solid waste disposal thereby reduce pollution. Areca nut pod, which is an agricultural waste, has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon (AAC) by four different methods. The adsorption of Direct blue dye used in textile industry on the porous areca nut pod activated carbon was investigated. The activated carbon AAC has an average surface area of 502 m2/g. CAC, the commercial reference was mainly micro porous with a surface area of 1026 m2/g .The study investigated the removal of direct dye from simulated water. The effects of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. The results indicate that AAC could be employed as low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of acid dyes.

  16. Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

    2012-05-01

    Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

  17. Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

    2012-05-01

    Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO(3). Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4h at room temperature (25°C) and 60°C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35±5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

  18. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Corrales, L. Rene; Ness, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B. Peter; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Song, Jakyoung; Park, Byeongwon; Jiang, Weilin; Begg, Bruce D.; Birtcher, R. B.; Chen, X.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2000-10-02

    Radiation effects from the decay of radionuclides may impact the long-term performance and stability of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. In an effort to address these concerns, the objective of this project was the development of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, particularly on solid-state radiation effects and their influence on aqueous dissolution kinetics. This study has employed experimental, theoretical and computer simulation methods to obtain new results and insights into radiation damage processes and to initiate the development of predictive models. Consequently, the research that has been performed under this project has significant implications for the High-Level Waste and Nuclear Materials focus areas within the current DOE/EM mission. In the High-Level Waste (HLW) focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. Ultimately, this research could result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  19. Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential.

    PubMed

    Pathma, Jayakumar; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Vermicomposting is a non-thermophilic, boioxidative process that involves earthworms and associated microbes. This biological organic waste decomposition process yields the biofertilizer namely the vermicompost. Vermicompost is a finely divided, peat like material with high porosity, good aeration, drainage, water holding capacity, microbial activity, excellent nutrient status and buffering capacity thereby resulting the required physiochemical characters congenial for soil fertility and plant growth. Vermicompost enhances soil biodiversity by promoting the beneficial microbes which inturn enhances plant growth directly by production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes and indirectly by controlling plant pathogens, nematodes and other pests, thereby enhancing plant health and minimizing the yield loss. Due to its innate biological, biochemical and physiochemical properties, vermicompost may be used to promote sustainable agriculture and also for the safe management of agricultural, industrial, domestic and hospital wastes which may otherwise pose serious threat to life and environment.

  20. Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.E.; Griess, J.C.

    1981-07-01

    The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction.

  1. Agricultural By-Products Turned into Important Materials with Adsorptive Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  2. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  3. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  4. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  5. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  6. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  7. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  8. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  9. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  10. Co-processing of agriculture and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Biomass and bio-processed waste are potential candidates for co-liquefaction with coal. Specific materials used here include sawdust and poultry manure. Liquefaction experiments were run on each of these materials, separately and with coal, using tetralin as solvent at 350{degrees}C and 1000 psi(cold) hydrogen pressure for 1h. Total conversion was monitored, as well as conversion to asphaltenes, oils and gases. All the biomass samples are converted to oils and gases under the reaction conditions. Poultry manure seems to convert coal more completely, and to produce more oils and gases, than conventional liquefaction.

  11. Anode materials for electrochemical waste destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, Peter M.; Clarke, Clayton

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation (ECO) offers promise as a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure method for safe destruction of hazardous organic chemical wastes in water. Anode materials tend to suffer corrosion in the intensely oxidizing environment of the ECO cell. There is a need for cheaper, more resistant materials. In this experiment, a system is described for testing anode materials, with examples of several common anodes such as stainless steel, graphite, and platinized titanium. The ECO system is simple and safe to operate and the experiment can easily be expanded in scope to study the effects of different solutions, temperatures, and organic materials.

  12. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  13. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  14. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  15. A pyrolysis study for the thermal and kinetic characteristics of an agricultural waste with two different plastic wastes.

    PubMed

    Çepelioğullar, Özge; Pütün, Ayşe E

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermochemical conversion of plastic wastes (PET and PVC) together with an agricultural waste (hazelnut shell) was investigated. In order to determine the thermal and kinetic behaviours, pyrolysis experiments were carried out from room temperature to 800 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C min(-1) in the presence of a N2 atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer. With the obtained thermogravimetric data, an appropriate temperature was specified for the pyrolysis of biomass-plastic wastes in a fixed-bed reactor. At the second step, pyrolysis experiments were carried out at the same conditions with the thermogravimetric analyzer, except the final temperature which was up to 500 °C in this case. After pyrolysis experiments, pyrolysis yields were calculated and characterization studies for bio-oil were investigated. Experimental results showed that co-pyrolysis has an important role in the determination of the pyrolysis mechanism and the process conditions while designing/implementing a thermochemical conversion method where biomass-plastic materials were preferred as raw materials.

  16. Studies on adsorption of phenol from wastewater by agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Girish, C R; Ramachandramurty, V

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, preliminary investigation of various agricultural wastes-Rice mill residue (RM), Wheat mill reside (WM), Dall mill residue (DM) and the Banana peels (BM) was carried out to study their ability to be used as adsorbents for phenol-removal from wastewater. This study reports the feasibility of employing dal mill residue waste (DM) as an adsorbent for removing phenol from wastewater. The performance of DM was compared with the commercially available activated carbon (CAC). Batch mode experiments were conducted with activated DM to study the effects of initial concentration of phenol, pH and the temperature of aqueous solution on adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models and the isotherm data fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm with monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.189 mg/g. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second- order equation. The experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of phenol. Finally, the DM was found to be a promising adsorbent for phenol adsorption as compared to activated carbon.

  17. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field.

  18. Instructional Materials in Spanish for Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.

    A federally funded project to develop Spanish for Agricultural Purposes, a set of instructional materials for agricultural specialists planning to work in Latin America, is reported. The materials are intended for use by individuals with at least a year's college-level study of Spanish. They include: a series of authentic readings, each with an…

  19. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  20. Production of a raw material for energy production in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstroem, G.

    1980-04-01

    The total amount of energy in products produced by Swedish agriculture was estimated to 80 TWH: 30 TWh for cereals, 15 TWh for grass and leguminosae, and 35 TWh for straw and other agricultural wastes. Of this production a large part will be used as food even in the future. New plants that would produce more energy than the ones traditionally grown in Sweden are discussed. Also other types of energy from agriculture are discussed such as methane from manure, methanol from gasification processes, and ethanol from fermentative processes. Costs were estimated from different alternatives.

  1. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually.

  2. Production and characterization of violacein by locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum grown in agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Wan Azlina; Yusof, Nur Zulaikha; Nordin, Nordiana; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Rezali, Mohd Fazlin

    2012-07-01

    The present work highlighted the production of violacein by the locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum (GenBank accession no. HM132057) in various agricultural waste materials (sugarcane bagasse, solid pineapple waste, molasses, brown sugar), as an alternative to the conventional rich medium. The highest yield for pigment production (0.82 g L⁻¹) was obtained using free cells when grown in 3 g of sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 10% (v/v) of L-tryptophan. A much lower yield (0.15 g L⁻¹) was obtained when the cells were grown either in rich medium (nutrient broth) or immobilized onto sugarcane bagasse. Violacein showed similar chemical properties as other natural pigments based on the UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry analysis. The pigment is highly soluble in acetone and methanol, insoluble in water or non-polar organic solvents, and showed good stability between pH 5-9, 25-100 °C, in the presence of light metal ions and oxidant such as H₂O₂. However, violacein would be slowly degraded upon exposure to light. This is the first report on the use of cheap and easily available agricultural wastes as growth medium for violacein-producing C. violaceum.

  3. Review, mapping and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifania; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Scarascia, Giacomo; Picuno, Pietro; Guarde, Dorleta; Dejean, Cyril

    2013-12-01

    A review of agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe is presented. A detailed geographical mapping of the agricultural plastic use and waste generation in Europe was conducted focusing on areas of high concentration of agricultural plastics. Quantitative data and analysis of the agricultural plastic waste generation by category, geographical distribution and compositional range, and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste per use and the temporal distribution of the waste generation are presented. Data were collected and cross-checked from a variety of sources, including European, national and regional services and organizations, local agronomists, retailers and farmers, importers and converters. Missing data were estimated indirectly based on the recorded cultivated areas and the characteristics of the agricultural plastics commonly used in the particular regions. The temporal distribution, the composition and physical characteristics of the agricultural plastic waste streams were mapped by category and by application. This study represents the first systematic effort to map and analyse agricultural plastic waste generation and consolidation in Europe.

  4. Device and method for pyrolyzing waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thomanetz, E.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is a device for pyrolyzing waste materials comprising a low-temperature carbonizing reactor. The reactor includes a longitudinally extending tubular vessel adapted to be loaded with waste materials to be pyrolyzed and a flue gas duct which surrounds a shell of the carbonizing reactor, which defines an annular space which concentrically surrounds the tubular vessel, and which is adapted to have hot flue gases passed there-through for the purpose of heating the shell of the reactor. The flue gas duct contains a baffle for maintaining turbulent flow about the reactor and for uniformly distributing the flue gases about the periphery of the tubular vessel. The baffle comprises a plurality of heat conducting elements which are disposed in planes which contain the longitudinal axis of the annular space and a plurality being disposed in planes extending at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the annular space.

  5. Applications of Nanoporous Materials in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanoporous materials possess organized pore distributions and increased surface areas. Advances in the systematic design of nanoporous materials enable incorporation of functionality for better sensitivity in detection methods, increased capacity of sorbents, and improved selectivity and yield in ca...

  6. Assessment of benefits and risks of landfill materials for agriculture in Eritrea.

    PubMed

    Tesfai, Mehreteab; Dresher, Silke

    2009-02-01

    In Eritrea, farmers have applied landfill materials as fertiliser to their fields for several decades. A sampling scheme in the landfill site of Asmara and selected farmers' fields was carried out to investigate the benefits and risks of using landfill materials for agriculture. Soil samples were collected from farmers' fields (7 samples) and from the Asmara landfill site (12 samples). The samples were analysed for major plant nutrients, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg and Zn), and some physical properties. Nearly 65% (by weight) of the total landfill material mined from the landfill site constituted waste fractions of various substances. The remaining 35% was composed of soil-like materials, which are apparently used to fertilize agricultural soils. The average organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus contents of soils with landfill material measured 2.4%, 0.13%, and 45 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, soils without landfill material consisted of 1.1 % organic matter, 0.04% total N, and <40 mg kg(-1) of available P. Except for Hg, all the other heavy metals in the landfill site showed values above the permissible limits. In particular, the average concentrations of Cu (913 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (598 mg kg(-1)) in the landfill site were nine-fold and four-fold greater than the allowable limits, respectively. It is, therefore, suggested that composting fresh organic wastes should be considered and tested as an alternative material for fertilising agricultural soils and to maintain the quality of the environment.

  7. Mechanical degradation temperature of waste storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, M.C.; Meyer, M.L.

    1993-05-13

    Heat loading analysis of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) waste storage configurations show the containers may exceed 90{degrees}C without any radioactive decay heat contribution. Contamination containment is primarily controlled in TRU waste packaging by using multiple bag layers of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Since literature values indicate that these thermoplastic materials can begin mechanical degradation at 66{degrees}C, there was concern that the containment layers could be breached by heating. To better define the mechanical degradation temperature limits for the materials, a series of heating tests were conducted over a fifteen and thirty minute time interval. Samples of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bag, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) container, PVC bag and sealing tape were heated in a convection oven to temperatures ranging from 90 to 185{degrees}C. The following temperature limits are recommended for each of the tested materials: (1) low-density polyethylene -- 110{degrees}C; (2) polyvinyl chloride -- 130{degrees}C; (3) high-density polyethylene -- 140{degrees}C; (4) sealing tape -- 140{degrees}C. Testing with LDPE and PVC at temperatures ranging from 110 to 130{degrees}C for 60 and 120 minutes also showed no observable differences between the samples exposed at 15 and 30 minute intervals. Although these observed temperature limits differ from the literature values, the trend of HDPE having a higher temperature than LDPE is consistent with the reference literature. Experimental observations indicate that the HDPE softens at elevated temperatures, but will retain its shape upon cooling. In SWDF storage practices, this might indicate some distortion of the waste container, but catastrophic failure of the liner due to elevated temperatures (<185{degrees}C) is not anticipated.

  8. Fungal community dynamics and driving factors during agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Yuxin; Xiao, Hua; An, Wenhao; Xi, Hui; Xue, Zhiyong; Huang, Hongli; Chen, Xiaoyang; Shen, Alin

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the driving factors behind fungal community dynamics during agricultural waste composting. Fungal community abundance and structure were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis combined with DNA sequencing. The effects of physico-chemical parameters on fungal community abundance and structure were evaluated by least significant difference tests and redundancy analysis. The results showed that Cladosporium bruhnei, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Scytalidium thermophilum, Tilletiopsis penniseti, and Coprinopsis altramentaria were prominent during the composting process. The greatest variation in the distribution of fungal community structure was statistically explained by pile temperature and total organic carbon (TOC) (P < 0.05). A significant amount of the variation (74.6 %) was explained by these two parameters alone. Fungal community abundance was found to be significantly related to pH, while pH was significantly influenced by pile temperature and nitrate levels (P < 0.05), and these parameters were found to be the most likely to influence or be influenced by the fungal community during composting.

  9. Core IV Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul; And Others

    This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…

  10. Agricultural Business and Management Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains 5 teaching units for 44 agricultural business and management cluster problem areas. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. The five units are as follows: (1) agribusiness operation and…

  11. Agricultural Resources Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains four units with relevant problem areas and is intended as a source unit for agricultural education. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the…

  12. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  13. An Application of RFID in Monitoring Agricultural Material Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianhui; Li, Peipei; Gao, Wanlin; Wang, Dezhong; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yilong

    With the development of modern agriculture, more and more agricultural material products are used in it. While how to keep these things safe is a big problem at present, which needs to be paid more attention. This article develops an agricultural material products monitor system based on RFID which gives alarm as soon as possible if there is anything unmoral. Every warehouse exit is equipped with a RFID reader, while each agricultural material product has a tag on them. When passing though, the reader identifies the tag's information and transfer it to the PC, The PC inquiries the database storing all tags' information, and tells which one is not taken out legally by alarming aloud.

  14. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori

    2014-11-01

    Develop advanced nuclear fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion.

  15. Enhanced materials from nature: nanocellulose from citrus waste.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Mayra; Lopes da Silva, Lucimara; Durán, Nelson; Tasic, Ljubica

    2015-04-03

    Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI) from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  16. Benefits for agriculture and the environment from urban waste.

    PubMed

    Sortino, Orazio; Montoneri, Enzo; Patanè, Cristina; Rosato, Roberta; Tabasso, Silvia; Ginepro, Marco

    2014-07-15

    Soluble bio-based substances (SBO) that have been isolated from urban biowaste have recently been reported to enhance plant leaf chlorophyll content and growth. The same SBO have also been shown to enhance the photochemical degradation of organic pollutants in industrial effluent. These findings suggest that SBO may promote either C fixation or mineralization, according to operating conditions. The present work aims to investigate SBO performance, as a function of source material. Thus, three materials have been sampled from a municipal waste treatment plant: (i) the digestate of the anaerobic fermentation of a humid organic fraction, (ii) a whole vegetable compost made from gardening residues and (iii) compost made from a mixture of digestate, gardening residues and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed at pH13 and 60°C to yield SBO that display different chemical compositions. These products were applied to soil at 30, 145 and 500 kg ha(-1) doses for tomato cultivation. Soil and plant leaf chemical composition, plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content and CO2 exchange rate as well as fruit quality and production rate were measured. Although it did not affect the soil's chemical composition, SBO were found to significantly increase plant photosynthetic activity, growth and productivity up to the maximum value achieved at 145 kg ha(-1). The effects were analyzed as a function of SBO chemical composition and applied dose. The results of this work, compared with those of previous works, indicate that urban biowaste, if properly exploited, may furnish conjugate economic and environmental benefits, within a friendly sustainable ecosystem.

  17. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  18. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  19. Biofuels and bioenergy production from municipal solid waste commingled with agriculturally-derived biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA in partnership with Salinas Valley Solid Waste Authority (SVSWA) and CR3, a technology holding company from Reno, NV, has introduced a biorefinery concept whereby agriculturally- derived biomass is commingled with municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce bioenergy. This team, which originally...

  20. Livestock Judging. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on livestock judging contains materials based on five competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The following competencies are covered: general preparation for livestock judging, selection, and evaluation; judging, selection, and evaluation of…

  1. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  2. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  3. Use of material dielectric properties for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  4. Use of material dielectric properties in agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of dielectric properties of materials for applications in agriculture are reviewed, and research findings on use of dielectric heating of materials and on sensing of product moisture content and other quality factors are discussed. Dielectric heating applications, include treatment of seed...

  5. Dielectric properties of agricultural materials and their application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is prepared as a comprehensive source of information on dielectric properties of agricultural materials for scientific researchers and engineers involved in practical application of radio-frequency and microwave energy for potential problem solutions. Dielectric properties of materials det...

  6. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: past, present and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M

    2005-12-01

    Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.

  7. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: past, present and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo; Bao, Xuemei; Römheld, V; Roelcke, M

    2005-09-01

    Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N, 28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources. In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production. This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.

  8. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  9. Preparation of Potassium-Posphate-embedded Amorphous Silicate Material from Rice Straw Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Permatasari, N.; Sucahya, T. N.; Purwanti, S. T.; Munawaroh, H. S. H.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hasanah, L.

    2017-03-01

    Rice straw is one of the agricultural wastes that increased every year. Since rice straw ash contains 74.6% of silica, this material is potentially used to produce silica. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility process for generating potassium-phosphate-embedded amorphous silica material. To extract silica from rice straw waste, we used potassium hydroxide solution followed by an acid precipitation treatment. Based on the experimental results, the proposed method is potential to be used as an alternative technique for getting silica material. In addition, the method has a positive impact on the environment because this is potential for reducing the amount of rice straw waste, whereas at the same time this provides an added value to the rice straw waste itself.

  10. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  11. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  12. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  13. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P.; Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E.; Divine, J.R.; Foster, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  14. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) WasteWise Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA??s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA??s sustainable materials management efforts, which promote the use and reuse of materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. All U.S. businesses, governments and nonprofit organizations can join WasteWise as a partner, endorser or both. Current participants range from small local governments and nonprofit organizations to large multinational corporations. Partners demonstrate how they reduce waste, practice environmental stewardship and incorporate sustainable materials management into their waste-handling processes. Endorsers promote enrollment in WasteWise as part of a comprehensive approach to help their stakeholders realize the economic benefits to reducing waste. WasteWise helps organizations reduce their impact on global climate change through waste reduction. Every stage of a product's life cycle??extraction, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal??indirectly or directly contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and affects the global climate. WasteWise is part of EPA's larger SMM program (https://www.epa.gov/smm). Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources

  15. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

  16. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  17. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  18. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  19. Reclamation technology development for western Arkansas coal refuse waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Coal mining has been an important industry in the Arkansas River Valley Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) of western Arkansas for more than 100 yr., most of it with little regard for environmental concerns. Almost 3,640 ha. of land affected by surface coal mines cover the seven-county area, with less than 1,200 ha. currently in various stages of operation or reclamation. Since only the active mining sites must now be reclaimed by law, the remaining 2,440 ha. of abandoned land remains at the mercy of natural forces. Little topsoil exists on these sites and the coal wastes are generally acidic with a pH in the 4.0-5.5 range. Revegetation attempts under these conditions generally require continued maintenance and retreatment until an acceptable cover is achieved. If and when an acceptable vegetative cover is established, the cost frequently approaches $7,400/ha. ($3,000/acre). In an effort to resolve these issues and provide some direction for stabilizing coal waste lands, the US Department of Agriculture through its Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center at Boonville, Arkansas, received a Congressional Pass through administered by the US Bureau of Mines, to support a 5-yr. revegetation study on the coal mine spoils of western Arkansas. This paper reports the results through the spring of 1994 on that portion of the study dealing with the establishment of blackberries as a cash crop on coal mine spoils.

  20. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  1. Dairy Housing and Equipment. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colliver, Jewell B.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on dairy housing and equipment contains four lessons based upon competencies needed to be a dairy farmer. The lessons in this unit cover the maintenance of milking systems, the provision of adequate and economical housing for dairy animals, and the…

  2. Tobacco Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mike; And Others

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains forty-one lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in tobacco production. The lessons in this unit cover such topics as the importance of tobacco, selecting land for tobacco, soil analysis and treatment, selecting tobacco…

  3. Feeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Boyd C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on feeding livestock contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The lessons in this unit cover the importance of good feeding practices, the identification of nutritional needs and the composition of feeds for…

  4. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  5. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  6. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  7. Organic textile waste as a resource for sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo G

    2017-03-01

    New vegetation in barren areas offers possibilities for sequestering carbon in the soil. Arid and semi-arid areas (ASAs) are candidates for new vegetation. The possibility of agriculture in ASAs is reviewed, revealing the potential for cultivation by covering the surface with a layer of organic fibres. This layer collects more water from humidity in the air than does the uncovered mineral surface, and creates a humid environment that promotes microbial life. One possibility is to use large amounts of organic fibres for soil enhancement in ASAs. In the context of the European Commission Waste Framework Directive, the possibility of using textile waste from Sweden is explored. The costs for using Swedish textile waste are high, but possible gains are the sale of agricultural products and increased land prices as well as environmental mitigation. The findings suggest that field research on such agriculture in ASAs should start as soon as possible.

  8. Synergistic effect of Trichoderma reesei cellulases on agricultural tea waste for adsorption of heavy metal Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Wu, Xiaomin; Yang, Xuemei; Xie, Youping; Lu, Yinghua; Chen, Cuixue

    2013-10-01

    This is the first attempt to study the synergistic effect between Trichoderma reesei cellulases and the abundant agricultural tea waste in absorption of heavy metal Cr(VI) as well as its kinetic model development. The properties of tea waste were first analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination with EDX for comparison between its original (UN-TW) and cellulase-hydrolyzed (TRCEL-TW) conditions. Then, an advanced kinetic model in the form of -d[Cr(VI)]/dt = A[H+](n)e(-Ea/RT) [Cr(VI)](m)(0), which can successfully predict the time-dependent Cr(VI) concentration of various pHs, initial Cr(VI) concentrations and temperatures was developed. The demonstrated synergistic effects of T. reesei cellulases on tea waste suggested that cellulosic material provides more accessibility area for absorption of heavy metal. This study also provides an alternative approach to remove toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and extend the utilization of agricultural tea waste.

  9. Hydrometallurgical Treatment for Mixed Waste Battery Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. W.; Xi, X. L.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Huang, Z. Q.; Chen, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrometallurgical experiments are generally required to assess the appropriate treatment process before the establishment of the industrial recovery process for waste battery materials. The effects of acid systems and oxidants in metal leaching were studied. The comprehensive leaching effects of the citric acid were superior to the sulfuric acid. The potassium permanganate inhibits the dissolution of metals. Thermodynamic calculations showed that metals precipitate more easily in sulfuric acid system than in citric acid system. The Fe precipitation efficiency in sulfuric acid system was 90% at pH 3.5, but with considerable losses of Co (30%) and Ni (40%). The proper pH and organic/aqueous (O/A) ratio for Fe and Zn removal with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid extraction were 2 and 0.5, respectively; while for the removal of Cu and Mn, the best pH and O/A ratio were 3 and 0.75, respectively. Crude manganese carbonate and a cobalt-nickel enriched liquid were obtained by selective precipitation in raffinate using an ammonium bicarbonate solution. In citric acid systems, the precipitation efficiency of Co, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were less than 20% at pH 7. The proper pH and O/A ratio for the separation of the metals in two groups (Ni/Co/Cu and Mn/Fe/Zn) were 1.5 and 2. The cobalt-nickel-copper enriched liquid was finally obtained.

  10. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    SciTech Connect

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a 'very good quality' for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  11. CURRICULUM MATERIALS, DESCRIPTION AND PRICE LIST OF MATERIALS DEVELOPED BY THE OHIO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS SERVICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    PAMPHLETS, SLIDES, TAPES, MANUALS, AND AN EXAMINATION ARE INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR USE BY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND ADULT FARMER PROGRAMS. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS, CURRICULUM SPECIALISTS, TECHNICAL SPECIALISTS, AND AUDIOVISUAL PERSONNEL AND ARE…

  12. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  13. Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.; Shaw, P.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100{degrees}C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  15. Report: Potential environmental impact of exempt site materials - a case study of bituminous road planings and waste soils.

    PubMed

    Bark, Marjorie; Bland, Michael; Grimes, Sue

    2009-09-01

    The use of waste materials for ecological benefit, agricultural improvement or as part of construction works are often exempt from waste management control in order to maximize the reuse of material that would otherwise be disposed of to landfill. It is important, however, to determine whether there is potential for such waste to cause environmental harm in the context of the basis for granting exemptions under the relevant framework objective to ensure that waste is recovered or disposed of without risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals. The potential for environmental harm was investigated by leaching studies on two wastes commonly found at exempt sites: bituminous road planings and waste soils. For bituminous road planings, the organic components of the waste were identified by their solubility in organic solvents but these components would have low environmental impact in terms of bioavailability. Leaching studies of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc, into the environment, under specific conditions and particularly those modelling acid rain and landfill leachate conditions showed that, except for copper, the amounts leached fell within Waste Acceptance Criteria compliance limits for defining waste as inert waste. The fact that the amount of copper leached was greater than the Waste Acceptance Criteria level suggests that either additional testing of wastes regarded as exempt should be carried out to ensure that they are in analytical compliance or that legislation should allow for the potential benefits of reuse to supersede deviations from analytical compliance.

  16. Agricultural soils spiked with copper mine wastes and copper concentrate: implications for copper bioavailability and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sánchez, Pablo; de la Fuente, Luz María; Camus, Isabel; Bustamante, Elena; Silva, Yasna; Urrestarazu, Paola; Torres, Juan C; Rodríguez, Patricio H

    2006-03-01

    A better understanding of exposure to and effects of copper-rich pollutants in soils is required for accurate environmental risk assessment of copper. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study copper bioavailability and bioaccumulation in agricultural soils spiked with different types of copper-rich mine solid wastes (copper ore, tailing sand, smelter dust, and smelter slag) and copper concentrate. A copper salt (copper sulfate, CuSO4) that frequently is used to assess soil copper bioavailability and phytotoxicity also was included for comparison. Results showed that smelter dust, tailing sand, and CuSO4 are more likely to be bioavailable and, thus, toxic to plants compared with smelter slag, concentrate, and ore at equivalent total copper concentrations. Differences may be explained by intrinsic differences in copper solubilization from the source materials, but also by their capability to decrease soil pH (confounding effect). The copper toxicity and bioaccumulation in plants also varied according to soil physicochemical characteristics (e.g., pH and total organic carbon) and the available levels of plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Chemistry/mineralogy of mine materials, soil/pore-water chemistry, and plant physiological status thus should be integrated for building adequate models to predict phytotoxicity and environmental risk of copper.

  17. Macro material flow modeling for analyzing solid waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Pennock, K.A.; Shaver, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability. This capability is intended to provide part of the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as evaluating the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. The MMFM capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. This model is a macro-level simulation of the flows of the various materials through the solid waste management system, and also through the associated materials production and use system. Inclusion of materials production and use within the modeling context allows a systems approach to be used, providing a much more complete understanding of the origins of the solid waste materials and also of possible options for materials recovery and reuse than if a more traditional ``end-of-pipe`` view of solid waste is adopted. The MMFM is expected to be useful in evaluating longer-term, broader-ranging solid waste impacts than are traditionally evaluated by decision-makers involved in implementing solutions to local or regional solid waste management problems. This paper discusses the types of questions of interest in evaluating long-term, broad-range impacts from solid waste. It then identifies the basic needs for predictive modeling capabilities like the MMFM, and provides a basic description of the conceptual framework for the model and the associated data. Status of the MMFM implementation is also discussed.

  18. Macro material flow modeling for analyzing solid waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Pennock, K.A.; Shaver, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability. This capability is intended to provide part of the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as evaluating the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. The MMFM capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. This model is a macro-level simulation of the flows of the various materials through the solid waste management system, and also through the associated materials production and use system. Inclusion of materials production and use within the modeling context allows a systems approach to be used, providing a much more complete understanding of the origins of the solid waste materials and also of possible options for materials recovery and reuse than if a more traditional end-of-pipe'' view of solid waste is adopted. The MMFM is expected to be useful in evaluating longer-term, broader-ranging solid waste impacts than are traditionally evaluated by decision-makers involved in implementing solutions to local or regional solid waste management problems. This paper discusses the types of questions of interest in evaluating long-term, broad-range impacts from solid waste. It then identifies the basic needs for predictive modeling capabilities like the MMFM, and provides a basic description of the conceptual framework for the model and the associated data. Status of the MMFM implementation is also discussed.

  19. Managing material transfer and nutrient flow in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Nord, E A; Lanyon, L E

    2003-01-01

    Place-based resource management, such as watershed or ecosystem management, is being promoted to replace the media-focused approach for achieving water quality protection. We monitored the agricultural area of a 740-ha watershed to determine the nature and scale of farm material transfers, N and P balances, and farmer decisions that influenced them. Using field data and farmer interviews we found that 3 of 15 farms, emphasizing hog, dairy, or cash crops with poultry production, accounted for more than 80% of the inputs and outputs of N and P for the 362-ha agricultural area (332 ha of managed cropland and animal facilities). Feed for hogs (38% each of total N and P) and manure applied to fields as part of the cash crop and poultry operation (28 and 38% of total N and P, respectively) were the dominant inputs. No crops grown in the watershed were fed to animals in the watershed and more manure nutrients were applied from animals outside than from those in the watershed. A strategic decision by the hog farmer to begin marketing finished hogs changed the material transfers and nutrient balances more than tactical decisions by other farmers in allocating manure to cropland. Since the components of agricultural production were not all interconnected, the fundamental assumption of place-based management programs is not well-suited to this situation. Alternative approaches to managing the effect of agriculture on water quality should consider the organization of agricultural production and the role of strategic decisions in controlling farm nutrient balances.

  20. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes.

    PubMed

    Batayneh, Malek; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures.

  1. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Batayneh, Malek Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-07-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures.

  2. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Waste Heat Regeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    producing such technologies as solar (photovoltaic and solar heating ), geothermal , biomass, and wind energy production. Unfortunately, these still...R.; Carr, D.W.G.; Jones, L. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Appications. in 2011 Thermoelectrics...High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Waste Heat Regeneration by Horacio Nochetto, Patrick Taylor, and Jay R. Maddux ARL-TR-6311

  3. Co-processing of agricultural plastic waste and switchgrass via tail gas reactive pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of agricultural plastic waste in the form of polyethylene hay bale covers (PE) (4-37%) and switchgrass were investigated using the US Department of Agriculture’s tail gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) at different temperatures (400-570 deg C). TGRP of switchgrass and plastic mixtures significan...

  4. Determination of caloric values of agricultural crops and crop waste by Adiabatic Bomb Calorimetry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorific values of agricultural crops and their waste were measured by adiabatic bomb calorimetry. Sustainable farming techniques require that all potential sources of revenue be utilized. A wide variety of biomass is beginning to be used as alternative fuels all over the world. The energy potentia...

  5. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  6. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Material Descriptions and Data Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a summary of the materials included in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The page includes a list of materials, a description of the material as defined in the primary data source, and citations for primary data sources.

  7. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-06

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

  8. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  9. Characterization of materials for waste-canister compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.E.; Mack, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    Sample materials of 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister materials were procured for compatibility tests. These materials were characterized before being placed in test, and the results are the main topic of this report. A test capsule was designed for the tests in which disks of a single waste form were contacted with duplicate samples of canister materials. The capsules are undergoing short-term tests at 800/sup 0/C and long-term tests at 100 and 300/sup 0/C.

  10. Sustainable conversion of agriculture wastes into activated carbons: energy balance and arsenic removal from water.

    PubMed

    Dieme, M M; Villot, A; Gerente, C; Andres, Y; Diop, S N; Diawara, C K

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the production of activated carbons (AC) from Senegal agricultural wastes such as cashew shells, millet stalks and rice husks and to implement them in adsorption processes devoted to arsenic (V) removal. AC were produced by a direct physical activation with water steam without other chemicals. This production of AC has also led to co-products (gas and bio-oil) which have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and thermodynamical properties for energy recovery. Considering the arsenic adsorption results and the energy balance for the three studied biomasses, the first results have shown that the millet stalks seem to be more interesting for arsenate removal from natural water and an energy recovery with a GEEelec of 18.9%. Cashew shells, which have shown the best energy recovery (34.3%), are not suitable for arsenate removal. This global approach is original and contributes to a recycling of biowastes with a joint recovery of energy and material.

  11. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  12. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  13. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials.

    PubMed

    Rodella, N; Pasquali, M; Zacco, A; Bilo, F; Borgese, L; Bontempi, N; Tomasoni, G; Depero, L E; Bontempi, E

    2016-09-01

    A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu). This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina) as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  14. Steam drying of industrial and agricultural products and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, G.B.; Galland, K.V.; Svensson, C.

    1983-03-01

    A new drying technique has been developed by MoDo-Chemetics and Chalmers of Technology in Sweden. Steam drying utilizes the drying capacity of superheated steam to remove moisture from porous material such as pulp or hog fuel. The first commercial dryer based on this technique was installed at Rockhammar Bruk in Sweden, where wood pulp is dried from 60% to 12% moisture content. Two commercial-size units are presently under construction, one for drying of hog fuel from 50% to 35% moisture content for on-the-grate firing in the power boiler and one for drying of sugar-beet pulp from 80% to 10% moisture content. This new technique can be applied in the drying of materials used in the production of waterboard, fiberboard, and hardboard, drying of peat, distillers grain residue, orange and pineapple pulp, grape and apple pomace, and cotton linters, for various end uses including cattlefeed and the use of residues as combustible material in small boilers. The energy-recovery aspects of the steam dryer are very important. Energy recovery in a useful form of more than 85% of the input to the dryer is feasible. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  15. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  16. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  17. A steady state model of agricultural waste pyrolysis: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Trninić, M; Jovović, A; Stojiljković, D

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural waste is one of the main renewable energy resources available, especially in an agricultural country such as Serbia. Pyrolysis has already been considered as an attractive alternative for disposal of agricultural waste, since the technique can convert this special biomass resource into granular charcoal, non-condensable gases and pyrolysis oils, which could furnish profitable energy and chemical products owing to their high calorific value. In this regard, the development of thermochemical processes requires a good understanding of pyrolysis mechanisms. Experimental and some literature data on the pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and several other agricultural residues under inert atmosphere were structured and analysed in order to obtain conversion behaviour patterns of agricultural residues during pyrolysis within the temperature range from 300 °C to 1000 °C. Based on experimental and literature data analysis, empirical relationships were derived, including relations between the temperature of the process and yields of charcoal, tar and gas (CO2, CO, H2 and CH4). An analytical semi-empirical model was then used as a tool to analyse the general trends of biomass pyrolysis. Although this semi-empirical model needs further refinement before application to all types of biomass, its prediction capability was in good agreement with results obtained by the literature review. The compact representation could be used in other applications, to conveniently extrapolate and interpolate these results to other temperatures and biomass types.

  18. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  19. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  20. Conversion of radioactive waste materials into solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, T.S.; Pohl, C.S.

    1980-10-28

    Radioactive waste materials are converted into solid form by mixing the radioactive waste with a novel polymeric formulation which, when solidified, forms a solid, substantially rigid matrix that contains and entraps the radioactive waste. The polymeric formulation comprises, in certain significant proportions by weight, urea-formaldehyde; methylated urea-formaldehyde; urea and a plasticizer. A defoaming agent may also be incorporated into the polymeric composition. In the practice of the invention, radioactive waste, in the form of a liquid or slurry, is mixed with the polymeric formulation, with this mixture then being treated with an acidic catalyzing agent, such as sulfuric acid. This mixture is then preferably passed to a disposable container so that, upon solidification, the radioactive waste, entrapped within the matrix formed by the polymeric formulation, may be safely and effectively stored or disposed of.

  1. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in on all sides, through which material is moved from a high place to a lower one. (b) When debris is... posted at each level. Removal shall not be permitted in this lower area until debris handling ceases... as the work progresses. (d) Disposal of waste material or debris by burning shall comply with...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in on all sides, through which material is moved from a high place to a lower one. (b) When debris is... posted at each level. Removal shall not be permitted in this lower area until debris handling ceases... as the work progresses. (d) Disposal of waste material or debris by burning shall comply with...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in on all sides, through which material is moved from a high place to a lower one. (b) When debris is... posted at each level. Removal shall not be permitted in this lower area until debris handling ceases... as the work progresses. (d) Disposal of waste material or debris by burning shall comply with...

  5. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials.

  6. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Jr., Holt

    1995-01-01

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal.

  7. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    DOEpatents

    Murray, H. Jr.

    1995-02-21

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal. 40 figs.

  8. Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, Karin; Steyer, Stefan; Brennecke, Peter; Gruendler, Detlef; Boetsch, Wilma; Haider, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    In addendum 4 to the license of the German KONRAD repository, which considers mainly radiological aspects, a water law permit was issued in order to prevent the pollution of the near-surface groundwater. The water law permit stipulates limitations for 10 radionuclides and 2 groups of radionuclides as well as mass limitations for 94 substances and materials relevant for water protection issues. Two collateral clauses, i.e. additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, include demands on the monitoring, registering and balancing of non-radioactive harmful substances and materials /1/. In order to fulfill the requirements of the water law permit the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) being the operator of the KONRAD repository has developed a concept, which ensures the compliance with all requirements of the water law permit and which provides standardized easy manageable guidance for the waste producers to describe their wastes. On 15 March 2011 the competent water authority, the 'Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz' (NLWKN) issued the approval for this concept. Being the most essential part of this concept the procedural method and the developed description of nonradioactive waste package constituents by use of standardized lists of materials and containers is addressed and presented in this paper. The waste producer has to describe his waste package in a standardized way on the base of the lists of materials and containers. For each material in the list a comprehensive description is given comprising the composition, scope of application, quality control measures, thresholds and other data. Each entry in the list has to be approved by NLWKN. The scope of the lists is defined by the waste producers' needs. Using some particular materials as examples, the approval procedure for including materials in the list is described. The procedure of describing the material composition has to be

  9. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of degraded waste surrogate material

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    This paper discusses rock mechanics testing of surrogate materials to provide failure criteria for compacted, degraded nuclear waste. This daunting proposition was approached by first assembling all known parameters such as the initial waste inventory and rock mechanics response of the underground setting after the waste is stored. Conservative assumptions allowing for extensive degradation processes helped quantify the lowest possible strength conditions of the future state of the waste. In the larger conceptual setting, computations involve degraded waste behavior in transient pressure gradients as gas exits the waste horizon into a wellbore. Therefore, a defensible evaluation of tensile strength is paramount for successful analyses and intentionally provided maximal failed volumes. The very conservative approach assumes rampant degradation to define waste surrogate composition. Specimens prepared from derivative degradation product were consolidated into simple geometries for rock mechanics testing. Tensile strength thus derived helped convince a skeptical peer review panel that drilling into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would not likely expel appreciable solids via the drill string.

  11. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  12. Peer Review of the Waste Package Material Performance Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Beavers; T. M. Devine, Jr.; G. S. Frankel; R. H. Jones; R. G. Kelly; R. M. Latanision; J. H. Payer

    2001-09-04

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, formed the Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel (the Panel) to review the technical basis for evaluating the long-term performance of waste package materials in a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is the interim report of the Panel; a final report will be issued in February 2002. In its work to date, the Panel has identified important issues regarding waste package materials performance. In the remainder of its work, the Panel will address approaches and plans to resolve these issues. In its review to date, the Panel has not found a technical basis to conclude that the waste package materials are unsuitable for long-term containment at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Nevertheless, significant technical issues remain unsettled and, primarily because of the extremely long life required for the waste packages, there will always be some uncertainty in the assessment. A significant base of scientific and engineering knowledge for assessing materials performance does exist and, therefore, the likelihood is great that uncertainty about the long-term performance can be substantially reduced through further experiments and analysis.

  13. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  14. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  15. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  16. Agricultural waste as a source for the production of silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vaibhav, Vineet; Vijayalakshmi, U; Roopan, S Mohana

    2015-03-15

    The major interest of the paper deals with the extraction of silica from four natural sources such as rice husk, bamboo leaves, sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shell. These waste materials in large quantities can create a serious environmental problem. Hence, there is a need to adopt proper strategy to reduce the waste. In the present investigation, all the waste materials are subjected to moisture removal in a hot plate and sintered at 900°C for 7 h. The sintered powder was treated with 1 M NaOH to form sodium silicate and then with 6M H2SO4 to precipitate silica. The prepared silica powders were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM-EDAX analysis. The silica recovered from different sources was found to vary between 52% and 78%. Magnesium substituted silica was formed from the groundnut waste and further treatment is required to precipitate silica.

  17. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service.

  18. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  19. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  20. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  1. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  2. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education. 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Listed are 246 curriculum material items in ten categories: field crops, horticulture, forestry, animal science, soils, diseases and pests, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agricultural occupations, and professional. Most materials are annotated and all are classified according to the AGPEX filing system. Bibliographic and…

  3. Quantifying nonhomogeneous colors in agricultural materials part I: method development.

    PubMed

    Balaban, M O

    2008-11-01

    Measuring the color of food and agricultural materials using machine vision (MV) has advantages not available by other measurement methods such as subjective tests or use of color meters. The perception of consumers may be affected by the nonuniformity of colors. For relatively uniform colors, average color values similar to those given by color meters can be obtained by MV. For nonuniform colors, various image analysis methods (color blocks, contours, and "color change index"[CCI]) can be applied to images obtained by MV. The degree of nonuniformity can be quantified, depending on the level of detail desired. In this article, the development of the CCI concept is presented. For images with a wide range of hue values, the color blocks method quantifies well the nonhomogeneity of colors. For images with a narrow hue range, the CCI method is a better indicator of color nonhomogeneity.

  4. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  5. Material-not-categorized-as-waste survey for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1993-07-01

    In October 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) requested that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) respond to a letter from EM-331 asking for completion of a survey of items in storage but not categorized as waste (Roberts 1992). The letter contained an attachment with instructions on how to fill out the attached form and what to exclude from the survey (Appendix A). This report is a summary of the information from the response issued to RL. This report primarily is for use in estimating future waste volumes that may have been overlooked because of the nature of their classification as material not categorized as waste (MNCAW) (i.e., not yet declared Waste).

  6. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  7. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  8. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes.

  9. Steel wastes as versatile materials for treatment of biorefractory wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sara V; Amorim, Camila C; Andrade, Luiza N; Calixto, Natália C Z; Henriques, Andréia B; Ardisson, José D; Leão, Mônica M D

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on novel cost-effective adsorbent materials suggests potential use of industrial wastes for effluent treatment, with the added benefit of reuse of the wastes. Waste steel materials, including blast oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS), blast furnace sludge (BFS), and blast furnace dust (BFD), were investigated as low-cost adsorbents for removal of an oil emulsion and RR195 dye. The residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area, volume and distribution of pore diameters, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, granulometry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and pHpzc. Adsorption kinetics data were obtained by UV-vis spectrophotometry at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dye solution and crude oil emulsion. The use of waste as an adsorbent was more efficient for treatment of the oil emulsion than the dye solution. BOFS had higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency than the other waste materials. For the RR195 dye, good color removal was observed for all adsorbents, >90 % within 24 h. TOC removal was poor, <10 % for BFD and BFS and a maximum of 37 % for BOFS. For the oil emulsion, 97 % TOC removal was obtained by adsorption onto BOFS and 87 % onto BFS.

  10. Application of methane fermentation technology into organic wastes in closed agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Ryosuke; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    Sustainable and recycling-based systems are required in space agriculture which takes place in an enclosed environment. Methane fermentation is one of the most major biomass conversion technologies, because (1) it provides a renewable energy source as biogas including methane, suitable for energy production, (2) the nutrient-rich solids left after digestion can be used as compost for agriculture. In this study, the effect of the application of methane fermentation technology into space agriculture on the material and energy cycle was investigated.

  11. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  12. Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. The flammable waste materials shed appears as seen when looking south (186°) from South Liquid Loop Road. Note the catch basin for retaining accidentally spilled substances. Wastes are stored in drums and other safety containers until disposal by burning at the Incinerator (4249/E-50) or by other means. Note the nearby sign warning of corrosive, flammable materials, and calling attention to a fire extinguisher; a telephone is provided to call for assistance in the event of an emergency. This structure is isolated to prevent the spread of fire, and it is lightly built so damage from a fire will be inexpensive to repair - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Waste Flammable Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  14. Assessing and monitoring soil quality at agricultural waste disposal areas-Soil Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doula, Maria; Kavvadias, Victor; Sarris, Apostolos; Lolos, Polykarpos; Liakopoulou, Nektaria; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris

    2014-05-01

    The necessity of elaborating indicators is one of the priorities identified by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The establishment of an indicator monitoring system for environmental purposes is dependent on the geographical scale. Some indicators such as rain seasonality or drainage density are useful over large areas, but others such as soil depth, vegetation cover type, and land ownership are only applicable locally. In order to practically enhance the sustainability of land management, research on using indicators for assessing land degradation risk must initially focus at local level because management decisions by individual land users are taken at this level. Soils that accept wastes disposal, apart from progressive degradation, may cause serious problems to the surrounding environment (humans, animals, plants, water systems, etc.), and thus, soil quality should be necessarily monitored. Therefore, quality indicators, representative of the specific waste type, should be established and monitored periodically. Since waste composition is dependent on their origin, specific indicators for each waste type should be established. Considering agricultural wastes, such a specification, however, could be difficult, since almost all agricultural wastes are characterized by increased concentrations of the same elements, namely, phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium, sulfur, etc.; contain large amounts of organic matter; and have very high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and electrical conductivity. Two LIFE projects, namely AgroStrat and PROSODOL are focused on the identification of soil indicators for the assessment of soil quality at areas where pistachio wastes and olive mill wastes are disposed, respectively. Many soil samples were collected periodically for 2 years during PROSODOL and one year during AgroStrat (this project is in progress) from waste disposal areas and analyzed for 23 parameters

  15. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  16. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  17. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  18. HANDBOOK: MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to address the technical and economic aspects of material recovery facility (MRF) equipment and technology in such a manner that the document may be of assistance to solid waste planners and engineers at the local community level. This docum...

  19. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  20. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. The DOE demonstrates compliance with 40 CFR 194 by means of performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. WIPP PA calculations estimate the probability and consequences of radionuclide releases for a 10,000 year regulatory period. Human intrusion scenarios include cases in which a future borehole is drilled through the repository. Drilling mud flowing up the borehole will apply a hydrodynamic shear stress to the borehole wall which could result in erosion of the waste and radionuclides being carried up the borehole. WIPP PA uses the parameter TAUFAIL to represent the shear strength of the degraded waste. The hydrodynamic shear strength can only be measured experimentally by flume testing. Flume testing is typically performed horizontally, mimicking stream or ocean currents. However, in a WIPP intrusion event, the drill bit would penetrate the degraded waste and drilling mud would flow up the borehole in a predominantly vertical direction. In order to simulate this, a flume was designed and built so that the eroding fluid enters an enclosed vertical channel from the bottom and flows up past a specimen of surrogate waste material. The sample is pushed into the current by a piston attached to a step motor. A qualified data acquisition system controls and monitors the fluid's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and conductivity and the step motor's operation. The surrogate materials used correspond to a conservative estimate of degraded TRU waste at the end of the regulatory period. The recipes were previously developed by SNL based on anticipated future states of the waste

  1. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. The DOE demonstrates compliance with 40 CFR 194 by means of performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. WIPP PA calculations estimate the probability and consequences of radionuclide releases for a 10,000 year regulatory period. Human intrusion scenarios include cases in which a future borehole is drilled through the repository. Drilling mud flowing up the borehole will apply a hydrodynamic shear stress to the borehole wall which could result in erosion of the waste and radionuclides being carried up the borehole. WIPP PA uses the parameter TAUFAIL to represent the shear strength of the degraded waste. The hydrodynamic shear strength can only be measured experimentally by flume testing. Flume testing is typically performed horizontally, mimicking stream or ocean currents. However, in a WIPP intrusion event, the drill bit would penetrate the degraded waste and drilling mud would flow up the borehole in a predominantly vertical direction. In order to simulate this, a flume was designed and built so that the eroding fluid enters an enclosed vertical channel from the bottom and flows up past a specimen of surrogate waste material. The sample is pushed into the current by a piston attached to a step motor. A qualified data acquisition system controls and monitors the fluid's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and conductivity and the step motor's operation. The surrogate materials used correspond to a conservative estimate of degraded TRU waste at the end of the regulatory period. The recipes were previously developed by SNL based on anticipated future states of the waste

  2. Application of agro-wastes for bio-composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askanian, Haroutioun; Novello, Ottavio; Coelho, Christian; Commereuc, Sophie; Verney, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This work was devoted to study the potential of different agro-wastes as reinforcements for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. Olive pits flour, walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour was used as filler for polylactic acid. Thermal behaviour of the composites was studied to investigate the nucleation effect of the lignocellulosic flour. The effects of filler loading on the mechanical properties, as well as viscoelastic behavior were also studied. The results indicates that these agricultural by-products can be used as filler in production of bio-composites without any further treatment, especially in the case of walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour.

  3. Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Treated Waste Water Used for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Ortiz, Carolina; Mazo, Martín; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos Arturo; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2016-03-01

    We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba spp., in samples collected in a waste water treatment plant that provides water for agricultural irrigation. Samples were collected weekly over a period of 10 weeks at representative contamination stages from within the treatment plant. Protozoan identification was performed via light microscopy and culture. PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was performed in culture positive samples. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba spp., in 70% (14/20) of the raw waste water samples and in 80% (8/10) of the treated water samples. PCR amplification after culture at both 24 and 37°C revealed that 100% (29/29) of the raw waste water samples and 78.6% (11/14) of the treated waste water were positive for E. moshkovskii. We report the first isolation of E. moshkovskii in Colombia, confirmed by PCR. Recent reports of E. moshkovskii pathogenic potential suggest this finding could constitute a public health risk for people exposed to this water.

  4. Production of xylanase and protease by Penicillium janthinellum CRC 87M-115 from different agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana A; Porto, Ana L F; Tambourgi, Elias B

    2006-04-01

    Five agricultural wastes were evaluated in submerged fermentation for xylanolytic enzymes production by Penicillium janthinellum. The wastes were hydrolyzed in acid medium and the liquid fraction was used for cultivation. Corn cob (55.3 U/mL) and oat husk (54.8 U/mL) were the best inducers of xylanase. Sugar cane bagasse (23.0 U/mL) and corn husk (23.8 U/mL) were moderately good, while cassava peel was negligible. Protease production was very low in all agro-industrial residues. The maximum biomass yields were 1.30 and 1.17 g/L for cassava peel and corn husk after 180 h, respectively. Xylanolytic activity showed a cell growth associated profile.

  5. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ou

    Every year, biomass waste materials are produced in large quantity. The combustibles in biomass waste materials make up over 70% of the total waste. How to utilize these waste materials is important to the nation and the world. The purpose of this study is to test optimum processes and conditions of compacting a number of biomass waste materials to form a densified solid fuel for use at coal-fired power plants or ordinary commercial furnaces. Successful use of such fuel as a substitute for or in cofiring with coal not only solves a solid waste disposal problem but also reduces the release of some gases from burning coal which cause health problem, acid rain and global warming. The unique punch-and-die process developed at the Capsule Pipeline Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia was used for compacting the solid wastes, including waste paper, plastics (both film and hard products), textiles, leaves, and wood. The compaction was performed to produce strong compacts (biomass logs) under room temperature without binder and without preheating. The compaction conditions important to the commercial production of densified biomass fuel logs, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size, binder effects, and mold conditions were studied and optimized. The properties of the biomass logs were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. It was found that the compaction pressure and the initial moisture content of the biomass material play critical roles in producing high-quality biomass logs. Under optimized compaction conditions, biomass waste materials can be compacted into high-quality logs with a density of 0.8 to 1.2 g/cm3. The logs made from the combustible wastes have a heating value in the range 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb which is only slightly (10 to 30%) less than that of subbituminous coal. To evaluate the feasibility of cofiring biomass logs with coal, burn tests were

  6. Environmental assessment of energy generation from agricultural and farm waste through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Nayal, Figen Sisman; Mammadov, Aydin; Ciliz, Nilgun

    2016-12-15

    While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint. This study explores the environmental benefits and burdens of one such option, that is, biogas production from a mixture of agricultural and animal waste through anaerobic digestion (AD), and its subsequent use for electricity and heat generation. A life-cycle assessment methodology was used, to measure the potential environmental impact of this option, in terms of global warming and total weighed impact, and to contrast it with the impact of producing the same amount of energy via an integrated gasification combined cycle process and a hard coal power plant. This study concentrates on an AD and cogeneration pilot plant, built in the Kocaeli province of Turkey and attempts to evaluate its potential environmental impacts. The study uses laboratory-scale studies, as well as literature and LCI databases to derive the operational parameters, yield and emissions of the plant. The potential impacts were calculated with EDIP 2003 methodology, using GaBi 5 LCA software. The results indicate that N2O emissions, resulting from the application of liquid and solid portions of digestate (a by-product of AD), as an organic fertilizer, are by far the largest contributors to global warming among all the life cycle stages. They constitute 68% of the total, whereas ammonia losses from the same process are the leading cause of terrestrial eutrophication. The photochemical ozone formation potential is significantly higher for the cogeneration phase, compared to other life cycle

  7. Characterization of the carbonaceous materials obtained from different agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ensuncho-Muñoz, A E; Carriazo, J G

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of carbonaceous materials obtained from three types of vegetable wastes provided by agricultural industries. Soft carbonization (280°C) and H3PO4-activation procedures were used to convert the agricultural wastes to carbon powders with high adsorbent capacities. This process is excellent for eliminating and exploiting the huge masses (many tons) of vegetable residues remaining after each harvest every year in several Colombian agro-industries. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption isotherms. XRD and IR verified the formation of carbons, and SEM showed small particles (20-500 µm) with characteristic morphology for each type of residue used and abundant cavities of different sizes. The N2-adsorption analyses showed that the carbons had high adsorption capacities with important surface area values and large pore volumes. The use of the activated carbonaceous materials as adsorbent of azo dyes (allura red and sunset yellow) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The results showed a good adsorption capacity indicating the potentiality of these materials as pollutant adsorbents in food industry wastewaters. These results indicate that these powders can be used as potential adsorbents for different gaseous or liquid pollutants.

  8. Investigation of Shielding Material in Radioactive Waste Management - 13009

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    In this study, various waste packages have been prepared by using different materials. Experimental work has been performed on radiation shielding for gamma and neutron radiation. Various materials were evaluated (e.g. concrete, boron, etc.) related to different application areas in radioactive waste management. Effects of addition boric compound mixtures on shielding properties of concrete have been investigated for neutron radiation. The effect of the mixture addition on the shielding properties of concrete was investigated. The results show that negative effects of boric compounds on the strength of concrete decreasing by increasing boric amounts. Shielding efficiency of prepared mixture added concrete up to 80% better than ordinary concretes for neutron radiation. The attenuation was determined theoretically by calculation and practically by using neutron dose rate measurements. In addition of dose rate measurements, strength tests were applied on test shielding materials. (authors)

  9. Tests with ceramic waste form materials made by pressureless consolidation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M. A.; Hash, M. C.; Hebden, A. S.; Ebert, W. L.

    2002-12-02

    A multiphase waste form referred to as the ceramic waste form (CWF) will be used to immobilize radioactively contaminated salt wastes recovered after the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel. The CWF is made by first occluding salt in zeolite and then encapsulating the zeolite in a borosilicate binder glass. A variety of surrogate CWF materials were made using pressureless consolidation (PC) methods for comparison with CWF consolidated using a hot isostatic press (HIP) method and to study the effects of glass/zeolite batching ratio and processing conditions on the physical and chemical properties of the resulting materials. The data summarized in this report will also be used to support qualification of the PC CWF for disposal in the proposed federal high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The phase composition and microstructure of HIP CWF and PC CWF are essentially identical: both are composed of about 70% sodalite, 25% binder glass, and a 5% total of inclusion phases (halite, nepheline, and various oxides and silicates). The primary difference is that PC CWF materials have higher porosities than HIP CWFs. The product consistency test (PCT) that was initially developed to monitor homogeneous glass waste forms was used to measure the chemical durabilities of the CWF materials. Series of replicate tests with several PC CWF materials indicate that the PCT can be conducted with the same precision with CWF materials as with borosilicate glasses. Short-term (7-day) PCTs were used to evaluate the repeatability of making the PC CWF and the effects of the glass/zeolite mass ratio, process temperature, and processing time on the chemical durability. Long-term (up to 1 year) PCTs were used to compare the durabilities of HIP and PC CWFs and to estimate the apparent solubility limit for the PC CWF that is needed for modeling. The PC and HIP CWF materials had similar disabilities, based on the release of silicon in long

  10. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    To provide teachers of vocational agriculture, agricultural supervisors, and agricultural teacher educators with information on current curriculum materials available to them, this annotated bibliography presents 207 references classified according to the AGDEX filing system. Topics are: (1) Field Crops, (2) Horticulture, (3) Forestry, (4) Animal…

  11. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide teachers of vocational agriculture, agricultural supervisors, and agricultural teacher educators with information on current curriculum materials available to them. Classified according to the AGDEX filing system, the 163 references are grouped under the headings: (1) Field Crops, (2)…

  12. Teaching Materials for Environmental Related Courses in Agriculture Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohning, Kermit B.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    The lesson plans were designed to provide the practicing applied biological and agricultural occupations teacher with a series of units setting down a basic foundation in Environmental Education. Nine lesson plans cover (1) ecosystems and agriculture, (2) biotic communities and food chains, (3) energy and nutrient flow, (4) land use and supply,…

  13. Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented.

  14. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  15. Materials recovery from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical methanol.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2010-06-15

    The recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is quite difficult due to the heterogeneous mix of polymer materials, multiple kinds of metals and glass fiber. A feasibility study was conducted using supercritical methanol (SCM) to simultaneously recover polymers and metals from waste PCBs. The study focused on the characteristics of both oils and solid products obtained from the SCM-treated waste PCBs. The operation conditions were temperature range of 300-420 degrees C, treatment time between 30 and 120 min and solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10-1:30 (g/mL) so as to understand the products and depolymerization mechanisms of waste PCBs in SCM. GC-MS results revealed that the oils mainly contained phenol and its methylated derivatives, and the methylated derivatives increased with the increase of reaction temperature. The methylated reaction occurred mainly above 400 degrees C. The liquid products also contained a significant number of phosphated fire retardant additives such as triphenyl phosphate, which decreased significantly with the increase of reaction temperature. The solid product mainly consisted of Cu, Fe, Sn, Pb and Zn, as well as lower concentrations of precious metals such as Ag and Au.

  16. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  17. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  18. Investigation of mixotrophic, heterotrophic, and autotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris under agricultural waste medium.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-01-01

    Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and its lipid production were investigated under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. Cheap agricultural waste molasses and corn steep liquor from industries were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris grew remarkably under this agricultural waste medium, which resulted in a reduction in the final cost of the biodiesel production. Maximum dry weight of 2.62 g L(-1) was obtained in mixotrophic growth with the highest lipid concentration of 0.86 g L(-1). These biomass and lipid concentrations were, respectively, 140% and 170% higher than autotrophic growth and 300% and 1200% higher than heterotrophic growth. In mixotrophic growth, independent or simultaneous occurrence of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms was investigated. The growth of the microalgae was observed to take place first heterotrophically to a minimum substrate concentration with a little fraction in growth under autotrophic metabolism, and then the cells grew more autotrophically. It was found that mixotrophic growth was not a simple combination of heterotrophic and autotrophic growth.

  19. The role of energy forestry in alternative energy planning, waste recycling and agriculture in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Sennerby-Forsse, L.; Christersson, L. . Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1994-09-01

    In Sweden, 15 years of research and development within the National Swedish Energy Forestry Programme (NSEFP) have resulted in a new agricultural crop with a high potential for sound ecological and economic outcome. Commercialization of energy plantations is in progress and about 10,000 ha of energy plantations have been established on private farm land. To replace the part of the imported oil used for heating purposes, approximately 200,000 ha of energy forests are needed. Thus, in the near future, bioenergy could constitute one-third of Sweden's total annual energy need which illustrates the potential of bioenergy as an important part of the energy supply. The further utilization of biomass plantations for environmental clean-up programs and waste cycling is now developing on a regional and local basis. As a complement to intensively cultivated pure energy plantations, mixed forest stands are of interest as multipurpose production systems for wood chips, short fiber and veneer. Economic calculations concerning natively produced bioenergy, from conventional forestry as well as from bioenergy plantations, are mostly positive today. Considering different environmental as well as the low profitability of agriculture, the waste mountain and the requirement for energy.

  20. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  1. Method of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, contained in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knieper, J.; May, K.; Printz, H.

    1984-07-24

    A method is disclosed of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, which are contained in aqueous solutions. To accomplish this solidification, an inorganic, non-metallic binding agent such as gypsum is intermixed with the aqueous solution and a substance such as pumice or ceramic tile which promotes the intermixing of the binding agent and the aqueous solution.

  2. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  3. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The effective recycling of nutrients in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) domestic (e.g. source separated food waste), agricultural, and commercial and industrial (C&I) biowastes (e.g. food industry wastes, papermill sludge) for use on land, generally following treatment (e.g. composting, anaerobic digestion or thermal conversion technologies) as alternatives to conventional mineral fertilisers in Australia can have economic benefits, ensure food security, and close the nutrient loop. In excess of 75% of Australian agricultural soils have less than 1% organic matter (OM), and, with 40 million tonnes of solid waste per year potentially available as a source of OM, biowastes also build soil carbon (C) stocks that improve soil structure, fertility and productivity, and enhance soil ecosystem services. In recent years, the increasing cost of conventional mineral fertilisers, combined with changing weather patterns have placed additional pressure on regional and rural communities. Nitrogen (N) is generally the most limiting nutrient to crop production, and the high-energy required and GHGs associated with its manufacture mean that, additionally, it is critical to use N efficiently and recycle N resources where possible. Biosolids and biowastes have highly variable organic matter (OM) and nutrient contents, with N often present in a variety of forms only some of which are plant-available. The N value is further influenced by treatment process, storage and fundamental soil processes. The correct management of N in biowastes is essential to reduce environmental losses through leaching or runoff and negative impacts on drinking water sources and aquatic ecosystems. Gaseous N emissions also impact upon atmospheric quality and climate change. Despite the body of work to investigate N supply from biosolids, recent findings indicate that historic and current management of agricultural applications of N from biosolids and biowastes in Australia may still be inefficient leading

  4. Enhancement of methane production from co-digestion of chicken manure with agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kosseva, Maria R; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The potential for methane production from semi-solid chicken manure (CM) and mixture of agricultural wastes (AWS) in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. To the best of author(')s knowledge, it is the first time that CM is co-digested with mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Two types of anaerobic digestion processes (AD process) were used, process 1 (P1) using fresh CM (FCM) and process 2 (P2) using treated CM (TCM), ammonia stripped CM, were conducted. Methane production in P1 was increased by 93% and 50% compared to control (no AWS added) with maximum methane production of 502 and 506 mL g(-1)VS obtained at 55°C and 35°C, respectively. Additionally, 42% increase in methane production was observed with maximum volume of 695 mL g(-1)VS comparing P2 test with P2 control under 55°C. Ammonia accumulation was reduced by 39% and 32% in P1 and P2 tests.

  5. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of chemical microanalyses for solid waste materials.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Johan, Zdenek; Vítková, Martina; Skála, Roman; Kotrlý, Marek; Habler, Gerlinde; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-06-30

    The investigation of solid speciation of metals and metalloids is required for accurate assessment of the hazardous properties of solid waste materials from high-temperature technologies (slag, bottom ash, fly ash, air-pollution-control residues). This paper deals with the problem of reliability of microanalyses using a combination of electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only. These methods do not permit to detect nanophases in host-crystals and lead to erroneous interpretation of analytical results, considering the elements of nanophases as belonging to the crystal structure of the main phase. More detailed analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on foils prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to solve this analytical problem. In this study, lamellar aggregates of potassium-rich clinopyroxenes were detected in copper smelting slags by a combination of SEM and EPMA. However, FIB-TEM indicated the presence of leucite inclusions (tens to hundreds nm in size) within the clinopyroxene lamellae. Based on examples from smelting slags and other solid waste materials, recommendations for standard SEM and EPMA applications and the need for methods with higher resolution for mineralogical investigation of waste materials are discussed.

  7. Architectural control of construction materials with application of man-made wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, Ruslan; Abdrakhmanova, Layla

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the principles of construction materials formation based on non-organic and organic raw materials when material matrix is filled with particulate fillers from man-made wastes of various nature formed in different conditions. Qualitative and quantitative requirements for mineral, chemical and material composition of wastes to modify construction materials are detailed. The ways to use them as modifiers of construction materials are shown by the example of wastes group belonging to slags.

  8. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  9. Characteristics of and sorption to biochars derived from waste material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huichao; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochars can exhibit a high sorption potential towards heavy metals and organic contaminants in various environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil). They have therefore been proposed for environmental remediation purposes to sequester contaminants. To date, most studies have focused on the physicochemical and sorption properties of mineral phases poor biochars, which are typically produced from plant residues. Only little knowledge is available for biochars derived from human and animal waste material, which are typically characterized by high mineral contents (e.g., sewage sludge, manure). Using human and animal waste as source material to produce biochars would support the development of attractive combined strategies for waste management and remediation. The potential impact of mineral phases on the physicochemical and sorption properties of biochars requires further studies so that the potential as sorbent material can be evaluated. With this purpose, different source material biochars were produced at 200°C, 350°C and 500°C, to yield a series of biochars representing a range of mineral content. The derived biochars from wood shavings (<1% ash), sewage sludge (50-70% ash) and pig manure (30-60% ash), as well as a commercial biochar derived from grain husks (40% ash), were extensively characterized (e.g., element composition, surface area, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The contents of potentially toxic elements (i.e., heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of all materials were within the guidelines values proposed by the International Biochar Initiative, indicating their suitability for environmental application. Single point sorption coefficients for the model sorbate pyrene were measured to investigate the effect of mineral content, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, particle size fractions and acid demineralization on sorption behavior. Overall, sorption of pyrene was strong for all materials (4 < Log Kd < 6.5 L

  10. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  11. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Modolo, R.; Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I.

    2011-02-15

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  12. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    PubMed

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of sewage sludge and green waste for agricultural utilization.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, N; Hamou, A; Lousdad, A; Al-Douri, Y

    2015-01-01

    In order to valorize the organic wastes, a mixture composed of 60 kg of thick sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, 30 kg of green wastes (made of 10 kg straw of wheat, 10 kg manure farm wastes, and 10 kg of dead leaves), and 10 kg of wood chips was prepared. The organic wastes were mixed and put into a wooden cubic composter having a volume of 1.5 m3. Physicochemical analyses were made every 30 days for five months. The results of the analyses showed that the obtained compost had good physicochemical quality and can be used as an organic fertilizer. The main characteristics of this compost were distinguished by its pH from 7.4 to 7.8, with a ratio of organic matter of 40-42%. During composting, the humification process led to an increase in humic acids from 29.5 to 39.1 mg g(-1), a decrease in fulvic acids from 32.1 to 10.9 mg g(-1), and a global decomposition of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The obtained results show that a period of 150 days of composting gave a C/N ratio of 15.4. The total metal content in the final compost was much lower than the standard toxic levels for composts to be used as good soil fertilizers. The germination index for the two plants Cicer arietinum and Hordeum vulgare was 93% after the same period of composting, showing that the final compost was not phytotoxic. The study showed the possibility of valorization of the compost and its possible use in the domain of agriculture.

  14. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Park, J.Y.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.; Diercks, D.R.

    1990-11-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS), Type 316L SS, Incology 825, P-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7% Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks, and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in simulated Well J-13 water which is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site has been completed, and crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests are also being conducted under the same environmental conditions. 13 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. 49 CFR 173.12 - Exceptions for shipment of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions for shipment of waste materials. 173.12... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS... materials. (a) Open head drums. If a hazardous material that is a hazardous waste is required by...

  16. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  17. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  18. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Composite materials based on wastes of flat glass processing.

    PubMed

    Gorokhovsky, A V; Escalante-Garcia, J I; Gashnikova, G Yu; Nikulina, L P; Artemenko, S E

    2005-01-01

    Glass mirrors scrap and poly (vinyl) butiral waste (PVB) obtained from flat glass processing plants were investigated as raw materials to produce composites. The emphasis was on studying the influence of milled glass mirror waste contents on properties of composites produced with PVB. The characterization involved: elongation under rupture, water absorption, tensile strength and elastic modulus tests. The results showed that the composite containing 10 wt% of filler powder had the best properties among the compositions studied. The influence of the time of exposure in humid atmosphere on the composite properties was investigated. It was found that the admixture of PVB iso-propanol solution to the scrap of glass mirrors during milling provided stabilization of the properties of the composites produced.

  20. Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    84 g C m-2 for PSL, AAS and LDC respectively. Carbon dioxide emission rates were corroborated with results obtained from the quantification of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil microbial biomass-C (Cmic). The former represents the more labile fraction of soil organic matter and its concentration in the freshly amended soils followed the order LDC > AAS ≈ PSL. However, whereas WEOC concentrations decrease rapidly for PSL and LDC amended soils, AAS treated soils showed a steady increase during the first 20 days of incubation followed by a decrease thereafter. This was attributed to the release of soluble organic matter from the anaerobically stabilised digestate in the presence of an aerobic soil microbial community. Irrespective of the type of amendment, Cmic values increased with time with respect to the unamended controls, reaching highest values after 20 days from amendment and decreasing thereafter. Even after 40 days of incubation, Cmic values in all amended soils did not return to the background values obtained with unamended controls. These results suggest that the application of stabilised livestock-derived organic materials to soils may play an important role in reducing C emissions associated with agricultural practices and increase soil C stocks, apart from other indirect beneficial effects such as the recovery of energy from combustion of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of these waste materials.

  2. Horticulture Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains five units with relevant problem areas for horticulture. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: related problem…

  3. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  4. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid using palm oil agricultural refinery waste.

    PubMed

    Radzuan, Mohd Nazren; Banat, Ibrahim M; Winterburn, James

    2017-02-01

    In this research we assess the feasibility of using palm oil agricultural refinery waste as a carbon source for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant through fermentation. The production and characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under batch fermentation were investigated. Results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 can grow and produce 0.43gL(-1) of rhamnolipid using PFAD as the sole carbon source. Identification of the biosurfactant product using mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid produced from PFAD were able to reduce surface tension to 29mNm(-1) with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) 420mgL(-1) and emulsify kerosene and sunflower oil, with an emulsion index up to 30%. Results demonstrate that PFAD could be used as a low-cost substrate for rhamnolipid production, utilizing and transforming it into a value added biosurfactant product.

  5. Electronic waste (e-waste): Material flows and management practices in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi Osibanjo, Oladele

    2008-07-01

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.

  6. Electronic waste (e-waste): material flows and management practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi; Osibanjo, Oladele

    2008-01-01

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.

  7. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations.

  8. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  9. 40 CFR 262.215 - Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unwanted material that is not solid or... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Alternative... Eligible Academic Entities § 262.215 Unwanted material that is not solid or hazardous waste. (a) If...

  10. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1990-10-09

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The deploymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on deploymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380--600{degrees}C and 70--280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  11. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380[degrees]-600[degrees] C and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  12. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Smith, Charlene M.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  13. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A.

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  15. Adsorption of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution using agricultural solid waste.

    PubMed

    Geetha, A; Sivakumar, P; Sujatha, M; Palanisamy, P N

    2009-04-01

    Areca nut shell, an agricultural solid waste by-product, has been studied for the removal of heavy metals Cr(VI) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Parameters, such as equilibrium time, effect of initial metal ion concentration, effect of pH on the removal, were analyzed. An initial pH of 4.0 was found most favourable for Cr(VI) removal and 5.0 for Pb(II) removal. Two theoretical isotherm models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich, were analyzed for the applicability of the experimental data. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was calculated. The results of thermodynamic parameters suggest the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The desorption studies were carried out using dilute hydrochloric acid. Maximum desorption of 88% for Cr(VI) and 91% for Pb(II) were achieved. Areca nut shell waste, the low cost adsorbent is found to be effective in the removal of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) ions, and hence it can be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater.

  16. Materials of Criticality Safety Concern in Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.L.; Day, B.A.

    2006-07-01

    10 CFR 71.55 requires in part that the fissile material package remain subcritical when considering 'the most reactive credible configuration consistent with the chemical and physical form of the material'. As waste drums and packages may contain unlimited types of materials, determination of the appropriately bounding moderator and reflector materials to ensure compliance with 71.55 requires a comprehensive analysis. Such an analysis was performed to determine the materials or elements that produce the most reactive configuration with regards to both moderation and reflection of a Pu-239 system. The study was originally performed for the TRUPACT-II shipping package and thus the historical fissile mass limit for the package, 325 g Pu-239, was used [1]. Reactivity calculations were performed with the SCALE package to numerically assess the moderation or reflection merits of the materials [2]. Additional details and results are given in SAIC-1322-001 [3]. The development of payload controls utilizing process knowledge to determine the classification of special moderator and/or reflector materials and the associated fissile mass limit is also addressed. (authors)

  17. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  18. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R.

    1997-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels of radiation effects in glass and ceramics. This research will provide the underpinning science and models for evaluation and performance assessments of glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scrap, and excess weapons plutonium. Studies will focus on the effects of ionization and elastic collision interactions on defect production, defect interactions, diffusion, solid-state phase transformations, and gas accumulation using actinide-containing materials, gamma irradiation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of a-decay and p-decay on nuclear waste glasses and ceramics. This program will exploit a variety of structural, optical, and spectroscopic probes to characterize the nature and behavior of the defects, defect aggregates, and phase transforma-tions. Computer simulation techniques will be used to determine defect production, calculate defect stability, defect energies, damage processes within an a-recoil cascade, and defect/gas diffusion and interactions. A number of irradiation facilities and capabilities will be used, including user facilities at several national laboratories, to study the effects of irradiation under different conditions.'

  19. Acceleration of Enzymatic conversion of Agricultural Waste Biomass into Bio-fuels by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most critical stages of conversion of agricultural waste biomass into biofuels employs hydrolysis reactions between highly specific enzymes and matching substrates (e.g. corn stover cellulose with cellulase) that produce soluble sugars, which then could be converted into ethanol. Despite ...

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion plants for the revaluation of agricultural waste: Sustainable location sites from a GIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish sustainably feasible areas for the implementation of anaerobic co-digestion plants for agricultural wastes (cattle/swine slurries and cereal crop wastes). The methodology was based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and map algebra generated from hedges related to environmental, social and economic constraints. The GIS model obtained was applied to a region of Chile (Bío Bío Region) as a case study showing the energy potential (205 MW-h) of agricultural wastes (swine/cattle manures and cereal crop wastes) and thereby assessing its energy contribution (3.5%) at country level (Chile). From this model, it was possible to spatially identify the influence of each factor (environmental, economic and social) when defining suitable areas for the siting of anaerobic co-digestion plants. In conclusion, GIS-based models establish appropriate areas for the location of anaerobic co-digestion plants in the revaluation of agricultural waste from the production of energy through biogas production.

  1. Environmental modelling of use of treated organic waste on agricultural land: a comparison of existing models for life cycle assessment of waste systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Schmidt, Sonia

    2006-04-01

    Modelling of environmental impacts from the application of treated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) in agriculture differs widely between different models for environmental assessment of waste systems. In this comparative study five models were examined concerning quantification and impact assessment of environmental effects from land application of treated organic MSW: DST (Decision Support Tool, USA), IWM (Integrated Waste Management, U.K.), THE IFEU PROJECT (Germany), ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch, Sweden) and EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies, Denmark). DST and IWM are life cycle inventory (LCI) models, thus not performing actual impact assessment. The DST model includes only one water emission (biological oxygen demand) from compost leaching in the results and IWM considers only air emissions from avoided production of commercial fertilizers. THE IFEU PROJECT, ORWARE and EASEWASTE are life cycle assessment (LCA) models containing more detailed land application modules. A case study estimating the environmental impacts from land application of 1 ton of composted source sorted organic household waste was performed to compare the results from the different models and investigate the origin of any difference in type or magnitude of the results. The contributions from the LCI models were limited and did not depend on waste composition or local agricultural conditions. The three LCA models use the same overall approach for quantifying the impacts of the system. However, due to slightly different assumptions, quantification methods and environmental impact assessment, the obtained results varied clearly between the models. Furthermore, local conditions (e.g. soil type, farm type, climate and legal regulation) and waste composition strongly influenced the results of the environmental assessment.

  2. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  3. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    contents increased in BC10 treatment, while the K contents were similar in all treatments as well as C/N ratio (around 15). The organic matter content was BC10>BC5>BC0 and the dissolved organic C content was lower than 8.3 g kg-1 for all piles confirming the maturity of compost. The germination test showed a non-toxic effect of all amendments in the species assayed obtaining a germination index between 55% and 80.7% indicating maturity of the amendments evaluated. Our results indicated that the combined use of agricultural wastes and biochar by mean of a co-composting process is a suitable option for generating good quality amendments for improving soil condition and optimizing nutrient cycling at farm scale. Financial support for this research was provided by the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research through FONDECYT 11140508 Project

  4. Integrated Use of GLEAMS and GIS to Prevent Groundwater Pollution Caused by Agricultural Disposal of Animal Waste

    PubMed

    Garnier; Lo Porto A; Marini; Leone

    1998-09-01

    / In modern intensive animal farming the disposal of a large amount of waste is of great concern, as, if not properly performed, it can cause the pollution of water, mainly because of the high content of nitrate and phosphate. This paper presents the results of a study intended to assess the environmental sustainability of animal waste disposal on agricultural soils in the alluvial plain of the River Chiana (Tuscany, Italy), a particularly sensitive area because of the high vulnerability of the shallow aquifer and of the intensive agricultural and breeding activities. With this aim, a strategy has been employed, that consists of the integrated use of a management model and GISs. The consequences on groundwater of applying animal waste to different kind of soils and crop arrangements have been simulated by means of the management model GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems, ver 2.01). As the huge amount of data required by such a sophisticated model does not allow applications at a scale larger than the field size, IDRISI and GRASS GIS packages have been used to divide the study area into land units, with homogeneous environmental characteristics, and then to generalize on these units the outputs of the model. The main conclusions can be synthesized as follows: The amount of animal waste produced in some of the investigated areas (i.e., municipal territory) is greater than that disposable on their own agricultural soil with no risks to the groundwater; consequently a cooperative approach among municipalities is necessary in order to plan waste disposal in a comprehensive and centralized way.KEY WORDS: Land use; Animal waste disposal; Groundwater protection; GIS, Management models

  5. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  6. From waste to resource: a systems-based approach to sustainable community development through equitable enterprise and agriculturally-derived polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teipel, Elisa

    Rural communities in developing countries are most vulnerable to the plight of requiring repeated infusions of charitable aid over time. Micro-business opportunities that effectively break the cycle of poverty in resource-rich countries in the developing world are limited. However, a strong model for global commerce can break the cycle of donor-based economic supplements and limited local economic growth. Sustainable economic development can materialize when a robust framework combines engineering with the generous investment of profits back into the community. This research presents a novel, systems-based approach to sustainable community development in which a waste-to-resource methodology catalyzes the disruption of rural poverty. The framework developed in this thesis was applied to the rural communities of Cagmanaba and Badian, Philippines. An initial assessment of these communities showed that community members are extremely poor, but they possess an abundant natural resource: coconuts. The various parts of the coconut offer excellent potential value in global commerce. Today the sale of coconut water is on the rise, and coconut oil is an established $3 billion market annually that is also growing rapidly. Since these current industries harvest only two parts of the coconut (meat and water), the 50 billion coconuts that grow annually leave behind approximately 100 billion pounds of coconut shell and husk as agricultural waste. Coconuts thus provide an opportunity to create and test a waste-to-resource model. Intensive materials analysis, research, development, and optimization proved that coconut shell, currently burned as a fuel or discarded as agricultural waste, can be manufactured into high-grade coconut shell powder (CSP), which can be a viable filler in polymeric composites. This framework was modeled and tested as a case study in a manufacturing facility known as a Community Transformation Plant (CTP) in Cagmanaba, Philippines. The CTP enables local

  7. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors

  8. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Burkhardt, Mark R; Zaugg, Steven D; Werner, Stephen L; Bossio, Joseph P; Benotti, Mark J

    2008-03-15

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWls, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWls, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWls. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWls present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWls detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 microg/kg), 25 AWls in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 microg/ kg), and 21 AWls in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 microg/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation

  9. Effects of rocks and backfill materials on waste glass leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, K.; Sasaki, N.; Kashihara, H.; Yamamoto, M.

    1986-12-31

    Extensive studies have been made on the interactions between a waste glass and repository materials under static conditions. One of the PNC reference glasses was leached in the solution prepared from water in contact with crushed granite, tuff, diabase and backfill materials such as bentonite and zeolite. The leachant solutions except for some bentonite solutions reduced the glass leach rate compared with that measured in distilled water. The extent of the reduction was a function of silicon concentration in solution. The bentonite solutions enhanced the glass dissolution rate by a factor of 2 to 3 at low bentonite/water ratios but the effect was found to be less important at high bentonite/water ratios and in the long-term experiment. Addition of granite and zeolite to the bentonite solutions decreased the leach rate below the value measured in distilled water.

  10. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Members of the Curriculum Materials Committee collect materials available to them prior to each American Vocational Association Meeting. The resulting bibliography contains current, non-commercial materials developed by persons in vocational education in agriculture for use in that field, but of interest beyond the state in which it was developed.…

  11. Superabsorbent materials from shellfish waste--a review.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek K

    2002-01-01

    Increasing global demand for improved absorbent materials for body fluids in disposable medical and personal-care articles creates an incentive for new basic research and development of efficient absorbent materials and systems with additional benefits such as biodegradability or certain biomedical functions. Highly absorbing materials based on polyelectrolyte polymers can absorb up to 50 grams of body fluid per gram of dry mass. Currently available synthetic superabsorbents are not biodegradable in landfills and do not offer any value-added functions to personal and medical-care products. Various academic and industrial research groups have put considerable amounts of effort and resources toward development of new absorbent materials from natural polymers, which would decompose in landfills. The basic substrates in these studies have been mainly polysaccharides, particularly cellulose and starch. The most common approach has involved converting these polymers into carboxymethyl derivatives followed by structural cross-linking. Commercial synthetic superabsorbent polymers as well as those derived from cellulose and starch are essentially polyanionic. On the other hand, polycationic absorbers seem to have potential functional advantages over the polyanionic counterparts. Chitin is the second abundant natural polymer, whose main derivative, chitosan, becomes polycationic in acid media. Currently, the main source of this polysaccharide is shellfish waste. This review provides basic information about new superabsorbent materials based on chitosan salts, their properties and preparation.

  12. Cellulose nanocrystals in nanocomposite approach: Green and high-performance materials for industrial, biomedical and agricultural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, E.; Torre, L.

    2016-05-01

    The need to both avoid wastes and find new renewable resources has led to a new and promising research based on the possibility to revalorize the biomass producing sustainable chemicals and/or materials which may play a major role in replacing systems traditionally obtained from non-renewable sources. Most of the low-value biomass is termed lignocellulosic, referring to its main constituent biopolymers: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. In this context, nanocellulose, and in particular cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), have gain considerable attention as nanoreinforcement for polymer matrices, mainly biodegradable. Derived from the most abundant polymeric resource in nature and with inherent biodegradability, nanocellulose is an interesting nanofiller for the development of nanocomposites for industrial, biomedical and agricultural applications. Due to the high amount of hydroxyl groups on their surface, cellulose nanocrystals are easy to functionalize. Well dispersed CNC are able, in fact, to enhance several properties of polymers, i.e.: thermal, mechanical, barrier, surface wettability, controlled of active compound and/or drug release. The main objective here is to give a general overview of CNC applications, summarizing our recent developments of bio-based nanocomposite formulations reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources and/or wastes for food packaging, medical and agricultural sectors.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF AGRICULTURAL FERTILIZERS AND RELATED MATERIALS FOR PERCHLORATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most comprehensive survey of fertilizers and other raw materials for perchlorate to date has been conducted to determine whether these could be significant contributors to environmental perchlorate contamination. Although the data span a large range of commercial products, th...

  14. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  15. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Whang, J.M.; McDevitt, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  16. Direct catalytic production of sorbitol from waste cellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lucília Sousa; Órfão, José J de Melo; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro

    2017-02-08

    Cotton wool, cotton textile, tissue paper and printing paper, all potential waste cellulosic materials, were directly converted to sorbitol using a Ru/CNT catalyst in the presence of H2 and using only water as solvent, without any acids. Conversions up to 38% were attained for the raw substrates, with sorbitol yields below 10%. Ball-milling of the materials disrupted their crystallinity, allowing reaching 100% conversion of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper after 4h, with sorbitol yields around 50%. Mix-milling these materials with the catalyst greatly enhanced their conversion rate, and the materials were efficiently converted to sorbitol with a yield around 50% in 2h. However, ball- and mix-milled printing paper presented a conversion of only 50% after 5h, with sorbitol yields of 7%. Amounts of sorbitol of 0.525, 0.511 and 0.559g could be obtained from 1g of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper, respectively.

  17. Production of L-asparaginase, an anticancer agent, from Aspergillus niger using agricultural waste in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abha

    2006-10-01

    This article reports the production of high levels of L-asparaginase from a new isolate of Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-wastes from three leguminous crops (bran of Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus mungo, and Glycine max). When used as the sole source for growth in SSF, bran of G. max showed maximum enzyme production followed by that of P. mungo and C. cajan. A 96-h fermentation time under aerobic condition with moisture content of 70%, 30 min of cooking time and 1205-1405 micro range of particle size in SSF appeared optimal for enzyme production. Enzyme yield was maximum (40.9 +/- 3.35 U/g of dry substrate) at pH 6.5 and temperature 30 +/- 2 degrees C. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 40 degrees C and 6.5, respectively. The study suggests that choosing an appropriate substrate when coupled with process level optimization improves enzyme production markedly. Developing an asparaginase production process based on bran of G. max as a substrate in SSF is economically attractive as it is a cheap and readily available raw material in agriculture-based countries.

  18. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevich, Rosemarie; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2003-12-01

    We present an assessment of biofuel use and agricultural field burning in the developing world. We used information from government statistics, energy assessments from the World Bank, and many technical reports, as well as from discussions with experts in agronomy, forestry, and agro-industries. We estimate that 2060 Tg biomass fuel was used in the developing world in 1985; of this, 66% was burned in Asia, and 21% and 13% in Africa and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use in India and China. We find that 400 Tg of crop residues are burned in the fields, with the fraction of available residue burned in 1985 ranging from 1% in China, 16-30% in the Middle East and India, to about 70% in Indonesia; in Africa about 1% residue is burned in the fields of the northern drylands, but up to 50% in the humid tropics. We distributed this biomass burning on a spatial grid with resolution of 1° × 1°, and applied emission factors to the amount of dry matter burned to give maps of trace gas emissions in the developing world. The emissions of CO from biofuel use in the developing world, 156 Tg, are about 50% of the estimated global CO emissions from fossil fuel use and industry. The emission of 0.9 Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but nonnegligible when compared with the emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel use and industry, 5.3 Pg C. The biomass burning source of 10 Tg/yr for CH4 and 2.2 Tg N/yr of NOx are relatively small when compared with total CH4 and NOx sources; this source of NOx may be important on a regional basis.

  19. Building a strategy for soil protection at local and regional scale--the case of agricultural wastes landspreading.

    PubMed

    Doula, M K; Sarris, A; Hliaoutakis, A; Kydonakis, A; Papadopoulos, N S; Argyriou, L

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural wastes (AW) are produced in huge quantities worldwide and may cause detrimental effects on environmental quality, affecting soil, water, and air quality. Given the growing soil degradation worldwide, the need for more food of good quality and therefore the intensified agriculture, it is important to develop recycling plans even for those types of treated AW (e.g., composts) that are not considered hazardous. Two strategic approaches for safe and sustainable landspreading of organic wastes are proposed, depending on wastes properties and hazard potential, i.e., an approach appropriate for traditionally used wastes (manures and composts) and another approach for wastes that are potentially hazardous or hazardous and should only be reused under specific restrictions. Both approaches foresee concrete steps, require close cooperation between farmers and local/regional authorities, and are appropriate to ensure environmental sustainability at AW recycling or disposal areas. Desktop and web application tools are also presented that are anticipated to assist authorities in implementing their monitoring strategies.

  20. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Terry Allen; Braase, Lori Ann

    2015-11-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The FY 2015 Accomplishments Report provides a highlight of the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within the MRWFD Campaign in FY-14. Each section contains a high-level overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the fiscal year. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities, but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments made during FY-15. The campaign continued to utilize an engineering driven-science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus. There was increased emphasis on development of technologies that support near-term applications that are relevant to the current once-through fuel cycle.

  1. Cauliflower Leave, an Agricultural Waste Biomass Adsorbent, and Its Application for the Removal of MB Dye from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj Anwar; Khan, Fauzia; Ahmad, Anees

    2016-01-01

    Cauliflower leaf powder (CLP), a biosorbent prepared from seasonal agricultural crop waste material, has been employed as a prospective adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by the batch adsorption method under varying conditions, namely, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, solution pH, and temperature. Characterization of the material by FTIR and SEM indicates the presence of functional groups and rough coarse surface suitable for the adsorption of methylene blue over it. Efforts were made to fit the isotherm data using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equation. The experimental data were best described by Freundlich isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 149.22 mg/g at room temperature. To evaluate the rate of methylene blue adsorption onto CLP, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed. The experimental data were best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy showed the feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. On the basis of experimental results obtained, it may be concluded that the CLP prepared from agricultural waste has considerable potential as low-cost adsorbent in wastewater treatment for the removal of basic dye, MB.

  2. Cauliflower Leave, an Agricultural Waste Biomass Adsorbent, and Its Application for the Removal of MB Dye from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Seraj Anwar; Khan, Fauzia

    2016-01-01

    Cauliflower leaf powder (CLP), a biosorbent prepared from seasonal agricultural crop waste material, has been employed as a prospective adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by the batch adsorption method under varying conditions, namely, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, solution pH, and temperature. Characterization of the material by FTIR and SEM indicates the presence of functional groups and rough coarse surface suitable for the adsorption of methylene blue over it. Efforts were made to fit the isotherm data using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equation. The experimental data were best described by Freundlich isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 149.22 mg/g at room temperature. To evaluate the rate of methylene blue adsorption onto CLP, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed. The experimental data were best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy showed the feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. On the basis of experimental results obtained, it may be concluded that the CLP prepared from agricultural waste has considerable potential as low-cost adsorbent in wastewater treatment for the removal of basic dye, MB. PMID:27974892

  3. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed.

  4. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  5. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  6. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  7. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  8. Utilization of agricultural wastes for production of ethanol. Progress report, October 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.

    1980-05-01

    The project proposes to develop methods to utilize agricultural wastes, especially cottonseed hulls and peanut shells to produce ethanol. Initial steps will involve development of methods to break down cellulose to a usable form of substrates for chemical or biological digestion. The process of ethanol production will consist of (a) preparatory step to separate fibrous (cellulose) and non-fibrous (non-cellulosic compounds). The non-cellulosic residues which may include grains, fats or other substrates for alcoholic fermentation. The fibrous residues will be first pre-treated to digest cellulose with acid, alkali, and sulfur dioxide gas or other solvents. (b) The altered cellulose will be digested by suitable micro-organisms and cellulose enzymes before alcoholic fermentation. The digester and fermentative unit will be specially designed to develop a prototype for pilot plant for a continuous process. The first phase of the project will be devoted toward screening of a suitable method for cellulose modification, separation of fibrous and non-fibrous residues, the micro-organism and enzyme preparations. Work is in progress on: the effects of various microorganisms on the degree of saccharification; the effects of higher concentrations of acids, alkali, and EDTA on efficiency of microbial degradation; and the effects of chemicals on enzymatic digestion.

  9. Removal of trichloroethylene by zerovalent iron/activated carbon derived from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuh-fan; Cheng, Yu-ling; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2013-11-15

    Activated carbon (AC) and zerovalent iron (ZVI) have been widely used in the adsorption and dehalogenation process, respectively, for the removal of organic compounds in environmental treatments. This study aims to prepare ZVI/AC derived from an agricultural waste, coir pith, through simple one-step pyrolysis. The effect of activation temperature and time on the surface area, iron content, and zerovalent iron ratio of ZVI/AC was systemically investigated. The results indicated that the activation of AC by FeSO4 significantly increased surface area of AC and distributed elemental iron over the AC. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of ZVI/AC revealed that zerovalent iron was present. As compared to AC without FeSO4 activation, ZVI/AC increased the trichloroethylene removal rate constant by 7 times. The dechlorination ability of ZVI/AC was dominated by the zerovalent iron content. We have shown that lab-made ZVI/AC from coir pith can effectively adsorb and dehalogenate the chlorinated compounds in water.

  10. Struvite for composting of agricultural wastes with termite mound: Utilizing the unutilized.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Das, Kuntal

    2015-01-01

    Although, compost is the store house of different plant nutrients, there is a concern for low amount of major nutrients especially nitrogen content in prepared compost. The present study deals with preparation of compost by using agricultural wastes with struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) along with termite mound. Among four composting mixtures, 50kg termite mound and 2.5kg struvite with crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65kg; soybean: 354.59kg; potato: 357.67kg and mustard: 373.19kg) and cow dung (84.90kg) formed a good quality compost within 70days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 21.59, 3.98 and 34.6gkg(-1), respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the composts. The four composts formed two (pit 1, pit 2 and pit 3, pit 4) different groups. Two principal components expressed more than 97% of the total variability. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted two homogeneous groups of composts.

  11. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity.

  12. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-12-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a significant number were detected and quantified. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, followed closely by cephalexin, ofloxacin, and diclofenac, which were detected in >91% of samples and found to have median (maximum) concentrations of 0.2 (5.8), 0.39 (24.0), 0.02 (100.4), 0.41 (14.5), 0.15 (31.4), 0.14 (13.6) and 0.083 (29.8) microg/L, respectively. Lincomycin and acetaminophen had high measured concentrations (>100 microg/L), and 35 other pharmaceuticals occurred at the microg/L level. These incidence and concentration results correlate well with published data for other worldwide locations, as well as with Taiwanese medication usage data, suggesting a human contamination source. Many pharmaceuticals also occurred at levels exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), warranting further investigation of their occurrence and fate in receiving waters, as well as the overall risks they pose for local ecosystems and human residents. The information provided here will also be useful for development of strategies for regulation and remediation.

  13. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of methyl violet sorption by agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H

    2008-06-15

    In this work, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed hull (SSH), an agricultural waste, was evaluated for its ability to remove methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions. Sorption isotherm of MV onto the SSH was determined at 30 degrees C with the initial concentrations of MV in the range of 25-300 mg/L. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium process was described well by the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum SSH sorption capacity was found to be 92.59 mg/L at 30 degrees C. The kinetic data were studied in terms of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The pseudo-second-order model best described the sorption process. A single-stage batch-adsorber design of the adsorption of MV onto SSH was studied based on the Freundlich isotherm equation. The results indicated that sunflower seed hull was an attractive candidate for removing methyl violet from aqueous solution.

  14. Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using amine-grafted agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, W G; Kandasamy, Jaya; Ngo, H H; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-09-15

    Adsorption using low-cost adsorbents is a favourable water treatment method for the removal of water contaminants. In this study the enhanced removal of nitrate, a contaminant at elevated concentration affecting human health and causing eutrophication of water, was tested using chemically modified agricultural wastes as adsorbents. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption studies were performed on corn cob and coconut copra that were surface modified by amine-grafting to increase the surface positive charges. The Langmuir nitrate adsorption capacities (mgN/g) were 49.9 and 59.0 for the amine-grafted (AG) corn cob and coconut copra, respectively at pH6.5 and ionic strength 1×10(-3)M NaCl. These values are higher than those of many commercially available anion exchange resins. Fixed-bed (15-cm height) adsorption capacities (mgN/g) calculated from the breakthrough curves were 15.3 and 18.6 for AG corn cob and AG coconut copra, respectively, for an influent nitrate concentration 20mg N/L at a flow velocity 5m/h. Nitrate adsorption decreased in the presence of sulphate, phosphate and chloride, with sulphate being the most competitive anion. The Thomas model fitted well to the fixed-bed adsorption data from four repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. Plug-flow model fitted well to the data from only the first cycle.

  15. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  16. Removal of atrazine from water by low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Joseph, P E

    2008-05-01

    In the present study six adsorbents viz. wood charcoal, fly ash, coconut charcoal, saw dust, coconut fiber and baggasse charcoal were studied for their capacity to remove atrazine from water. The removal efficiency of different adsorbents varied from 76.5% to 97.7% at 0.05 ppm concentration and 78.5% to 95.5% at 0.1 ppm concentration of atrazine solution, which was less than removal efficiency of activated charcoal reported as 98% for atrazine (Adams and Watson, J Environ Eng ASCE 39:327-330, 1996). Wood charcoal was a cheap (Rs 15 kg(-1)) and easily available material in house holds. Since wood charcoal was granular in nature, it could be used for the removal of atrazine from water to the extent of 95.5%-97.7%. Fly ash is a waste product of thermal plant containing 40%-50% silica, 20%-35% alumina, 12%-30% carbon and unburnt minerals having a high pH of 9-10. It is very cheap and abundant material and has comparatively good adsorption capacity. It was found that fly ash effectively removed about 84.1%-88.5% atrazine from water at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm levels. Coconut shell is also waste product. Therefore, both are inexpensive. The removal efficiency of atrazine from water was 92.4%-95.2% by coconut shell charcoal and 85.9%-86.3% by coconut fiber. Sawdust is generally used as domestic fuel and found everywhere. It is also very cheap (Re. 1 kg(-1)). Baggasse charcoal is a waste product of sugar mill and abundant material. Its cost is due to transport expense, which depends upon distance from the sugar mill. The removal efficiency of sawdust and baggasse charcoal was found 78.5-80.5 and 76.5-84.6, respectively. The efficacy of chemically treated adsorbents for the removal of atrazine from water is in the order: wood charcoal > coconut shell charcoal > fly ash > coconut fiber charcoal > baggasse charcoal > sawdust.

  17. Chemical and physical properties of waste package packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Relyea, J.F.; Lane, D.L.; Carlson, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Data has been gathered to develop a preliminary understanding of the behavior of crushed basalt and sodium bentonite alone as well as mixtures of 75% crushed basalt-25% sodium bentonite, the current reference candidate material. The material properties investigated included: (1) chemical stability under dry thermal and hydrothermal conditions; (2) radionuclide sorption capacity and solubility limits; and (3) hydraulic conductivities as a function of material density and temperature. The primary results of these studies indicate that: (1) the phase structure and swelling potential of bentonite remain intact up to dehydration temperatures of 370{degree}C; (2) the primary hydrothermal reaction in a basalt-bentonite mixture is the alteration of basalt glass to smectites, zeolites, and quartz; (3) minor reaction of bentonite to form albite and quartz occurs with a slight enrichment of potassium in the bentonite phase; (4) the mobility of cationic radionuclides is low in the presence of basalt and bentonite under the expected reducing waste package geochemical conditions because of low solubility and high sorption; and (5) moderate density basalt-bentonite mixture ({ge}1.7 g/cm{sup 3}) are characterized by low hydraulic conductivities ({le}1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/sec).

  18. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Le, H. T.; Jantarat, N.

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment. PMID:27525274

  19. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Le, H T; Jantarat, N; Khanitchaidecha, W; Ratananikom, K; Nakaruk, A

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material) and concrete (nonbiodegradable material) were used as the carrier for microorganisms' attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99%) and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%). The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms' adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  20. SB 1082 -- Unified hazardous materials/waste program: Local implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.

    1995-12-31

    California Senate Bill 1082 was signed into law in the fall of 1993 because business and industry believed there were too many hazardous materials inspectors asking the same questions, looking at the same items and requiring similar information on several variations of the same form. Industry was not happy with the large diversity of programs, each with its own inspectors, permits and fees, essentially doing what industry believed was the same inspection. SB 1082 will allow local city and county agencies to apply to the California Environmental Protection Agency to become a Certified Unified Program Agency (CUPA) or work with a CUPA as a Participating Agency (PA) to manage specific program elements. The CUPA will unify six regulatory programs including hazardous waste/tiered permitting, aboveground storage tanks, underground storage tanks, business and area plans/inventory or disclosure, acutely hazardous materials/risk management prevention and Uniform Fire Code programs related to hazardous materials inventory/plan requirements. The bill requires the CUPA to (1) implement a permit consolidation program; (2) implement a single fee system with a state surcharge; (3) consolidate, coordinate and make consistent any local or regional requirements or guidance documents; and (4) implement a single unified inspection and enforcement program.

  1. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  2. Zeolite materials prepared using silicate waste from template synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Kyung; Rajesh, Kizhakke Palleeri; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2013-09-15

    Significant amount of silica waste is generated in the preparation of porous carbon materials using template synthesis. Industrial production of such porous carbon not only creates waste chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns and high waste treatment cost. Recycling is proposed as the best solution for tackling such chemical wastes. In this study, etched silica waste released from template synthesis of mesoporous carbon is recycled to produce precious functional microporous zeolite materials. The solid silica template is etched out with NaOH solution to produce silica-free mesoporous carbon. The collected silica waste is recycled to generate zeolites such as LTA and MFI type silica materials. The formation of zeolites is confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, (29)Si NMR, (27)Al NMR, and SEM. This straight forward green chemistry route not only recycles the waste chemicals, but also decreases environmental pollution for better improvement of our living.

  3. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  4. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  5. Managing Materials and Wastes for Homeland Security Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide information on waste management planning and preparedness before a homeland security incident, including preparing for the large amounts of waste that would need to be managed when an incident occurs, such as a large-scale natural disaster.

  6. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture.

  7. Adsorption of gold ions from industrial wastewater using activated carbon derived from hard shell of apricot stones - an agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Mansooreh; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2008-09-01

    In this study, hard shell of apricot stones was selected from agricultural solid wastes to prepare effective and low cost adsorbent for the gold separation from gold-plating wastewater. Different adsorption parameters like adsorbent dose, particle size of activated carbon, pH and agitation speed of mixing on the gold adsorption were studied. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions, more than 98% of gold was adsorbed onto activated carbon after only 3h. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Isotherms have been used to obtain thermodynamic parameters. Gold desorption studies were performed with aqueous solution mixture of sodium hydroxide and organic solvents at ambient temperatures. Quantitative recovery of gold ions is possible by this method. As hard shell of apricot stones is a discarded as waste from agricultural and food industries, the prepared activated carbon is expected to be an economical product for gold ion recovery from wastewater.

  8. Utilization of rice husk ash as novel adsorbent: a judicious recycling of the colloidal agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2009-11-30

    Concern about environmental protection has aroused over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the ever-increasing importance of biomass as the energy and material resources has lately been accounted by the rising prices for the crude petroleum oil. Rice husk ash, the most appropriate representative of the high ash biomass waste, is currently obtaining sufficient attraction, owning to its wide usefulness and potentiality in environmental conservation. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of the art review of the rice milling industry, its background studies, fundamental properties and industrial applications. Moreover, the key advance on the preparation of novel adsorbents, its major challenges together with the future expectation has been highlighted and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of rice husk ash in the field of adsorption science represents a viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation.

  9. State-of-the-art review of materials properties of nuclear waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Turcotte, R. P.; Gray, W. J.; Merz, M. D.; Roberts, F. P.; Weber, W. J.; Westsik, Jr., J. H.; Clark, D. E.

    1981-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) was established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assemble a standardized nuclear waste materials data base for use in research, systems and facility design, safety analyses, and waste management decisions. This centralized data base will be provided through the means of a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The first issue of the Handbook will be published in the fall of 1981 in looseleaf format so that it can be updated as additional information becomes available. To ensure utmost reliability, all materials data appearing in the Handbook will be obtained by standard procedures defined in the Handbook and approved by an independent Materials Review Board (MRB) comprised of materials experts from Department of Energy laboratories and from universities and industry. In the interim before publication of the Handbook there is need for a report summarizing the existing materials data on nuclear waste forms. This review summarizes materials property data for the nuclear waste forms that are being developed for immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to be a good representation of the knowledge concerning the properties of HLW forms as of March 1981. The table of contents lists the following topics: introduction which covers waste-form categories, and important waste-form materials properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; chemical durability; vaporization; radiation effects; and thermal phase stability.

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  11. Heavy metal immobilization and microbial community abundance by vegetable waste and pine cone biochar of agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Young Han; Tsang, Daniel C W; Rinklebe, Jörg; Kwon, Eilhann E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    In order to determine the efficacy of vegetable waste and pine cone biochar for immobilization of metal/metalloid (lead and arsenic) and abundance of microbial community in different agricultural soils, we applied the biochar produced at two different temperatures to two contaminated soils. Biochar was produced by vegetable waste, pine cone, and their mixture (1:1 ww(-1)) at 200 °C (torrefied biomass) and 500 °C (biochar). Contaminated soils were incubated with 5% (ww(-1)) torrefied biomass or biochar. Sequential extraction, thermodynamic modeling, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to evaluate the metal immobilization. Microbial communities were characterized by microbial fatty acid profiles and microbial activity was assessed by dehydrogenase activity. Vegetable waste and the mixture of vegetable waste and pine cone biochar exhibited greater ability for Pb immobilization than pine cone biochar and three torrefied biomass, and vegetable waste biochar was found to be most effective. However, torrefied biomass was most effective in increasing both microbial community and dehydrogenase activity. This study confirms that vegetable waste could be a vital biomass to produce biochar to immobilize Pb, and increase the microbial communities and enzyme activity in soils. Biomass and pyrolytic temperature were not found to be effective in the immobilization of As in this study.

  12. Characterization and inventories of nuclear materials and wastes for possible future energy scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1997-10-01

    Awareness of the total materials inventory and materials balance associated with differing methods for energy generation is part of present day concerns associated with disparate areas that include atmospheric emissions, resource utilization, health effects, and both current and long term hazards and risks. Nuclear energy, for a number of decades, has been the recipient of significant scrutiny concerning the materials and wastes it generates, particularly in the context of long term solutions to such issues. This paper examines the nuclear materials and waste generation for nuclear energy scenarios spanning the coming century. The paper also briefly addresses wastes (in the form of emissions) from other energy sources and examines requirements associated with backend energy system materials management. Possible future requirements pertaining to CO{sub 2} management are found to place conditions upon waste management generally similar to those for nuclear waste. One example of material flows for the case of coal generation of electricity coupled with carbon sequestration is also given.

  13. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  14. Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction.

  15. Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of PAHs and the PAH-degrading genes in a PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng

    2017-04-01

    Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial PAH-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil PAHs, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged PAHs and the abundance and community structure of PAH-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged PAHs and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and PAH-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil PAHs more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight PAHs were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged PAHs most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial PAH degraders.

  16. Beyond land application: Emerging technologies for the treatment and reuse of anaerobically digested agricultural and food waste.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Yebo

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment and reuse of the massive quantities of agricultural and food wastes generated daily has the potential to improve the sustainability of food production systems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used throughout the world as a waste treatment process to convert organic waste into two main products: biogas and nutrient-rich digestate, called AD effluent. Biogas can be used as a source of renewable energy or transportation fuels, while AD effluent is traditionally applied to land as a soil amendment. However, there are economic and environmental concerns that limit widespread land application, which may lead to underutilization of AD for the treatment of agricultural and food wastes. To combat these constraints, existing and novel methods have emerged to treat or reuse AD effluent. The objective of this review is to analyze several emerging methods used for efficient treatment and reuse of AD effluent. Overall, the application of emerging technologies is limited by AD effluent composition, especially the total solid content. Some technologies, such as composting, use the solid fraction of AD effluent, while most other technologies, such as algae culture and struvite crystallization, use the liquid fraction. Therefore, dewatering of AD effluent, reuse of the liquid and solid fractions, and land application could all be combined to sustainably manage the large quantities of AD effluent produced. Issues such as pathogen regrowth and prevalence of emerging organic micro-pollutants are also discussed.

  17. Secondary Zinc Waste Sludge: Resource Material with Potential Application.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Akram; Shrivastava, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    The waste sludge generated during secondary zinc extraction process of an industry was studied for the recovery of electrolytic grade zinc and copper. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the secondary zinc waste were studied in detail. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test was carried out for the sample and concentrations of heavy metals present in the waste were estimated. The engineering properties of the samples prepared through high temperature fired route provided important information on the characteristics and composition of the waste. Different binders like fly ash and yellow clay were used in different formulations using Indian Standard sand to prepare the samples and to study the Solidification-Stabilisation (S/S) mechanism of the encapsulated waste mass. The leachability studies and engineering properties of the samples were evaluated to study the abatement of hazardous potential of waste and to explore better utilisation options for the secondary zinc waste sludge.

  18. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  19. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  20. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-03-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Adrados, A.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different samples: real waste, simulated and real waste + catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the effects of inorganic components in the pyrolysis products. - Abstract: Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  2. Copper, lead and zinc removal from metal-contaminated wastewater by adsorption onto agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Janyasuthiwong, Suthee; Phiri, Sheila M; Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Rene, Eldon R; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural wastes (groundnut shell, orange and banana peel, rice husk, coconut husk and Wawa tree saw dust) as potential cost-effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from wastewater was evaluated. The effect of pH (2.0-6.0), adsorbent dosage (0.6-2.2 g), contact time (10-130 min) and initial concentration (Pb: 5-105 mg/L, Cu and Zn: 2.5-52.7 mg/L) on the metal removal efficiency and uptake capacity were investigated using response surface methodology to optimize the process conditions. Groundnut shell showed a high potential to remove Cu, Pb and Zn from synthetic wastewater. The highest removal efficiencies with groundnut as the adsorbent were 85% at pH 5.0 for Cu and 98% at pH 3.0 for Pb and Zn. The optimum conditions obtained were 2.5 g adsorbent with 40.7 mg/L Cu at pH 4.4 and 64 min contact time, 2.5 g adsorbent with 196.1 mg/L Pb at pH 5.6 and 60 min contact time and 3.1 g adsorbent with 70.2 mg/L Zn at pH 4.3 and 50 min contact time, for Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. The regeneration of the groundnut shell was possible for a maximum of three cycles using 0.2 M HCl as the desorbing solution without any significant change in the adsorbing efficiency.

  3. Economical and environmental implications of solid waste compost applications to agricultural fields in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qazi, M Akram; Akram, M; Ahmad, N; Artiola, Janick F; Tuller, M

    2009-09-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to agricultural soils is becoming an increasingly important global practice to enhance and sustain soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility levels. Potential risks associated with heavy metals and phosphorus accumulations in surface soils may be minimized with integrated nutrient management strategies that utilize MSWC together with mineral fertilizers. To explore the economic feasibility of MSWC applications, nutrient management plans were developed for rice-wheat and cotton-wheat cropping systems within the Punjab region of Pakistan. Three-year field trials were conducted to measure yields and to determine the economic benefits using three management strategies and two nutrient doses. Management strategies included the application of mineral fertilizers as the sole nutrient source and application of mineral fertilizers in combination with MSWC with and without pesticide/herbicide treatments. Fertilizer doses were either based on standard N, P and K recommendations or on measured site-specific soil plant available phosphorus (PAP) levels. It was found that combining MSWC and mineral fertilizer applications based on site-specific PAP levels with the use of pesticides and herbicides is an economically and environmentally viable management strategy. Results show that incorporation of MSWC improved soil physical properties such as bulk density and penetration resistance. The PAP levels in the surface layer increased by the end of the trials relative to the initial status. No potential risks of heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) accumulation were observed. Treatments comprised of MSWC and mineral fertilizer adjusted to site-specific PAP levels and with common pest management showed highest cumulative yields. A basic economic analysis revealed a significantly higher cumulative net profit and value-to-cost ratio (VCR) for all site-specific doses.

  4. Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.

    PubMed

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries.

  5. Potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas mitigation from municipal solid waste using a waste-to-material approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2016-12-01

    Energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastes are getting noticed in recent years. This study evaluated the potential for energy recovery and GHG mitigation from municipal solid waste (MSW) with a waste-to-material (WTM) approach. Waste generated in Taiwan contains a large amount of paper, food waste, and plastics, which previously were mostly sent to waste-to-energy (WTE) plants for incineration. However, the mitigation of GHGs by the WTM approach has been especially successful in the recycling of metals (averaging 1.83×10(6)kgCO2-eq/year) and paper (averaging 7.38×10(5)kgCO2-eq/year). In addition, the recycling of paper (1.33×10(10)kWh) and plastics (1.26×10(10)kWh) has contributed greatly to energy saving. Both metal and glass are not suitable for incineration due to their low energy content. The volumes of paper and food waste contained in the MSW are positively related to the carbon concentration, which may contribute to increased GHGs during incineration. Therefore, the recycling of paper, metals, and food waste is beneficial for GHG mitigation. Measures to reduce GHGs were also suggested in this study. The development of the WTM approach may be helpful for the proper management of MSW with regards to GHG mitigation. The results of this study can be a successful example for other nations.

  6. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  7. Co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-10-01

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) with coal and municipal or industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in a central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of the performance evaluation completed as part of this study, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  8. Molecular Environmental Science Using Synchrotron Radiation: Chemistry and Physics of Waste Form Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, Dennis W.

    2011-04-21

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization. Specially formulated glass compositions and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites are the main candidates for these wastes. An important consideration linked to the durability of waste-form materials is the local structure around the waste components. Equally important is the local structure of constituents of the glass and ceramic host matrix. Knowledge of the structure in the waste-form host matrices is essential, prior to and subsequent to waste incorporation, to evaluate and develop improved waste-form compositions based on scientific considerations. This project used the soft-x-ray synchrotron-radiation-based technique of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) as a unique method for investigating oxidation states and structures of low-Z elemental constituents forming the backbones of glass and ceramic host matrices for waste-form materials. In addition, light metal ions in ceramic hosts, such as titanium, are also ideal for investigation by NEXAFS in the soft-x-ray region. Thus, one of the main objectives was to understand outstanding issues in waste-form science via NEXAFS investigations and to translate this understanding into better waste-form materials, followed by eventual capability to investigate “real” waste-form materials by the same methodology. We conducted several detailed structural investigations of both pyrochlore ceramic and borosilicate-glass materials during the project and developed improved capabilities at Beamline 6.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to perform the studies.

  9. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  10. Heavy metals retention capacity of a non-conventional sorbent developed from a mixture of industrial and agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Agouborde, Lina; Navia, Rodrigo

    2009-08-15

    Zinc and copper removal from aqueous solutions using brine sediments (industrial residue), sawdust (agricultural residue) and the mixture of both materials has been researched through batch and column tests. Brine sediments were found to be mainly constituted by halite and calcite, while its main cations exchangeable were sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium. In sawdust the main exchangeable cations detected were calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. FT-IR spectra of sawdust and brine sediment-sawdust mixture showed that brine sediments produced important changes in carboxylic, alcoholic and phenolic groups present in the sawdust. The maximum zinc adsorption capacity was found to be 4.85, 2.58 and 5.59 mg/g using an adsorbent/solution ratio of 1/40, for brine sediments, sawdust and the mixture, respectively. For copper, the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 4.69, 2.31 and 4.33 mg/g, using adsorbent/solution ratios of 1/40, for brine sediments, sawdust and the mixture, respectively. Maximum copper adsorption capacity of the mixture, on the contrary to zinc adsorption, was lightly inferior to maximum adsorption capacity obtained in brine sediments. Adsorption isotherms data adjusted better to the Langmuir model. Additionally, columns reached the saturation point at 690 min for zinc and 360 min for copper. The main mechanism involved in the removal of both metals may be the ionic exchange between sodium and calcium ions present in brine sediments and H(+) present in functional groups of sawdust. The use of brine sediments, sawdust and their mixture, presents an interesting option both, for wastewater decontamination (as a possible non-conventional sorbent for the removal of heavy metals) and as a waste recycling option.

  11. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  12. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials--selection of methods.

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Robbens, J; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or--if not all compounds are identified--from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  13. Development of a methodology for electronic waste estimation: A material flow analysis-based SYE-Waste Model.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Improved living standards and the share of services sector to the economy in Asia, and the use of electronic equipment is on the rise and results in increased electronic waste generation. A peculiarity of electronic waste is that it has a 'significant' value even after its life time, and to add complication, even after its extended life in its 'dump' stage. Thus, in Indian situations, after its life time is over, the e-material changes hands more than once and finally ends up either in the hands of informal recyclers or in the store rooms of urban dwellings. This character makes it extremely difficult to estimate electronic waste generation. The present study attempts to develop a functional model based on a material flow analysis approach by considering all possible end uses of the material, its transformed goods finally arriving at disposal. It considers various degrees of uses derived of the e-goods regarding their primary use (life time), secondary use (first degree extension of life), third-hand use (second degree extension of life), donation, retention at the respective places (without discarding), fraction shifted to scrap vendor, and the components reaching the final dump site from various end points of use. This 'generic functional model' named SYE-Waste Model, developed based on a material flow analysis approach, can be used to derive 'obsolescence factors' for various degrees of usage of e-goods and also to make a comprehensive estimation of electronic waste in any city/country.

  14. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  15. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products

  16. Heat Energy. 7th and 8th Grade Agriculture Science Curriculum. Teacher Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This curriculum guide the first of a series of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on heat energy prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for students in grades 8-10…

  17. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  18. EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

  19. Core I Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units G-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final four of a series of 10 designed for use in metropolitan agriculture/horticulture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on growing and managing horticultural crops are watering plants; pruning, pinching, and planting plants; using plant production…

  20. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units D-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on livestock science are understanding the livestock industry, identifying breeds of livestock and poultry, selecting livestock, and feeding livestock.…

  1. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  2. Electrical Energy. 7th and 8th Grade Agriculture Science Curriculum. Teacher Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This curriculum guide, the fifth in a set of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on electrical energy prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for students in grades…

  3. Solar Energy. 7th and 8th Grade Agriculture Science Curriculum. Teacher Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This curriculum guide, the third in a set of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on solar energy prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for students in grades 8-10…

  4. Core I Materials for Rural Agricultural Programs. Units F-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final three of a series of eight designed for use in rural agriculture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on soil science and conservation of natural resources are collecting soil samples and applying soil sample test results. Growing vegetables and…

  5. Vocational Instructional Materials for Agriculture and Agribusiness Education Available from Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carol L., Comp.

    This listing of federally produced curriculum and instructional materials for agriculture and agribusiness education is one of eight annotated bibliographies that provide information for vocational educators at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels. Introductory information given includes a description of how to use the listing and…

  6. From waste to sustainable materials management: Three case studies of the transition journey.

    PubMed

    Silva, Angie; Rosano, Michele; Stocker, Laura; Gorissen, Leen

    2017-03-01

    Waste policy is increasingly moving on from the 'prevention of waste' to a 'sustainable materials policy' focused agenda recognising individual wastes as a resource. In order to comparatively analyse policy developments in enhanced waste management, three case studies were selected; San Francisco's Zero Waste Program, Flanders's Sustainable Materials Management Initiative and Japan's Sound Material-Cycle Society Plan. These case studies were chosen as an opportunity to investigate the variety of leading approaches, governance structures, and enhanced waste policy outcomes, emerging globally. This paper concludes that the current transitional state of waste management across the world, is only in the first leg of the journey towards Circular Economy closed loop production models of waste as a resource material. It is suggested that further development in government policy, planning and behaviour change is required. A focus on material policy and incorporating multiple front runners across industry and knowledge institutions are offered as potential directions in the movement away from end-pipe land-fill solutions.

  7. SHC Project 3.63, Task 2, Beneficial Use of Waste Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SHC Project 3.63, Task 2, “Beneficial Use of Waste Materials”, is designed to conduct research and analyses to characterize and quantify the risks and benefits of using or reusing waste materials. There are 6 primary research areas in Task 2 that cover a broad spectrum of topics germane to the beneficial use of waste materials and address Agency, Office, Region and other client needs. The 6 research areas include: 1) Materials Recovery Technology, 2) Beneficial Use of Materials Optimization, 3) Novel Products from Waste Materials, 4) Land Application of Biosolids, 5) Soil Remediation Amendments and 6) Improved Leaching Methods for More Accurate Prediction of Environmental Release of Metals. The objectives of each research area, their intended products and progress to date will be presented. The products of this Task will enable communities and the Agency to better protect and enhance human health, well-being and the environment for current and future generations, through the reduction in material consumption, reuse, and recycling of materials. This presentation is designed to convey the rational, purpose and planned research in EPAs Safe and Healthy Communities (SHC) National Research Program Project 3.63 (Sustainable Materials Management) Task 2, “Beneficial Use of Waste Materials”, which is designed to conduct research and analyses to characterize and quantify the risks and benefits of using or reusing waste materials. . This presentation has bee

  8. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  9. Tellurite glass as a waste form for a simulated mixed chloride waste stream: Candidate materials selection and initial testing

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-02-02

    Tellurite glasses have been researched widely for the last 60 years since they were first introduced by Stanworth. These glasses have been primarily used in research applications as glass host materials for lasers and as non-linear optical materials, though many other uses exist in the literature. Tellurite glasses have long since been used as hosts for various, and even sometimes mixed, halogens (i.e., multiple chlorides or even chlorides and iodides). Thus, it was reasonable to expect that these types of glasses could be used as a waste form to immobilize a combination of mixed chlorides present in the electrochemical separations process involved with fuel separations and processing from nuclear reactors. Many of the properties related to waste forms (e.g., chemical durability, maximum chloride loading) for these materials are unknown and thus, in this study, several different types of tellurite glasses were made and their properties studied to determine if such a candidate waste form could be fabricated with these glasses. One of the formulations studied was a lead tellurite glass, which had a low sodium release and is on-par with high-level waste silicate glass waste forms.

  10. Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2001-03-12

    PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102.

  11. Instructional Materials Available from Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, Texas. Price List No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Teaching Materials Center, College Station, TX.

    Price lists and order forms are provided for courses of study, lesson plans, and laboratory exercises for vocational agriculture cooperative education and preemployment laboratory training. Courses of study and required references are listed for training employees for: (1) milk, meat, and poultry processing, (2) poultry hatcheries, (3) dairy…

  12. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills.

  13. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households.

    PubMed

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-01

    A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  14. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  16. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants.

  17. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    PubMed

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  18. Bonding material containing ashes after domestic waste incineration for cementation of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Gorbunova, O.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Barinov, A.S.

    2007-07-01

    It is known that cement minerals hydration is accompanied with heat emission. Heat of hardening influences formation of a cement compound structure and its properties. It is important to reduce the heat quantity at continuous cementation of waste and filling of compartments of a repository or containers by a cement grout. For reduction of heating, it is necessary to use cement of mineral additives (fuel ashes, slag and hydraulic silica). Properties of ashes after domestic waste incineration can be similar to ones of fly fuel ashes. However, ash after domestic waste incineration is toxic industrial waste as it contains toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn). Utilization of secondary waste (slag and ash) of combustion plants is an important environmental approach to solving cities' issues. Results of the research have shown that ashes of combustion plants can be used for radioactive waste conditioning. Co-processing of toxic and radioactive waste is ecologically and economically effective. At SIA 'Radon', experimental batches of cement compositions are used for cementation of oil containing waste. (authors)

  19. SHC Project 3.63, Task 2, Beneficial Use of Waste Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    SHC Project 3.63, Task 2, “Beneficial Use of Waste Materials”, is designed to conduct research and analyses to characterize and quantify the risks and benefits of using or reusing waste materials. There are 6 primary research areas in Task 2 that cover a broad spectr...

  20. MOVING FROM SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL TO MATERIALS MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The desire for less waste and more sustainable use of resources has resulted in the U.S. EPA's Resource Conservation Challenge. This initiative is directed towards helping the U.S. transition from waste disposal towards materials management. Understanding the potential environmen...

  1. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  2. Material Recycling and Waste Minimization by Freeze Crystallization. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    from cleaning operations, primarily in the propulsion command. The industrial waste pretreatment system can’t handle the loads, and thus the wastes...are primarily nitric and sulfuric acids used for pickling, cleaning, or surface pretreatment . Water is absorbed from the atmosphere and produced as a...and/or recycle opportunity. 2. List these potential applications and work with TPO and Tinker AFB staff to develop a prioritization of these

  3. Surfactant modified coir pith, an agricultural solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kumar, M V Suresh

    2005-10-01

    The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the modified coir pith was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found to be 4.0. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of coexisting anions has also been studied. The feasibility of using spent adsorbent as fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release was also investigated.

  4. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the WP. This

  5. On-line measurements of emissions and atmospheric fate of compounds from agricultural waste management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural emissions impact air quality on a local and regional basis. Research on the emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture has become commonplace due to concerns about climate but other chemical compounds also impact air quality. These include compounds that are photochemi...

  6. Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.

    2000-08-16

    Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions.

  7. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  8. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  9. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of alkali-treated waste materials for the adsorption of sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Lisha

    2012-01-01

    The present work is to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of a hazardous antibacterial, sulphamethoxazole, from the wastewater by the Adsorption technique. The Adsorption technique was used to impound the dangerous antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya (DOS), an agricultural waste, and Water Hyacinth (WH), a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10 to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents, i.e. DOS, Alkali-treated DOS, WH and Alkali-treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. DOS showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali-treated Deoiled Soya exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity, which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali-treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 and 12 kJ mol, which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Kinetic study reveals that the reaction follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, mass transfer studies performed for the ongoing processes show that the mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali-treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90-98%. About 87-97% of sulphamethoxazole was recovered from column by desorption.

  10. Leaching tests as a tool in waste management to evaluate the potential for utilization of waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sloot, H.A. van der; Kosson, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    Several waste materials from large scale industrial processes possess technical properties that would allow their use in certain construction applications, e.g. coal fly ash, slags from large scale industrial melting and ore processing, and incinerator residues. The disposal of such materials requires space and controlled landfills to minimize long term environmental risks. The beneficial use of such bulk materials is an attractive alternative, if it can be shown that such applications are environmentally acceptable. For this management of wastes and the decision to either dispose or use, information on the environmental properties of materials is needed. Leaching tests have been developed to assess such properties. These have been designed typically in relation to regulatory tools, not as instruments to guide the management of wastes and the possibilities to improve material properties. New methods have been designed to address this aspect, in which maximum benefit can be derived from knowledge of the systematic behaviour of materials and the already existing knowledge in other countries producing similar residues. After initial detailed characterization, concise procedures can be used for control purposes focused on the typical aspects of a certain residue stream. Examples of existing knowledge in this field will be presented.

  11. 40 CFR 262.210 - Making the hazardous waste determination in the laboratory before the unwanted material is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(3) for acute hazardous waste, or § 261.5(g)(3) for hazardous waste. (e) An unwanted material that is... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making the hazardous waste....210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  12. 40 CFR 262.210 - Making the hazardous waste determination in the laboratory before the unwanted material is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)(3) for acute hazardous waste, or § 261.5(g)(3) for hazardous waste. (e) An unwanted material that is... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making the hazardous waste....210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  13. 40 CFR 262.210 - Making the hazardous waste determination in the laboratory before the unwanted material is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(3) for acute hazardous waste, or § 261.5(g)(3) for hazardous waste. (e) An unwanted material that is... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making the hazardous waste....210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  14. Oil-containing waste water treating material consisting of modified active carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Shigeta, S.; Takenaka, Y.

    1982-03-16

    An oil-containing waste water treating material comprises an active carbon upon whose surface is chemically bonded at least one nitrogenous compound which is an amine or a quaternarized derivative thereof.

  15. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D)...

  16. Energy potential from livestock and poultry wastes in the South. Agricultural Economic Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.B.; Ogden, E.A.

    1984-11-01

    Livestock and poultry wastes could produce significant amounts of biomass energy if conventional energy prices continue to rise. This study estimates the economically recoverable energy available through anaerobic digestion or direct burning of animal wastes in the South for the base year 1980 with projections for 1985 and 1990. Potential thermal energy from livestock and poultry wastes in 1990 could total more than 79.5 trillion Btu, or about 30 percent of the energy from such sources nationwide. The total potential farm value of biomass energy from livestock and poultry enterprises in the South could range from $344 million to $1.08 billion in 1990 depending upon the types of conventional energy displaced. Energy products from these wastes attained their highest value when substituted for LP gas.

  17. Material Flow Analysis as a Tool to improve Waste Management Systems: The Case of Austria.

    PubMed

    Allesch, Astrid; Brunner, Paul H

    2017-01-03

    This paper demonstrates the power of material flow analysis (MFA) for designing waste management (WM) systems and for supporting decisions with regards to given environmental and resource goals. Based on a comprehensive case study of a nationwide WM-system, advantages and drawbacks of a mass balance approach are discussed. Using the software STAN, a material flow system comprising all relevant inputs, stocks and outputs of wastes, products, residues, and emissions is established and quantified. Material balances on the level of goods and selected substances (C, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, N, Ni, P, Pb, Zn) are developed to characterize this WM-system. The MFA results serve well as a base for further assessments. Based on given goals, stakeholders engaged in this study selected the following seven criteria for evaluating their WM-system: (i) waste input into the system, (ii) export of waste (iii) gaseous emissions from waste treatment plants, (iv) long-term gaseous and liquid emissions from landfills, (v) waste being recycled, (vi) waste for energy recovery, (vii) total waste landfilled. By scenario analysis, strengths and weaknesses of different measures were identified. The results reveal the benefits of a mass balance approach due to redundancy, data consistency, and transparency for optimization, design, and decision making in WM.

  18. Using artificial fluorescent particles as tracers of livestock wastes within an agricultural catchment.

    PubMed

    Granger, Steve J; Bol, Roland; Hawkins, Jane M B; White, Sue M; Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Marsh, Jon K; Bilotta, Gary S; Brazier, Richard E; Macleod, Christopher J A; Haygarth, Philip M

    2011-02-15

    Evidence for the movement of agricultural slurry and associated pollutants into surface waters is often anecdotal, particularly with relation to its 'particulate' components which receive less attention than 'bio-available' soluble phases. To assess the extent of movement of slurry particles artificial fluorescent particles were mixed with slurry and applied to a field sub-catchment within a headwater catchment. Particles were 2-60 μm in diameter and two different densities, 2.7 and 1.2 g cm(-3) representing 'inorganic' and 'organic' material. Water samples from the field and catchment outlet were collected during two storm events following slurry application and analysed for particle and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). SSC from the field and catchment outlet always formed clockwise hysteresis loops indicating sediment exhaustion and particles of the two densities were always found to be positively correlated. Particles from the field formed clockwise hysteresis loops during the first discharge event after slurry application, but anti-clockwise hysteresis loops during the second monitored event which indicated a depletion of readily mobilisable particles. Particles from the catchment outlet always formed anticlockwise hysteresis loops. Particle size became finer spatially, between field and catchment outlet, and temporally, between successive storm events. The results indicate that slurry particles may be readily transported within catchments but that different areas may contribute to pollutant loads long after the main peak in SSC has passed. The density of the particles did not appear to have any effect on particle transport however the size of the particles may play a more important role in the 2-60 μm range.

  19. 40 CFR 227.9 - Limitations on quantities of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials. 227.9 Section 227.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.9 Limitations on quantities of waste materials. Substances which may damage the...

  20. 49 CFR 173.12 - Exceptions for shipment of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with a solid material, successfully passes the tests prescribed in §§ 178.603 (drop) and 178.606... exceed 5 kg (11 pounds) net weight per outer packaging. Organic Peroxide, Type B material may not exceed... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for shipment of waste materials....

  1. 49 CFR 173.12 - Exceptions for shipment of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with a solid material, successfully passes the tests prescribed in §§ 178.603 (drop) and 178.606... exceed 5 kg (11 pounds) net weight per outer packaging. Organic Peroxide, Type B material may not exceed... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for shipment of waste materials....

  2. Incorporating waste into an experimental school prototype: lessons regarding materials reclamation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Kong Seng; Mohd Yaacob, Naziaty; Rao, Sreenivasaiah Purushothama; Hashim, Nor Rasidah

    2012-12-01

    This article presents lessons learned from a design project that explored the possibility of incorporating waste into the design of a school prototype. The authors worked with professional architects, a waste artist, environmental scientists and local waste operators to uncover new uses and applications for discarded items. As a result, bottles, aluminium cans, reclaimed doors, crushed concrete and second-hand bricks, etc. were identified, explored and integrated into the architectural design. This article serves as a catalyst that advocates the use of reclaimed materials in the field of design and planning. In particular, it highlights the challenges and issues that need to be addressed in carrying out design work with waste. Designers and practitioners interested in minimizing waste generation by proposing the use of reclaimed materials will find this article useful.

  3. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  4. Lining materials for waste-disposal containment and waste-storage facilities. January 1970-July 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, characteristics, performance, and materials used to make liners employed in the waste disposal and storage industry. Liners made of concrete, polymeric materials, compacted clays, asphalt, and in-situ glass are discussed. The use of these liners to contain municipal wastes, hazardous waste liquids, and both low-level and high-level radioactive wastes is presented. Liner permeability, transport, stability, construction, and design are studied. Laboratory field measurements for specific wastes are included. (Contains 74 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. Application of material flow analysis to municipal solid waste in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-03-01

    Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The results included the identification and quantification of the main input and output flows of the MSWM system in 2007 and 2014, from the generation, material recovery and collection, to final disposal and the unaccounted flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). We estimated that the waste generation increased from 397×10(3) tonnes in 2007 to 437×10(3) tonnes in 2014, whereas the total material recovery was insignificant in both years - 3×10(3) and 7×10(3) tonnes, respectively. As for collection and final disposal, the official collection of waste to the local dumpsite in the inner city increased about threefold, from 76×10(3) to 253×10(6) tonnes. For waste unaccounted for, the estimates indicated a reduction during the study period from 300×10(3) to 158×10(3) tonnes, due to the increase of collection services. The emphasized aspects include the need for practical waste reduction strategies, the opportunity to explore the potential for material recovery, careful consideration regarding the growing trend of illegal dumping and the urgency in phasing-out from the harmful practice of open dumping.

  6. Removal of Pb, Cd, and Cr in a water purification system using modified mineral waste materials and activated carbon derived from waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. R.; Su, L. C.; Ruan, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to find out and optimize the removal efficiency of heavy metals in a water purification unit using a low-cost waste material and modified mineral waste materials (MMWM) accompanied with activated carbon (AC) derived from waste materials. The factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-5cm), the height of the packing materials (5-20cm), the size of AC (200-20mesh), the size of MMWM (1-0.045mm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:0 - 0:1) were examined based on a L18 (5) 3 orthogonal array design. In order to achieve an optimally maximum removal efficiency, the factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-7.5cm), the height of the packing materials (10-30cm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:4-4:1) were examined based on a L16 (4) 3 orthogonal array design. A height of 25cm, inner diameter of 5cm, ratio between AC and MMWM of 3:2 with size of 60-40mesh and 0.075-0.045mm, respectively, were the best conditions determined by the ICP-OES analysis to perform the adsorption of heavy metals in this study.

  7. Microbiological study on bioremediation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) contaminated soil by agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaoning; Ma, Shuang; Li, Yuanping; Yan, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Jie; Tan, Xuebin

    2016-11-01

    This paper studied the degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contaminated soil under composting and natural conditions, respectively. BDE-47 residue in agricultural waste-composting pile was determined during 45-day composting. The microbial communities were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the relationships between the DGGE results and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA) and heatmap-clustering analysis. The results showed that the degradation rate of BDE-47 was significantly higher in agricultural waste-composting pile compared with control group, which was enhanced up to almost 15 % at the end of composting. There were different environmental factors which affected the distribution of composting bacterial and fungal communities. The bacterial community composition was more significantly affected by the addition of BDE-47 compared with other physico-chemical parameters, and BDE-47 had stronger influences on bacterial community than fungal community during the composting. Meanwhile, the most variation in distribution of fungal community was explained by pile temperature.

  8. Exo-pectinase production by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes and optimizing of medium components using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Ozlem; Dursun, Arzu Y

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the production of exo-pectinase by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes was studied. Agricultural wastes containing pectin such as wheat bran, sugar beet pulp, sunflower plate, orange peel, banana peel, apple pomace and grape pomace were tested as substrates, and activity of exo-pectinase was determined only in the mediums containing sugar beet pulp and wheat bran. Then, effects of parameters such as concentrations of solid substrate (wheat bran and sugar beet pulp) (A), ammonium sulphate (B) and yeast extract (C) on the production of exo-pectinase were investigated by response surface methodology. First, wheat bran was used as solid substrate, and it was determined that exo-pectinase activity increased when relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulphate (0.12-0.21% w/v) and yeast extract (0.12-0.3% w/v) and relatively high wheat bran (~5-6% w/v) were used. Then, exo-pectinase production was optimized by response surface methodology using sugar beet pulp as a solid substrate. In comparison to P values of the coefficients, values of not greater than 0.05 of A and B (2) showed that the effect of these process variables in exo-pectinase production was important and that changes done in these variables will alter the enzyme activity.

  9. Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Zhao, Xuchen; Tysklind, Mats; Hao, Fanghua

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss.

  10. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  11. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  12. Survey of matrix materials for solidified radioactive high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating advanced waste forms, including matrix waste forms, that may provide a very high degree of stability under the most severe repository conditions. The purpose of this study was to recommend practical matrix materials for future development that most enhance the stability of the matrix waste forms. The functions of the matrix were reviewed. Desirable matrix material properties were discussed and listed relative to the matrix functions. Potential matrix materials were discussed and recommendations were made for future matrix development. The matrix mechanically contains waste cores, reduces waste form temperatures, and is capable of providing a high-quality barrier to leach waters. High-quality barrier matrices that separate and individually encapsulate the waste cores are fabricated by powder fabrication methods, such as sintering, hot pressing, and hot isostatic pressing. Viable barrier materials are impermeable, extremely corrosion resistant, and mechanically strong. Three material classes potentially satisfy the requirements for a barrier matrix and are recommended for development: titanium, glass, and graphite. Polymers appear to be marginally adequate, and a more thorough engineering assessment of their potential should be made.

  13. The utilization of thin film transistor liquid crystal display waste glass as a pozzolanic material.

    PubMed

    Lin, K L; Huang, Wu-Jang; Shie, J L; Lee, T C; Wang, K S; Lee, C H

    2009-04-30

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolanic behavior of waste glass blended cement (WGBC) paste used in thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that the TFT-LCD waste glass was entirely non-crystalline. The leaching concentrations of the clay and TFT-LCD waste glass all met the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. The pozzolanic strength activity indices of TFT-LCD waste glass at 28 days and 56 days were 89% and 92%, respectively. Accordingly, this material can be regarded as a good pozzolanic material. The amount of TFT-LCD waste glass that is mixed into WGBC pastes affects the strength of the pastes. The strength of the paste clearly declined as the amount of TFT-LCD waste glass increased. XRD patterns indicated that the major difference was the presence of hydrates of calcium silicate (CSH, 2 theta=32.1 degrees), aluminate and aluminosilicate, which was present in WGBC pastes. Portland cement may have increased the alkalinity of the solution and induced the decomposition of the glass phase network. WGBC pastes that contained 40% TFT-LCD waste glass have markedly lower gel/space ratios and exhibit less degree of hydration than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The most satisfactory characteristics of the strength were observed when the mixing ratio of the TFT-LCD waste glass was 10%.

  14. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste: Overview of data in literature.

    PubMed

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-03-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico-chemical waste composition data was performed to derive value ranges and data distributions for element concentrations (e.g. Cd content) and physical parameters (e.g. heating value). Based on 11,886 individual data entries, median values and percentiles for 47 parameters in 11 individual waste fractions are presented. Exceptional values and publications are identified and discussed. Detailed datasets are attached to this study, allowing further analysis and new applications of the data.

  16. The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ducman, V; Mirtic, B

    2009-08-01

    The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO(2) were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to lower the softening point of the waste materials. The granules were prepared by mixing together finely ground waste with one or both of the selected foaming agents. The granules were then fired at different temperatures above the softening point of the glassy phase within the temperature range from 1150 to 1220 degrees C, where the foaming agent degasses, and the resulting gasses remain trapped in the glassy structure. The foaming process was observed by hot-stage microscopy. The properties of the so-obtained granules, such as their apparent density and compressive strength, were determined, and their microstructures were evaluating using SEM and polarizing microscopy. With the addition to clay of polishing residue from granite-like rocks, after firing at 1220 degrees C homogeneously porous granules with a density down to 0.42 g/cm(3) were obtained, whereas with the addition to waste silica sludge of polishing residue from granite-like rocks and waste glass with a foaming agent, after firing at 1220 degrees C densities from 0.57 to 0.82 g/cm(3) were obtained.

  17. Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, K; Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates synthesis of methyl esters by transesterification of waste cooking oil in a heterogeneous system, using barium meliorated construction site waste marble as solid base catalyst. The pretreated catalyst was calcined at 830 °C for 4h prior to its activity test to obtained solid oxide characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, BET surface area and pore size measurement. It was found that the as prepared catalyst has large pores which contributed to its high activity in transesterification reaction. The methyl ester yield of 88% was obtained when the methanol/oil molar ratio was 9:1, reaction temperature at 65 °C, reaction time 3h and catalyst/oil mass ratio of 3.0 wt.%. The catalyst can be reused over three cycles, offer low operating conditions, reduce energy consumption and waste generation in the production of biodiesel.

  18. Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim; Alriksson, Stina; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William

    2013-09-01

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  19. Awareness about biomedical waste management and knowledge of effective recycling of dental materials among dental students

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Pathak, Ruchi; Singh, Dhirendra K.; Jalaluddin, Md.; Kore, Shobha A.; Kore, Abhijeet R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Biomedical waste management has become a concern with increasing number of dental practitioners in India. Being health care professionals, dentists should be aware regarding safe disposal of biomedical waste and recycling of dental materials to minimize biohazards to the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess awareness regarding biomedical waste management as well as knowledge of effective recycling and reuse of dental materials among dental students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students belonging from all dental colleges of Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India) from February 2016 to April 2016. A total of 500 students (208 males and 292 females) participated in the study, which was conducted in two phases. A questionnaire was distributed to assess the awareness of biomedical waste management and knowledge of effective recycling of dental materials, and collected data was examined on a 5-point unipolar scale in percentages to assess the relative awareness regarding these two different categorizes. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyzed collected data. Results: Forty-four percent of the dental students were not at all aware about the management of biomedical waste, 22% were moderately aware, 21% slightly aware, 7% very aware, and 5% fell in extremely aware category. Similarly, a higher percentage of participants (61%) were completely unaware regarding recycling and reusing of biomedical waste. Conclusion: There is lack of sufficient knowledge among dental students regarding management of biomedical waste and recycling or reusing of dental materials. Considering its impact on the environment, biomedical waste management requires immediate academic assessment to increase the awareness during training courses. PMID:27891315

  20. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  1. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  2. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  3. Recycling of waste of aluminum foil into sheet materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katashinskii, V.P.; Vishnyakov, L.R.; Boiko, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    The principal method of recycling secondary metals, in particular aluminum, is remelting. However, remelting of aluminum swarf, and in particular of foil trimmings, is marked by low effectiveness because of extensive oxidation (in the processing of thin foil loss by oxidation amounts to 80%), low productivity of the metallurgical equipment on account of low volume-weight characteristics of foil trimmings compared with lumpy scrap metal, and high power requirements of metallurgical conversion. The shortcomings of the traditional technology can be eliminated by recycling foil trimmings by methods of powder metallurgy. This eliminates completely remelting and loss of metal by oxidation, simplifies the technological cycle, and reduces power requirements. We investigated the process of recycling aluminum foil marque A6 (GOST 21631-76) 14 and 30 {mu}m thick which is widely used in the food industry. The amount of waste occurring in its production may attain 15% of the annual output. In the initial state the waste of foil for food are trimmings of thin aluminum strip crushed into fragments of arbitrary shape whose maximal size in plan is 5-8 cm. To be processed by methods of powder metallurgy, such waste has to be converted into smaller fragments that fill well the cavity of the die when pressed in closed molds or the deformation zone in rolling or other methods of compaction in open tools.

  4. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits.

  5. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  6. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    PubMed

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields.

  8. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR 227.9 - Limitations on quantities of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on quantities of waste materials. 227.9 Section 227.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS...

  10. Teaching Interactive Art Lessons with Recycled Waste Materials as Instructional Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeboah, Rita; Asante, Eric Appau; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the use of waste materials as instructional resources in teaching and learning Art lessons. Primary, Junior and Senior High School Art teachers in Ghana mostly teach their lessons without instructional resources because the government is not able to provide materials to create the needed resources. The study therefore explored…

  11. A novel shielding material prepared from solid waste containing lead for gamma ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Mehmet; Baykara, Oktay; Doğru, Mahmut; Kuluöztürk, Fatih

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are continuously exposed to cosmogenic radiation and its products in the atmosphere from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) within Earth, their bodies, houses and foods. Especially, for the radiation protection environments where high ionizing radiation levels appear should be shielded. Generally, different materials are used for the radiation shielding in different areas and for different situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead was analyzed as shielding material for gamma radiation. The photon total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) were measured and calculated using WinXCom computer code for the novel shielding material, concrete and lead. Theoretical and experimental values of total mass attenuation coefficient of the each studied sample were compared. Consequently, a new shielding material prepared from the solid waste containing lead could be preferred for buildings as shielding materials against gamma radiation.

  12. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, S.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  13. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data on Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. The Other category includes electrolytes in batteries and fluff pulp, feces, and urine in disposable diapers. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  14. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  15. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated.

  16. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  17. Mobilization of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings and related waste materials in anaerobic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Specific extraction studies in our laboratory have shown that iron and manganese oxide- and alkaline earth sulfate minerals are important hosts of radium in uranium mill tailings. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria may enhance the release of radium (and its analog barium) from uranium mill tailings, oil field pipe scale [a major technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) waste], and jarosite (a common mineral in sulfuric acid processed-tailings). These research findings are reviewed and discussed in the context of nuclear waste forms (such as barium sulfate matrices), radioactive waste management practices, and geochemical environments in the Earth's surficial and shallow subsurface regions.

  18. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  19. Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cofie, Olufunke; Kone, Doulaye; Rothenberger, Silke; Moser, Daya; Zubruegg, Chris

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the potentials and performance of combined treatment of faecal sludge (FS) and municipal solid waste (SW) through co-composting. The objectives were to investigate the appropriate SW type, SW/FS mixing ratio and the effect of turning frequency on compost maturity and quality. Solid waste (SW, as market waste, MW, or household waste, HW) was combined with dewatered FS in mixing ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 by volume and aerobically composted for 90 days. Four composting cycles were monitored and characterised to establish appropriate SW type and mixing ratio. Another set of five composting cycles were monitored to test two different turning frequencies: (i) once in 3-4 days during the thermophilic phase and 10 days during maturation phase and (ii) once in every 10 days throughout the composting period. Samples were taken at every turning and analysed for total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Temperature, C/N ratio, NO(3)-N/NH(4)-N ratio and cress planting trials were chosen as maturity indicators. Result showed a preference of MW over HW and mixing ratio of 2:1 over 3:1. There was no significant effect of different turning frequencies on the temperature changes and the quality of mature compost. The final product contained C/N ratio of 13 and NO(3)/NH(4)-ratio of about 7.8, while TVS was about 21% TS and the NH(4)-N content was reduced to 0.01%. A co-composting duration of 12 weeks was indicated by the cress test to achieve a mature and stable product. The turning frequency of 10 days is recommended as it saves labour and still reaches safe compost with fairly high nutrient content.

  20. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

    1993-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  1. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  2. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  3. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution and nickel plating industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: Peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Periasamy, K.; Namasivayam, C.

    1995-07-01

    Activated carbon prepared from peanut hulls (PHC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The process of uptake obeys both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Quantitative removal of Ni(II) from 100 mL aqueous solution containing 20 mg/L Ni(II) by 85 mg PHC was observed over a pH range of 4.0 to 10.0. The suitability of PHC for treating nickel plating industry wastewater was also tested. A comparative study with a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) showed that PHC is 36 times more efficient compared to GAC based on Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q{sub O}).

  4. Utilization and recycling of industrial magnesite refractory waste material for removal of certain radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, T.N.; Tadrous, N.A.; Borai, E.H.

    2007-07-01

    Increased industrialization over the last years in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. The current lack of management of the solid waste in Egypt has created a situation where large parts of the land (especially industrial areas) are covered by un-planned dumps of industrial wastes. Consequently, in the present work, industrial magnesite waste produced in large quantities after production process of magnesium sulfate in Zinc Misr factory, Egypt, was tried to be recycled. Firstly, this material has been characterized applying different analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), surface analyzer (BET), particle size distribution (PSD), elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnesite material has been used as a source of producing aluminum, chromium, and magnesium oxides that has better chemical stability than conventional metal oxides. Secondly, utilization of magnesite material for removal of certain radionuclides was applied. Different factors affecting the removal capability such as pH, contacting time, metal concentration, particle size were systematically investigated. The overall objective was aimed at determining feasible and economic solution to the environmental problems related to re-use of the industrial solid waste for radioactive waste management. (authors)

  5. Hydrogen Production and Enzyme Activities in the Hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae Grown on Maltose, Tryptone, and Agricultural Waste

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Sarah A.; Moreira, Emily; Holden, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L−1 at rates of 5–36 fmol H2 cell−1 h−1 on 0.5% (wt vol−1) maltose, 0.5% (wt vol−1) tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5) in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate, and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L−1 of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol−1) waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep's Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis), and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria) agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L−1 of medium when grown on 0.1–10% (wt vol−1) spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L−1. Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across six different

  6. Hydrogen Production and Enzyme Activities in the Hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae Grown on Maltose, Tryptone, and Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Sarah A; Moreira, Emily; Holden, James F

    2016-01-01

    Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L(-1) at rates of 5-36 fmol H2 cell(-1) h(-1) on 0.5% (wt vol(-1)) maltose, 0.5% (wt vol(-1)) tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5) in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate, and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L(-1) of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol(-1)) waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep's Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis), and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria) agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L(-1) of medium when grown on 0.1-10% (wt vol(-1)) spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L(-1). Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across six different growth

  7. Solid waste disposal economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects of solid waste disposal. Topics include feasibility studies of specific waste-to-energy programs, materials recovery and recycling, and the use of fuel gases from landfills. Waste materials sources include industrial and municipal wastes, dredged materials, and waste derived from agricultural and mining operations. Considerable attention is given to Superfund records of decision at specific sites. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Development of Competency-Based Vocational Agricultural Instructional Materials for Handicapped Students Enrolled in Regular Agriculture Programs Other Than Horticulture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Connie D.; And Others

    This report includes a description of a project to develop and field-test competency-based instructional materials for handicapped students enrolled in regular vocational agriculture programs; a list of project advisory personnel; the clusters of skills identified as appropriate for handicapped students enrolled in courses in dairy production,…

  9. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  10. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  11. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  12. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  13. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  14. Bioremediation of agricultural solid waste leachates with diverse species of Cu (II) and Cd (II) by periphyton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiali; Liu, Junzhuo; Wu, Chenxi; Kerr, Philip G; Wong, Po-Keung; Wu, Yonghong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bioremediation of agricultural solid waste leachates with high-concentrations of Cu (II) and Cd (II) after washing the wastes with water and Na2EDTA solution (0.2M). Results indicate that Cu (II) and Cd (II) are mainly comprised of Cu2(OH)2(2+), Cu3(OH)4(2+), CuOH(+), Cu(H2O)4(OH)2, Cd(2+) and CdOH(+) in the water-washed leachates and Cu(EDTA)(2-), Cu(HEDTA)(-), Cd(EDTA)(2-) and Cd(HEDTA)(-) in the Na2EDTA-washed leachates. Cu (II) removal efficiency by selected native periphyton from the water- and Na2EDTA-washed leachates were 80.5% and 68.4% respectively, and for Cd (II) it was 57.1% and 64.6%, because the periphyton was able to maintain a stable pH of the leachates and regulate its microbial composition and carbon metabolic capability to acclimate the chemical conditions of the leachates. This study provides a new biomeasure to treat leachates with high-concentration Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), and contribute valuable insights into the relationships between periphyton characteristics and heavy metals.

  15. Method and plant for conversion of waste material to stable final products

    SciTech Connect

    Santen, S.; Thornblom, J.

    1985-04-02

    The invention relates to a method and plant for converting waste material containing and/or comprising thermally disintegratable chemcial substances to stable final products such as CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and HCI, the waste material being subjected to a plasma gas of high temperature generated in a plasma generator in order to effect disintegration. The waste material in feedable form is caused to flow through a reaction zone, heated by a plasma gas to at least 2000/sup 0/ C. The reaction zone comprises a cavity burned in a gas-permeable filling in piece form arranged in a reaction chamber, by means of the plasma jet from the plasma generator directed towards and projecting into said filling. An appropriate oxygen potential is maintained in at least the reaction zone such that the disintegration products are continuously converted to stable final products.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 20 feet to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or equivalent material, shall be used. For the purpose of this paragraph, an enclosed chute is a slide, closed... dropped through holes in the floor without the use of chutes, the area onto which the material is...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20 feet to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or equivalent material, shall be used. For the purpose of this paragraph, an enclosed chute is a slide, closed... dropped through holes in the floor without the use of chutes, the area onto which the material is...

  18. Molecular environmental science using synchrotron radiation:Chemistry and physics of waste form materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, Dennis W.; Shuh, David K.

    2005-02-28

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization [1]. Specially formulated glass compositions, many of which have been derived from glass developed for commercial purposes, and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites, will be the main recipients for these wastes. The performance characteristics of waste-form glasses and ceramics are largely determined by the loading capacity for the waste constituents (radioactive and non-radioactive) and the resultant chemical and radiation resistance of the waste-form package to leaching (durability). There are unique opportunities for the use of near-edge soft-x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate speciation of low-Z elements forming the backbone of waste-form glasses and ceramics. Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the primary technique employed to obtain speciation information from low-Z elements in waste forms, NMR is incompatible with the metallic impurities contained in real waste and is thus limited to studies of idealized model systems. In contrast, NEXAFS can yield element-specific speciation information from glass constituents without sensitivity to paramagnetic species. Development and use of NEXAFS for eventual studies of real waste glasses has significant implications, especially for the low-Z elements comprising glass matrices [5-7]. The NEXAFS measurements were performed at Beamline 6.3.1, an entrance-slitless bend-magnet beamline operating from 200 eV to 2000 eV with a Hettrick-Underwood varied-line-space (VLS) grating monochromator, of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL. Complete characterization and optimization of this beamline was conducted to enable high-performance measurements.

  19. Preparation of sustainable photocatalytic materials through the valorization of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    A new value-added material was developed from wastes to aim for appropriate waste management and sustainable development. This paper reports the valorization of industrial sandblasting operation wastes (SOWs) as new photocatalytic materials. This waste is composed of Fe2 O3 (60.7 %), SiO2 (29.1 %), and Al2 O3 (3.9 %) as the main components. The high presence of iron oxides was used to develop photocatalytic properties through their thermal transformation into α-Fe2 O3 . The new product, SOW-T, exhibited a good behavior towards the photochemical degradation of organic dyes. The preparation of advanced photocatalytic materials that exhibit self-cleaning and depolluting properties was possible by the inclusion of SOW-T and TiO2 in a cement-based mortar. The synergy observed between both materials enhanced their photocatalytic action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the use of transformed wastes based on iron oxide for the photochemical oxidation of NOx gases.

  20. [Using compost of agricultural solid waste to produce organic-inorganic compound fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo-jing; Wang, Hong-tao

    2006-07-01

    Techniques of compound fertilizer production from solid waste compost were studied. Different ratio of water moisture, proportion between organic and inorganic and infection of different granularity to the effect of granulation is separately determined through experiments at the pilot scale in the field. The optimal parameters of the techniques are determined. The moisture content is 35%-40%; the rate of organic matter is 80%-90%; granularity is 20 mu. According the data of the organism's concentration, height and weight in crop, the crop was fertilized compound fertilizer is batter than chemical fertilizer. And the ability of increasing the production of the compound fertilizer was testified.

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes.

  2. Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, H.T.; Majer, T.

    2007-07-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

  3. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste.

  4. Materials characterization center workshop on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F.P.; Turcotte, R.P.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Workshop on Irradiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Forms sponsored by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brought together experts in radiation damage in materials and waste-management technology to review the problems associated with irradiation effects on waste-form integrity and to evaluate standard methods for generating data to be included in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The workshop reached the following conclusions: the concept of Standard Test for the Effects of Alpha-Decay in Nuclear Waste Solids, (MCC-6) for evaluating the effects of alpha decay is valid and useful, and as a result of the workshop, modifications to the proposed procedure will be incorpoated in a revised version of MCC-6; the MCC-6 test is not applicable to the evaluation of radiation damage in spent fuel; plutonium-238 is recommended as the dopant for transuranic and defense high-level waste forms, and when high doses are required, as in the case of commercial high-level waste forms, /sup 244/Cm can be used; among the important property changes caused by irradiation are those that lead to greater leachability, and additionally, radiolysis of the leachant may increase leach rates; research is needed in this area; ionization-induced changes in physical properties can be as important as displacement damage in some materials, and a synergism is also likely to exist from the combined effects of ionization and displacement damage; and the effect of changing the temperature and dose rates on property changes induced by radiation damage needs to be determined.

  5. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  6. Thermal treatment and utilization of Al-rich waste in high calcium fly ash geopolymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk; Vongvoradit, Pimdao; Jenjirapanya, Supichart

    2012-09-01

    The Al-rich waste with aluminium and hydrocarbon as the major contaminant is generated at the wastewater treatment unit of a polymer processing plant. In this research, the heat treatment of this Al-rich waste and its use to adjust the silica/alumina ratio of the high calcium fly ash geopolymer were studied. To recycle the raw Al-rich waste, the waste was dried at 110°C and calcined at 400 to 1000°C. Mineralogical analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the phase change. The increase in calcination temperature to 600, 800, and 1000°C resulted in the phase transformation. The more active alumina phase of active γ-Al2O3 was obtained with the increase in calcination temperature. The calcined Al-rich waste was then used as an additive to the fly ash geopolymer by mixing with high calcium fly ash, water glass, 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sand. Test results indicated that the calcined Al-rich waste could be used as an aluminium source to adjust the silica/alumina ratio and the strength of geopolymeric materials. The fly ash geopolymer mortar with 2.5wt% of the Al-rich waste calcined at 1000°C possessed the 7-d compressive strength of 34.2 MPa.

  7. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  8. Use of industrial waste for the manufacturing of sustainable building materials.

    PubMed

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Martín, Francisco; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Presently, appropriate waste management is one of the main requisites for sustainable development; this task is tackled by the material construction industry. The work described herein is focused on the valorization of granite waste through incorporation, as a filler-functional admixture, into cement-based mortar formulations. The main components of the waste are SiO(2) (62.1 %), Al(2)O(3) (13.2 %), Fe(2)O(3) (10.1 %), and CaO (4.6 %). The presence of iron oxides is used to develop the photocatalytic properties of the waste. Following heating at 700 °C, α-Fe(2)O(3) forms in the waste. The inclusion of the heated sample as a filler admixture in a cement-based mortar is possible. Moreover, this sample exhibits a moderate ability in the photodegradation of organic dye solutions. Also, the plastering mortars, in which the heated samples have been used, show self-cleaning properties. The preparation of sustainable building materials is demonstrated through the adequate reuse of the granite waste.

  9. From flab to fab: transforming surgical waste into an effective bioactive coating material.

    PubMed

    Luo, Baiwen; Yuan, Shaojun; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong; Lim, Thiam Chye; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-03-11

    Cellular events are regulated by the interaction between integrin receptors in the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Hence, ECM, as a material, can potentially play an instructive role in cell-material interactions. Currently, adipose tissue in the form of lipoaspirate is often discarded. Here, it is demonstrated how our chemical-free decellularization method could be used to obtain ECM from human lipoaspirate waste material. These investigations show that the main biological components are retained in the lipoaspirate-derived ECM (LpECM) material and that this LpECM material could subsequently be used as a coating material to confer bioactivity to an otherwise inert biodegradable material (i.e., polycaprolactone). Overall, lipoaspirate material, a complex blend of endogenous proteins, is effectively used a bioactive coating material. This work is an important stepping-stone towards the development of biohybrid scaffolds that contain cellular benefits without requiring the use of additional biologics based on commonly discarded lipoaspirate material.

  10. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  11. Development of High-efficiency Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Utililization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiang

    2009-04-30

    The goals of this . CRADA are: 1) Investigation of atomistic structure and nucleation of nanoprecipitates in (PbTe){sub I-x}(AgSbTe2){sub x} (LAST) system; and 2) Development of non-equilibrium synthesis of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. We have made significant accomplishment in both areas. We studied the structure of LAST materials using high resolution imaging, nanoelectron diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, arid electron energy loss spectrum, and observed a range of nanoparticles The results, published in J. of Applied Physics, provide quantitative structure information about nanoparticles, that is essential for the understanding of the origin of the high thermoelectric performance in this class of materials. We coordinated non-equilibrium synthesis and characterization of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery application. Our results, published in J. of Electronic Materials, show enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit and robust mechanical properties in bulk . filled skutterudites.

  12. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  13. LIBS: a potential tool for industrial/agricultural waste water analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpate, Tanvi; K. M., Muhammed Shameem; Nayak, Rajesh; V. K., Unnikrishnan; Santhosh, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a multi-elemental analysis technique with various advantages and has the ability to detect any element in real time. This technique holds a potential for environmental monitoring and various such analysis has been done in soil, glass, paint, water, plastic etc confirms the robustness of this technique for such applications. Compared to the currently available water quality monitoring methods and techniques, LIBS has several advantages, viz. no need for sample preparation, fast and easy operation, and chemical free during the process. In LIBS, powerful pulsed laser generates plasma which is then analyzed to get quantitative and qualitative details of the elements present in the sample. Another main advantage of LIBS technique is that it can perform in standoff mode for real time analysis. Water samples from industries and agricultural strata tend to have a lot of pollutants making it harmful for consumption. The emphasis of this project is to determine such harmful pollutants present in trace amounts in industrial and agricultural wastewater. When high intensity laser is made incident on the sample, a plasma is generated which gives a multielemental emission spectra. LIBS analysis has shown outstanding success for solids samples. For liquid samples, the analysis is challenging as the liquid sample has the chances of splashing due to the high energy of laser and thus making it difficult to generate plasma. This project also deals with determining the most efficient method for testing of water sample for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis using LIBS.

  14. The Use of Waste Materials in the Passive Remediation of Mine Water Polution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The contamination and resulting degradation of water courses by effluents from abandoned and active mines is a world-wide problem. Traditional methods of remediating the discharges from mines involve the addition of chemicals and the utilisation of artificial energy sources. Over the last 15-20 years passive treatment systems have been developed that harness natural chemical and biological processes to ameliorate the potentially toxic effects of such discharges. There are many different types of passive system, including compost wetlands, reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS), permeable reactive barriers and inorganic media passive systems. Different waste materials can be utilised as reactive media within each of these systems, dependent upon the type of mine water and treatment technology. In many cases the reactivity of these recycled waste materials is key to the remedial performance of these systems. The materials used may be organic (e.g., composts) or inorganic (e.g., blast furnace slag) and where possible are sourced locally in order to minimise transport costs. The remediation of mine waters in itself can produce large quantities of waste products in the form of iron oxide sludge. Potential uses of this material in the production of pigments and in the treatment of phosphate contaminated waters is also currently under investigation. The exploitation of what are traditionally thought of as waste materials within treatment systems for polluted waters is an expanding technology which provides great scope for recycling.

  15. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  16. Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

  17. Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

    2004-10-01

    The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio.

  18. Composting and bioremediation process evaluation of wood waste materials generated from the construction and demolition industry.

    PubMed

    McMahon, V; Garg, A; Aldred, D; Hobbs, G; Smith, R; Tothill, I E

    2008-04-01

    The suitability of using bioremediation and composting techniques for diverting construction and demolition (C&D) waste from landfill has been validated in this study. Different timber products from C&D waste have been composted using various composting approaches. The present work demonstrates the quality of compost produced as a result of composting of mixed board product wood waste, which is frequently obtained from the construction and demolition industry. Three compost mixes were prepared by mixing shredded chip board, medium density fibre, hardboard and melamine. Poultry manure, Eco-Bio mixture and green waste were used as nutrient supplements. The results revealed that compost produced from mixtures of poultry manure and green waste used as nutrient supplements improved the performance in plant growth trials (phytotoxicity tests). Results obtained from the experimental study clearly indicate that the composts produced comply with the criterion suggested in BSI PAS 100 (A specification for compost materials) for use in different applications. Composting can also be demonstrated to be a very practical approach to material management including transport reduction to and from the site. The economic suitability of the process will be improved with the increase in landfill tax. In the current regulatory scenario, it is recommended that these materials should be composted at a centralised facility.

  19. Modified agricultural waste biomass with enhanced responsive properties for metal-ion remediation: a green approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Garima; Sud, Dhiraj

    2012-12-01

    Dalbergia sissoo pods, a lignocellulosic nitrogenous waste biomass, was evaluated for sequestering of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater. Dalbergia sissoo pods (DSP) were used in three different forms, viz. natural (DSPN), impregnated in the form of hydrated beads (DSPB), and in carbonized form (DSPC) for comparative studies. Batch experiments were performed for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Effects of pH adsorbent dose, initial metal-ion concentration, stirring speed, and contact time were investigated. The removal of metal ions was dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate concentration, and other studied process parameters. Maximum metal removal for Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2.0. The experimental data were analyzed based on Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of metal ions followed a pseudo-second-order equation.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption analysis. Catalytic upgrading reduced the amount of oxygenates in the product vapor due to the cracking reaction of the catalysts. Levoglucosan, a polymeric oxygenate species, was completely decomposed without being detected. While the amount of heavy phenols was reduced by catalytic upgrading, the amount of light phenols was increased because of the catalytic cracking of heavy phenols into light phenols and aromatics. The amount of aromatics increased remarkably as a result of catalytic upgrading, which is attributed to the strong Brönsted acid sites and the shape selectivity of the Meso-MFI catalyst. The addition of Pt made the Meso-MFI catalyst even more active in deoxygenation and in the production of aromatics. PMID:22221540

  1. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600/sup 0/C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles (<2mm) and newly developed screw-agitated coaters for larger particles (>2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000/sup 0/C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500/sup 0/C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO)/sub 4/ as the catalyst, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ as the carbon source gas, and H/sub 2/ as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530/sup 0/C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 ..mu..m/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters.

  2. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  3. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  4. Structural Composite Construction Materials Manufactured from Municipal Solid Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-20

    in Table 1. Candidate matrix materials included polystyrene (PS) or expanded polystyrene (EPS), high density polyethylene (HDPE), and polyethylene...companies make a variety of expanded polystyrene insulation panels that arc used in insulation and roofing systems.46 Thermoplastics are seeing

  5. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  6. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-09-15

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  7. Overland flow transport of pathogens from agricultural land receiving faecal wastes.

    PubMed

    Tyrrel, S F; Quinton, J N

    2003-01-01

    Considerable investment has been made in recent years in improvements to the microbiological quality of urban wastewater discharges to surface waters, particularly in coastal towns, with the aim of reducing the exposure of bathers and surfers to gastrointestinal pathogens. As this source of pollution has come under greater control, attention has started to focus on diffuse catchment sources of faecal contamination which have been shown to be dominant during high river flows associated with storm events. This association with storm events suggests that rapidly responding hydrological pathways such as overland flow are likely to be important. The aim of this paper is to establish the current state of knowledge of pathogen transport processes in overland flow. In addition, the paper will attempt to convey the way that soil erosion science may aid our understanding of this environmental problem. The scale and nature of faecal waste applications to land in the UK is briefly reviewed, with data presented on both livestock slurry and manure, and human sewage sludge. Particular emphasis is placed on factors influencing the likelihood of pathogens making their way from infected livestock and humans to the soil surface, and therefore the chances of them being available for transport by overland flow. The literature relating to pathogen transport in overland flow is reviewed. Existing pathogen transport models treat pathogens as particles and link pathogen transport models to pathogen die-off kinetics. Such models do not attempt to describe the interactions that may occur between pathogens and soil and waste particles. Although conceptual models describing the possible states in which pathogen transport may occur have been proposed, an understanding of the factors controlling the partitioning of the microorganisms between the different states is only just beginning to emerge. The apparent poor performance of overland flow mitigation measures such as grass buffer strips in

  8. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  9. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... INFORMATION: Background For decades, EPA has been providing information on the recycling, reuse and generation... safe recycling and source reduction. The Agency will consider the information gathered from this...

  10. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazmeev, A. Kh; Tazmeeva, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed.

  11. Study of the biodisintegration of a bioplastic material waste.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, Judith; Gracia, Jose M; Javierre, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodisintegration degree of different pieces made of a biodegradable thermoplastic material, the polylactic acid (PLA) with and without corn in its composition, is studied. The pieces of different shapes and thicknesses were obtained by both injection and extrusion processes, where also a specific foaming additive of polystyrene was added. The PLA and PLA-corn manufactured pieces were subjected to aerobic degradation at a constant temperature of 58+/-2 degrees C for 90 days, following EN 14806 and ISO 20200:2004 Norms. It was found that the pieces made of PLA and PLA with foaming agent had an average biodisintegration degree of 63.6%. With regard to the pieces made of PLA-corn, an average biodisintegration degree of 79.7% was obtained. In this case, the percentage of non degraded material was independent of the size, shape and thickness of the original pieces.

  12. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

  13. Remediation of AMD using natural and waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Basir, Nur Athirah Mohamad; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2014-09-03

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is highly acidic, sulphate rich and frequently carries a high transition metal and heavy metal burden. These AMD's eventually migrate into streams and rivers and impact negatively on the quality of these water bodies. So it is dire necessary to treat this AMD. Various materials such as ladle furnace slag (LFS), bentonite, zeolite, active carbon and kaolinite are currently available to remove heavy metals from contaminated water. All these materials are capable to rise up the pH value and adsorb heavy metals. The process is divided into two stages; screening test and tank experiment. Screening test is conduct by using Batch Equilibrium Test (BET), X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF) identification also Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characteristic. The results showed that all the concentration of heavy metal are decreasing extremely and pH value rise up except for kaolinite. From screening test only ladle furnace slag, bentonite, zeolite and active carbon are chosen for the tank experiment. Tank experiment design with 18cm (H) X 15cm (L) X 15cm (H) was made by silica glass. All these treatment materials were stirred in the tank for 30 days. Initial pH for all tanks is 2.4 and after 30 days is changing into 6.11, 3.91, 2.98 and 2.71 for LFS, bentonite, active carbon as well as zeolite respectively. LFS is the best material for absorption of Zn, Mn and Cu in the synthetic solution. Meanwhile, bentonite is the best absorbent for Ni, Fe and Cd. The conclusion shows that LFS might have big potentials to control AMD pollution base on neutralize pH resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the water.

  14. Remediation of AMD using natural and waste material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basir, Nur Athirah Mohamad; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2014-09-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is highly acidic, sulphate rich and frequently carries a high transition metal and heavy metal burden. These AMD's eventually migrate into streams and rivers and impact negatively on the quality of these water bodies. So it is dire necessary to treat this AMD. Various materials such as ladle furnace slag (LFS), bentonite, zeolite, active carbon and kaolinite are currently available to remove heavy metals from contaminated water. All these materials are capable to rise up the pH value and adsorb heavy metals. The process is divided into two stages; screening test and tank experiment. Screening test is conduct by using Batch Equilibrium Test (BET), X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF) identification also Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characteristic. The results showed that all the concentration of heavy metal are decreasing extremely and pH value rise up except for kaolinite. From screening test only ladle furnace slag, bentonite, zeolite and active carbon are chosen for the tank experiment. Tank experiment design with 18cm (H) X 15cm (L) X 15cm (H) was made by silica glass. All these treatment materials were stirred in the tank for 30 days. Initial pH for all tanks is 2.4 and after 30 days is changing into 6.11, 3.91, 2.98 and 2.71 for LFS, bentonite, active carbon as well as zeolite respectively. LFS is the best material for absorption of Zn, Mn and Cu in the synthetic solution. Meanwhile, bentonite is the best absorbent for Ni, Fe and Cd. The conclusion shows that LFS might have big potentials to control AMD pollution base on neutralize pH resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the water.

  15. Solid waste initiative Macro Material Flow Modeling conceptual description and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach that are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability that can be used as the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. This capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. The results of this increased understanding will eventually have an impact on a variety of US federal government activities, as well as on the activities of other entities. This increased understanding will also help provide the basis for subsequent activities under the Solid Waste Initiative. The report describes current solid waste management practices and their context, defines questions of interest relating to these practices, and proposes an approach that could be employed to analyze these practices and possible alternatives to them. A preliminary review, analysis, and summary of available data to support this approach are also provided.

  16. Evaluation of two agricultural residues as ligno-cellulosic filler in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Agricultural residues refer to the waste stream coming from agricultural production and processing operations. These materials are often rich in ligno-cellulosic fibers, but offer no significant value at present. The processing plants usually pay for disposal of these waste streams, howev...

  17. An integrated mathematical model for co-composting of agricultural solid wastes with industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, A; Mai, S; Barampouti, E M

    2009-10-01

    An integrated model for the composting process was developed. The structure of the model is such that it can be implemented in any mixture of different substrates, even in the case of co-composting of a solid waste with industrial wastewater. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of the physicochemical and biological principles that govern the composting process. The model of the co-composting ecosystem included mass transfer, heat transfer and biological processes. The biological processes included in the model were hydrolysis of particulate substrates, microbial growth and death. Two microbial populations (bacteria and fungi) were selected using Monod kinetics. Growth limiting functions of inhibitory factors, moisture and dissolved oxygen were added in the Monod kinetics. The bacteria were considered to utilise the easy biodegradable carbon hydrolysis product, fungi the difficult one, while both could degrade the carbon of wastewater. The mass balances of the most important nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorous, were also included in this approach. Model computer simulations provided results that fitted satisfactory the experimental data. Conclusively, the model could be a useful tool for the prediction of the co-composting process performance in the future and could be used to assist in the operation of co-composting plants.

  18. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Results Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. Conclusions In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could

  19. Waste processing: new near infrared technologies for material identification and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesetti, M.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The awareness of environmental issues on a global scale increases the opportunities for waste handling companies. Recovery is set to become all the more important in areas such as waste selection, minerals processing, electronic scrap, metal and plastic recycling, refuse and the food industry. Effective recycling relies on effective sorting. Sorting is a fundamental step of the waste disposal/recovery process. The big players in the sorting market are pushing for the development of new technologies to cope with literally any type of waste. The purpose of this tutorial is to gain an understanding of waste management, frameworks, strategies, and components that are current and emerging in the field. A particular focus is given to spectroscopic techniques that pertains the material selection process with a greater emphasis placed on the NIR technology for material identification. Three different studies that make use of NIR technology are shown, they are an example of some of the possible applications and the excellent results that can be achieved with this technique.

  20. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: net recovery and transport intensity indexes.

    PubMed

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Sorption of mercury onto waste material derived low-cost activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Rana, Sukanta; Lahiri, Susmita; Munekage, Yukihiro

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to develop the low-cost activated carbon (AC) from some waste materials as potential mercury (Hg) sorbent to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. The ACs were prepared from banana peel, orange peel, cotton fiber and paper wastes by pyrolysis and characterized by analyzing physico-chemical properties and Hg sorption capacity. The Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface areas (cotton 138 m2/g; paper 119 m2/g), micropore surface areas (cotton 65 m2/g; paper 54 m2/g) and major constituent carbon contents (cotton 95.04 %; paper 94.4 %) were higher in ACs of cotton fiber and paper wastes than the rest two ACs. The Hg sorption capacities and removal percentages were greater in cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs compared to those of the banana and orange peels. The results revealed that elevated Hg removal ability of cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs is largely regulated by their surface area, porosity and carbon content properties. Therefore, ACs of cotton and paper wastes were identified as potential sorbent among four developed ACs to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. Furthermore, easily accessible precursor material, simple preparation process, favorable physico-chemical properties and high Hg sorption capacity indicated that cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs could be used as potential and low-cost sorbents of Hg for applying in practical field to control the severe effect of Hg contamination in the aquatic environment to avoid its human and environmental health risks.

  3. An alternative method for the treatment of waste produced at a dye and a metal-plating industry using natural and/or waste materials.

    PubMed

    Fatta, Despo; Papadopoulos, Achilleas; Stefanakis, Nikos; Loizidou, Maria; Savvides, Chrysanthos

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop cost-effective, appropriate solidification technologies for treating hazardous industrial wastes that are currently disposed of in ways that may threaten the quality of local groundwater. One major objective was to use materials other than cement, and preferably materials that are themselves wastes, as the solidification additives, namely using wastes to treat wastes or locally available natural material. This research examines the cement-based and lime-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) techniques applied for waste generated at a metal-plating industry and a dye industry. For the lime-based S/S process the following binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/ lime, bentonite/lime and gypsum/lime. For the cement-based S/S process three binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/cement, bentonite/cement and gypsum/cement. The leachability of the wastes was evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The applicability and optimum weight ratio of the binder mixtures were estimated using the unconfined compressive strength test. The optimum ratio mixtures were mixed with waste samples in different ratios and cured for 28 days in order to find the S/S products with the highest strength and lowest leachability at the same time. The results of this work showed that the cement-and lime-based S/S process, using cement kiln dust and bentonite as additives can be effectively used in order to treat industrial waste.

  4. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes.

  5. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  6. Laboratory evaluation of zero valent iron and sulfur modified iron filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On site filter treatment systems have the potential to remove nutrients and pesticides from agricultural subsurface drainage waters. The effectiveness and efficiency of this type of drainage water treatment will depend on the actual filter materials utilized. Two promising filter materials that coul...

  7. Phytoremediation potential of some agricultural plants on heavy metal contaminated mine waste soils, salem district, tamilnadu.

    PubMed

    Padmapriya, S; Murugan, N; Ragavendran, C; Thangabalu, R; Natarajan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Pot culture experiment performed for phytoextraction potential of selected agricultural plants [millet (Eleusine coracana), mustard (Brassica juncea), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), black gram (Vigna mungo), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)] grown in metal contaminated soils around the Salem region, Tamilnadu, India. Physiochemical characterization of soils, reported as low to medium level of N, P, K was found in test soils. The Cr content higher in mine soils than control and the values are 0.176 mg/L in Dalmia soil and 0.049 mg/L in Burn & Co soil. The germination rate low in mine soil than control soils (25 to 85%). The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate and protein decreased in mine soils than control. The morphological parameters and biomass values decreased in experimental plants due to metal accumulation. Proline content increased in test plants and ranged from 0.113 mg g(-1) to 0.858 mg g(-1) which indicate the stress condition due to toxicity of metals. Sorghum and black gram plants reported as metal tolerant capacity. Among the plants, Sorghum produced good results (both biomass and biochemical parameters) which equal to control plant and suggests Sorghum plant is an ideal for remediation of metal contaminated soils.

  8. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Magnetic mesoporous materials for removal of environmental wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jinwoo; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Changha; Lee, Hongshin; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-09-15

    We have synthesized two different magnetic mesoporous materials that can be easily separated from aqueous solutions by applying a magnetic field. Synthesized magnetic mesoporous materials, Mag-SBA-15 (magnetic ordered mesoporous silica) and Mag-OMC (magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon), have a high loading capacity of contaminants due to high surface area of the supports and high magnetic activity due to the embedded iron oxide particles. Application of surface-modified Mag-SBA-15 was investigated for the collection of mercury from water. The mercury adsorption using Mag-SBA-15 was rapid during the initial contact time and reached a steady-state condition, with an uptake of approximately 97% after 7 hours. Application of Mag-OMC for collection of organics from water, using fluorescein as an easily trackable model analyte, was explored. The fluorescein was absorbed into Mag-OMC within minutes and the fluorescent intensity of solution was completely disappeared after an hour. In another application, Mag-SBA-15 was used as a host of tyrosinase, and employed as recyclable catalytic scaffolds for tyrosinase-catalyzed biodegradation of catechol. Tyrosinase aggregates in Mag-SBA-15, prepared in a two step process of tyrosinase adsorption and crosslinking, could be used repeatedly for catechol degradation with no serious loss of enzyme activity. Considering these results of cleaning up water from toxic inorganic, organic and biochemical contaminants, magnetic mesoporous materials have a great potential to be employed for the removal of environmental contaminants and potentially for the application in large-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  11. Polyporus tenuiculus: a new naturally occurring mushroom that can be industrially cultivated on agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Omarini, Alejandra; Lechner, Bernardo E; Albertó, Edgardo

    2009-05-01

    Polyporus tenuiculus is a naturally occurring species from Central and South America that is consumed by different ethnic groups in the region. To determine the optimal conditions for fruiting body production, two strains were assayed on wheat straw and sawdust with or without supplements. Sixty days of incubation at 25 degrees C were needed to produce a solid block. The highest yield was obtained with strain ICFC 383/00 grown on supplemented willow sawdust. In a second experiment the strain ICFC 383/00 and different supplements were used to improve the biological efficiency (BE) and to determine the quality traits and its biodegradation capacity. The highest yields were obtained on sawdust with 25% of supplements reaching 82.7% of BE. Supplements raised the number of flushes, generally from four to five, contributing to increased yields. The type of substrate had a significant effect on fruiting body diameters of P. tenuiculus, and the largest mushrooms were harvested on supplemented substrate with the highest BE coinciding with the highest dry matter loss in substrates. P. tenuiculus showed a capacity to degrade sawdust, causing a decrease of 67.2-74.5% in cellulose, 80.4-85.7% in hemicellulose, and 60.6-66.2% in lignin content at the end of the cultivation cycle. The decrease in hemicellulose was relatively greater than that of cellulose and lignin on supplemented substrates. This is the first report of the cultivation of P. tenuiculus on lignocellulosic waste, and it is a promising species both for commercial production and for its potential use in the degradation of other biowastes.

  12. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: Project overview and main results

    SciTech Connect

    Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Saccani, Cesare

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The source separation level (SSL) of waste management system does not qualify adequately the system. > Separately collecting organic waste gives less advantages than packaging materials. > Recycling packaging materials (metals, glass, plastics, paper) is always attractive. > Composting and anaerobic digestion of organic waste gives questionable outcomes. > The critical threshold of optimal recycling seems to be a SSL of 50%. - Abstract: This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on 'how much' source separation is carried out, but rather on 'how' a given SSL is reached.

  13. Cost-effective defined medium for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates using agricultural raw materials.

    PubMed

    Suwannasing, Waranya; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee

    2015-10-01

    According to the cost of carbon substrate for producing biopolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) still has a barrier to extend in an industrial scale. The aim of this work was to evaluate the defined PHAs media containing the agricultural raw materials of pineapple and sugarcane to produce PHAs by Bacillus strain. Batch fermentation was carried out in flask scale to compare the efficiency of defined media using statistical methodology. The defined medium 8 of pineapple was achieved the highest PHAs concentration and productivity (1.86 g/L and 0.077 g/Lh). The effect of pH and aeration was extensively studied in a fermentor. The results were revealed that PHAs production would be increased from the condition of uncontrolled pH and at higher aeration rate. The extracted PHAs clearly showed in a homopolymer structure of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with melting temperature (Tm) of 172°C 54.39% crystallinity.

  14. Application of the US decision support tool for materials and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Thorneloe, Susan A. Weitz, Keith Jambeck, Jenna

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) launched the Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC) in 2002 to help reduce waste and move towards more sustainable resource consumption. The objective of the RCC is to help communities, industries, and the public think in terms of materials management rather than waste disposal. Reducing cost, finding more efficient and effective strategies to manage municipal waste, and thinking in terms of materials management requires a holistic approach that considers life-cycle environmental tradeoffs. The US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory has led the development of a municipal solid waste decision support tool (MSW-DST). The computer software can be used to calculate life-cycle environmental tradeoffs and full costs of different waste management or materials recovery programs. The environmental methodology is based on the use of life-cycle assessment and the cost methodology is based on the use of full-cost accounting. Life-cycle inventory (LCI) environmental impacts and costs are calculated from the point of collection, handling, transport, treatment, and disposal. For any materials that are recovered for recycling, offsets are calculated to reflect potential emissions savings from use of virgin materials. The use of the MSW-DST provides a standardized format and consistent basis to compare alternatives. This paper provides an illustration of how the MSW-DST can be used by evaluating ten management strategies for a hypothetical medium-sized community to compare the life-cycle environmental and cost tradeoffs. The LCI results from the MSW-DST are then used as inputs into another US EPA tool, the Tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts, to convert the LCI results into impact indicators. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate how the MSW-DST can be used to identify and balance multiple criteria (costs and environmental impacts) when evaluating options for materials and

  15. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  16. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  17. Enhancing soil sorption capacity of an agricultural soil by addition of three different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Raquel; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of three unmodified organic residues (composted sewage sludge, RO1; chicken manure, RO2; and a residue from olive oil production called 'orujillo', RO3) and a soil to sorb six pesticides (atrazine, lindane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos and endosulfan sulfate) and thereby explored the potential environmental value of these organic residues for mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. Pesticide determination was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process and that Kf values increased with an increase in organic matter (OM) content of the amended soil. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: chlorpyrifos≥endosulfan sulfate>chlorfenvinphos≥lindane>alachlor≥atrazine. The sorption was greater for the most hydrophobic compounds and lower for the most polar ones, as corroborated by a negative correlation between Kf values and solubility. Sorption increased with an increase in organic matter. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon (OC) content. The organic amendment showing the maximum sorption capacity was RO3 in all cases, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2. The order of adsorption capacity of the amendments depended on the pesticide and the organic dosage. In the case of the 10% amendment the order was RO3>RO2>RO1>soil, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2>RO3>RO1>soil, and atrazine, where RO2 and RO3 amendments had the same effect on the soil sorption capacity (RO2≥RO3>RO1>soil).

  18. Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

  19. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Trotter, D.R.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  20. Biogas from waste materials as transportation fuel-benefits from an environmental point of view.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper various biogas systems based on waste materials have been analysed from an environmental point of view. The analyses are based on Swedish conditions using a systems analysis approach from an energy and life cycle perspective. The biogas produced is used as a transportation fuel replacing petrol in light-duty vehicles. The overall aims are to quantify the potential environmental effects when current waste handling and transportation fuel systems are replaced. A general conclusion is that the indirect environmental benefits (e.g. reduced emissions of ammonia and methane, and nitrogen leaching) from altered handling of organic waste materials and land-use may often significantly exceed the direct environmental benefits achieved when biogas replaces petrol (e.g. reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutants). Such indirect benefits are seldom considered when biogas is evaluated from an environmental point of view. However, the environmental impact from different biogas systems can vary significantly due to factors such as the waste materials utilised, different reference systems being replaced, and local conditions.