Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural water demands

  1. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  2. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  3. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  4. Modelling Approach to Assess Future Agricultural Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spano, D.; Mancosu, N.; Orang, M.; Sarreshteh, S.; Snyder, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of long-term climate changes (e.g., warmer average temperatures) and extremes events (e.g., droughts) can have decisive impacts on water demand, with further implications on the ecosystems. In countries already affected by water scarcity, water management problems are becoming increasingly serious. The sustainable management of available water resources at the global, regional, and site-specific level is necessary. In agriculture, the first step is to compute how much water is needed by crops in regards to climate conditions. Modelling approach can be a way to compute crop water requirement (CWR). In this study, the improved version of the SIMETAW model was used. The model is a user friendly soil water balance model, developed by the University of California, Davis, the California Department of Water Resource, and the University of Sassari. The SIMETAW# model assesses CWR and generates hypothetical irrigation scheduling for a wide range of irrigated crops experiencing full, deficit, or no irrigation. The model computes the evapotranspiration of the applied water (ETaw), which is the sum of the net amount of irrigation water needed to match losses due to the crop evapotranspiration (ETc). ETaw is determined by first computing reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using the daily standardized Reference Evapotranspiration equation. ETaw is computed as ETaw = CETc - CEr, where CETc and CE are the cumulative total crop ET and effective rainfall values, respectively. Crop evapotranspiration is estimated as ETc = ETo x Kc, where Kc is the corrected midseason tabular crop coefficient, adjusted for climate conditions. The net irrigation amounts are determined from a daily soil water balance, using an integrated approach that considers soil and crop management information, and the daily ETc estimates. Using input information on irrigation system distribution uniformity and runoff, when appropriate, the model estimates the applied water to the low quarter of the

  5. Optional water development strategies for the Yellow River Basin: Balancing agricultural and ecological water demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ximing; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2004-08-01

    The Yellow River Basin is of the utmost importance for China in terms of food production, natural resources management, and socioeconomic development. Water withdrawals for agriculture, industry, and households in the past decade have seriously depleted environmental and ecological water requirements in the basin. This study presents a modeling scenario analysis of some water development strategies to harmonize water withdrawal demand and ecological water demand in the Yellow River Basin through water savings and interbasin water transfers. A global water and food analysis model including the Yellow River Basin as one of the modeling units is applied for the analysis. The model demonstrates that there is little hope of resolving the conflict between agriculture water demand and ecological water demand in the basin if the current water use practices continue. Trade-offs exist between irrigation water use and ecological water use, and these trade-offs will become more intense in future years with population growth, urbanization, and industrial development as well as growing food demand. Scenario analysis in this study concludes that increasing basin water use efficiency to 0.67 first and then supplementary water availability by interbasin water transfer through the South-North Water Transfer Project may provide a solution to water management of the Yellow River Basin in the next 25 years.

  6. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  7. An integrated stochastic approach to the assessment of agricultural water demand and adaptation to water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing water demands from growing populations coupled with changing water availability, for example due to climate change, are likely to increase water scarcity. Agriculture will be exposed to risk due to the importance of reliable water supplies as an input to crop production. To assess the efficiency of agricultural adaptation options requires a sound understanding of the relationship between crop growth and water application. However, most water resource planning models quantify agricultural water demand using highly simplified, temporally lumped estimated crop-water production functions (CWPFs). Such CWPFs fail to capture the biophysical complexities in crop-water relations and mischaracterise farmers ability to respond to water scarcity. Application of these models in policy analyses will be ineffective and may lead to unsustainable water policies. Crop simulation models provide an alternative means of defining the complex nature of the CWPF. Here we develop a daily water-limited crop model for this purpose. The model is based on the approach used in the FAO's AquaCrop model, balancing biophysical and computational complexities. We further develop the model by incorporating improved simulation routines to calculate the distribution of water through the soil profile. Consequently we obtain a more realistic representation of the soil water balance with concurrent improvements in the prediction of water-limited yield. We introduce a methodology to utilise this model for the generation of stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPFs). This is achieved by running the model iteratively with both time series of climatic data and variable quantities of irrigation water, employing a realistic rule-based approach to farm irrigation scheduling. This methodology improves the representation of potential crop yields, capturing both the variable effects of water deficits on crop yield and the stochastic nature of the CWPF due to climatic variability. Application to

  8. Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoengold, Karina; Sunding, David L.; Moreno, Georgina

    2006-09-01

    Using panel data from a period of water rate reform, this paper estimates the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Price elasticity is decomposed into the direct effect of water management and the indirect effect of water price on choice of output and irrigation technology. The model is estimated using an instrumental variables strategy to account for the endogeneity of technology and output choices in the water demand equation. Estimation results indicate that the price elasticity of agricultural water demand is -0.79, which is greater than that found in previous studies.

  9. Optimal management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic optimization framework for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. Different open loop and closed loop control strategies are evaluated within this stochastic optimization framework in order to generate reliable stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). The resulting database of SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  10. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  11. Modeling future water demand in California from developed and agricultural land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. S.; Sleeter, B. M.; Cameron, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Municipal and urban land-use intensification in coming decades will place increasing pressure on water resources in California. The state is currently experiencing one of the most extreme droughts on record. This coupled with earlier spring snowmelt and projected future climate warming will increasingly constrain already limited water supplies. The development of spatially explicit models of future land use driven by empirical, historical land use change data allow exploration of plausible LULC-related water demand futures and potential mitigation strategies. We utilized the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) state-and-transition simulation model to project spatially explicit (1 km) future developed and agricultural land use from 2012 to 2062 and estimated the associated water use for California's Mediterranean ecoregions. We modeled 100 Monte Carlo simulations to better characterize and project historical land-use change variability. Under current efficiency rates, total water demand was projected to increase 15.1% by 2062, driven primarily by increases in urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Developed land use was projected to increase by 89.8%-97.2% and result in an average 85.9% increase in municipal water use, while agricultural water use was projected to decline by approximately 3.9%, driven by decreases in row crops and increases in woody cropland. In order for water demand in 2062 to balance to current demand levels, the currently mandated 25% reduction in urban water use must remain in place in conjunction with a near 7% reduction in agricultural water use. Scenarios of land-use related water demand are useful for visualizing alternative futures, examining potential management approaches, and enabling better informed resource management decisions.

  12. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  13. Agricultural water demand, water quality and crop suitability in Souk-Alkhamis Al-Khums, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunnour, Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Noorazuan Bin Md.; Jaafar, Mokhtar Bin

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity, unequal population distribution and agricultural activities increased in the coastal plains, and the probability of seawater intrusion with ground water. According to this, the quantitative and qualitative deterioration of underground water quality has become a potential for the occurrence, in addition to the decline in agricultural production in the study area. This paper aims to discover the use of ground water for irrigation in agriculture and their suitability and compatibility for agricultural. On the other hand, the quality is determines by the cultivated crops. 16 random samples of regular groundwater are collected and analyzed chemically. Questionnaires are also distributed randomly on regular basis to farmers.

  14. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  15. Estimated demand for agricultural water for irrigation use in New Jersey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, E.O.; Clawges, R.M.; Qualls, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an effort to determine if an adequate supply of agricultural water for irrigation use will be available to farmers, the U.S. Geological Survey prepared preliminary estimates of demand for agricultural water for irrigation use for the year 1990 on the basis of six possible scenarios. These scenarios incorporate normal and drought climatic conditions and three alternative estimates of the total acreage of farmland that may be irrigated in 1990. Preliminary estimates of water demand based on soil-moisture deficits were made using methods for calculating climatic water budgets. These estimates ranged from 3.0 billion gal/growing season (May through September), under normal climatic conditions and a 2% annual decline in irrigated acreage since 1984, to 28. 9 billion gal/growing season, under drought conditions and a 2% annual increase in irrigated acreage since 1984. Preliminary estimates of water demand made for the 1986 growing season reasonably approximate reported water use for that period. (USGS)

  16. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  17. Dew as an Adaptation Measure to Meet Agricultural and Reforestation Water Demand in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem

    2014-05-01

    Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar

  18. Agricultural water supply/demand changes under projected future climate change in the arid region of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Shen, Yanjun

    2016-09-01

    The water resources in the arid region of northwestern China, which are impacted by climate change, tend to be more unstable, and the environment and ecosystems will suffer from severe water shortage. In this paper, potential future climate trends were predicted based on CMIP5 simulations in this region. The water availability and agricultural water demand under future climate change scenarios were estimated. Impacted by increases in temperature, the irrigation water demand will increase by 4.27-6.15 billion m3 in this region over the next 60 years, compared to the demand of 32.75 billion m3 during 1971-2000. However, the annual runoff will only increase by 4.8-8.5 billion m3, which is equivalent to or even less than the increased irrigation water demand. In fact, the increased demand for industrial, domestic and ecological water were not considered here. Thus, the water supply/demand contradiction will result in more severe water shortages in the future. According to a comparison with simulated irrigation water demand under three adaptation strategy scenarios, we should take effective measures such as improving the efficiency of irrigation water utilization, reducing crop planting areas and adjusting crop planting structures to alleviate the impacts of future climate changes and human activities on the water supply and water use in this region.

  19. Future agricultural water demand under climate change: regional variability and uncertainties arising from CMIP5 climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, J.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.

    2012-12-01

    The agricultural sector (irrigation and livestock) uses by far the largest amount of water among all sectors and is responsible for 70% of the global water withdrawal. At a country scale, irrigation water withdrawal often exceeds 90% of the total water used in many of emerging and developing countries such as India, Pakistan, Iran and Mexico, sustaining much of food production and the livelihood of millions of people. The livestock sector generally accounts less than 1-2% of total water withdrawal, yet exceeds 10-30% of the total water used in many of the African countries. Future agricultural water demand is, however, subject to large uncertainties due to anticipated climate change, i.e. warming temperature and changing precipitation variability, in various regions of the world. Here, we use a global hydrological and water resources model to quantify the impact of climate change on regional irrigation and livestock water demand, and the resulting uncertainties arsing from newly available CMIP5 climate projections obtained through Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; http://www.isi-mip.org/). Irrigation water requirement per unit crop area is estimated by simulating daily soil water balance with crop-related data. Livestock water demand is calculated by combining livestock densities with their drinking water requirements that is a function of air temperature. The results of the ensemble mean show that global irrigation and livestock water demand increased by ~6% and ~12% by 2050 respectively primarily due to higher evaporative demand as a result of increased temperature. At a regional scale, agricultural water demand decreased over some parts of Europe (e.g., Italy, Germany) and Southeast Asia (e.g., the Philippines, Malaysia), but increased over South Asia, the U.S., the Middle East and Africa. However, the projections are highly uncertain over many parts of the world. The results of the ensemble projections in agricultural water demand

  20. Irrigation water demand of selected agricultural crops in Germany between 1902 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Drastig, Katrin; Prochnow, Annette; Libra, Judy; Koch, Hagen; Rolinski, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    Irrigation water demand (IWD) is increasing worldwide, including in regions such as Germany that are characterized with low precipitation levels, yet grow water-demanding crops such as sugar beets, potatoes, and vegetables. This study aimed to calculate and analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the IWD of four crops-spring barley, oat, winter wheat, and potato-between 1902 and 2010 in Germany by using the modeling software AgroHyd Farmmodel. Climatic conditions in Germany continued to change over the investigation period, with an increase in temperature of 0.01K/yr and an increase in precipitation of 1mm/yr. Nevertheless, no significant increasing or decreasing trend in IWD was noted in the analysis. The IWD for the investigated crops in the area of the current "Federal Republic of Germany" over the 109years was 112mm/yr, varying between 100 and 127mm/yr. Changes in cropping pattern and cultivated area over the last century caused large differences in the IWD calculated for each administrative district. The mean annual IWD of over the study period (which was divided into 4 parts) varied between 13,455Mm(3)/yr in the earliest period (1902-1919) and 4717Mm(3)/yr in the latest period (1990-2010). Policy and management measures to adapt to climate change are currently being debated in Germany. The presented results suggest that the effects of the choice of crops (in this case, changes in cropping pattern in the German nation states) had a stronger influence on regional water resources than those of climate variability. Thus, the influence of climate change on water resources is relativized which brings an important input into the debate. PMID:27395071

  1. Water availability, water demand, and reliability of in situ water harvesting in smallholder rain-fed agriculture in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. C. M.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Yang, H.

    2009-07-01

    Water productivity in smallholder rain-fed agriculture is of key interest for food and livelihood security. A frequently advocated approach to enhance water productivity is to adopt water harvesting and conservation technologies (WH). This study estimates water availability for in situ WH and supplemental water demands (SWD) in smallholder agriculture in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa. It incorporates process dynamics governing runoff generation and crop water demands, an explicit account of the reliability of in situ WH, and uncertainty considerations. The agro-hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was calibrated and evaluated with the SUFI-2 algorithm against observed crop yield and discharge in the basin. The water availability was based on the generated surface runoff in smallholder areas. The SWD was derived from a scenario where crop water deficits were met from an unlimited external water source. The reliability was calculated as the percentage of years in which the water availability ≥ the SWD. It reflects the risks of failure induced by the temporal variability in these factors. The results show that the smallholder crop water productivity is low in the basin (spatiotemporal median: 0.08-0.22 kg m-3, 95% prediction uncertainty band (95PPU). Water is available for in situ WH (spatiotemporal median: 0-17 mm year-1, 95PPU) which may aid in enhancing the crop water productivity by meeting some of the SWD (spatiotemporal median: 0-113 mm year-1, 95PPU). However, the reliability of in situ WH is highly location specific and overall rather low. Of the 1850 km2 of smallholder lands, 20-28% display a reliability ≥25%, 13-16% a reliability ≥50%, and 4-5% a reliability ≥75% (95PPU). This suggests that the risk of failure of in situ WH is relatively high in many areas of the basin.

  2. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  3. Application of stakeholder-based and modelling approaches for supporting robust adaptation decision making under future climatic uncertainty and changing urban-agricultural water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Ajay; Dessai, Suraje; Conway, Declan; Stainforth, David

    2016-04-01

    Deep uncertainty in future climate change and socio-economic conditions necessitates the use of assess-risk-of-policy approaches over predict-then-act approaches for adaptation decision making. Robust Decision Making (RDM) approaches embody this principle and help evaluate the ability of adaptation options to satisfy stakeholder preferences under wide-ranging future conditions. This study involves the simultaneous application of two RDM approaches; qualitative and quantitative, in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka (population ~23 million), India. The study aims to (a) determine robust water resources adaptation options for the 2030s and 2050s and (b) compare the usefulness of a qualitative stakeholder-driven approach with a quantitative modelling approach. For developing a large set of future scenarios a combination of climate narratives and socio-economic narratives was used. Using structured expert elicitation with a group of climate experts in the Indian Summer Monsoon, climatic narratives were developed. Socio-economic narratives were developed to reflect potential future urban and agricultural water demand. In the qualitative RDM approach, a stakeholder workshop helped elicit key vulnerabilities, water resources adaptation options and performance criteria for evaluating options. During a second workshop, stakeholders discussed and evaluated adaptation options against the performance criteria for a large number of scenarios of climatic and socio-economic change in the basin. In the quantitative RDM approach, a Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was forced by precipitation and evapotranspiration data, coherent with the climatic narratives, together with water demand data based on socio-economic narratives. We find that compared to business-as-usual conditions options addressing urban water demand satisfy performance criteria across scenarios and provide co-benefits like energy savings and reduction in groundwater depletion, while options reducing

  4. Agent-Based Modelling of Agricultural Water Abstraction in Response to Climate, Policy, and Demand Changes: Results from East Anglia, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinscoe, T. H. A.; Knoeri, C.; Fleskens, L.; Barrett, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater is a vital natural resource for multiple needs, such as drinking water for the public, industrial processes, hydropower for energy companies, and irrigation for agriculture. In the UK, crop production is the largest in East Anglia, while at the same time the region is also the driest, with average annual rainfall between 560 and 720 mm (1971 to 2000). Many water catchments of East Anglia are reported as over licensed or over abstracted. Therefore, freshwater available for agricultural irrigation abstraction in this region is becoming both increasingly scarce due to competing demands, and increasingly variable and uncertain due to climate and policy changes. It is vital for water users and policy makers to understand how these factors will affect individual abstractors and water resource management at the system level. We present first results of an Agent-based Model that captures the complexity of this system as individual abstractors interact, learn and adapt to these internal and external changes. The purpose of this model is to simulate what patterns of water resource management emerge on the system level based on local interactions, adaptations and behaviours, and what policies lead to a sustainable water resource management system. The model is based on an irrigation abstractor typology derived from a survey in the study area, to capture individual behavioural intentions under a range of water availability scenarios, in addition to farm attributes, and demographics. Regional climate change scenarios, current and new abstraction licence reforms by the UK regulator, such as water trading and water shares, and estimated demand increases from other sectors were used as additional input data. Findings from the integrated model provide new understanding of the patterns of water resource management likely to emerge at the system level.

  5. Changes of water demand - possible adaptation of agricultural crops and management options to improve water use efficiency in the Marchfeld area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the vulnerability of current agricultural cropping systems in the Marchfeld region to climate change. The investigation area Marchfeld is located in the north-eastern (NE) part of Austria and is characterized by a semi-arid climate with low annual rainfall. It is one of the driest regions in the country, but also one of the main field crop production areas. The soil conditions in Marchfeld demonstrate a significant spatial variability, which include soils with low to moderate water-storage capacities. Higher temperatures in the next decades imply higher evaporation and consequently higher water demand for the crops. The phenological development rates of the cultivars will accelerate and an increase of heat stress as well as drought stress can be expected. These points influence intense the water balance and subsequently the yield of the crops in the investigation area. In order to improve water use efficiency under those changing conditions, a shift of average sowing dates and an adjustment of tillage were analyzed. The DSSAT cropping system model was applied for winter wheat and spring barley to assess potential yield under climate scenarios for NE Austria. The scenarios were carried out with ECHAM5, HadCM3 and NCAR PCM global circulation models (GCMs) for present conditions (reference period 1961-1990) and 2035's (2021-2050), based on SRES-A1B emission scenarios. Yield model simulations were done for all defined scenarios (climate, management, crop) and different soil classes. The simulations contain the CO2 fertilizing effect, rain fed farming, adapted sowing date and contemporary crops without consideration of potential profit cuts caused by pest or diseases. Simulation results indicate that climate change will force a delay of the sowing date for winter wheat of maximal 14 days in October. In case of spring barley, climate change allows an earlier sowing date in spring (up to 14 days). Both crops show a

  6. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  7. Estimating relative climatic change impact on groundwater of agricultural demand and recharge component in a multi-resources hydrological supply system: The case of the Fortore water supply system (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Mariani, Davide; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Portoghese, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of shortage events on a water supply system can be investigated through models that simulate hydrological processes by describing the atmosphere/surface water/soil/groundwater interfaces, water demand variability and management options for different uses. However, when the supply system is fed by several water resources and dynamics changes of demand, it is necessary to develop models able to simulate the cause-effect mechanisms that involve not only the water budget physical processes, but also the choices of the users in terms of distribution of the demand among each resource and the actions implemented by the managers. The proposed overall model merges: (i) a 1 km2 discrete monthly soil water mass balance model (G-MAT) to estimate recharge to the aquifer, soil water content and surface runoff; (ii) a stochastic model based on a multi linear regression of standard precipitation index (SPI-Q) to reproduce inflow to surface water storage; (iii) a simple monthly reservoir water balance model considering inflow, demands and storage volumes; (iiii) a simple groundwater lumped budget model that considers soil recharge and well extraction following the management rules of the water supply system and the available surface water storage. While we consider the only seasonal variability for domestically and industrial water demand, the agricultural demand is estimated on the base of the monthly soil water content. The developed overall model has been implemented for the case study of the Fortore water supply system (Apulia region, South Italy), managed by the Consorzio di Bonifica della Capitanata. It allows to simulate the conjunctive use of the water from the Occhito artificial reservoir (160 Mm3) and from groundwater. We successfully reproduce the Occhito dam level variability (both seasonal and inter-annual) as well as the observed groundwater depletion until the early 2000 and the following recover. The resulting model is able to monitor relative

  8. A novel approach for examining future US domestic water demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching policy makers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistic...

  9. Agricultural Water Use under Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.; Rosegrant, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Irrigation is by far the single largest user of water in the world and is projected to remain so in the foreseeable future. Globally, irrigated agricultural land comprises less than twenty percent of total cropland but produces about forty percent of the world's food. Increasing world population will require more food and this will lead to more irrigation in many areas. As demands increase and water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, agriculture's competition for water with other economic sectors will be intensified. This water picture is expected to become even more complex as climate change will impose substantial impacts on water availability and demand, in particular for agriculture. To better understand future water demand and supply under global change, including changes in demographic, economic and technological dimensions, the water simulation module of IMPACT, a global water and food projection model developed at the International Food Policy Research Institute, is used to analyze future water demand and supply in agricultural and several non-agricultural sectors using downscaled GCM scenarios, based on water availability simulation done with a recently developed semi-distributed global hydrological model. Risk analysis is conducted to identify countries and regions where future water supply reliability for irrigation is low, and food security may be threatened in the presence of climate change. Gridded shadow values of irrigation water are derived for global cropland based on an optimization framework, and they are used to illustrate potential irrigation development by incorporating gridded water availability and existing global map of irrigation areas.

  10. PREDICTING FUTURE WATER DEMAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decentralization within metropolitan areas has been a major aspect of population movement in the United States over the past two decades. The trend has great significance for all urban service activities. In particular, it affects water supply planning in urban areas. Both number...

  11. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  12. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  13. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  14. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156

  15. Competences in Demand within the Spanish Agricultural Engineering Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural…

  16. Future land-use related water demand in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-05-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters (+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  17. Competences in demand within the Spanish agricultural engineering sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-09-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers (50 farming sector employers); (3) competences required by farming sector professionals and former students (70 professionals). The surveys show significant differences between what competences agricultural employers require of graduates and the competences they acquire during their agricultural engineering degree courses. Recruiters are looking for generic competences such as the ability to coordinate groups and place less importance on knowledge of engineering, biology, applied economics and legislation. Of the computer-related competences, those most in demand by sector professionals were related to the use of Microsoft Office/Excel (used by 79% of professionals). Surveys were used to redesign some subjects of the degrees.

  18. Balancing Energy-Water-Agriculture Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V.; Hightower, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 2005 thermoelectric power production accounted for withdrawals of 201 billion gallons per day (BGD) representing 49% of total withdrawals, making it the largest user of water in the U.S. In terms of freshwater withdrawals thermoelectric power production is the second largest user at 140 BGD just slightly behind freshwater withdrawals for irrigation (USGS 2005). In contrast thermoelectric water consumption is projected at 3.7 BGD or about 3% of total U.S. consumption (NETL 2008). Thermoelectric water consumption is roughly equivalent to that of all other industrial demands and represents one of the fastest growing sectors since 1980. In fact thermoelectric consumption is projected to increase by 42 to 63% between 2005 and 2030 (NETL 2008). Agricultural water consumption has remained relatively constant at roughly 84 BGD or about 84% of total water consumption. While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. Often such expansion targets water rights transfers from irrigated agriculture. To explore evolving tradeoffs an integrated energy-water-agriculture decision support system has been developed. The tool considers alternative expansion scenarios for the future power plant fleet and the related demand for water. The availability of fresh and non-fresh water supplies, subject to local institutional controls is then explored. This paper addresses integrated energy-water-agriculture planning in the western U.S. and Canada involving an open and participatory process comprising decision-makers, regulators, utility and water managers.

  19. Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin Water Supply & Demand Study (Study), part of the Basin Study Program under the Department of the Interior's WaterSMART Program, is being conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States. The purpose of the Study is to assess future water supply and demand imbalances in the Colorado River Basin over the next 50 years and develop and evaluate options and strategies to resolve those imbalances. The Study is being conducted over the period from January 2010 to September 2012 and contains four major phases: Water Supply Assessment, Water Demand Assessment, System Reliability Analysis, and Development and Evaluation of Opportunities for balancing supply and demand. To address the considerable amount of uncertainty in projecting the future state of the Colorado River system, the Study has adopted a scenario planning approach that has resulted in four water supply scenarios and up to six water demand scenarios. The water supply scenarios consider hydrologic futures derived from the observed historical and paleo-reconstructed records as well as downscaled global climate model (GCM) projections. The water demand scenarios contain differing projections of parameters such as population growth, water use efficiency, irrigated acreage, and water use for energy that result in varying projections of future demand. Demand for outdoor municipal uses as well as agricultural uses were adjusted based on changing rates of evapotranspiration derived from downscaled GCM projections. Water supply and demand scenarios are combined through Reclamation's long-term planning model to project the effects of future supply and demand imbalances on Colorado River Basin resources. These projections lend to an assessment of the effectiveness of a broad range of options and strategies to address future imbalances.

  20. Household water demand and welfare loss for future Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis; de Roo, Ad

    2015-04-01

    Matching the availability of water to its demand in Europe is a major challenge for the future due to expected economic and demographic developments and climate change. This means there is a growing need to estimate future water demand and to optimize the water allocation to all end users to counteract welfare loss. At the European scale it is currently not possible to assess the impact of social and economic changes on future water demand or to prioritize water allocation amongst different sectors based on economic damage without extensive use of assumptions and generalizations. Indeed, our review of existing regional optimization models for Europe reveals that the social-economic component of the water use system needs to be improved by complementing them with detailed water use estimates and cost/benefit functions in order to determine the optimal situation. Our study contributes to closing this knowledge gap for the European household sector by quantifying future water demand and the effect of water pricing, as well as providing a method for the calculation of monetary damage due to unmet demand at the highest spatial resolution possible. We used a water demand function approach in which household water consumption depends upon some exogenous drivers including water price, household income, population and household characteristics and climate conditions. For each European country, the annual water consumption per capita was calculated at regional level (NUTS3) and subsequently disaggregated to five kilometer grid level based on a population density map. In order to produce estimates of water demand, the evolution of the explanatory variables of the water demand functions and population density map were simulated until 2050 based on related variables such as GDP and demographic projections. The results of this study will be integrated into the JRC hydro-economic modelling framework for an assessment of the Water-Agriculture-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus.

  1. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  2. Historical patterns and drivers of global crop water demand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With climate change expected to subject staple crops in major growing regions to increased heat exposure, a critical question for agriculture and global food security is the degree to which crop water demand is also likely to change. Recent work has explored the relationship between extreme temperatures and crop water demand, finding that vapor pressure deficit (VPD), through its dependence on both temperature and humidity, provides a very good meteorological predictor of water stress. However, assessing crop water demand solely through atmospheric conditions ignores the roles of radiation and transpiration efficiency, which are increased through elevated CO2. We provide a 60-year global assessment of crop water demand in the world's major growing areas, comparing trends and drivers across key growing regions. We find that an atmospheric-based demand measure can differ significantly from that of a crop-specific sink-based approach that incorporates radiation and CO2 effects, sometimes enough to reverse the sign of historical trends. We also find that these changes differ significantly by region, and that multi-decadal trends can mask large decadal swings. To our knowledge, our work is the first to use global meteorological datasets in a global analysis of crop water demand, and should serve as a valuable reference for future work examining the interaction of hydrological, temperature, and CO2 changes on crop yields.

  3. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon

  4. 75 FR 16719 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) by amending section 1240I of the Food ] Security Act of 1985. The... technical assistance to agricultural producers to implement agricultural water enhancement activities...

  5. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  6. Cotton production potential and water conservation impact using the regional irrigation demand model of northern Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revised irrigation demands are calculated for the 21 northernmost counties in Texas, identified as Panhandle Region (also known as Region A), using the TAMA (Texas A&M–Amarillo) agricultural water use demand estimation model. Year 2000 demands are presented using the existing mixture of crops, aver...

  7. Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers , Senegal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambou, D.; Weihrauch, D.; Hellwing, V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Höllermann, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers, SenegalWater resources are critical to economic growth and social development. In most African countries, supply of drinking water to satisfy population needs is a key issue because of population growth and climate and land use change. During the last three decades, increasing population, changing patterns of water demand, and concentration of population and economic activities in urban areas has pressurize Senegal's freshwater resources. To overcome this deficit, Senegal turned, to the exploitation of the Lake Guiers. It is the sole water reservoir which can be used extensively as a stable freshwater. Its water is use for irrigating crops and sugar refinery and as a drinking water resource for urban centres, including Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, as well as for the local population and animal herds. To ensure sustainability, a greater understanding of Lake Guiers's water resources and effective management of its use will be required. In this study we developed and quantified future water situation (water availability and demand) in Lake Guiers under scenarios of climate change and population growth until 2050, using the water management model WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system). The results show that the pressure on Lake Guiers's water resources will increase, leading to greater competition between agriculture and municipal demand site. Decreasing inflows due to climate change will aggravate this situation. WEAP results offer basis to assister lake Guiers water resources manager for an efficient long-term planning and management. Keywords: climate change, population growth , IWRM, Lake Guiers, Senegal

  8. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  9. Water demand management research: A psychological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Sally; Fielding, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    The availability of fresh water for human consumption is a critical global issue and one that will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Water demand management has an important role to play in reducing the vulnerability of freshwater supplies to climate change impacts. In this paper, we argue that the field of psychology and environmental psychology in particular can make a vital contribution in understanding further the drivers of residential water demand. A growing body of literature in environmental psychology has examined the determinants of water conservation behavior, and this research has many potential applications for water demand policy. In this paper we offer a review of current psychological research that examines the five broad causes of residential water conservation behaviors: attitudes, beliefs, habits or routines, personal capabilities, and contextual factors. We assess how psychologists have studied water conservation behavior to date, identify shortcomings, and indicate how this research can be used to further promote residential water conservation and to inform evidence-based policy and practice.

  10. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  11. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  12. Municipal Water Demand: Statistical and Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William E.

    In the foreword to this volume, Charles W. Howe, general editor of the Westview Press series on water policy and management, states that the goal of this book is to emphasize “the potential for improved water management with reduced economic and environmental costs by utilizing modern methods of demand estimation that take into account user responsiveness to price, conservation measures, and economic-demographic changes.” The authors accomplish their purpose, but the book itself leaves much to be desired.

  13. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr-1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  14. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  15. Water demands for expanding energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, G.H.; Wood, Leonard A.

    1974-01-01

    Water is used in producing energy for mining and reclamation of mined lands, onsite processing, transportation, refining, and conversion of fuels to other forms of energy. In the East, South, Midwest, and along the seacoasts, most water problems are related to pollution rather than to water supply. West of about the 100th meridian, however, runoff is generally less than potential diversions, and energy industries must compete with other water users. Water demands for extraction of coal, oil shale, uranium, and oil and gas are modest, although large quantities of water are used in secondary recovery operations for oil. The only significant use of water for energy transportation, aside from in-stream navigation use, is for slurry lines. Substantial quantities of water are required in the retorting and the disposal of spent oil shale. The conversion of coal to synthetic gas or oil or to electric power and the generation of electric power with nuclear energy require large quantities of water, mostly for cooling. Withdrawals for cooling of thermal-electric plants is by far the largest category of water use in energy industry, totaling about 170 billion gallons (644 million m3) per day in 1970. Water availability will dictate the location and design of energy-conversion facilities, especially in water deficient areas of the West.

  16. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  17. A National Study of the Supply and Demand for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture in 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, David G.

    A national study (the sixteenth annual study of its kind) examined the supply and demand for teachers of vocational agriculture in 1980. To obtain data pertaining to supply and demand for vocational agriculture teachers, researchers mailed questionnaires and follow-up letters and made telephone calls to all institutions preparing teachers in…

  18. Designing and Implementing a Computerized Information Management System for Employment Demand Data in Agriculture/Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Cooper, Gloria S.

    Planning for educational programs in agriculture/agribusiness demands knowledge of future employment demand for various occupations. At present, a functional and comprehensive occupational information system for agriculture/agribusiness does not exist. Systems that do exist, such as the Occupational Information System (OIS) and the Dictionary of…

  19. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  20. Training needs for water demand management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; van der Zaag, Pieter; Robinson, Peter; Jonker, Lewis; Buckle, Hannes

    There is no doubt that delivery of education and training is essential in increasing awareness and equipping various stakeholders with the necessary skills and tools to implement Water Demand Management (WDM) in the Southern African region. At present there is limited capacity in the region to drive WDM programmes. One of the identified major constraints to the adoption of Water Demand Management (WDM) measures is the absence of well structured educational and training programmes or courses suitably targeted to all stakeholders in the water management chain. As one unpacks the Pandora’s Box of education and training certain key questions arise. What form of education and training in required? How does it fit in broader programmes like Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)? Who should be educated or trained and what are the target figures? And, importantly, who funds the exercise? As much as WDM awareness has been given due attention, education and training to move beyond the barriers to implementation have been lacking. This paper describes the development of the IUCN-WaterNet WDM Tertiary Training Module for middle and senior managers in institutions within the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The paper outlines the structure of the module and the philosophy which guided its development and selection of content. The results of relevant training needs surveys are also highlighted. Human development indicators for the SADC member states are provided as background information to contextualise the challenges facing the region. There are a number of constraints and threats to building WDM human resource capital. Recommendations are made for possible co-operation among the educators and trainers, public and private sectors, and possibly within the framework and mandate of the SADC Water Sector Co-ordinating Unit. Cooperation would ensure that WDM knowledge and skills are imparted to a significant number of water professionals in the region within

  1. The Development of a Web-service-based On-demand Global Agriculture Drought Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; Di, L.; Han, W.; Yagci, A.; Peng, C.

    2011-12-01

    data, biophysical characteristics of the environment, and time-series weather data. The trained algorithm establishes a per-pixel model to produce on-demand drought prediction at ~1km or higher spatial resolution. The Phase-I system implementation is concentrated on NDVI-based drought monitoring to demonstrate the concept and feasibility. In phase I, 30-year calibrated global weekly NDVI composites from AVHRR and MODIS are used to establish the baseline and dynamics of vegetation conditions for each co-registered pixel. Multiple NDVI-based agricultural drought indices, such as vegetation condition index (VCI), have been computed from the baseline and dynamics for drought monitoring. GADMFS is a contributing component of Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) to serve the GEOSS societal benefit area of agriculture and water. The phase-I implementation shows that open and interoperable drought related data services and processing services from this system have significantly increased the accessibility of remote sensing based agriculture drought information to the world-wide users. Such a system will also increase the utilization of drought indices related applications and researches in the GEOSS community.

  2. Considering environmental water demands in global-scale water stress assessments: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doell, P.; Shmaktin, V.; Revenga, C.

    2003-04-01

    Freshwater ecosystems need certain water flow regimes to sustain their animal and plant communities. Thus, there is not only a human demand for water (i.e. for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes) but also a demand by freshwater ecosystems, here called environmental water demand. In order to achieve a sustainable development of river basins, both human and environmental water demands need to be taken into account in water management. For a comparative global-scale analysis of freshwater scarcity, it is therefore useful to compute river- basin specific budgets which contain the following terrestrial water flows (or rather flow components): 1) total renewable water resources (runoff), 2) human water withdrawals (and consumptive water uses) and 3) environmental water demands. In a pilot study, the global water availability and use model WaterGAP 2 (spatial resolution 0.5 degree) was used to derive such budgets for all river basins of the worlds. Its sectoral water use modules estimate human water withdrawals and consumptive water uses, while its hydrological module WGHM computes monthly values of surface runoff, groundwater recharge and river discharge. WGHM calculates both natural and actual discharge by simulating the reduction of river discharge by human water consumption. It is tuned against observed discharge at 724 gauging stations (representing about 50% of the global land area) to achieve a good simulation of the long-term average river discharge. Validation efforts have shown than WGHM can satisfactorily simulate the 90% reliable monthly discharge Q90 of river basins larger than 20,000 km2. Based on these capabilities of WaterGAP 2, a first estimate of basin-specific annual environmental water demands was derived as the sum of a low flow and a high flow requirement. Drawing on experience from South Africa, Q90 was assumed to represent the low flow that the ecosystems can tolerate, as it is the flow value that is not reached in 1 out of 10 months

  3. Water consumption patterns as a basis for water demand modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avni, Noa; Fishbain, Barak; Shamir, Uri

    2015-10-01

    Future water demand is a main consideration in water system management. Consequently, water demand models (WDMs) have evolved in past decades, identifying principal demand-generating factors and modeling their influence on water demand. Regional water systems serve consumers of various types (e.g., municipalities, farmers, industrial regions) and consumption patterns. Thus, one of the challenges in regional water demand modeling is the heterogeneity of the consumers served by the water system. When a high-resolution, regional WDM is desired, accounting for this heterogeneity becomes all the more important. This paper presents a novel approach to regional water demand modeling. The two-step approach includes aggregating the data set into groups of consumers having similar consumption characteristics, and developing a WDM for each homogeneous group. The development of WDMs is widely applied in the literature and thus, the focus of this paper is to discuss the first step of data aggregation. The research hypothesis is that water consumption records in their original or transformed form can provide a basis for aggregating the data set into groups of consumers with similar consumption characteristics. This paper presents a methodology for water consumption data clustering by comparing several data representation methods (termed Feature Vectors): monthly normalized average, monthly consumption coefficient of variation, a combination of the monthly average and monthly variation, and the autocorrelation coefficients of the consumption time series. Clustering using solely normalized monthly average provided homogeneous and distinct clusters with respect to monthly consumption, which succeed in capturing different consumer characteristics (water use, geographical location) that were not specified a-priori. Clustering using the monthly coefficient of variation provided different, yet homogeneous clusters, clustering consumers characterized by similar variation trends that

  4. Low transient storage and uptake efficiencies in seven agricultural streams: implications for nutrient demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Duff, John H.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    We used mass load budgets, transient storage modeling, and nutrient spiraling metrics to characterize nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), and inorganic phosphorus (SRP) demand in seven agricultural streams across the United States and to identify in-stream services that may control these conditions. Retention of one or all nutrients was observed in all but one stream, but demand for all nutrients was low relative to the mass in transport. Transient storage metrics (As/A, Fmed200, Tstr, and qs) correlated with NO3− retention but not NH4+ or SRP retention, suggesting in-stream services associated with transient storage and stream water residence time could influence reach-scale NO3− demand. However, because the fraction of median reach-scale travel time due to transient storage (Fmed200) was ≤1.2% across the sites, only a relatively small demand for NO3− could be generated by transient storage. In contrast, net uptake of nutrients from the water column calculated from nutrient spiraling metrics were not significant at any site because uptake lengths calculated from background nutrient concentrations were statistically insignificant and therefore much longer than the study reaches. These results suggest that low transient storage coupled with high surface water NO3− inputs have resulted in uptake efficiencies that are not sufficient to offset groundwater inputs of N. Nutrient retention has been linked to physical and hydrogeologic elements that drive flow through transient storage areas where residence time and biotic contact are maximized; however, our findings indicate that similar mechanisms are unable to generate a significant nutrient demand in these streams relative to the loads.

  5. Back-casting global water stress: Reconstruction of past water demand and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Water scarcity, caused by an existing regional imbalance of water availability and water demand, poses a serious environmental issue to the global society. Since the late 1990s, several studies have quantified blue water stress at the global scale by using the global hydrological models to simulate blue water availability (i.e., surface freshwater in rivers, lakes and reservoirs) which is confronted against water demand to compute water stress. While these assessments have identified regions suffering from current water stress and vulnerable to future water scarcity due to the effects of the climate change and prone to frequent droughts (e.g., Australia, Central and West USA, India, North-East China, Pakistan), the development of past water stress with the influences of population and economic growth and expanding irrigated area has not yet been quantified, which might give an important implication for the future assessment of water stress. Here, we developed a method to reconstruct past water demand from agricultural (i.e., irrigation and livestock), industrial and domestic (i.e., households and municipalities) sector over the period 1960 to 2001, which was used to contrast transient effects in its development against climate variability in the severity of water stress. Agricultural water demand was estimated based on past extents of irrigated area and livestock densities. We developed a simple algorithm to approximate the past economic development based on GDP, energy and household consumption and electricity production, which was subsequently used together with population numbers to estimate industrial and domestic water demand. Desalinated water use and groundwater abstraction were additionally calculated over the same period, the latter being proportional to water demand. Various annual country statistics were used but resulted estimates were gridded at a spatial resolution of 0.5° and disaggregated into a monthly temporal scale as it can be expected that

  6. China's water sustainability in the 21st century: a climate informed water risk assessment covering multi-sector water demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Hao, Z.; Dong, L.; Ju, Q.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.

    2013-08-01

    China is facing a water resources crisis with growing concerns as to the reliable supply of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability and increasing consumptive use across the country exacerbates the situation further and is a constraint on future development. For water sustainability, it is necessary to examine the differences in water demand and supply and their spatio-temporal distribution in order to quantify the dimensions of the water risk. Here, a detailed quantitative assessment of water risk as measured by the distribution of cumulated deficits for China is presented. Considering daily precipitation and temperature variability over fifty years and the current water demands, risk measures are developed to inform county level water deficits that account for both within year and across year variations in climate. We choose political rather than watershed boundaries since economic activity and water use are organized by county and the political process is best informed through that unit. The risk measures highlight North China Plain counties as highly water stressed. Regions with high water stress are typically the regions with high inter-annual variability in rainfall and now have depleted groundwater aquifers. The stress components due to agricultural, industrial and domestic water demands are illustrated separately to assess the vulnerability of particular sectors within the country to provide a basis for targeted policy analysis for reducing water stress.

  7. Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020

  8. Trend analysis in a Brazilian watershed with high water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, Juliano; Cristaldo, Mariana; Pellegrino, Giampaollo

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades the development of urban, industrial and agricultural activities, has led to a significant increase in water demand and decrease in both water quantity and quality in worldwide. The "Paracatu Watershed" is located in Southeast Brazil, one of most developed region in Brazil. The irrigation is the main water use with more than 70% of total demand and the watershed already suffers with water availability and conflicts tend to increase. Trends analysis is an important for the environmental diagnosis in watersheds, allowing evaluate how water bodies are responding through the years the growing anthropogenic interventions. In this studied we analyzed the 6 streamflow and 12 rainfall stations of the "Paracatu Watershed", in the period from 1965 to 2011. The Mann Kendall and Pettitt test were used to trends analysis and abrupt changes in the mean, respectively. The methodology is divided in graphical analysis and application of trend tests, where initially an exploratory analysis of data is performed, followed by confirmation through statistical tests. The results showed negative trend but non-significant (95%) and non-significant abrupt change in rainfall and streamflow (minimum, maximum and mean). Despite no significant trends, the population and irrigation growth plus climate changes tends to decrease the water availability in the watershed. This watershed already suffer from the water problem, and if to keep increasing consumption in the watershed for urban supply and irrigation plus the possible impacts of climatic changes, without prior and appropriate planning, which can be obtained, the population could suffer more problems regarding of water in the future. The solutions must be proposed to help the watershed, with use crop resistant to decrease the irrigation and increase the efficiency of irrigation and population awareness. Appropriate planning and polices are essential to ensure water for future.

  9. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  10. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  11. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; Moradkhani; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  12. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    PubMed

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  13. Competence Challenges of Demand-Led Agricultural Research and Extension in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibwika, P.; Wals, A. E. J.; Nassuna-Musoke, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments and development agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa are experimenting alternative approaches within the innovation systems paradigm to enhance relevance of agricultural research and extension to the poverty eradication agenda. Uganda, for example, has recently shifted from the supply driven to demand-led agricultural research and extension.…

  14. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  15. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  16. Disaggregating residential water demand for improved forecasts and decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, G.; Brookshire, D.; Chermak, J.; Krause, K.; Roach, J.; Stewart, S.; Tidwell, V.

    2003-04-01

    Residential water demand is the product of population and per capita demand. Estimates of per capita demand often are based on econometric models of demand, usually based on time series data of demand aggregated at the water provider level. Various studies have examined the impact of such factors as water pricing, weather, and income, with many other factors and details of water demand remaining unclear. Impacts of water conservation programs often are estimated using simplistic engineering calculations. Partly as a result of this, policy discussions regarding water demand management often focus on water pricing, water conservation, and growth control. Projecting water demand is often a straight-forward, if fairly uncertain process of forecasting population and per capita demand rates. SAHRA researchers are developing improved forecasts of residential water demand by disaggregating demand to the level of individuals, households, and specific water uses. Research results based on high-resolution water meter loggers, household-level surveys, economic experiments and recent census data suggest that changes in wealth, household composition, and individual behavior may affect demand more than changes in population or the stock of landscape plants, water-using appliances and fixtures, generally considered the primary determinants of demand. Aging populations and lower fertility rates are dramatically reducing household size, thereby increasing the number of households and residences for a given population. Recent prosperity and low interest rates have raised home ownership rates to unprecented levels. These two trends are leading to increased per capita outdoor water demand. Conservation programs have succeeded in certain areas, such as promoting drought-tolerant native landscaping, but have failed in other areas, such as increasing irrigation efficiency or curbing swimming pool water usage. Individual behavior often is more important than the household's stock of water

  17. Evaluating Water Demand Using Agent-Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    The supply and demand of water resources are functions of complex, inter-related systems including hydrology, climate, demographics, economics, and policy. To assess the safety and sustainability of water resources, planners often rely on complex numerical models that relate some or all of these systems using mathematical abstractions. The accuracy of these models relies on how well the abstractions capture the true nature of the systems interactions. Typically, these abstractions are based on analyses of observations and/or experiments that account only for the statistical mean behavior of each system. This limits the approach in two important ways: 1) It cannot capture cross-system disruptive events, such as major drought, significant policy change, or terrorist attack, and 2) it cannot resolve sub-system level responses. To overcome these limitations, we are developing an agent-based water resources model that includes the systems of hydrology, climate, demographics, economics, and policy, to examine water demand during normal and extraordinary conditions. Agent-based modeling (ABM) develops functional relationships between systems by modeling the interaction between individuals (agents), who behave according to a probabilistic set of rules. ABM is a "bottom-up" modeling approach in that it defines macro-system behavior by modeling the micro-behavior of individual agents. While each agent's behavior is often simple and predictable, the aggregate behavior of all agents in each system can be complex, unpredictable, and different than behaviors observed in mean-behavior models. Furthermore, the ABM approach creates a virtual laboratory where the effects of policy changes and/or extraordinary events can be simulated. Our model, which is based on the demographics and hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in the state of New Mexico, includes agent groups of residential, agricultural, and industrial users. Each agent within each group determines its water usage

  18. Transformative optimisation of agricultural land use to meet future food demands.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Koellner, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-01-01

    The human population is expected to reach ∼9 billion by 2050. The ensuing demands for water, food and energy would intensify land-use conflicts and exacerbate environmental impacts. Therefore we urgently need to reconcile our growing consumptive needs with environmental protection. Here, we explore the potential of a land-use optimisation strategy to increase global agricultural production on two major groups of crops: cereals and oilseeds. We implemented a spatially-explicit computer simulation model across 173 countries based on the following algorithm: on any cropland, always produce the most productive crop given all other crops currently being produced locally and the site-specific biophysical, economic and technological constraints to production. Globally, this strategy resulted in net increases in annual production of cereal and oilseed crops from 1.9 billion to 2.9 billion tons (46%), and from 427 million to 481 million tons (13%), respectively, without any change in total land area harvested for cereals or oilseeds. This thought experiment demonstrates that, in theory, more optimal use of existing farmlands could help meet future crop demands. In practice there might be cultural, social and institutional barriers that limit the full realisation of this theoretical potential. Nevertheless, these constraints have to be weighed against the consequences of not producing enough food, particularly in regions already facing food shortages. PMID:24255807

  19. Agricultural irrigation demand under present and future climate scenarios in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Axel

    2008-02-01

    The anticipated change of climatic conditions within the next decades is thought to have far reaching consequences for agricultural cropping systems. The success of crop production in China, the world's most populous country, will also have effects on the global food supply. More than 30% of the cropping area in China is irrigated producing the major part of the agricultural production. To model the effects of climate change on irrigation requirements for crop production in China a high-resolution (0.25°, monthly time series for temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) gridded climate data set that specifically allows for the effects of topography on climate was integrated with digital soil data in a GIS. Observed long-term trends of monthly means as well as trends of interannual variations were combined for climate scenarios for the year 2030 with average conditions as well as 'best case' and 'worst case' scenarios. Regional cropping calendars with allowance for multiple cropping systems and the adaptation of the begin and length of the growing season to climatic variations were incorporated in the FAO water balance model to calculate irrigation amounts to obtain maximum yields for the period 1951-1990 and the climate scenarios. During the period 1951-1990 irrigation demand displayed a considerable variation both in temporal and spatial respects. Future scenarios indicate a varied pattern of generally increasing irrigation demand and an enlargement of the subtropical cropping zone rather than a general northward drift of all zones as predicted by GCM models. The effects of interannual variability appear to have likely more impact on future cropping conditions than the anticipated poleward migration of cropping zones.

  20. Sustainability of agriculture under irrigation: Use and management of degraded water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In arid regions the use of saline and reclaimed waters for irrigation is increasingly necessary. Scarcity of fresh water for agriculture is increased by the water demands of the municipal and industrial sectors. In the majority of these regions there is a rapid decrease in fresh water availability ...

  1. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  2. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  3. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  4. Simulations of Limited-Water Irrigation Management Options for Corn in Dryland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diminishing land and water resources due to increasing demands from rapid population growth calls for increasing water use efficiency of irrigated crops. To produce more for every drop of water used in agriculture, it is important to develop location specific alternate agronomic practices vis-à-vis...

  5. Current Water Deficit Stress Simulations in Selected Agricultural System Simulation Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    System models, which adequately simulate plant water stress effects, are valuable tools for developing management practices with improved water use efficiency in agriculture. Plants experience water stress when its supply in the soil fails to meet the demand. Although it is easy to define the conc...

  6. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  7. Pan-European household and industrial water demand: regional relevant estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; de Roo, Ad

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable water management is of high importance to provide adequate quality and quantity of water to European households, industries and agriculture. Especially since demographic, economic and climate changes are expected to increase competition for water between these sectors in the future. A shortage of water implies a reduction in welfare of households or damage to economic sectors. This socio-economic component should be incorporated into the decision-making process when developing water allocation schemes, requiring detailed water use information and cost/benefit functions. We now present the results of our study which is focused at providing regionally relevant pan-European water demand and cost-benefit estimations for the household and industry sector. We gathered consistent data on water consumption, water prices and other relevant variables at the highest spatial detail available from national statistical offices and other organizational bodies. This database provides the most detailed up to date picture of present water use and water prices across Europe. The use of homogeneous data allowed us to compare regions and analyze spatial patterns. We applied econometric methods to determine the main determinants of water demand and make a monetary valuation of water for both the domestic and industry sector. This monetary valuation is important to allow water allocation based on economic damage estimates. We also attempted to estimate how population growth, as well as socio-economic and climatic changes impact future water demand up to 2050 using a homogeneous method for all countries. European projections for the identified major drivers of water demand were used to simulate future conditions. Subsequently, water demand functions were applied to estimate future water use and potential economic damage caused by water shortages. We present our results while also providing some estimation of the uncertainty of our predictions.

  8. MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUS RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential water use is visualized as a customer-server interaction often encountered in queuing theory. ndividual customers are assumed to arrive according to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, then engage water servers for random lengths of time. usy servers are assumed to draw...

  9. ESTIMATION OF WATER DEMANDS USING DEFICIT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Competition for water among governmental entities with common river systems has become increasingly fierce. The competition will no doubt become even more fierce as populations continue to grow and become increasingly dispersed. One of the major issues involved in water resource ...

  10. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  11. A future Demand Side Management (DSM) opportunity for utility as variable renewable penetrate scale up using agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Modi, V.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Kocaman Ayse, S.; Chaudhary, S.; Kumar, A.; Ganapathy, A.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as smart metering, incentive based schemes, payments for turning off loads or rescheduling loads. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less power during periods of peak demand, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times. Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need for investments in networks and/or power plants for meeting peak demands. Electricity use can vary dramatically on short and medium time frames, and the pricing system may not reflect the instantaneous cost as additional higher-cost that are brought on-line. In addition, the capacity or willingness of electricity consumers to adjust to prices by altering elasticity of demand may be low, particularly over short time frames. In the scenario of Indian grid setup, the retail customers do not follow real-time pricing and it is difficult to incentivize the utility companies for continuing the peak demand supply. A question for the future is how deeper penetration of renewable will be handled? This is a challenging problem since one has to deal with high variability, while managing loss of load probabilities. In the case of managing the peak demand using agriculture, in the future as smart metering matures with automatic turn on/off for a pump, it will become possible to provide an ensured amount of water or energy to the farmer while keeping the grid energized for 24 hours. Supply scenarios will include the possibility of much larger penetration of solar and wind into the grid. While, in absolute terms these sources are small contributors, their role will inevitably grow but DSM using agriculture could help reduce the capital cost. The other option is of advancing or delaying pump operating cycle even by several hours, will still ensure

  12. The central role of agricultural water-use productivity in sustainable water management (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    As global and regional populations continue to rise for the next several decades, the need to grow more food will worsen old -- and produce new -- challenges for water resources. Expansion of irrigated agriculture is slowing due to constraints on land and water, and as a result, some have argued that future new food demands will only be met through improvements in agricultural productivity on existing irrigated and rainfed cropland, reductions in field losses and food waste, and social changes such as dietary preferences. This talk will address the central role that improvements in water-use productivity can play in the food/water/population nexus. In particular, the ability to grow more food with less water will have a great influence on whether future food demands will be met successfully. Such improvements can come about through changes in technology, regulatory systems, economic incentives and disincentives, and education of water users. Example of potential savings from three different strategies to improve agricultural water productivity in California. (From Pacific Institute).

  13. MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUS RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wateer use is visualized as a customer-server interaction often encountered in queueing theory. Individual customers are assumed to arrive according to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process, then engage water servers for random lengths of time. Busy servers are assumed t...

  14. Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130×170 km². The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

  15. Estimating the Agricultural Water Consumption of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River Basin. This research uses NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image classification and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and their water demand in the Yellow River Basin. The validation of the estimate method is performed by comparing the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate water demand, the study used and compared two methods of calculating the total water demand. The first one is to make the crop water requirement per unit area multiply by estimated crops total area of the basin. The second one is to sum the calculated water demand of each province. The research found that the remote sensing data can be used to estimate the crop area, while it overestimates the water consumption by both of the two methods.

  16. Agricultural Policies Exacerbate Honeybee Pollination Service Supply-Demand Mismatches Across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Breeze, Tom D.; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Petanidou, Theodora; Seraphides, Nicos; Kozák, Lajos; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Kleijn, David; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Moretti, Marco; Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Pärtel, Meelis; Zobel, Martin; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in insect pollinators across Europe have raised concerns about the supply of pollination services to agriculture. Simultaneously, EU agricultural and biofuel policies have encouraged substantial growth in the cultivated area of insect pollinated crops across the continent. Using data from 41 European countries, this study demonstrates that the recommended number of honeybees required to provide crop pollination across Europe has risen 4.9 times as fast as honeybee stocks between 2005 and 2010. Consequently, honeybee stocks were insufficient to supply >90% of demands in 22 countries studied. These findings raise concerns about the capacity of many countries to cope with major losses of wild pollinators and highlight numerous critical gaps in current understanding of pollination service supplies and demands, pointing to a pressing need for further research into this issue. PMID:24421873

  17. The Urban Food-Water Nexus: Modeling Water Footprints of Urban Agriculture using CityCrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooke, T. R.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Coops, N. C.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban agriculture provides a potential contribution towards more sustainable food production and mitigating some of the human impacts that accompany volatility in regional and global food supply. When considering the capacity of urban landscapes to produce food products, the impact of urban water demand required for food production in cities is often neglected. Urban agricultural studies also tend to be undertaken at broad spatial scales, overlooking the heterogeneity of urban form that exerts an extreme influence on the urban energy balance. As a result, urban planning and management practitioners require, but often do not have, spatially explicit and detailed information to support informed urban agricultural policy, especially as it relates to potential conflicts with sustainability goals targeting water-use. In this research we introduce a new model, CityCrop, a hybrid evapotranspiration-plant growth model that incorporates detailed digital representations of the urban surface and biophysical impacts of the built environment and urban trees to account for the daily variations in net surface radiation. The model enables very fine-scale (sub-meter) estimates of water footprints of potential urban agricultural production. Results of the model are demonstrated for an area in the City of Vancouver, Canada and compared to aspatial model estimates, demonstrating the unique considerations and sensitivities for current and future water footprints of urban agriculture and the implications for urban water planning and policy.

  18. New coal plant technologies will demand more water

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.

    2008-04-15

    Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  19. Predictive models for forecasting hourly urban water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Manuel; Torgo, Luís; Izquierdo, Joaquín; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    SummaryOne of the goals of efficient water supply management is the regular supply of clean water at the pressure required by consumers. In this context, predicting water consumption in urban areas is of key importance for water supply management. This prediction is also relevant in processes for reviewing prices; as well as for operational management of a water network. In this paper, we describe and compare a series of predictive models for forecasting water demand. The models are obtained using time series data from water consumption in an urban area of a city in south-eastern Spain. This includes highly non-linear time series data, which has conditioned the type of models we have included in our study. Namely, we have considered artificial neural networks, projection pursuit regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, random forests and support vector regression. Apart from these models, we also propose a simple model based on the weighted demand profile resulting from our exploratory analysis of the data. In our comparative study, all predictive models were evaluated using an experimental methodology for hourly time series data that detailed water demand in a hydraulic sector of a water supply network in a city in south-eastern Spain. The accuracy of the obtained results, together with the medium size of the demand area, suggests that this was a suitable environment for making adequate management decisions.

  20. Agricultural Virtual Water Flows in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dang, Q.; Lin, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global virtual water trade is an important research topic that has yielded several interesting insights. In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the USA, a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intra-national food flow data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water flows vary across scales. We find that both the value and volume of food flows within the USA are roughly equivalent to half that of international flows. However, USA food flows are more water intensive than international food trade, due to the higher fraction of water-intensive meat trade within the USA. The USA virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  1. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program Legislative Authority The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program...

  2. America's water risk: Current demand and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Etienne, Elius; Shi, Daniel; Xi, Chen

    2015-04-01

    A new indicator of drought-induced water stress is introduced and applied at the county level in the USA. Unlike most existing drought metrics, we directly consider current daily water demands and renewable daily water supply to estimate the potential stress. Water stress indices developed include the Normalized Deficit Cumulated to represent multiyear droughts by computing the maximum cumulative deficit between demand and supply over the study period (1949-2009) and the Normalized Deficit Index representing drought associated with maximum cumulative deficit each year. These water stress indices map directly to storage requirements needed to buffer multiyear and within-year climate variability and can reveal the dependence on exogenous water transferred by rivers/canals to the area. Future climate change and variability can be also incorporated into this framework to inform climate-driven drought for additional storage development and potential applications of water trading across counties.

  3. Evaluating the Impacts of an Agricultural Water Market in the Guadalupe River Basin, Texas: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Cai, X.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture comprises about 80 percent of the total water consumption in the US. Under conditions of water shortage and fully committed water rights, market-based water allocations could be promising instruments for agricultural water redistribution from marginally profitable areas to more profitable ones. Previous studies on water market have mainly focused on theoretical or statistical analysis. However, how water users' heterogeneous physical attributes and decision rules about water use and water right trading will affect water market efficiency has been less addressed. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to evaluate the benefits of an agricultural water market in the Guadalupe River Basin during drought events. Agricultural agents with different attributes (i.e., soil type for crops, annual water diversion permit and precipitation) are defined to simulate the dynamic feedback between water availability, irrigation demand and water trading activity. Diversified crop irrigation rules and water bidding rules are tested in terms of crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. The model was coupled with a real-time hydrologic model and run under different water scarcity scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that an agricultural water market is capable of increasing crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. This capability is more significant under moderate drought scenarios than in mild and severe drought scenarios. The water market mechanism also increases agricultural resilience to climate uncertainty by reducing crop yield variance in drought events. The challenges of implementing an agricultural water market under climate uncertainty are also discussed.

  4. INPUT SUBSTITUTION AND DEMAND IN THE WATER SUPPLY PRODUCTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of input demand for U.S. water utilities is analyzed by estimating a translog cost function. An important feature of the model includes the multiproduct specification of the water supply production process. Operating variables are also specified to include capacity ...

  5. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  6. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  7. A Multiple-player-game Approach to Agricultural Water Use in Regions of Seasonal Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.

    2013-12-01

    In the wide distributed regions of seasonal drought, conflicts of water allocation between multiple stakeholders (which means water consumers and policy makers) are frequent and severe problems. These conflicts become extremely serious in the dry seasons, and are ultimately caused by an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. Meanwhile, these stakeholders are often both competitors and cooperators in water saving problems, because water is a type of public resource. Conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in

  8. Modelling global water stress of the recent past: on the relative importance of trends in water demand and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decades, human water use has more than doubled, yet available freshwater resources are finite. As a result, water scarcity has been prevalent in various regions of the world. Here, we present the first global assessment of past development of water stress considering not only climate variability but also growing water demand, desalinated water use and non-renewable groundwater abstraction over the period 1960-2001 at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. Agricultural water demand is estimated based on past extents of irrigated areas and livestock densities. We approximate past economic development based on GDP, energy and household consumption and electricity production, which are subsequently used together with population numbers to estimate industrial and domestic water demand. Climate variability is expressed by simulated blue water availability defined by freshwater in rivers, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs by means of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. We thus define blue water stress by comparing blue water availability with corresponding net total blue water demand by means of the commonly used, Water Scarcity Index. The results show a drastic increase in the global population living under water-stressed conditions (i.e. moderate to high water stress) due to growing water demand, primarily for irrigation, which has more than doubled from 1708/818 to 3708/1832 km3 yr-1 (gross/net) over the period 1960-2000. We estimate that 800 million people or 27% of the global population were living under water-stressed conditions for 1960. This number is eventually increased to 2.6 billion or 43% for 2000. Our results indicate that increased water demand is a decisive factor for heightened water stress in various regions such as India and North China, enhancing the intensity of water stress up to 200%, while climate variability is often a main determinant of extreme events. However, our results also suggest that in several emerging and developing economies

  9. Agricultural production and water use scenarios in Cyprus under global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Zoumides, Christos; Camera, Corrado; Pashiardis, Stelios; Zomeni, Zomenia

    2014-05-01

    In many countries of the world, food demand exceeds the total agricultural production. In semi-arid countries, agricultural water demand often also exceeds the sustainable supply of water resources. These water-stressed countries are expected to become even drier, as a result of global climate change. This will have a significant impact on the future of the agricultural sector and on food security. The aim of the AGWATER project consortium is to provide recommendations for climate change adaptation for the agricultural sector in Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean region. Gridded climate data sets, with 1-km horizontal resolution were prepared for Cyprus for 1980-2010. Regional Climate Model results were statistically downscaled, with the help of spatial weather generators. A new soil map was prepared using a predictive modelling and mapping technique and a large spatial database with soil and environmental parameters. Stakeholder meetings with agriculture and water stakeholders were held to develop future water prices, based on energy scenarios and to identify climate resilient production systems. Green houses, including also hydroponic systems, grapes, potatoes, cactus pears and carob trees were the more frequently identified production systems. The green-blue-water model, based on the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach, has been set up to compute agricultural water demand and yields for all crop fields in Cyprus under selected future scenarios. A set of agricultural production and water use performance indicators are computed by the model, including green and blue water use, crop yield, crop water productivity, net value of crop production and economic water productivity. This work is part of the AGWATER project - AEIFORIA/GEOGRO/0311(BIE)/06 - co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation.

  10. Projecting Urban Water Demand in California: Effects of Climate, Demographics, Technology, Conservation, and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberger, M. G.; Christian-Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    California's growing population is increasingly urban, with 98% of its 38 million people currently living in cities and suburbs. The state has added an estimated 4.5 million people since 2000, with Los Angeles, San Diego, and Sacramento among the 12 fastest-growing cities in the United States. While agriculture continues to use the majority of the state's water supply, urban water demand is growing rapidly and straining available supplies. Warming due to climate change is causing increases in water demand for landscape irrigation and commercial and industrial cooling. We have developed an easy-to-use planning tool to create spatial and temporal forecasts of future urban water demand out to the year 2100. It allows the user to estimate future water demand under a number of scenarios of climate change and demographic change. We use downscaled climate model output to estimate landscape and cooling water demand for each decade from 1950 to 2100 (Maurer and Hidalgo 2007). Planners can use the model to estimate the water-use impacts of urban growth and future land use, as well as water conservation programs and regulations. One may also examine economic effects such as changes in water prices or rate structures. The model includes the effects of building codes, plumbing and appliance standards in bringing about "passive savings" over time. Our modeling work to date suggests that current conservation strategies and efficiency gains already underway in California will increase urban water-use efficiency over the next two decades. While per-capita water use decreases, overall demand is likely to increase due to population growth. Under current policies and trends, statewide urban water demand may increase from 9 million acre-feet in 2005 (11 billion m3) to 12 maf (15 billion m3) in 2050. Implementing aggressive conservation strategies allows for continued population growth without increasing water use. This type of scenario-based planning aids water planners and managers in

  11. China's water sustainability in the 21st century: a climate-informed water risk assessment covering multi-sector water demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Naresh, D.; Upmanu, L.; Hao, Z.; Dong, L.; Ju, Q.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.

    2014-05-01

    China is facing a water resources crisis with growing concerns as to the reliable supply of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High inter-annual rainfall variability and increasing consumptive use across the country exacerbates the situation further and is a constraint on future development. For water sustainability, it is necessary to examine the differences in water demand and supply and their spatio-temporal distribution in order to quantify the dimensions of the water risk. Here, a detailed quantitative assessment of water risk as measured by the spatial distribution of cumulated deficits for China is presented. Considering daily precipitation and temperature variability over fifty years and the current water demands, risk measures are developed to inform county level water deficits that account for both within-year and across-year variations in climate. We choose political rather than watershed boundaries since economic activity and water use are organized by county and the political process is best informed through that unit. As expected, the risk measures highlight North China Plain counties as highly water stressed. Regions with high water stress have high inter-annual variability in rainfall and now have depleted groundwater aquifers. The stress components due to agricultural, industrial and domestic water demands are illustrated separately to assess the vulnerability of particular sectors within the country to provide a basis for targeted policy analysis for reducing water stress.

  12. Water use demand in the Crans-Montana-Sierre region (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonriposi, M.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    Crans-Montana-Sierre is an Alpine touristic region located in the driest area of Switzerland (Rhone River Valley, Canton of Valais), with both winter (ski) and summer (e.g. golf) tourist activities. Climate change as well as societal and economic development will in future significantly modify the supply and consumption of water and, consequently, may fuel conflicts of interest. Within the framework of the MontanAqua project (www.montanaqua.ch), we are researching more sustainable water management options based on the co-ordination and adaptation of water demand to water availability under changing biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. This work intends to quantify current water uses in the area and consider future scenarios (around 2050). We have focused upon the temporal and spatial characteristics of resource demand, in order to estimate the spatial footprint of water use (drinking water, hydropower production, irrigation and artificial snowmaking), in terms of system, infrastructure, and organisation of supply. We have then quantified these as precisely as possible (at the monthly temporal scale and at the municipality spatial scale). When the quantity of water was not measurable for practical reasons or for lack of data, as for the case for irrigation or snowmaking, an alternative approach was applied. Instead of quantifying how much water was used, the stress was put on the water needs for irrigating agricultural land or on the optimal meteorological conditions necessary to produce artificial snow. A huge summer peak and a smaller winter peak characterize the current regional water consumption estimation. The summer peak is mainly caused by irrigation and secondly by drinking water demand. The winter peak is essentially due to drinking water and snowmaking. Other consumption peaks exist at the municipality scale but they cannot be observed at the regional scale. The results show a major variation in water demand between the 11 concerned municipalities and

  13. Development of Ensemble Model Based Water Demand Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Byung-Seop

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, Smart Water Grid (SWG) concept has globally emerged over the last decade and also gained significant recognition in South Korea. Especially, there has been growing interest in water demand forecast and optimal pump operation and this has led to various studies regarding energy saving and improvement of water supply reliability. Existing water demand forecasting models are categorized into two groups in view of modeling and predicting their behavior in time series. One is to consider embedded patterns such as seasonality, periodicity and trends, and the other one is an autoregressive model that is using short memory Markovian processes (Emmanuel et al., 2012). The main disadvantage of the abovementioned model is that there is a limit to predictability of water demands of about sub-daily scale because the system is nonlinear. In this regard, this study aims to develop a nonlinear ensemble model for hourly water demand forecasting which allow us to estimate uncertainties across different model classes. The proposed model is consist of two parts. One is a multi-model scheme that is based on combination of independent prediction model. The other one is a cross validation scheme named Bagging approach introduced by Brieman (1996) to derive weighting factors corresponding to individual models. Individual forecasting models that used in this study are linear regression analysis model, polynomial regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines(MARS), SVM(support vector machine). The concepts are demonstrated through application to observed from water plant at several locations in the South Korea. Keywords: water demand, non-linear model, the ensemble forecasting model, uncertainty. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Projects for Developing Eco-Innovation Technologies (GT-11-G-02-001-6)

  14. Controlling residential water demand in Qatar: an assessment.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohannadi, Hassan I; Hunt, Chris O; Wood, Adrian P

    2003-08-01

    Qatar has serious water resource problems, following rapid socioeconomic development and massive population increase. Municipal water provision depends on costly and unsustainable desalination. There is little regulation. Native Qataris do not pay a water tariff and migrants pay a subsidized price--approximately one third of the cost of production--so there is little awareness of the true cost of water and use is profligate. This paper discusses trends in water use and identifies issues underlying sustainable water use in Qatar. A questionnaire of respondents chosen to represent Qatari social groups measured awareness and attitudes to water. The results show that previous efforts to control water demand in Qatar, using awareness campaigns, legal restrictions and tariffs, have been ineffectual. The questionnaire evaluated reactions to possible measures to limit uses by raising awareness, using legal restrictions and raising tariffs. From this, a number of policy changes can be suggested, to bring Qatar's water industry towards sustainability. PMID:14571967

  15. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  16. Historical reconstruction and 2050 projections of water demand under anthropogenic and climate changes in two contrasted Mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grouillet, B.; Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an integrative conceptual framework developed to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of water demand caused by human influences and climate change, at the river basin management scale. The past dynamics of urban, agricultural, and industrial components of water demand were simulated at a 10-day time step for the period between 1970 and 2009. The same model was used to forecast water demand at the 2050 horizon under water use scenarios based on local projections, trends observed in the past, and climate scenarios. Climate prediction uncertainties were taken into account using a wide range of climate scenarios downscaled from 9 IPCC-AR5 GCMs under RCP8.5. To test how widely and easily our approach can be applied, we tested it in two river basins facing different kinds of human pressure and different water management issues: the Herault basin (2500 km2) in France and the Ebro basin (85,000 km2) in Spain. Results showed that water demand has increased significantly in the last 40 years in both the Herault basin (+29%) and the Ebro basin (+57%), and revealed spatially heterogeneous variations in water demand. Identifying the main drivers of water demand and their past dynamics enabled us to build water use trend scenarios at the 2050 horizon. Simulations of water demand under anthropogenic and climate trends in 2050 revealed a significant increase in total water demand in both basins (Herault +38% to +50%, Ebro +35% to +58%). These projections show that changes in the pressure of human activities will influence variations in water demand more than climate change. The broader aim of this research is to assess the balance between water demand and supply through a comprehensive modeling framework to evaluate the sustainability of water uses in a changing environment.

  17. Water for Agriculture in a Vulnerable Delta: A Case Study of Indian Sundarban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Sundarban lies in the south-western part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and supports a 4.43 million strong population. The agrarian economy of Sundarban is dominated by rainfed subsistence rice farming. Unavailability of upstream fresh water, high salinity of river water of up to 32ppt, soil salinity ranging between 2dSm-1 to 19dSm-1, small land holdings of per capita 840 sq. metre and inadequate irrigation facilities are serious constraints for agricultural production in Sundarban. This paper assesses Cropping Intensity, Irrigation Intensity and Man-Cropland Ratio from Agriculture Census (2010-11) data and estimates the seasonal water demand for agriculture in different blocks of Sundarban. The research exposes the ever increasing population pressure on agriculture with an average Man Cropland Ratio of 1745 person/sq.km. In 2010-2011, the average cropping intensity was 129.97% and the irrigation intensity was 20.40%. The highest cropping and irrigation intensity have been observed in the inland blocks where shallow ground water is available for agriculture on the contrary, the lowest values have been observed in the southern blocks, due to existence of saline shallow ground water. The annual water demand for agriculture in Sundarban has been estimated as 2784 mcm. Available water from 70000 freshwater tanks and around 8000 numbers of shallow tube wells are not sufficient to meet the agricultural water demand. Existing irrigation sources and rainfall of 343 mcm fall far short of the water demand of 382 mcm during peak dry Season. Unavailability of fresh water restricts the food production, which endangers the food security of 87.5% of the people in Sundarban. To ensure the food security in changing climatic condition, expansion of irrigation network and harnessing of new water sources are essential. Large scale rainwater harvesting, rejuvenation and re-connection of disconnected river channels, artificial recharge within shallow aquifer to bring down its

  18. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  20. Water-Resources Manpower: Supply and Demand Patterns to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James E.

    Relating the supply of scientific manpower to the educational potential of the general population and the productive capacity of the educational system, this study disaggregates independent projections of scientific manpower supply and demand to yield projections for water resources manpower. This supply of engineers, natural scientists, and…

  1. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  2. Projected water consumption in future global agriculture: scenarios and related impacts.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Stephan; Bayer, Peter; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-09-15

    Global stress on water and land resources is increasing as a consequence of population growth and higher caloric food demand. Many terrestrial ecosystems have already massively been degraded for providing agricultural land, and water scarcity related to irrigation has damaged water dependent ecosystems. Coping with the food and biomass demand of an increased population, while minimizing the impacts of crop production, is therefore a massive upcoming challenge. In this context, we developed four strategies to deliver the biotic output for feeding mankind in 2050. Expansion on suitable and intensification of existing areas are compared to assess associated environmental impacts, including irrigation demand, water stress under climate change, and the productivity of the occupied land. Based on the agricultural production pattern and impacts of the strategies we identified the trade-offs between land and water use. Intensification in regions currently under deficit irrigation can increase agricultural output by up to 30%. However, intensified crop production causes enormous water stress in many locations and might not be a viable solution. Furthermore, intensification alone will not be able to meet future food demand: additionally, a reduction of waste by 50% along the food supply chain or expansion of agricultural land is required for satisfying current per-capita meat and bioenergy consumption. Suitable areas for such expansion are mainly located in Africa, followed by South America. The increased land stress is of smaller concern than the water stress modeled for the intensification case. Therefore, a combination of waste reduction with expansion on suitable pastures generally results as the best option, along with some intensification on selected areas. Our results suggested that minimizing environmental impacts requires fundamental changes in agricultural systems and international cooperation, by producing crops where it is most environmentally efficient and not

  3. Assessment of climatological impacts on agricultural production and residential energy demand

    SciTech Connect

    Cooter, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The assessment of climatological impacts on selected economic activities is presented as a multi-step, inter-disciplinary problem. The assessment process which is addressed explicitly in this report focuses on (1) user identification, (2) direct impact model selection, (3) methodological development, (4) product development and (5) product communication. Two user groups of major economic importance were selected for study; agriculture and gas utilities. The broad agricultural sector is further defined as USA corn production. The general category of utilities is narrowed to Oklahoma residential gas heating demand. The CERES physiological growth model was selected as the process model for corn production. The statistical analysis for corn production suggests that (1) although this is a statistically complex model, it can yield useful impact information, (2) as a result of output distributional biases, traditional statistical techniques are not adequate analytical tools, (3) the model yield distribution as a whole is probably non-Gaussian, particularly in the tails and (4) there appears to be identifiable weekly patterns of forecasted yields throughout the growing season. The NBSLD energy load model was selected to represent residential gas heating consumption. A cursory statistical analysis suggests relationships among weather variables across the Oklahoma study sites. No linear trend in technology-free modeled energy demand or input weather variables which would correspond to that contained in observed state-level residential energy use was detected.

  4. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  5. Water supply and demand in Sedgwick County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, Hugh E.

    1989-01-01

    Water supplies in Sedgwick County, Kansas, are derived from surface--and groundwater resources. During 1985, public supply, irrigation, and self-supplied industry required 38% of the 56 ,500 acre-ft of appropriated surface water and 57% of the 187 ,800 acre-ft of appropriated groundwater. If the historic (1920-80) annual population growth rate (2.8%) continues, the 126,100 acre ft of water appropriated for public-water supplies should meet demand until 2015. The quantity of potentially available water supplies was estimated by summing those resources having less than 1.00 mg/L dissolved solids. Surface water resources that meet this criterion are the Little Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers and Cheney Reservoir. Subtracting legislated minimum streamflows for the rivers from their mean annual streamflow volumes leaves 532,000 acre-ft, which combined with the annual sustained yield of Cheney Reservoir (40,000 acre-ft) provides an estimated 572,000 acre-ft of surface water annually. Groundwater that meets the criterion was estimated by summing the annual precipitation recharge available to unconsolidated deposits in the county (78,400 acre-ft) and in the Harvey County part of the Wichita well field (13,000 acre-ft). Although more groundwater is available, withdrawals exceeding annual precipitation recharge would cause water level declines. Because less than 4% of the potentially available surface water was used for supplies in 1985 and because about 120% of the groundwater recharge was used, surface water resources have a greater potential for meeting future water use demands. (USGS)

  6. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  7. Forecast of irrigation water demand considering multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Lei, X.; Guo, X.; You, J.; Wang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Many factors influence irrigation water requirement on the basin scale, which make it difficult to obtain comprehensive data. Despite the advantage of less needing historical data, the prediction precision of traditional trend prediction methods is hard to guarantee. For water scarce basins, the artificial influence on irrigation requirement should be thought of as important impact factors. In this paper, the PCA (principal component analysis) method is used to identify the main influencing factors, such as precipitation, irrigation area, water saving technology and so on. Based on that, an irrigation water demand prediction model considering multiple factors is developed for water shortage regions. The method is applied in the Haihe River basin as an example. The study results show that the irrigation water demand forecasting method considering multiple factors in this paper can achieve higher modelling accuracy, compared with the traditional trend prediction method and the method that does not consider the human influence. In view of the small average relative error, 1.32%, it has good values for application.

  8. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  9. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  10. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  11. Grey water on three agricultural catchments in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazkova, Sarka D.; Kulasova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    The COST project EU EURO-AGRIWAT focuses apart from other problems on the assessment of water footprint (WF). WF is defined as the quantity of water used to produce some goods or a service. In particular, the WF of an agricultural product is the volume of water used during the crop growing period. It has three components: the green water which is rain or soil moisture transpired by a crop, the blue water which is the amount of irrigation water transpired and the grey water which is the volume of water required to dilute pollutants and to restore the quality standards of the water body. We have been observing three different agricultural catchments. The first of them is Smrzovka Brook, located in the protected nature area in the south part of the Jizerske Mountains. An ecological farming has been carried out there. The second agricultural catchment area is the Kralovsky Creek, which lies in the foothills of the Krkonose Mountains and is a part of an agricultural cooperative. The last agricultural catchment is the Klejnarka stream, located on the outskirts of the fertile Elbe lowlands near Caslav. Catchments Kralovsky Brook and Klejnarka carry out usual agricultural activities. On all three catchments, however, recreational cottages or houses not connected to the sewerage system and/or with inefficient septic tanks occur. The contribution shows our approach to trying to quantify the real grey water from agriculture, i.e. the grey water caused by nutrients not utilised by the crops.

  12. Predicting the impact of water demand and river flow regulation over riparian vegetation through mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Arias, A.; Pons, C.; Frances, F.

    2013-12-01

    The vegetation of the riversides is a main part of the complex riparian ecosystems and has an important role maintaining the fluvial ecosystems. Biotic and abiotic interactions between the river and the riverbank are essential for the subsistence and the development of both ecosystems. In semi-arid Mediterranean areas, the riparian vegetation growth and distribution is especially controlled by the water accessibility, determining the limit between the lush riparian bands and the sparse upland. Human intervention can alter the river hydrology determining the riparian vegetation wellbeing and its distribution and, in consequence, affecting both riparian and fluvial ecosystems. Predictive models are necessary decision support tools for adequate river management and restoration initiatives. In this context, the RibAV model is useful to predict the impact of water demand and river flow regulation on the riparian vegetation. RibAV is able to reproduce the vegetation performance on the riverside allowing the scenarios analysis in terms of vegetation distribution and wellbeing. In this research several flow regulation and water demand scenarios are proposed and the impacts over three plant functional types (PFTs) are analyzed. The PFTs group the herbaceous riparian plants, the woody riparian plants and the terrestrial vegetation. The study site is the Terde reach at the Mijares River, a 539m length reach located in a semi-arid Mediterranean area in Spain. The scenarios represent river flow alterations required to attend different human demands. These demands encompass different seasonality, magnitude and location. The seasonality is represented as hydroelectric (constant all over the year), urban (increased during the summer period) and agricultural demands (monthly seasonality). The magnitude is varied considering the 20%, the 40% and the 80% of the mean daily flow. Two locations are considered, upstream or downstream the study site. To attend the demands located

  13. Looking at the spatial and temporal distribution of global water availability and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Peter; Satoh, Yusuke; Wada, Yoshihide; Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stefanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wiberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The human water demand for agriculture, industry, energy and domestic is less than ten per cent of the global freshwater production of around 54,000 km3 per year. Water is distributed unequally in time and space. Not a new insight, but when we zoom in and look at country and regional level and monthly time scale the global picture is dispatching into areas and periods of water abundance and water scarcity, which we can quantify. This study uses the multi-model approach of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to build up a consistent set of global water scenarios based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for the IIASA Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment applies three water scenarios based on feasible combinations of two different RCPs and three SSPs, then five different hydrological models are used to estimate water availability and three water use models to estimate water demand from different sectors. Results are shown as indicators for e.g. water stress and water dependency between countries for present time and for future projections up to 2050. The alterations to previous studies are the multi-model approach and the finer temporal monthly scale, showing the temporal and spatial diversity of water demand and availability. One example scenario is based on the combination of SSP2 and RCP6.0. While in 2010 17 countries out of 249 facing severe water stress on an annual basis, the number is likely to increase up to 26 countries by 2050. Looking at the monthly time dimension 51 countries with altogether 3.8 billion people are under severe water stress in at least one month in 2010. This will rise up to 57 countries and 4.9 billion people by 2050. Main driver of this development will be the rising water demand of a growing population and to a lesser extend the changing distribution of water availability. Model biases are inevitable in

  14. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  15. Managing agricultural drainage ditches for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for the removal of surface and ground water to allow for crop production in poorly drained agricultural landscapes. Ditches also mediate the flow of pollutants from agroecosystems to downstream water bodies. This paper provides an overview of the science, ...

  16. Estimating the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water in the Musi catchment of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Hellegers, Petra

    2011-10-01

    the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water can be derived. To illustrate the method, the values of the marginal product of water deployed in the Musi catchment in India are used to determine an own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water which has some positive value to producers of approximately -0.64. For water that is most highly valued, the elasticity was found to be highly elastic at -2.12, while less valued water used in agriculture was far more inelastic at -0.44. Finally, for almost 36% of water deployed in the catchment the elasticity was logically determined to be perfectly elastic.

  17. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  18. Wind increases "evaporative demand" but reduces plant water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Or, D.

    2015-12-01

    Transpiration is commonly conceptualised as a fraction of some potential rate, determined by stomatal or canopy resistance. Therefore, so-called "atmospheric evaporative demand" or "potential evaporation" is generally used alongside with precipitation and soil moisture to characterise the environmental conditions that affect plant water use. An increase in potential evaporation (e.g. due to climate change) is generally believed to cause increased transpiration and/or vegetation water stress, aggravating drought effects. In the present study, we investigated the question whether potential evaporation constitutes a meaningful reference for transpiration and compared sensitivity of potential evaporation and leaf transpiration to atmospheric forcing. Based on modelling results and supporting experimental evidence, we conclude that stomatal resistance cannot be parameterised as a factor relating transpiration to potential evaporation, as the ratio between transpiration and potential evaporation not only varies with stomatal resistance, but also with wind speed, air temperature, irradiance and relative humidity. Furthermore, the effect of wind speed in particular implies increase in potential evaporation, which is commonly interpreted as increased "water stress", but at the same time can reduce leaf transpiration, implying a decrease in water demand at the leaf scale. In fact, in a range of field measurements, we found that water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, enabling plants to conserve water during photosynthesis. We estimate that the observed global decrease in terrestrial near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We conclude that trends in wind speed and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have to be considered explicitly for the estimation of drought effects on

  19. Municipal Water Demand Study, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Richard; Cotton, Arthur W.

    1985-07-01

    By using a multiple regression model, this longitudinal study analyzes the methods and results of the factors which influence water consumption in Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma during the 20-year period of 1961 through 1980. The explanatory variables utilized in the model include the average price of water per thousand liters (X1); constant per capita income (X2); average monthly precipitation measured in millimeters (X3); average monthly temperatures in °C(X4); and number of households per thousand population (X5). The results indicate that average price and per capita income were predictive variables for Oklahoma City's water demand, while only per capita income was found to be a predictor for consumption in Tulsa.

  20. Hard water problems and soft water paths: The "supply versus demand" conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Water problems are complex, interdisciplinary, and have profound effects on human and ecosystem health and well-being. And they are classic "hard" problems. Good science is necessary to solve these problems, but it is rarely sufficient. One of these hard problems is that of "perception" and "frame" - traditional water planners and managers frame freshwater as a "supply" problem, i.e., how can we access and deliver sufficient quantities of water of suitable quality, to satisfy perceived demand. In recent years, however, as water scarcity in different regions has increased due to growing populations and expanding economies, "peak water" limits (including peak renewable, non-renewable, and ecological limits) have started to constrain development of traditional "supply" options (Figure 1). That has led to new thinking about the other side of the equation: what is meant by water "demand" and can demand management tools and approaches offer a way to solve water problems. The "soft path for water" addresses this issue of water demand directly, but implementing demand-side solutions faces serious barriers. This talk will expound on the soft path approach and its potential to overcome some of the gridlock and stagnation in current water policy debates, with examples from both developed and developing countries, and different economic sectors.umulative global reservoir storage (major reservoirs) from 1900 to 2010, showing leveling off of traditional supply expansion. Data from the GRanD database.

  1. Population momentum and the demand on land and water resources

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, G.; Heilig, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    Future world population growth is fuelled by two components: the demographic momentum, which is built into the age composition of current populations, and changes in reproductive behaviour and mortality of generations yet to come. This paper investigates, by major world regions and countries, what we know about population growth, what can be projected with reasonable certainty, and what is pure speculation. The exposition sets a frame for analysing demographic driving forces that are expected to increase human demand and pressures on land and water resources. These have been contrasted with current resource assessments of regional availability and use of land, in particular with estimates of remaining land with cultivation potential. In establishing a balance between availabilty of land resources and projected needs, the paper distinguishes regions with limited land and water resources and high population pressure from areas with abundant resources and low or moderate demographic demand. Overall, it is estimated that two-thirds of the remaining balance of land with rainfed cultivation potential is currently covered by various forest ecosystems and wetlands. The respective percentages by region vary between 23% in Southern Africa to 89% in South-Eastern Asia. For Latin America and Asia the estimated share of the balance of land with cultivation potential under forest and wetland ecosystems is about 70%, in Africa this is about 60%. If these were to be preserved, the remaining balance of land with some potential for rainfed crop cultivation would amount to some 550 million hectares. The regions which will experience the largest difficulties in meeting future demand for land resources and water, or alternatively have to cope with much increased dependency on external supplies, include foremost Western Asia, South-Central Asia, and Northern Africa. A large stress on resources is to be expected also in many countries of Eastern, Western and Southern Africa

  2. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  3. Agricultural water requirements for commercial production of cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundant water resources are essential for the commercial production of cranberries, which use irrigated water for frost protection, soil moisture management, and harvest and winter floods. Given water resource demands in southeastern Massachusetts, we sought to quantify the annual water requirement...

  4. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  5. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  6. Irrigation water demand: A meta-analysis of price elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheierling, Susanne M.; Loomis, John B.; Young, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Metaregression models are estimated to investigate sources of variation in empirical estimates of the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Elasticity estimates are drawn from 24 studies reported in the United States since 1963, including mathematical programming, field experiments, and econometric studies. The mean price elasticity is 0.48. Long-run elasticities, those that are most useful for policy purposes, are likely larger than the mean estimate. Empirical results suggest that estimates may be more elastic if they are derived from mathematical programming or econometric studies and calculated at a higher irrigation water price. Less elastic estimates are found to be derived from models based on field experiments and in the presence of high-valued crops.

  7. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 1: Global water supply and demand under extreme radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model - namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) - is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5° × 0.5° resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9-10% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32-37% by 2095. This results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural productivity is strongly dependent on the availability of water, necessitating accurate projections of water resources, the allocation of water resources across competing sectors, and the effects of insufficient water resources on crops to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the region, and run using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. A 30-year simulation of WEAP-DSSAT forced using a spatially interpolated observational dataset was run from 1980-2009. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Surface Resistance and Evapotranspiration (MOD16) and Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) data were used to evaluate WEAP-DSSAT evapotranspiration calculations. Overall WEAP-DSSAT reasonably captures the seasonal cycle of observed evapotranspiration, but some catchments contain significant biases. Future climate scenarios were constructed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. The overall impacts of future climate on irrigated agricultural yields varies across the Central Valley and is highly dependent on crop, water resources demand assumptions, and agricultural management.

  9. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents an analysis of impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe. The analysis of climate change impacts on agriculture is composed of two main categories: rainfed agriculture and irrigated agriculture. Impacts on rainfed agriculture are mostly conditioned by climatic factors and were evaluated through the estimation of changes in agricultural productivity induced by climatic changes using the SARA model. At each site, process-based crop responses to climate and management are simulated by using the DSSAT crop models for cereals (wheat and rice), coarse grains (maize) and leguminous (soybeans). Changes in the rest of the crops are derived from analogies to these main crops. For each of the sites we conducted a sensitivity analysis to environmental variables (temperature, precipitation and CO2 levels) and management variables (planting date, nitrogen and irrigation applications) to obtain a database of crop responses. The resulting site output was used to define statistical models of yield response for each site which were used to obtain estimates of changes in agricultural productivity of representative production systems in European agro-climatic regions. Impacts on irrigated agriculture are mostly conditioned by water availability and were evaluated through the estimation of changes in water availability using the WAAPA model, which simulates the operation of a water resources system to maximize water availability. Basic components of WAAPA are inflows, reservoirs and demands. These components are linked to nodes of the river network. WAAPA allows the simulation of reservoir operation and the computation of supply to demands from a system of reservoirs accounting for ecological flows and evaporation losses. WAAPA model was used to estimate maximum potential water availability in the European river network applying gross volume reliability as performance criterion. Impacts on agricultural production are also dependent

  10. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  11. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  12. Operationalizing Demand-Driven Agricultural Research: Institutional Influences in a Public and Private System of Research Planning in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    The trend towards demand-driven agricultural research has focused attention on the inclusion of farmers in research planning. Theoretically, this should enhance ownership and increase the applicability of research. However, in practice, several tensions emerge with regard to the operationalization of such "user-driven research planning systems",…

  13. Impact of water quality on chlorine demand of corroding copper.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Liggett, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time. A copper test-loop pilot system was used to control test conditions and systematically meet the study objectives. Chlorine consumption trends attributed to abiotic reactions with copper over time were different for each pH condition tested, and the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs increased with increasing pH. Orthophosphate eliminated chlorine consumption trends with elapsed time (i.e., chlorine demand was consistent across entire test runs). Orthophosphate also greatly reduced the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs. Interestingly, the total amount of chlorine consumed and the consumption rate were not pH dependent when orthophosphate was present. The findings reflect the complex and competing reactions at the copper pipe wall including corrosion, oxidation of Cu(I) minerals and ions, and possible oxidation of Cu(II) minerals, and the change in chlorine species all as a function of pH. The work has practical applications for maintaining chlorine residuals in premise plumbing drinking water systems including large buildings such as hospitals. PMID:26826646

  14. The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Al-Busaidi, A.

    The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation especially in the developing countries. The demand for water is constantly increasing as a result of population growth and the expansion of agriculture and industry. Fresh water resources are limited in the arid and semi-arid areas whereas the existing water resources are often overused and misused. The lack of water management in the arid areas generated numerous economic, social and ecological issues. Agriculture currently accounts for nearly 70-80% of water consumption in the developing countries. The productivity of water use in agriculture needs to enhance in order both to avoid exacerbating the water crisis and to prevent considerable food shortages. More efficient use of existing water resources and adequate management of soils could prove to be the effective tool for improving arid lands. The technologies, skills and capital resources required to overcome the poor and extreme distribution of water resources through storage and transfer are not available and widely used. As a consequence there is critically low access to water for agriculture, drinking and sanitation and the environment. Poor access to water is among the leading factors hindering sustainable development in semi-arid and arid regions. Conventional irrigation management should be revised to ensure maximum water productivity instead of land productivity for dry farming systems. Under conditions of increasing water scarcity, the key to sustaining rural livelihoods is improving the productivity and reliability of rainfed agriculture by using limited rainfall more productively, through optimal on-farm soil, water and crop management practices that conserve soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. Conserving and augmenting water supplies through rainwater harvesting and precision irrigation provide new opportunity for productive dry land farming

  15. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  16. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. One potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to 1...

  17. Resilience building and water demand management for drought mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockström, Johan

    Doughts resulting in complete crop failure are common in Eastern and Southern Africa. We are at present experiencing a regional crisis, where crop failures related to drought are threatening the lives of millions of people in several countries in Southern Africa. A major challenge is to seek ways of mitigating and coping with droughts in small-holder farming systems, particularly in semi-arid regions which are most hardly hit by the effects of drought. An entry-point for drought mitigation is to build water resilience of present rainfed farming systems. The water balance is a good starting point to assess the options. As has been argued for decades, the term drought is very debated, and the boundaries between droughts being politically and biophysically defined is not sharp. Often crop failures and social suffering are blamed on drought, while in reality the causes are more complex than only a decline in rainfall. A challenge is to find management strategies to deal with the unreliable and extremely variable rainfall in savannah environments. In this paper examples of small-scale management practices to mitigate drought in semi-arid rainfed farming are presented. Focus is on water harvesting systems for supplemental irrigation. It is shown that with relatively simple and cheap means it is possible to build resilience to deal with water scarcity in semi-arid farming systems. If such measures are combined with efforts of maximising plant water availability and plant water uptake capacity, there are good chances of mitigating certain droughts. Conservation tillage systems have proven to maximise rainfall infiltration and storage of water in the soil, enabling even crops lacking supplemental irrigation to bridge severe dry spells. Interestingly, building resilience in rainfed farming systems is also a means of water demand management. More crop is produced per drop of water in resilient farming systems, which reduces the amount of water needed to produce food. Despite

  18. Droughts in the US: Modeling and Forecasting for Agriculture-Water Management and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2012-12-01

    More than half of all US counties are currently mired in a drought that is considered the worst in decades. A persistent drought can not only lead to widespread impacts on water access with interstate implications (as has been shown in the Southeast US and Texas), chronic scarcity can emerge as a risk in regions where fossil aquifers have become the primary source of supply and are being depleted at rates much faster than recharge (e.g., Midwestern US). The standardized drought indices on which the drought declarations are made in the US so far consider only the static decision frameworks—where only the supply is the control variable and not the water consumption. If a location has low demands, drought as manifest in the usual indices does not really have "proportionate" social impact. Conversely, a modest drought as indicated by the traditional measures may have significant impacts where demand is close to the climatological mean value of precipitation. This may also lead to drought being declared too late or too soon. Against this fact, the importance of improved drought forecasting and preparedness for different sectors of the economy becomes increasingly important. The central issue we propose to address through this paper is the construction and testing of a drought index that considers regional water demands for specific purposes (e.g., crops, municipal use) and their temporal distribution over the year for continental US. Here, we have highlighted the use of the proposed index for three main sectors: (i) water management organizations, (ii) optimizing agricultural water use, and (iii) supply chain water risk. The drought index will consider day-to-day climate variability and sectoral demands to develop aggregate regional conditions or disaggregated indices for water users. For the daily temperature and precipitation data, we are using NLDAS dataset that is available from 1949 onwards. The national agricultural statistics services (NASS) online database has

  19. Modelling the water-agricultural sector in Rosetta, Egypt: exploring the interaction between water and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Savic, Dragan; Kapelan, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    An integrated System Dynamics Model for the Rosetta region, Egypt, assessing local water balance and agricultural yield to 2050, is presented. Fifty-seven simulations are analysed to better understand potential impacts on water and food security resulting from climate and social change and local/regional policy decisions related to the agricultural sector. Water limitation is a national issue: Egypt relies on the Nile for >95% of supply, and the flow of which is regulated by the Aswan High Dam. Egypt's share water of Aswan water is limited to 55 x 19 m3 yr-1. Any reduction in supply to the reservoir or increase in demand (e.g. from an expanding agricultural sector), has the potential to lead to a serious food and water supply situation. Results show current water resource over-exploitation. The remaining suite of 56 simulations, divided into seven scenarios, also mostly show resource overexploitation. Only under significant increases to Nile flow volumes was the trend reversed. Despite this, by threading together multiple local policies to reduce demand and improve/maintain supply, water resource exploitation can be mitigated while allowing for agricultural development. By changing cropping patterns, it is possible to improve yield and revenue, while using up to 21% less water in 2050 when compared with today. The results are useful in highlighting pathways to improving future water resource availability. Many policies should be considered in parallel, introducing redundancy into the policy framework. We do not suggest actual policy measures; this was beyond the scope of the work. This work highlights the utility of systems modelling of complex systems such as the water-food nexus, with the potential to extend the methodology to other studies and scales. In particular, the benefit of being able to easily modify and extend existing models in light of results from initial modelling efforts is cited. Analysis of initial results led to the hypothesis that by producing

  20. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  1. Army Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  2. Water Demands with Two Adaptation Responses to Climate Change in a Mexican Irrigation District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, W.; Iñiguez-Covarrubias, M.; Rojano, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is well documented that climate change is inevitable and that farmers need to adapt to changes in projected climate. Changes in water demands for a Mexican irrigation district were assessed using an irrigation scheduling model. The impact of two adaptations actions on water demands were estimated and compared with a baseline scenario. Wet and dry cropping plans were selected from the last 15 water years with actual climatology (1961-1990) taken as reference and three A1B climate change projection periods P1, P2 and P3 (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2098). Projected precipitation and air temperature (medium, maximum and minimum) data were obtained through weighted averages of the best CGCM projections for Mexico, available at the IPCC data distribution center, using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging method (REA). Two adaptation farmers' responses were analyzed: use of longer season varieties and reduction of planting dates toward colder season as warming intensifies in the future. An annual accumulated ETo value of 1554 mm was estimated for the base period P0. Cumulative and Daily irrigations demands were generated for each agricultural season using the four climate projection series and considering adaptations actions. Figure 1 integrates in a unique net flow curve for the Fall-Winter season under selected adaptations actions. The simulation results indicated that for mid century (Period P2), the use of longer-season cultivars (AV) will have more pronounced effect in daily net flow based than the reduction of planting season (APS) as climate change intensifies during present century. Without adaptation (WA), the increase in temperature will shorten the growing season of all annual crops, generating a peak shift with respect to reference case (WA-P0). Combined adoptions of adaptation actions (AP+V) can generate higher, peak and cumulative, crop water requirements than actual values as Figure 1 shows. There are clear trends that without adaptations, water

  3. Developing a demand model integrating end uses of water (DMEUW): structure and process of integration.

    PubMed

    Sarker, R C; Gato-Trinidad, S

    2015-01-01

    The process of developing an integrated water demand model integrating end uses of water has been presented. The model estimates and forecasts average daily water demand based on the end-use pattern and trend of residential water consumption, daily rainfall and temperature, water restrictions and water conservation programmes. The end-use model uses the latest end-use data set collected from Yarra Valley Water, Australia. A computer interface has also been developed using hypertext markup language and hypertext pre-processor. The developed model can be used by water authorities and water resource planners in forecasting water demand and by household owners in determining household water consumption. PMID:25746644

  4. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  5. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  6. Issues in water resources demand and supply in arid Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bingyu; Zhang, Yi

    2003-07-01

    In implementing China Western Development, there is no doubt that we should pay more attention to studying the sustainable development in arid north-west regions because those areas are backward in economy and hostile in natural environment, and have strategic positions to promote the real development of western regions. Of those regions, Xinjinag has even strong potentials to have a great impact on different factors of sustainable development because it is more inland than any other western region. Particularly, it is essential for us to take advantage of even more flexibility which dominates the means of adjustment and control of water resources utilisation and management, and to give a strong back-up in government decision-making. This paper focuses on Xinjiang water resource status to propose four characteristics in Xinjiang water resources and to point out relevant existing problems. According to the internal and external environments of China Western Development, the paper analyses the impact of developing trends in Xinjiang water resources on agriculture planting, manufacturing industry production, urbanisation, ecology evolution, and natural environment changes. In addition, this paper probes several problems on supply and demand of Xinjiang water resources. Lastly, the paper relies on the perspective of sustainable development as guidance, and on the perspective of water resources value as a basic theory to propose the relevant suggestions and countermeasures in the relationship of Xinjiang water resources development to societal and economic development.

  7. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  8. [Research progress on water footprint in agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Xi-ying

    2015-10-01

    Water is one of the important resources in human activities. Scientifically and rationally evaluating the effects of human activities on water resources is important for sustainable water resource management. The innovative concepts of water footprint (WF) distinguished the human water consumption into green water, blue water and grey water which extended the evaluation methods in sustainable utilization of water resources. Concepts of WF based on virtual water (VW) and based on life cycle assessment (LCA) both combined water quality and water quantity are now the focuses in agricultural water management researches. Theory of WF based on VW includes the calculation of green, blue and grey WF as well as the evaluation of the sustainability of water environment. Theory of WF based on LCA reflects the overall impact of consumptive and degradative water use on the environment. The purpose of this article was to elaborate the research progresses in theoretical calculation methods and environmental sustainability assessment of the two water footprint theories and then to analyze the differentiation of these two methodologies in describing the consumptive water use in agriculture and its effects on environment. Finally, some future research aspects on water footprint were provided. PMID:26995933

  9. Estimating Agricultural Water Use using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Evapotranspiration Estimation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the predominantly arid climate in Arizona, access to adequate water supply is vital to the economic development and livelihood of the State. Water supply has become increasingly important during periods of prolonged drought, which has strained reservoir water levels in the Desert Southwest over past years. Arizona's water use is dominated by agriculture, consuming about seventy-five percent of the total annual water demand. Tracking current agricultural water use is important for managers and policy makers so that current water demand can be assessed and current information can be used to forecast future demands. However, many croplands in Arizona are irrigated outside of areas where water use reporting is mandatory. To estimate irrigation withdrawals on these lands, we use a combination of field verification, evapotranspiration (ET) estimation, and irrigation system qualification. ET is typically estimated in Arizona using the Modified Blaney-Criddle method which uses meteorological data to estimate annual crop water requirements. The Modified Blaney-Criddle method assumes crops are irrigated to their full potential over the entire growing season, which may or may not be realistic. We now use the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET data in a remote-sensing and energy-balance framework to estimate cropland ET. SSEBop data are of sufficient resolution (30m by 30m) for estimation of field-scale cropland water use. We evaluate our SSEBop-based estimates using ground-truth information and irrigation system qualification obtained in the field. Our approach gives the end user an estimate of crop consumptive use as well as inefficiencies in irrigation system performance—both of which are needed by water managers for tracking irrigated water use in Arizona.

  10. Improving the local relevance of large scale water demand predictions: the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; de Roo, Ad

    2016-04-01

    Securing adequate availability of fresh water is of vital importance for socio-economic development of present and future Europe. Due to strong heterogeneity in climate conditions, some regions receive an abundant supply of water, where other areas almost completely depend on limited river discharge from upstream catchments. Furthermore, water demand differs greatly between regions due to differences in population density and local presence of intensive water using industries and agriculture. This results in many situations all across Europe where competition between water users translates into relative scarcity and economic damage. Additionally it is expected that inter-related economic and demographic developments, as well as climate change are to only further increase the need for efficient management of our water resources in the future. Successful policy making for such complex problems requires a good understanding of the system and reliable forecasting of conditions. The extent and complexity of the water use system however, stands in high contrast with the poor state of available data and lack of reliable predictions for this multi-disciplinary topic. Although the matching of available water to its demand is a European-wide problem, the amount of data with pan-European coverage is limited and usually with a national resolution at best. This is hindering researchers and policy makers because it usually makes large scale water demand predictions little relevant due to the strong regional heterogenic nature of the problem. We present in our study a first attempt of European-wide water demand predictions based on consistent regional data and econometric methods for the household and industry sector. We gathered data on water consumption, water prices and other relevant variables at the highest spatial detail available from national statistical offices and other organizational bodies. This database provides the most detailed up to date picture of present water

  11. Impact of climate change on evaluation of future water demand in the Euphrates and Aleppo basin, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alazzy, A. A.; Lü, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Syria is one of the Middle Eastern countries that suffer from scarcity in water resources availability, which affects the growth and development of economic activities. In this research, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model is applied to evaluate future water demand in the Euphrates and Aleppo basin (EAB), Syria, by taking into account the climate change that may affect water demand in the domestic, industrial, and agricultural sectors until 2050. The climate change projections of temperature and precipitation were assessed using a new version of the MAGICC/SCENGEN tool with two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2 and B2) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Based on the results of IPCC (A2, B2) scenarios projections, the EAB basin is likely to face a decrease in precipitation amount by 21 % according to A2 and by 12 % according to B2, while temperature would increase by about 2.5 °C according to A2 and by 2 °C according to B2. Within the three scenarios adopted in this research: (1) available technology development; (2) increasing treated wastewater in agriculture and industry sectors; (3) and two combined scenarios, the results of the simulation demonstrated that the proposed scenarios are effective for reducing stressors on EAB's water resources, but are not sustainable to bridge the gap between demand-supply by the year 2050, which leads to the deterioration of the available water resources.

  12. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  13. Water governance, agricultural development and community-level resilience to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T.; Cox, M.; McCord, P.; Caylor, K. K.; Washington-Ottombre, C.; Soderberg, K.; Sadri, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial research focuses on agricultural decision-making and practices to assess current and future demand for water based on crop types and irrigation practices. Equally important is the role of environmental governance as expressed through institutions which, in case the case of water systems, are the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. In water-limited environments, institutions play a critical role in addressing the challenges posed by water demand exceeding water supply. A pressing global concern is whether institutions that evolved over the last several decades are well suited to meet potential future water demands in the context of climate change and increasing rates of water abstraction. A related question is whether social and cultural conditions enable adaptive governance that can modify institutions to different water availability scenarios. In order to assess cross-scale resilience of households and communities reliant on irrigated agriculture to climate change, methodological tools are needed to characterize these issues of "institutional fit" and institutional change. We have developed a framework for characterizing institutional dynamics as a platform for the cross-site analysis of human-water governance. To demonstrate the utility of this framework we present a coding process applying this framework to irrigation schemes in Kenya. We present findings from research on rural agriculturalists in Kenya investigating irrigation practices and institutions designed to allocate water across communities. Initial indications are that current institutional regimes are suitable for current hydrological

  14. Agricultural Water Conservation via Conservation Tillage and Thermal Infrared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  15. Thermal Infrared Imagery for Better Water Conservation in Agricultural Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens in Georgia. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  16. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  17. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  18. A site-specific agricultural water requirement and footprint estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0) for irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-01-01

    The water footprint accounting method addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). Most of current water footprint assessments focus on global to continental scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirement and water footprints are assessed on a grid-basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume in-efficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water can be defined as the water to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008 with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional water footprint assessments.

  19. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  20. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  1. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  2. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  3. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  4. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  5. Remotely Sensed Estimates of Evapotranspiration in Agricultural Areas of Northwestern Nevada: Drought, Reliance, and Water Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Matthew

    The arid landscape of northwestern Nevada is punctuated by agricultural communities that rely on water primarily supplied by the diversion of surface waters and secondarily by groundwater resources. Annual precipitation in the form of winter snowfall largely determines the amount of surface water that is available for irrigation for the following agricultural growing season. During years of insufficient surface water supplies, particular basins can use groundwater in order to meet irrigation needs. The amount of water used to irrigate agricultural land is influenced by land use changes, such as fallowing, and water right transfers from irrigation to municipal use. To evaluate agricultural water consumption with respect to variations in weather, water supply, and land use changes, monthly estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) were derived from Landsat multispectral optical and thermal imagery over a eleven-year period (2001 to 2011) and compared to variations in weather, water supply, and land use across four hydrographic areas in northwestern Nevada. Monthly ET was estimated using a land surface energy balance model, Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), using Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 imagery combined with local atmospheric water demand estimates. Estimates of net ET were created by subtracting monthly precipitation from METRIC-derived ET, and seasonal estimates were generated by combining monthly ET for April-October (the regional agricultural growing season). Results highlight that a range of geographic, climatic, hydrographic, and anthropogenic factors influence ET. Hydrographic areas such as Mason Valley have the ability to mitigate deficiencies in surface water supplies by pumping supplemental groundwater, thereby resulting in low annual variability in ET. Conversely, the community of Lovelock has access to limited upstream surface water storage and is restricted by groundwater that is saline and unsuitable for

  6. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  7. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Southern California is subject to long droughts and short wet spells. Its water agencies have put in place voluntary, mandatory, and market-based conservation strategies since the 1980s. By analyzing water agencies' data between 2006 and 2010, this research studies whether rebates for water efficient fixtures, water rates, or water ordinances have been effective, and tests whether structural characteristics of water agencies have affected the policy outcome. It finds that mandates to curb outdoor water uses are correlated with reductions in residential per capita water usage, while water rates and subsidies for water saving devices are not. It also confirms that size is a significant policy implementation factor. In a policy perspective, the transition from a water supply to a water demand management-oriented strategy appears guided by mandates and by contextual factors such as the economic cycle and the weather that occur outside the water governance system. Three factors could improve the conservation effort: using prices as a conservation tool, not only as a cost recovering instrument; investing in water efficient tools only when they provide significant water savings; supporting smaller agencies in order to give them opportunities to implement conservation strategies more effectively or to help them consolidate.

  8. Climate, water and agriculture in the Tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    The broad view is established with a functional definition of the tropics to include the area lying within the region of the easterly trade winds and its extension to extratropical regions that are affected by tropical phenomena such as the southwest Indian monsoon and hurricanes. In the first five chapters Jackson discusses atmospheric water largely in physical terms-its origin and transport with relation to general circulation patterns and precipitation characteristics such as frequency, duration, and intensity, which are as important as total rainfall in the consideration of runoff, biological productivity, and land utilization. In the remainder of the book water-soil-plant relationships are discussed generally and specifically for selected crops and regions. Popular emotional appears currently decry the destruction of tropical wet forests. Jackson makes it clear that tropical lands exhibit a rich variation in climates and that problems of exploitation rooted in cultures, economics, politics, and population growth cannot be solved by the simple introduction of temperate zone science and technology. This volume is a hybrid between an intermediate level textbook and a review article for the knowledgeable investigator, planner, or administrator, and the values to be found in it will vary with the background and interests of the reader. A reference list of more than 800 titles, perhaps half of them dated in the present decade, is a major asset, especially when coupled with extensive author and subject indexes.

  9. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelgren, Bo

    Agricultural water use accounts for about 70 percent of abstracted waters reaching 92 percent of the collective uses of all water resources when rain water is included. Agriculture is the traditional first sector and linked to a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues at local and global level that reach beyond the production of cheap food and industrial fibres. With the dominance in agricultural water uses and linkages with land use and soil conservation the sector is critical to the protection of global and local environmental values especially in sensitive dryland systems. Ethical principles related to development and nature conservation have traditionally been focused on sustainability imperatives building on precaution and preventive action or on indisputable natural systems values, but are by necessity turning more and more towards solidarity-based risk management approaches. Policy and management have in general failed to consider social dimensions with solidarity, consistency and realism for societal acceptance and practical application. As a consequence agriculture and water related land degradation is resulting in accelerated losses in land productivity and biodiversity in dryland and in humid eco- systems. Increasingly faced with the deer social consequences in the form of large man-made hydrological disasters and with pragmatic requirements driven by drastic increases in the related social cost the preferences are moving to short-term risk management approaches with civil protection objectives. Water scarcity assessment combined with crisis diagnoses and overriding statements on demographic growth, poverty and natural resources scarcity and deteriorating food security in developing countries have become common in the last decades. Such studies are increasingly questioned for purpose, ethical integrity and methodology and lack of consideration of interdependencies between society, economy and environment and of society's capacity to adapt to

  10. Agricultural water consumption decreasing nutrient burden at Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yindong; Wang, Xuejun; Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Wei; He, Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we discussed the impacts of human water consumption to the nutrient burden in a river estuary, and used Huanghe River as a case study. The agricultural water consumption from the Huanghe River has significantly decreased the natural water flows, and the amount of water consumption could be almost twice as high as the water entering into the estuary. According to our calculation, agricultural water usage decreased TN outflows by 6.5 × 104 Mg/year and TP outflows by 2.0 × 103 Mg/year. These account for 74% and 77% of the total output loads. It has been widely reported that the majority of the rivers in northern China were severely polluted by nutrients. Its implication on the budget of nutrient in the estuary ecosystem is not well characterized. Our study showed that the discharge of nutrients in the coast waters from polluted rivers was over concerned. Nutrients in the polluted rivers were transported back to the terrestrial systems when water was drawn for human water consumption. The magnitudes of changes in riverine nutrient discharges even exceed the water-sediment regulation trails in the Huanghe River. It has non-negligible impact on estimating the nutrient burden in costal water ecosystem.

  11. Water limited agriculture in Africa: Climate change sensitivity of large scale land investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.; Chiarelli, D. D.; Davis, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The past few decades have seen unprecedented changes in the global agricultural system with a dramatic increase in the rates of food production fueled by an escalating demand for food calories, as a result of demographic growth, dietary changes, and - more recently - new bioenergy policies. Food prices have become consistently higher and increasingly volatile with dramatic spikes in 2007-08 and 2010-11. The confluence of these factors has heightened demand for land and brought a wave of land investment to the developing world: some of the more affluent countries are trying to secure land rights in areas suitable for agriculture. According to some estimates, to date, roughly 38 million hectares have been acquired worldwide by large scale investors, 16 million of which in Africa. More than 85% of large scale land acquisitions in Africa are by foreign investors. Many land deals are motivated not only by the need for fertile land but for the water resources required for crop production. Despite some recent assessments of the water appropriation associated with large scale land investments, their impact on the water resources of the target countries under present conditions and climate change scenarios remains poorly understood. Here we investigate irrigation water requirements by various crops planted in the acquired land as an indicator of the pressure likely placed by land investors on ("blue") water resources of target regions in Africa and evaluate the sensitivity to climate changes scenarios.

  12. Assessing the impacts of combined climate and land use changes for water availability and demands in a Mediterranean watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean basins experience water scarcity issues due to the dry climate associated with the need for agricultural irrigation and recurrent severe drought episodes. Recent land use changes have increased the pressure over water resources due to an expansion of irrigation. Global climate change is expected to bring forth a drier climate, which may simultaneously lead to higher irrigation demands and less water to sustain them, which would be a great management challenge. The issues surrounding climate and associated land use changes were addressed for the Xarrama basin in southern Portugal. This is a region where there is already a large amount of irrigation, mostly consisting of corn and rice fields, but recent trends point to an increase of drip-irrigation in olives and vineyards. The water management strategies for this region assume water transfers from the larger Alqueva reservoir, without taking into account the impacts of these future changes which might introduce additional evapotranspiration losses while decreasing the amount of available water both in Xarrama and Alqueva. Future climate and land-use scenarios were downscaled to the basin level, the latter taking into account local land-use change trends in recent decades. Downscaling based on local tendencies allowed detailed land use changes for agriculture and forest (the main land uses for this region), i.e. the most likely types of crops and trees to be introduced or replaced. The results of local tendencies scenarios reflect the SRES tendencies for Europe, namely agricultural abandonment and increased biofuel production, with species adapted to this climatic region. These scenarios are the first for this region with highly detailed information about land use change scenarios under climate change. The SWAT eco-hydrological model is being applied to quantify the individual impact of climate and land-use change scenarios on both water availability and demands, and the synergies between both. This

  13. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  14. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Alessio; Kattwinkel, Mira; Rasmussen, Jes J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Fornaroli, Riccardo; Liess, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. PMID:25555206

  15. Estimating household water demand using revealed and contingent behaviors: Evidence from Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheesman, Jeremy; Bennett, Jeff; Son, Tran Vo Hung

    2008-11-01

    This article estimates the water demand of households using (1) municipal water exclusively and (2) municipal water and household well water in the capital city of Dak Lak Province in Vietnam. Household water demands are estimated using a panel data set formed by pooling household records of metered municipal water consumption and their stated preferences for water consumption contingent on hypothetical water prices. Estimates show that households using municipal water exclusively have very price inelastic demand. Households using municipal and household well water have more price elastic, but still inelastic, simultaneous water demand and treat municipal water and household well water as substitutes. Household water consumption is influenced by household water storage and supply infrastructure, income, and socioeconomic attributes. The demand estimates are used to forecast municipal water consumption by households in Buon Ma Thuot following an increase to the municipal water tariff to forecast the municipal water supply company's revenue stream following a tariff increase and to estimate the consumer surplus loss resulting from municipal water supply shortages.

  16. Household demand for water in Sweden with implications of a potential tax on water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HöGlund, Lena

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate empirically the effects of a water tax on water use and on the size and stability of the tax revenues. A tax exceeding value-added tax can be motivated on efficiency grounds when there are environmental external costs of water use and when water is a scarce resource. A household demand function for water is estimated using community level data for 282 (out of 286) Swedish communities studied annually over the period 1980-1992. Static and dynamic demand functions are estimated using panel data methods. The results show a long-run price elasticity of -0.10 in marginal price models and -0.20 in average price models. The findings imply that a tax of 1 Swedish Kronor (SEK) m-3 of water used (corresponding to a 5% increase in the mean average price) would generate ˜600 million SEK in tax revenues per year when levied on all households in Sweden. The water consumption would, however, only be reduced by ˜1%.

  17. Managing Delmarva Agricultural Drainage Ditches for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are essential for draining storm and subsurface water from farmland on the Delmarva Peninsula. Ditches are unique ecosystems, having the features of both streams and wetlands. Ditches often provide the only wetland and aquatic habitats on farmland. Ditches carry, store,...

  18. Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

  19. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  20. Multifunctional systems approaches to water management for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of anthropogenic chemicals on water quality, wildlife, and human health has received increasing attention in recent years. One potential source of anthropogenic compounds is land-based recycling programs which apply municipal wastes (biosolids) to large tracts of agricultural land in lie...

  1. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  2. Simulating Irrigation Requirements And Water Withdrawals: The Role Of Agricultural Irrigation In Basin Hydrology And Non-Sustainable Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, D.; Douglas, E. M.; Schumann, A. H.; Vörösmarty, C. J.

    2006-05-01

    The development of irrigation can cause drastic alterations of the water cycle both through changed evaporation patterns, water abstractions, and (in the case of paddy rice), increased percolation rates. The interactions of irrigation development and large-scale water cycles have traditionally not been accounted for in macroscale hydrological models. We use a modified version an existing water balance model (the WBM model) to explicitly consider the effects of irrigation on regional and continental water cycles. The irrigation module is based on the FAO-CROPWAT approach and uses a daily soil moisture balance to simulate crop consumptive water use. Time series of irrigated areas and the distribution of crops and cropping patterns are derived from a combination of remotely sensed data and national and sub-national statistics. An assessment is made of (1) how irrigation water is supplied and (2) how much of this water is abstracted in excess of the renewable water supply in the basin considering different time horizons. Using different scenarios of water availability and irrigation water demand, the response of irrigation water use to water supply and the potential threats to food security are investigated. Case studies in a few river basins that are heavily influenced by irrigated agriculture and that represent different regions of the world will be presented.

  3. Assessment of Agricultural Water Management in Punjab, India using Bayesian Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Sidhu, R.

    2013-12-01

    The success of the Green Revolution in Punjab, India is threatened by the declining water table (approx. 1 m/yr). Punjab, a major agricultural supplier for the rest of India, supports irrigation with a canal system and groundwater, which is vastly over-exploited. Groundwater development in many districts is greater than 200% the annual recharge rate. The hydrologic data required to complete a mass-balance model are not available for this region, therefore we use Bayesian methods to estimate hydrologic properties and irrigation requirements. Using the known values of precipitation, total canal water delivery, crop yield, and water table elevation, we solve for each unknown parameter (often a coefficient) using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Results provide regional estimates of irrigation requirements and groundwater recharge rates under observed climate conditions (1972 to 2002). Model results are used to estimate future water availability and demand to help inform agriculture management decisions under projected climate conditions. We find that changing cropping patterns for the region can maintain food production while balancing groundwater pumping with natural recharge. This computational method can be applied in data-scarce regions across the world, where agricultural water management is required to resolve competition between food security and changing resource availability.

  4. Conjunctive use of water resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-01

    The continuous increase in global population and simultaneous decrease in good quality water resources emphasizes the need of using surface water and groundwater resources conjunctively for irrigation. The conjunctive use allows the utilization of poor quality water, which cannot be used as such for the crop production due to its harmful effect on soil and crop health. This paper presents an overview on issues and methods of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture. The background of the conjunctive water use and its applications for the management of poor quality water and management of rising watertable are presented. The management of conjunctive water use through the computer-based models is also covered in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of the approach have been described. Conclusions are provided based on this review which could be useful for all the stakeholders.

  5. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    PubMed

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons. PMID:26921569

  6. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Patel, Pralit L.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-05-01

    Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal

  7. Agricultural hydrology and water quality II: Introduction to the featured collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural hydrology and water quality is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding the interrelationship between modern agriculture and water resources. This paper summarizes a featured collection of 10 manuscripts emanating from the 2013 American Water Resources Association Specialty Co...

  8. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  9. APPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM MODELS IN ASSESSING AND MANAGING CONTAMINATION OF THE SOIL-WATER-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980's, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems that wi...

  10. Application of Agricultural System Models in Assessing and Managing Contamination of Soil-Water-Atmosphere Continuum in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last three decades, there has been a growing public concern about the adverse effects of modern agriculture on environmental quality and soil-water resources. In the mid-1980s, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) identified the need for models of whole agricultural systems th...

  11. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  12. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1-1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400-900 kHz and 200-400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  13. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  14. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patrick G; Matheny, Terry A; Ro, Kyoung S; Stone, Kenneth C; Vanotti, Matias B

    2008-07-15

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales. PMID:18569323

  15. A new model for long-term global water demand projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Xing, B.; Shi, H.; Zhang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Rational projection of water demand is critically important to the future development of society. Achieving the desired accuracy for long-term water demand projection (WDP) is challenging due to the complex and uncertain relationships between water demand and various socio-economic indicators. At the same time, traditional forecasting methods, such as multivariate statistical analysis and time series analysis methods, are not adequate for long-term WDP because of the limitations in modelling structures. In this study, a five-staged WDP model is proposed and applied to the global WDPs. The hypothesis for the new model is that water demand is related to socio-economic development level. From the historic data in the Western Europe and United States, the five stages of water demand can be clearly observed. These stages are marked by evident change in water demand trend, and are categorized by the per capita GDP at that stage. The proposed WDP model is then validated with historic water consumption data in United Kingdom and Hong Kong, and the proposed model can explain the historic water consumption well. The developed five-staged WDP model is applied to the WDPs in Hong Kong and Pearl River Basin. Further, using the newly developed water consumption algorithm, this study investigates the global future water demand.

  16. Development of a Demand Sensitive Drought Index and its Application for Agriculture over the Conterminous United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, E.; Devineni, N.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Lall, U.

    2015-12-01

    A new drought index is introduced that explicitly considers both water supply and demand. It can be applied to aggregate demand over a geographical region, or for disaggregated demand related to a specific crop or use. Consequently, it is more directly related than existing indices, to potential drought impacts on different segments of society, and is also suitable to use as an index for drought insurance programs targeted at farmers growing specific crops. An application of the index is presented for the drought characterization at the county level for the aggregate demand of eight major field crops in the conterminous United States. Two resiliency metrics are developed and applied with the drought index time series. In addition, a clustering algorithm is applied to the onset times and severity of the worst historical droughts in each county, to identify the spatial structure of drought, relative to the cropping patterns in each county. The geographic relationship of drought severity, drought recovery relative to duration, and resilience to drought is identified, and related to attributes of precipitation and also cropping intensity, thus distinguishing the relative importance of water supply and demand in determining potential drought outcomes.

  17. Development of a Demand Sensitive Drought Index and its application for agriculture over the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, Elius; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-03-01

    A new drought index is introduced that explicitly considers both water supply and demand. It can be applied to aggregate demand over a geographical region, or for disaggregated demand related to a specific crop or use. Consequently, it is more directly related than existing indices, to potential drought impacts on different segments of society, and is also suitable to use as an index for drought insurance programs targeted at farmers growing specific crops. An application of the index is presented for the drought characterization at the county level for the aggregate demand of eight major field crops in the conterminous United States. Two resiliency metrics are developed and applied with the drought index time series. In addition, a clustering algorithm is applied to the onset times and severity of the worst historical droughts in each county, to identify the spatial structure of drought, relative to the cropping patterns in each county. The geographic relationship of drought severity, drought recovery relative to duration, and resilience to drought is identified, and related to attributes of precipitation and also cropping intensity, thus distinguishing the relative importance of water supply and demand in determining potential drought outcomes.

  18. The challenge of climate change in Spain: Water resources, agriculture and land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Amelin, Elisa; Pindado, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Climate change effects are becoming evident worldwide, but some water scarce regions present higher vulnerability. Spain, located in the Mediterranean region, is expected for instance to be highly vulnerable given its unbalanced distribution between water resources availability and existing demands. This article presents an introduction to the main threats of climate change mainly on water resources, but it also assesses effects in interlinked areas such as agriculture, soil and land management. Contents focus on measures and initiatives promoted by the central government and address efforts to establish multi-sectoral coordinating bodies, specific adaptation plans and measures for the different sectors. The article highlights some political aspects, such as the complexity of involved competent authorities in water and land management, the need to strengthen public participation and the conflicts arising from the defence of regional interests. It also makes a link to current EU policies; summarises foreseeable problems derived from climate change effects, and provides some recommendations in the different areas covered.

  19. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  20. Sectoral Vulnerabilities to Changing Water Resources: Current and Future Tradeoffs between Supply and Demand in the Conterminous U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the sustainability of human activities depends, in part, on the availability of water supplies to meet the demands of those activities. Thermoelectric cooling, agriculture, and municipal uses all compete for water supplies, but each sector differs in its characteristic ratio of water consumption versus withdrawals. This creates different implications for contributing to water supply stress and, conversely, vulnerabilities within each sector to changing water supplies. In this study, we use two measures of water stress, relating to water withdrawals and to water consumption, and calculate the role of each of these three sectors in contributing to the two different measures. We estimate water stress with an enhanced version of the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), calculating the ratio of water demand to water supply at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) scale (Sun et al. 2008, 2011; Caldwell et al. 2011). Current water supplies are based on an integrated water balance and flow routing model of the conterminous United States, which accounts for surface water supply, groundwater supply, and major return flows. Future supplies are based on simulated regional changes in streamflow in 2050 from an ensemble of 12 climate models (Milly et al. 2005). We estimate water demands separately for agriculture, municipal uses, and thermoelectric cooling, with the first two based on Kenny et al. (2005) and the last on the approach of Averyt et al. (2011). We find substantial regional variation not only in the overall WaSSI for withdrawals and consumption but also in contribution of the three water use sectors to that total. Results suggest that the relative vulnerabilities of different sectors of human activity to water supply stress vary spatially and that policies for alleviating that stress must consider the specific, regional context of the tradeoffs between competing water demands. Ref's: Averyt, K., Fisher, J., Huber-Lee, A., Lewis, A., Macknick, J., Madden, N

  1. Modelling tools to support the harmonization of Water Framework Directive and Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tediosi, A.; Bulgheroni, C.; Sali, G.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2009-04-01

    After a few years from the delivery of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) the need to link agriculture and WFD has emerged as one of the highest priorities; therefore, it is important to discuss on how the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) can contribute to the achievements of the WFD objectives. The recent CAP reform - known as Mid Term Review (MTR) or Fischler Reform - has increased the opportunities, offering to farmers increased support to address some environmental issues. The central novelty coming from the MTR is the introduction of a farm single payment which aims to the Decoupling of EU Agricultural Support from production. Other MTR important topics deal with the Modulation of the payments, the Cross-Compliance and the strengthening of the Rural Development policy. All these new elements will affect the farmers' behaviour, steering their productive choices for the future, which, in turn, will have consequences on the water demand for irrigation. Indeed, from the water quantity viewpoint, agriculture is a large consumer and improving water use efficiency is one of the main issues at stake, following the increasing impacts of water scarcity and droughts across Europe in a context of climate change. According to a recent survey of the European Commission the saving potential in the agricultural sector is 43% of present abstraction and 95% of it is concentrated in southern europe. Many models have been developed to forecast the farmers' behaviour as a consequence of agricultural policies, both at sector and regional level; all of them are founded on Mathematical Programming techniques and many of them use the Positive approach, which better fits the territorial dimension. A large body of literature also exists focusing on the assessment of irrigation water requirements. The examples of conjunctive modelling of the two aspects are however much more limited. The work presented has got some innovative aspects: not only does it couple an economical model

  2. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter

    2013-10-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040-2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply-demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already.

  3. Optimizing Virtual Land and Water Resources Flow Through Global Trade to Meet World Food and Biofuel Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of

  4. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  5. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  6. Water stress as a trigger of demand change: exploring the implications for drought planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.; Portney, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Drought in the Anthropocene is a function of both supply and demand. Despite its importance, demand is typically incorporated into planning models exogenously using a single scenario of demand change over time. Alternatively, demand is incorporated endogenously in hydro-economic models based on the assumption of rationality. However, actors are constrained by limited information and information processing capabilities, casting doubt on the rationality assumption. Though the risk of water shortage changes incrementally with demand growth and hydrologic change, significant shifts in management are punctuated and often linked to periods of stress. The observation of lasting decreases in per capita demands in a number of cities during periods of water stress prompts an alternate hypothesis: the occurrence of water stress increases the tendency of cities to promote and enforce efficient technologies and behaviors and the tendency of users to adopt them. We show the relevance of this hypothesis by building a model of a hypothetical surface water system to answer the following question: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? The model links the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). Under SOP, demand is fulfilled unless available supply drops below demand; under HP, water releases are reduced in anticipation of a deficit to decrease the risk of a large shortfall. The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result per capita demand decrease during periods of water stress are more frequent but less drastic and the additive effect of small adjustments decreases the tendency of the system to overshoot available supplies.

  7. Optimization of integrated water quality management for agricultural efficiency and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Fleifle, Amr; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Elzeir, Mohamed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of water resources in Egypt has necessitated the use of various types of lower quality water. Agricultural drainage water is considered a strategic reserve for meeting increasing freshwater demands. In this study, a novel model series was applied to a drainage basin in the Nile Delta to optimize integrated water quality management for agriculture and the aquatic environment. The proposed model series includes a waste load allocation model, an export coefficient model, a stream water quality model, and a genetic algorithm. This model series offers an optimized solution for determining the required removal levels of total suspended solids (TSS), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) at point and non-point pollution sources, and the source flows that require treatment to meet a given water quality target. The model series was applied during the summer and winter to the El-Qalaa basin in the western delta of the Nile River. Increased pollutant removal and treated fractions at point and non-point sources reduced violations of the TSS standards from 732.6 to 238.9 mg/L in summer and from 543.1 to 380.9 mg/L in winter. Likewise, violations of the COD standards decreased from 112.4 mg/L to 0 (no violations) in summer and from 91.7 mg/L to no violations in winter. Thus, this model is recommended as a decision support tool for determining a desirable waste load allocation solution from a trade-off curve considering costs and the degree of compliance with water quality standards. PMID:24671393

  8. The Role of Demand Response in Reducing Water-Related Power Plant Vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macknick, J.; Brinkman, G.; Zhou, E.; O'Connell, M.; Newmark, R. L.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The electric sector depends on readily available water supplies for reliable and efficient operation. Elevated water temperatures or low water levels can trigger regulatory or plant-level decisions to curtail power generation, which can affect system cost and reliability. In the past decade, dozens of power plants in the U.S. have curtailed generation due to water temperatures and water shortages. Curtailments occur during the summer, when temperatures are highest and there is greatest demand for electricity. Climate change could alter the availability and temperature of water resources, exacerbating these issues. Constructing alternative cooling systems to address vulnerabilities can be capital intensive and can also affect power plant efficiencies. Demand response programs are being implemented by electric system planners and operators to reduce and shift electricity demands from peak usage periods to other times of the day. Demand response programs can also play a role in reducing water-related power sector vulnerabilities during summer months. Traditionally, production cost modeling and demand response analyses do not include water resources. In this effort, we integrate an electricity production cost modeling framework with water-related impacts on power plants in a test system to evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on power system costs and reliability. Specifically, we i) quantify the cost and reliability implications of incorporating water resources into production cost modeling, ii) evaluate the impacts of demand response measures on reducing system costs and vulnerabilities, and iii) consider sensitivity analyses with cooling systems to highlight a range of potential benefits of demand response measures. Impacts from climate change on power plant performance and water resources are discussed. Results provide key insights to policymakers and practitioners for reducing water-related power plant vulnerabilities via lower cost methods.

  9. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  10. Long-term fluctuations of water resources availability and its implications for a sustainable management of arid agricultural coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater scarcity and ongoing population growth associated with increasing water demands are major challenges for water management in coastal arid regions. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits agricultural opportunities. Additionally, some arid regions are characterised by a cyclic climate in which longer periods of dry years are followed by longer periods of wet years. This results also in long-term fluctuations of groundwater replenishment rates and water resources availability which may reach the same order of magnitude like long-term average values. Therefore, these long-term fluctuations should be considered for water resources management planning and operation. In order to evaluate their impact a simulation-based integrated water management system for coastal arid regions is used. The management system couples a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation within an optimisation module which allow for multi-objective optimisation of the water management regarding profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management on farm and regional scale. To achieve a fast and robust operation of the water management system, surrogate models are used which emulate the behaviour of physically based process models and a hierarchical optimisation scheme is applied. The water management system is driven by different scenarios of the water resources availability which were generated by using time series analyses and modelling of local groundwater replenishment rates. An application is performed for the south Batinah coastal region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Several scenarios of water resources availability are used to compare long-term and adaptive

  11. Soil Water and Shallow Groundwater Relations in an Agricultural Hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logsdon, S. D.; Schilling, K. E.

    2007-12-01

    our understanding of the relations of soil water to water table fluctuations in an agricultural field.

  12. Spatial dynamics of water management in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Daya; Knapp, Keith C.

    2009-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture provides 40% of worldwide food supplies but uses large amounts of scarce freshwater and contributes to environmental degradation. At the very core of this problem lie decisions made by irrigators subject to biophysical relations. This research develops a microeconomic model of irrigation management taking into account the dynamics of plant growth over the season, spatial variability in infiltration of applied irrigation water, and fundamental principles from subsurface hydrology. The analysis shows that spatial variability in water infiltration common to traditional irrigation systems increases both applied irrigation water and deep percolation flows by very substantial amounts compared to uniform infiltration. The analysis demonstrates that efficient irrigation management can significantly reduce both applied water and deep percolation at relatively low costs, at least up to a certain level. A long-run analysis of optimal irrigation systems including capital costs indicates that traditional furrow systems are economically efficient over a wide range of water prices and deep percolation costs. Overall, the results indicate that optimal irrigation management can achieve significant resource conservation and pollution control with low loss in agricultural net benefits and without land retirement, investment in capital-intensive systems, or crop switching.

  13. Agricultural virtual water flows within the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Qian; Lin, Xiaowen; Konar, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Trade plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, which is projected to be strained by population growth, economic development, and climate change. For this reason, there has been a surge of interest in the water resources embodied in international trade, referred to as "global virtual water trade." In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the United States (U.S.), a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intranational food transfer empirical data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water transfers vary across scales. We find that the volume of virtual water flows within the U.S. is equivalent to 51% of international flows, which is slightly higher than the U.S. food value and mass shares, due to the fact that water-intensive meat commodities comprise a much larger fraction of food transfers within the U.S.. The U.S. virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  14. Water availability and demand in West Africa in the 21st century: impacts of climate change and population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, Dominik; Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Ibrahim, Moussa; Ibrahim, Boubacar

    2014-05-01

    The countries in West Africa are highly dependent on rainfed agriculture. Changes in the magnitude and timing of precipitation will affect the agricultural output and the economies as a whole. Irrigation is increasingly being considered an important adaptation option to help improve food security of the population that is expected to double in less than 50 years. West Africa is one of the regions where general circulation models (GCM) show the highest disagreements in the direction of future trends of precipitation, making assessments of water availability and the potential for irrigation a difficult task. We use output from a set of dynamically downscaled climate data sets from regional climate modes (RCM) from the CORDEX CMIP5 collection to drive WBMplus, a macroscale hydrological model and simultaneously calculate water demand (livestock, domestic, and irrigation) and availability for a set of land use, and socio economic scenarios around the 2050's for river basins in the ten countries participating in the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL) project. Contrary to earlier results from GCMs, the set of RCMs suggest a consistent increase (~5-10%) in annual precipitation for a majority of the land area in West Africa that translates to slight increases in river flow under natural conditions for most river basins and a opportunities for increasing irrigation during the dry season. However, water demand is projected to more than double for livestock and domestic needs as a result of population growth. Demand for irrigation will rise sharply if irrigation is expanded from the current area (representing less than 3% of all croplands in the region), closer to its potential which is multiple times higher than the existing area. The pressures on water resources in the region will therefore be dominated by pressures arising from increased demand rather than changes in the availability of water and can potentially lead to

  15. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  16. Impact of Water Quality on Chlorine Demand of Corroding Copper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper is the most widely used material in drinking water premise plumbing systems. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect ag...

  17. CHARACTERIZING PIPE WALL DEMAND: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water qua...

  18. Energy development scenarios and water demands and supplies: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of average mean annual flows, ample water exists in the upper Missouri River basin for energy development. The lack of storage and diversion works upstream as well as State compacts preclude the ready use of this surplus water. These surplus flows are impounded in mainstream reservoirs on the Missouri downstream from coal mining areas but could be transported back at some expense for use in Wyoming and North Dakota. There are limited water supplies available for the development of coal and oil shale industries in the upper Colorado River Basin. Fortunately oil shale mining, retorting and reclamation do not require as much water as coal conversion; in-situ oil shale retorting would seem to be particularly desirable in the light of reduced water consumption. Existing patterns of energy production, transport, and conversion suggest that more of the coal to be mined out West is apt to be transmitted to existing load centers rather than converted to electricity or gas in the water-short West. Scenarios of development of the West 's fossil fuels may be overestimating the need for water since they have assumed that major conversion industries would develop in the West. Transport of coal to existing users will require all means of coal movement including unit trains, barges, and coal slurry pipelines. The latter is considered more desirable than the development of conversion industries in the West when overall water consumption is considered. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Urban agriculture: a global analysis of the space constraint to meet urban vegetable demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellozzo, F.; Landry, J.-S.; Plouffe, D.; Seufert, V.; Rowhani, P.; Ramankutty, N.

    2014-05-01

    Urban agriculture (UA) has been drawing a lot of attention recently for several reasons: the majority of the world population has shifted from living in rural to urban areas; the environmental impact of agriculture is a matter of rising concern; and food insecurity, especially the accessibility of food, remains a major challenge. UA has often been proposed as a solution to some of these issues, for example by producing food in places where population density is highest, reducing transportation costs, connecting people directly to food systems and using urban areas efficiently. However, to date no study has examined how much food could actually be produced in urban areas at the global scale. Here we use a simple approach, based on different global-scale datasets, to assess to what extent UA is constrained by the existing amount of urban space. Our results suggest that UA would require roughly one third of the total global urban area to meet the global vegetable consumption of urban dwellers. This estimate does not consider how much urban area may actually be suitable and available for UA, which likely varies substantially around the world and according to the type of UA performed. Further, this global average value masks variations of more than two orders of magnitude among individual countries. The variations in the space required across countries derive mostly from variations in urban population density, and much less from variations in yields or per capita consumption. Overall, the space required is regrettably the highest where UA is most needed, i.e., in more food insecure countries. We also show that smaller urban clusters (i.e., <100 km2 each) together represent about two thirds of the global urban extent; thus UA discourse and policies should not focus on large cities exclusively, but should also target smaller urban areas that offer the greatest potential in terms of physical space.

  20. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  1. Assessment of agricultural return flows under changing climate and crop water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water rights, policy and emergent water markets in the semi-arid regions of the western USA, and worldwide, call for improved estimates of agricultural water budgets. Agricultural water is seen as a major potential water supply with high commodity value as municipalities seek water security under g...

  2. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  3. Reducing irrigation water demand with cotton production in West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer and increasing pumping costs, irrigation management options for cotton are analyzed. The study concludes that supplemental irrigation while meeting crop evapotranspiration (ET) requirements is the most profitable option. Switching from co...

  4. Multiple-Use Site Demand Analysis: An Application to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, George L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A single-site, multiple-use model for analyzing trip demand is derived from a multiple site regional model based on utility maximizing choice theory. The model is used to analyze and compare trips to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness for several types of use. Travel cost elasticities of demand are compared and discussed. (Authors/JN)

  5. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions. PMID:25870271

  6. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale

    PubMed Central

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions. PMID:25870271

  7. TECHNICAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO CONSERVATION OF IRRIGATION AND RAIN WATER IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty percent of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. are for irrigated agriculture, which contributed 55$ billion to the economy in 2002. Increasing diversions of water for urban, environmental, and other uses will likely decrease water available to agriculture. Agricultural water conservation is tou...

  8. Risk assessment of agricultural water requirement based on a multi-model ensemble framework, southwest of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Reza; Akhond-Ali, Ali-Mohammad; Roozbahani, Abbas; Fattahi, Rouhollah

    2016-06-01

    Water shortage and climate change are the most important issues of sustainable agricultural and water resources development. Given the importance of water availability in crop production, the present study focused on risk assessment of climate change impact on agricultural water requirement in southwest of Iran, under two emission scenarios (A2 and B1) for the future period (2025-2054). A multi-model ensemble framework based on mean observed temperature-precipitation (MOTP) method and a combined probabilistic approach Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and change factor (CF) have been used for downscaling to manage the uncertainty of outputs of 14 general circulation models (GCMs). The results showed an increasing temperature in all months and irregular changes of precipitation (either increasing or decreasing) in the future period. In addition, the results of the calculated annual net water requirement for all crops affected by climate change indicated an increase between 4 and 10 %. Furthermore, an increasing process is also expected regarding to the required water demand volume. The most and the least expected increase in the water demand volume is about 13 and 5 % for A2 and B1 scenarios, respectively. Considering the results and the limited water resources in the study area, it is crucial to provide water resources planning in order to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Therefore, the adaptation scenarios with the climate change related to crop pattern and water consumption should be taken into account.

  9. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  10. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  11. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model

  12. Simulating long-term past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin management scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability from 1971 to 2009 in the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) catchments. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Herault basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water consumption data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Finally, a series of indicators comparing water supply and water demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed at a 10 day time step. Variations in water stress in each catchment over the past 40 years were successfully modeled, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Observed changes in discharge were explained by separating human and hydro-climatic pressures on water resources: respectively 20 and 3% of the decrease in the Ebro and the Herault discharges were linked to human-induced changes. Although key areas of the Herault basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water uses and availability in the Ebro basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The proposed modeling framework is currently being used to assess water stress under climatic and socio-economic prospective scenarios. Further research will investigate the effectiveness of adaptation policies aimed at maintaining the balance between water use and availability.

  13. Satellite mapping of crop water demand in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface delivery of irrigation water in the San Joaquin Valley is becoming increasingly restricted due to urbanization and environmental regulation, and the strain is projected to worsen under most climate change scenarios. Remote sensing technology offers the potential to monitor crop evapotranspi...

  14. Seasonal patterns of water storage as signatures of the climatological equilibrium between resource and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Hingray, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Creutin, J. D.

    2014-09-01

    Water is accumulated in reservoirs to adapt in time the availability of the resource to various demands like hydropower production, irrigation, water supply or ecological constraints. Deterministic dynamic programming retrospectively optimizes the use of the resource during a given time period. One of its by-products is the estimation of the marginal storage water value (MSWV), defined by the marginal value of the future goods and benefits obtained from an additional unit of storage water volume. Knowledge of the MSWV makes it possible to determine a posteriori the storage requirement scheme that would have led to the best equilibrium between the resource and the demand. The MSWV depends on the water level in the reservoir and shows seasonal as well as inter-annual variations. This study uses the inter-annual average of both the storage requirement scheme and the MSWV cycle as signatures of the best temporal equilibrium that is achievable in a given resource/demand context (the climatological equilibrium). For a simplified water resource system in a French mountainous region, we characterize how and why these signatures change should the climate and/or the demand change, mainly if changes are projected in the mean regional temperature (increase) and/or precipitation (decrease) as well as in the water demand for energy production and/or maintenance of a minimum reservoir level. Results show that the temporal equilibrium between water resource and demand either improves or degrades depending on the considered future scenario. In all scenarios, the seasonality of MSWV changes when, for example, earlier water storage is required to efficiently satisfy increasing summer water demand. Finally, understanding how MSWV signatures change helps to understand changes in the storage requirement scheme.

  15. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  16. LOWER PAYETTE RIVER, IDAHO AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION WATER RETURN STUDY AND GROUND WATER EVALUATION, 1992-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the final 17 miles of the Payette River (17050112) and 32,000 acres of irrigated cropland referred to as the Lower Payette State Agricultural Water Quality Project. An in-depth surface and ground water monitoring effort was initiated in June 1992 and completed...

  17. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  18. Temporal stability of soil water content and soil water flux patterns across agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When an agricultural field is repeatedly surveyed for soil water content, sites often can be spotted where soil is consistently wetter or consistently dryer than average across the study area. Temporal stability presents significant interest for upscaling observed soil water content, improving soil ...

  19. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  20. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth System models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-07-01

    Human activities have caused various changes in the Earth System, and hence, the interconnections between humans and the Earth System should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate the Earth System processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management that determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space. There are various reasons to include water resource management in Earth System models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Here, we divide the water resource management into two interdependent elements, related to water demand as well as water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various water demands have been included in large-scale models, including Land Surface Schemes and Global Hydrological Models. The available algorithms are classified based on the type of demand, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss the pros and cons of available algorithms, address various sources of uncertainty and highlight limitations in current applications. We conclude that current capability of large-scale models in terms of representing human water demands is rather limited, particularly with respect to future projections and online simulations. We argue that current limitations in simulating various human demands and their impact on the Earth System are mainly due to the uncertainties in data support, demand algorithms and large-scale models. To fill these gaps, the

  1. GlobWat - a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faurès, J.-M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; van de Giesen, N.

    2015-09-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to assess water use in irrigated agriculture, the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high-resolution data sets that are consistent at global level and calibrated against values for internal renewable water resources, as published in AQUASTAT, the FAO's global information system on water and agriculture. Validation of the model is done against mean annual river basin outflows. The water balance is calculated in two steps: first a "vertical" water balance is calculated that includes evaporation from in situ rainfall ("green" water) and incremental evaporation from irrigated crops. In a second stage, a "horizontal" water balance is calculated to determine discharges from river (sub-)basins, taking into account incremental evaporation from irrigation, open water and wetlands ("blue" water). The paper describes the methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model. The model results are finally compared with other global water balance models to assess levels of accuracy and validity.

  2. Water resource management for sustainable agriculture in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rajan; Kaushal, Mohinder; Kaur, Samanpreet; Farmaha, Bhupinder

    2009-01-01

    The state of Punjab comprising 1.5% area of the country has been contributing 40-50% rice and 60-65% wheat to the central pool since last three decades. During last 35 years The area under foodgrains has increased from 39,200 sq km ha to 63,400 sq km and the production of rice and wheat has increased from 0.18 to 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.22 to 0.43 kg/m2 respectively. This change in cropping pattern has increased irrigation water requirement tremendously and the irrigated area has increased from 71 to 95% in the state. Also the number of tube wells has increased from 0.192 to 1.165 million in the last 35 years. The excessive indiscriminate exploitation of ground water has created a declining water table situation in the state. The problem is most critical in central Punjab. The average rate of decline over the last few years has been 55 cm per year. The worst affected districts are Moga, Sangrur, Nawanshahar, Ludhiana and Jalandhar. This has resulted in extra power consumption, affects the socio-economic conditions of the small farmers, destroy the ecological balance and adversely affect the sustainable agricultural production and economy of the state. Therefore, in this paper attempt has been made to analyse the problem of declining water table, possible factors responsible for this and suggest suitable strategies for arresting declining water table for sustainable agriculture in Punjab. The strategies include shift of cropping pattern, delay in paddy transplantation, precision irrigation and rainwater harvesting for artificial groundwater recharge. PMID:19934512

  3. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  4. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation-water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, Hester; Siderius, Christian; Mishra, Ashok; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-05-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight into these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation-water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest state-level statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The improvements in seasonal land use and cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation-water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation-water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (rabi) and monsoon summer (kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply versus rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation-water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  5. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, H.; Siderius, C.; Mishra, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-08-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight in these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple-cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double-cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest subnational statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The representation of seasonal land use and more accurate cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (Rabi) and summer (Kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the Rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply vs. rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia, improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple-cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  6. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; Mladenova, Iliana; Fang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by coordinating monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main goal of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE (See diagram below). Soil moisture is currently a primary data gap at WAOB.

  7. A case study of ethanol water demand during industrial phase in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandes, T.; Scarpare, F. V.; Guarenghi, M.; Pereira, T.; Galdos, M. V.

    2012-12-01

    Thayse A. D. Hernandesb, Fábio V. Scarparea, Marjorie M. Guarenghib, Tássia P. Pereirab, Marcelo V. Galdosa a Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE/CNPEM, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mail: fabio.scarpare@bioetanol.org.br b Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, Unicamp, Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", CEP 13083-860, Campinas, SP, Brazil In São Paulo State, the water resources have being used by sugarcane industry responsibly, through high reuse rates that may reach 95% during industrial process. The average amount of catchment water stays around 2.0 m3 Mg 1 of industrial sugarcane stalk. However, in some modern mills which use higher technical level of closed water circuit, the standard goal for sugarcane industry, 1.0 m3 Mg 1 can be reached. In some regions where the uptake water for industrial segment is high as in São Paulo State, water use assessment is desired for sustainable ethanol production. Thus, two regions in São Paulo State with two plants each were taken as a case study aiming to assess ethanol water demand during the industrial phase. Araraquara was the first study region where the water demand was classified as in critical condition in 2010 according to the Water and Electrical Energy Department of São Paulo State (DAEE). The industrial activities were responsible for 50% of the water catchment. Araçatuba was the second study region where water demand was classified as being of concern (DAEE) due to high percentage of catchment water for industrial activities, around 90%. Data regarding the amount of millable cane processed, days of the plant operation, ratio of cane used for ethanol production in 2010/2011 season were used for direct water demand estimation considering different water catchment scenarios of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.7 (technological development prediction scenario) m3 Mg-1 of millable cane. For indirect water demand estimation, data regarding installed capacity of each

  8. Phosphorus and water budgets in an agricultural basin.

    PubMed

    Faridmarandi, Sayena; Naja, Ghinwa M

    2014-01-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) budgets of a large agricultural basin located in South Florida (Everglades Agricultural Area, EAA) were computed from 2005 to 2012. The annual surface outflow P loading from the EAA averaged 157.2 mtons originating from Lake Okeechobee (16.4 mtons, 10.4%), farms (131.0 mtons, 83.4%), and surrounding basins (9.8 mtons, 6.2%) after attenuation. Farms, urban areas, and the adjacent C-139 basin contributed 186.1, 15.6, and 3.8 mtons/yr P to the canals, respectively. The average annual soil P retention was estimated at 412.5 mtons. Water and P budgets showed seasonal variations with high correlation between rainfall and P load in drainage and surface outflows. Moreover, results indicated that the canals acted as a P sink storing 64.8 mtons/yr. To assess the P loading impact of farm drainage on the canals and on the outflow, dimensionless impact factors were developed. Sixty-two farms were identified with a high and a medium impact factor I1 level contributing 44.5% of the total drainage P load to the canals, while their collective area represented less than 23% of the EAA area (172 farms). Optimizing the best management practice (BMP) strategies on these farms could minimize the environmental impacts on the downstream sensitive wetlands areas. PMID:24955757

  9. Water chemistry responses to hydraulic manipulation of an agricultural wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S.; Stanley, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    Small impoundments are often crucial factors for the movement of sediment, organic matter, water-borne nutrients, and toxic materials through river networks. By recent accounting, at least 2.6 million small artificial water bodies exist in the US alone. A large proportion of those structures occur in regions with high intensity of agriculture, such as in the Midwestern grain belt. While small impoundments are aging structures which appear to serve few purposes, some hold ecological and biogeochemical value as artificial wetlands. We documented instantaneous net fluxes of solute (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus) through an artificial flow-through wetland in agricultural southern Wisconsin over 6 years which spanned removal of a small dam. Phased dewatering and dam removal ultimately converted the artificial wetland to a canal-like state (increase in mean water velocity from 0.08 to 0.22 m s-1). Mean net flux for chloride across the system averaged nearly 0 g d-1, indicating conservative transport and successful characterization of hydrology. In contrast, net fluxes for other solute forms were altered following loss of the wetland: a persistent net sulfate sink (5-10% of inputs retained), suggestive of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was reduced; seasonal (summer) net sinks for nitrate and ammonium, suggestive of uptake by algae and denitrifying bacteria, were reduced; temporal variability for the net flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was reduced. Overall, loss of the artificial wetland caused by dam removal shifted seasonal and annual net fluxes of biologically available solute toward export. Nutrient retention by artificial wetlands could be important for elemental budgets in regions which have high nutrient loading to surface and ground water.

  10. Characterisation of areas under irrigated agriculture: mapping and water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arancibia, Jorge; McVicar, Tim R.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Li, Lingtao T.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of remote sensing and classification methods has enabled effective mapping, monitoring and management of irrigated agriculture. A random forest classification was implemented using learning samples inferred from Landsat TM/ETM data and monthly time-series of remotely-sensed observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The covariates included in the method characterised: (i) the vegetation phenology via the recurrent and persistent fractions of photosynthetically active radiation (fPARrecandfPARper, respectively); (ii) vegetation water use via estimates of actual evapotranspiration (AET), rainfall (P) and the difference between AET and P . Maps of irrigated areas under different climates and cropping conditions were produced for the whole Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) for the years 2004 to 2010 with 0.96 observed agreement in terms of the Kappa Index (were a value of 1 indicates perfect agreement). An independent comparison of yearly irrigated area estimates and corresponding water use showed a linear relationship with good agreement (R2 >0.7) against available yearly metered water withdrawals and estimates of agricultural yields. A sequential covariate optimisation suggested that the most important predictors included the emergence-senescence period (as determined by the fPARrec and corresponding rates of change) and the AET surplus over P during this period. The latter can be important when determining more opportunistic irrigation practices due to unreliable water supply in areas with otherwise high annual rainfall. The procedure can be implemented to map irrigated areas at the global scale: the MODIS time-series used in the classification methodology are available globally since February 2000 and so are the Landsat archives which can be used to infer learning samples and irrigation practices elsewhere.

  11. Movement of agricultural chemicals between surface water and ground water, lower Cedar River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, Paul J.; Caldwell, J.P.; Schulmeyer, P.M.; Harvey, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Bank storage is probably an important source of agricultural chemicals discharged from the alluvial aquifer but becomes depleted with time after surface runoff. Herbicides discharged from the alluvial aquifer during periods of extended base flow entered the alluvial aquifer with ground-water recharge at some distance from the river. The movement of nitrate between surface water and ground water is minor, when compared to the herbicides, even though nitrite was detected in the Cedar River during runoff.

  12. Management of water for irrigation agriculture in semi-arid areas: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvungi, A.; Mashauri, D.; Madulu, N. F.

    Most of the Mwanga district is classified as semi-arid with a rainfall range of 300 and 600 mm. Rainfall patterns in the district are unpredictable and are subject to great fluctuations. Like other semi-arid areas, the district is characterized with land degradation, unreliable rainfall, repeated water shortage, periodic famine, overgrazing, dry land cultivation in the marginal areas and heavy competition for limited biomass between farmers and cattle. Vulnerability here is high due to unreliability of weather. The people of Mwanga are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. However agriculture is difficult in the area due to inadequate rainfall. For a very long time the people have been dependent on irrigation agriculture to ensure food security. Of late the traditional irrigation system is on the decline threatening food security in the area. This paper examines the state and status of the irrigation canal system in Mwanga district with the view of recommending ways in which it can be improved. The study used participatory, survey and in-depth interviews to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The major findings are that social, political, environmental and demographic bases that supported the traditional irrigation system have changed drastically. As a corollary to this, the cultural and religious belief systems that supported and guided the traditional canal system management have been replaced by mistrust and corruption in water allocation. In addition the ownership and management system of the water resources that was vested in the initiator clans has changed and now water user groups own the canals/furrows but they do not own the water sources. This has rendered the control of the water sources difficult if not impossible. Currently the system is faced by a number of problems including shortage of water and poor management as demand for water increases and this has led to serious conflicts among and between crop producers and pastoralists

  13. Residential solar hot water: Determinants of demand in New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Mary A.

    As New Hampshire pursues public policy goals embedded in the Renewable Portfolio Standard, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Climate Action Plan, and other legislation and documentation, many advocates and policy makers are looking for reductions in fossil fuel use in the residential sector. This paper analyzes the results of a survey of New Hampshire residents undertaken in the autumn of 2009 regarding attitudes toward energy policy, and willingness to invest in renewable energy. Regarding residential solar hot water, the survey finds that the price at which half of New Hampshire homeowners would consider purchasing such a system is $5536. Seriousness of commitment is also tested, showing significant barriers to follow-through. These barriers and potential means of overcoming them are examined, based on concepts from economics and related fields. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  14. Muddy Water and American Agriculture: How to Best Control Sedimentation From Agricultural Land?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Stephen B.; Lee, John Gary; Beasley, David B.

    1985-08-01

    The role of agricultural sediment in water quality is well documented. While numerous policies have been advocated and initiated, it still appears to be a significant problem. The present analysis concentrates on the outcome of several policy alternatives in terms of sediment delivery and project costs. These results are obtained by combining social science investigation of probable farmer behavior under a variety of scenarios with a hydrologic simulation model which predicts the sediment delivery with different land uses. This integration of social science behavioral research with the hydrologic response simulation model provides a framework to assess the environmental effectiveness of alternative policies aimed at reducing sedimentation. While the results presented here are preliminary, this approach seems to offer great promise as a tool for federal, state and local conservation agencies in their efforts to efficiently and effectively use their limited resources to reduce soil loss.

  15. Network for Monitoring Agricultural Water Quantity and Water Quality in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. L.; Daniels, M.; Chen, Y.; Sharpley, A.; Teague, T. G.; Bouldin, J.

    2012-12-01

    A network of agricultural monitoring sites was established in 2010 in Arkansas. The state of Arkansas produces the most rice of any state in the US, the 3rd most cotton and the 3rd most broilers. By 2050, agriculture will be asked to produce food, feed, and fiber for the increasing world population. Arkansas agriculture is challenged with reduced water availability from groundwater decline and the associated increase in pumping costs. Excess nutrients, associated in part to agriculture, influence the hypoxic condition in the Gulf of Mexico. All sites in the network are located at the edge-of-field in an effort to relate management to water quantity and water quality. The objective of the network is to collect scientifically sound data at field scales under typical and innovative management for the region. Innovative management for the network includes, but is not limited to, variable rate fertilizer, cover crops, buffer strips, irrigation water management, irrigation planning, pumping plant monitoring and seasonal shallow water storage. Data collection at the sites includes quantifying water inputs and losses, and water quality. Measured water quality parameters include sediment and dissolved nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate. The measurements at the edge-of-field will be incorporated into the monitoring of field ditches and larger drainage systems to result in a 3-tiered monitoring effort. Partners in the creation of this network include USDA-ARS, Arkansas State University, University of Arkansas, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USDA-NRCS and agricultural producers representing the major commodities of the state of Arkansas. The network is described in detail with preliminary results presented.

  16. Using Coastal Fog to Support Sustainable Water Use in a California Agricultural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Loik, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of climate change threaten California farmers in a number of ways, most importantly through a decline in freshwater availability, concurrent with a rise in water demand. The future of California's multibillion-dollar agricultural industry depends on increasing water use efficiency on farms. In coastal California, the growing season of economically important crops overlaps with the occurrence of coastal fog, which buffers the summer dry season through shading effects and direct water inputs. While the impacts of coastal fog on plant biology have been extensively studied in natural ecosystems, very few studies have evaluated its direct effects on the water and energy budgets of agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to develop a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between coastal fog and the water and energy budgets of croplands in order to improve estimates of crop-scale evapotranspiration rates, which has potential to curtail groundwater use based on local cloud meteorology. We established three sites on strawberry farms along a coastal-inland gradient in the Salinas Valley, California. At each site, we installed a passive fog collector and a micrometeorological station to monitor variation in microclimate conditions. Flow meters were installed in drip lines to quantify irrigation amount and timing. To assess plant response to foggy and non-foggy conditions, we collected measurements of photosynthesis and transpiration rates at the leaf and canopy-scale between June-September 2015. We found that canopy-level transpiration rates on foggy days were reduced by half compared to sunny, clear days (1.5 and 3 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, respectively). Whereas the amount of direct fog water inputs to the soil did not differ significantly between foggy and clear days, average photosynthetically active radiation between 0900-1100 hr. was reduced from 1500 to 500 μmol photons m-2 s-1 between these sampling periods. Our results provide convincing

  17. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  18. Climate change mitigation for agriculture: water quality benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Robert; Elliott, Sandy; Hudson, Neale; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand is unique in that half of its national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory derives from agriculture--predominantly as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), in a 2:1 ratio. The remaining GHG emissions predominantly comprise carbon dioxide (CO2) deriving from energy and industry sources. Proposed strategies to mitigate emissions of CH4 and N2O from pastoral agriculture in New Zealand are: (1) utilising extensive and riparian afforestation of pasture to achieve CO2 uptake (carbon sequestration); (2) management of nitrogen through budgeting and/or the use of nitrification inhibitors, and minimizing soil anoxia to reduce N2O emissions; and (3) utilisation of alternative waste treatment technologies to minimise emissions of CH4. These mitigation measures have associated co-benefits and co-costs (disadvantages) for rivers, streams and lakes because they affect land use, runoff loads, and receiving water and habitat quality. Extensive afforestation results in lower specific yields (exports) of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), suspended sediment (SS) and faecal matter and also has benefits for stream habitat quality by improving stream temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH regimes through greater shading, and the supply of woody debris and terrestrial food resources. Riparian afforestation does not achieve the same reductions in exports as extensive afforestation but can achieve reductions in concentrations of N, P, SS and faecal organisms. Extensive afforestation of pasture leads to reduced water yields and stream flows. Both afforestation measures produce intermittent disturbances to waterways during forestry operations (logging and thinning), resulting in sediment release from channel re-stabilisation and localised flooding, including formation of debris dams at culverts. Soil and fertiliser management benefits aquatic ecosystems by reducing N exports but the use of nitrification inhibitors, viz. dicyandiamide (DCD), to achieve this may under some circumstances

  19. Simulating past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this study we present an integrative modeling framework aimed at assessing the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability over long time periods. The model was developed and tested over the period 1971-2009 in the Hérault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) catchments. Natural streamflow was simulated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Hérault Basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro Basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water demand data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Water shortage was assessed at a 10-day time step by comparing water demand and availability through indicators calculated at strategic resource and demand nodes. The outcome of this study is twofold. First, we were able to correctly simulate variations in influenced streamflow, reservoir levels and water shortage between 1971 and 2009 in both basins, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Second, we provided information not available through simple data analysis on the influence of withdrawals and consumptive use on streamflow and on the drivers of imbalance between demand and availability. Observed past variations in discharge were explained by separating anthropogenic and climatic pressures in our simulations: 3% (20%) of the decrease in the Hérault (Ebro) discharge were linked to anthropogenic changes. Although key areas of the Hérault Basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water demand and availability in the Ebro Basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The modeling framework developed and tested in

  20. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  1. Price impact on urban residential water demand: A dynamic panel data approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ArbuéS, Fernando; BarberáN, Ramón; Villanúa, Inmaculada

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we formulate and estimate a model of residential water demand with the aim of evaluating the potential of pricing policies as a mechanism for managing residential water. The proposed econometric model offers a new perspective on urban water demand analysis by combining microlevel data with a dynamic panel data estimation procedure. The empirical application suggests that residential users are more responsive to a lagged average price specification. Another result of the estimated model is that price is a moderately effective tool in reducing residential water demand within the present range of prices, with the estimated values for income elasticity and "elasticity of consumption with respect to family size" reinforcing this conclusion.

  2. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  3. A summary view of water supply and demand in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, Saul E.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents a summary view of the water-supply situation in the nine counties that comprise the San Francisco Bay region, California, and thereby provides water data, based on 1970 conditions, that are needed for regional planning. For the purpose of this study the nine-county region has been divided into 15 subregions on the basis of hydrologic and economic considerations. Firm water supply is tabulated for each subregion by source--ground water, surface water, and imported water. Water demand in 1970 is tabulated for each subregion by type of use or demand--public supply, rural self-supply, irrigation, self-supplied industrial water and thermoelectric power generation. The San Francisco Bay region is dependent to a large degree on imported water. Under 1970 conditions of development, the firm water supply is 2.2 million acre-feet per year; of that quantity, almost 1 million acre-feet per year is imported water. The water demand in 1970 was 1.9 million acre-feet, about half of which was consumed. Under 1970 conditions of water development and use, a series of dry years would probably necessitate some curtailment of irrigation activities in four of the subregions, where the bulk of the demands i for irrigation water. Under those same conditions there is generally ample water for municipal and industrial use throughout the region, except in eastern Marin County where the firm municipal supple does not exceed the 1970 demand for municipal and industrial water. Although the firm water supply of the San Francisco Bay region, including imported water, is generally adequate to meet present needs, supplemental supply will be required to meet increased demand in the future. The expansion of existing surface-water facilities and the construction of new surface-water projects, now considered feasible, could provide a combined firm supplemental yield of slightly more than 1 million acre-feet per year, almost three-fourths of which would be available for import by

  4. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  5. Analysing water use patterns for demand management: the case of the city of Masvingo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Emmanuel; van der Zaag, Pieter

    Water use in urban centres is dynamic, fluctuates, differs between high and low-income users, and tends to increase over time. Supply infrastructure can often hardly keep pace with increased water consumption. Given (a) the high cost of infrastructure development, (b) the recent emphasis on demand management, and (c) the social obligation to provide water services to the poor, urban water providers are faced with an important choice: whether to go the demand management route, or to continue constructing new infrastructure. This paper sheds light on some of the possibilities and constraints of both choices by providing a case study of the city of Masvingo in Zimbabwe. The paper analyses water use patterns in this city with a population of 70,000, located in a drought prone region of average rainfall of 600 mm/a. Water consumption has reached the limits of the water supply capacity. The paper first looks at the long-term water use pattern of the city as a whole and the factors that have caused the observed pattern using multiple linear regression. The paper then analyses the patterns of water use of rich and poor households, and attempts to assess the (im)possibilities of influencing these by means of an appropriate tariff structure. In projecting future demand, the paper then considers a number of interventions that could influence demand, which include leakage control, pressure management, awareness campaigns, free technical advice to water users, as well as a new tariff structure. It also discusses when new supply infrastructure should be available, depending on the various demand management measures taken.

  6. GlobWat - a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faurès, J.-M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; van de Giesen, N.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are consistent at global level and calibrated against values for Internal Renewable Water Resources, as published in AQUASTAT, FAO's global information system on water and agriculture. Validation of the model is done against mean annual river basin outflows. The water balance is calculated in two steps: first a "vertical" water balance is calculated that includes evaporation from in situ rainfall ("green" water) and incremental evaporation from irrigated crops. In a second stage, a "horizontal" water balance is calculated to determine discharges from river (sub-)basins, taking into account incremental evaporation from irrigation, open water and wetlands ("blue" water). The paper describes methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model. The model results are finally compared with other global water balance models.

  7. Assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural production in the Columbia River basin: incorporating water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. C.; Rajagopalan, K.; Stockle, C. O.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C. E.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Nelson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global population, food consumption and climate lead to a food security challenge for the future. Water resources, agricultural productivity and the relationships between them will to a large extent dictate how we address this challenge. Although food security is a global issue, impacts of climate change on water resources and agricultural productivity, as well as viability of adaptation strategies, are location specific; e.g., it is important to consider the regional regulatory environment. Our work focuses on the Columbia River basin (CRB) of the Pacific Northwest US. The water resources of the CRB are heavily managed to meet competing demands. There also exists a legal system for individuals/groups to obtain rights to use the publicly owned water resources, and the possibility of curtailing (i.e., restricting) some of these water rights in times of shortage. It is important to include an approximation of this water resource regulation and water rights curtailment process in modeling water availability and impacts of water shortages on agricultural production. The overarching objective of this work is to apply an integrated hydrologic-crop-water management modeling framework over the CRB to characterize the impacts of climate change on irrigation water demands, irrigation water availability, water shortages, and associated impacts in the 2030s. Results indicate that climate change has both positive and negative effects on agricultural production in the CRB and this varies by region and crop type. Certain watersheds that are already water stressed are projected to experience increasing stress in the future. Although, climate change results in increased water shortages and water rights curtailment in the region, this does not necessarily translate into an increased negative effect on yields; some crops are projected to increase in yield despite curtailment. This could be attributed to higher water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels as well crops

  8. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  9. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  10. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  11. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  12. Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegele, Stefan; Koch, Hagen; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin Stefan Vögelea, Hagen Kochb&c, Uwe Grünewaldb a Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy Research - Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, D-52425 Jülich, Germany b Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Chair Hydrology and Water Resources Management, P.O. Box. 101 344, D-03013 Cottbus, Germany c Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Research Domain Climate Impacts and Vulnerabilities, P.O. Box 601203, D-14412 Potsdam, Germany Numerous power plants in Europe had to be throttled in the summer months of the years 2003 and 2006 due to water shortages and high water temperatures. Therefore, the effects of climate change on water availability and water temperature, and their effects on electric power generation in power plants have received much attention in the last years. The water demand of a power plant for cooling depends on the temperature of the surface waters from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Furthermore, air temperature and air humidity influence the water demand if a cooling tower is used. Beside climatic parameters, the demand for water depends on economic and technological factors as well as on the electricity demand and the socio-political framework. Since the different systems are connected with certain levels of uncertainty, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change should be used in analyses of climate change on power plants and to identify adaptation measures. In this presentation the effects of global change, comprising technological, socio-economic and climate change, and adaptation options to water shortages for power plants in the German capital Berlin in the short- and long-term are analysed. The interconnection between power plants, i.e. water demand, and water resources management, i.e. water availability, is described in detail. By changing the cooling system of power

  13. Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Atrazine In Drinking Water From Agricultural Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aklilu, T. A.; Jagath, K. J.; Arthur, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    This study provides a new methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector and a more holistic insight to pesticide management issues. Regression models are developed to predict the stream atrazine concentrations and finished water atrazine concentration at high-risk community water supplies in the US using surface water. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total surplus in the US corn market for different atrazine application rates using the demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums (preferences) for chemical-free to reduced chemical corn provided interesting results on the potential for future pesticide and land use management. This is an interdisciplinary work that has attempted to integrate and consider the interaction between weed sciences, economics, water quality, human health risk and human reaction to changes in different pesticide use scenarios. The results showed that this methodology provides a scientific framework for future decision-making and policy evaluation in pesticide management, especially when better regional and national data are available.

  14. A statewide network for monitoring agricultural water quality and water quantity in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arkansas produces the most rice, 3rd most cotton and 2nd most broilers of any state in the US. By 2050, agriculture will be asked to produce twice as much food, feed, and fiber for the projected world population, while challenged with reduced water availability from groundwater decline and increase...

  15. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  16. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River Basin - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB), in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a) hydroclimatic variability, (b) investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c) demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow). Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (-45.3%) and irrigation (-78.0%) by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader implications of climate

  17. Dynamic simulation of connections between population, water resources, agriculture, and energy: Towards a global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, scientists at Sandia National Laboratories have been attempting to integrate multi-disciplinary issues associated with human demands for water resources, agriculture, and energy, and the interconnections inherent in these into a common modeling framework. A variety of models have been created, each focusing specifically on certain aspects of the population - water - food - energy question, and each at a different geographic scale. The modeling of these dimensions of human resource use involves quantification of supply of and demand for the resources through time in order to gain some insight into sensitivities of the system to different model parameters. These models have been used to evaluate policy options in real time in an interactive setting. This presentation will summarize the localized efforts that have been made to this point, and propose a framework for a simulation tool to evaluate all four dimensions in a global context. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  19. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationship. Volume II--Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane; Stanton, Marge

    Information on the supply of new college graduates seeking home economics-related positions, home economics job openings, and projected levels of employment is presented. Based on a Department of Agriculture manpower assessment project, supply and demand relationships through 1990 were analyzed, and supply data were aggregated by 11 educational…

  20. Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation--the importance of an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Falloon, Pete; Betts, Richard

    2010-11-01

    We review and qualitatively assess the importance of interactions and feedbacks in assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture in Europe. We focus particularly on the impact of future hydrological changes on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation options. Future projected trends in European agriculture include northward movement of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and suitability in Southern Europe. This may be accompanied by a widening of water resource differences between the North and South, and an increase in extreme rainfall events and droughts. Changes in future hydrology and water management practices will influence agricultural adaptation measures and alter the effectiveness of agricultural mitigation strategies. These interactions are often highly complex and influenced by a number of factors which are themselves influenced by climate. Mainly positive impacts may be anticipated for Northern Europe, where agricultural adaptation may be shaped by reduced vulnerability of production, increased water supply and reduced water demand. However, increasing flood hazards may present challenges for agriculture, and summer irrigation shortages may result from earlier spring runoff peaks in some regions. Conversely, the need for effective adaptation will be greatest in Southern Europe as a result of increased production vulnerability, reduced water supply and increased demands for irrigation. Increasing flood and drought risks will further contribute to the need for robust management practices. The impacts of future hydrological changes on agricultural mitigation in Europe will depend on the balance between changes in productivity and rates of decomposition and GHG emission, both of which depend on climatic, land and management factors. Small increases in European soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks per unit land area are anticipated considering changes in climate

  1. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  2. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  3. Paper versus plastic, water versus carbon and sustainable agriculture in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that food and energy security are inextricably linked to climate and climate change, resulting in the so-called climate, energy, food nexus, with the water cycle at its hub. The ability to provide sufficient and consistent energy and food for this generation, while not depleting soil, climate and water resources for future generations involves interconnected feedbacks along the paths of this wheel. In the US corn belt, for example, agricultural water management in the form of subsurface drainage lowers the regional water table to enhance crop production, while at the same time providing a conduit for the more efficient export of nitrate-nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico and increasing rates of decomposition and subsidence in organic-rich soils. The use of control structures to regulate drainage water has the potential to reduce nitrate and carbon dioxide losses, while at the same time increasing the emissions of other greenhouse gases. Increased biofuels production offers the potential to increase domestic energy security, but at the cost of increased water demand and threats to food security. Just as budding US consumer environmentalists of the last decade struggled with the question of paper versus plastic for bagging their groceries, today's informed consumers are being asked to tacitly choose between water and carbon. The local foods movement encourages consumption of locally-produced foods as a means of reducing carbon emissions associated with food transportation, among other perceived benefits. At the same time, the concept of virtual water trade recognizes that importing the water embedded in production in the form of food can balance a local water deficit. Taking into account the virtual water of food production and carbon emissions of food transportation, the spatial arrangement of the current US crop portfolio minimizes neither water nor carbon footprints. Changes in crop distribution result in trade-offs between the per capita

  4. Future Water Management in the South Platte River Basin: Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing, Population, Agriculture, and Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. L.; Hogue, T. S.; Anderson, A. M.; Read, L.

    2015-12-01

    In semi-arid basins across the world, the gap between water supply and demand is growing due to climate change, population growth, and shifts in agriculture and unconventional energy development. Water conservation efforts among residential and industrial water users, recycling and reuse techniques and innovative regulatory frameworks for water management strive to mitigate this gap, however, the extent of these strategies are often difficult to quantify and not included in modeling water allocations. Decision support systems (DSS) are purposeful for supporting water managers in making informed decisions when competing demands create the need to optimize water allocation between sectors. One region of particular interest is the semi-arid region of the South Platte River basin in northeastern Colorado, where anthropogenic and climatic effects are expected to increase the gap between water supply and demand in the near future. Specifically, water use in the South Platte is impacted by several high-intensity activities, including unconventional energy development, i.e. hydraulic fracturing, and large withdrawals for agriculture; these demands are in addition to a projected population increase of 100% by 2050. The current work describes the development of a DSS for the South Platte River basin, using the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP) to explore scenarios of how variation in future water use in the energy, agriculture, and municipal sectors will impact water allocation decisions. Detailed data collected on oil and gas water use in the Niobrara shale play will be utilized to predict future sector use. We also employ downscaled climate projections for the region to quantify the potential range of water availability in the basin under each scenario, and observe whether or not, and to what extent, climate may impact management decisions at the basin level.

  5. An experimental test of voluntary strategies to promote urban water demand management.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Kelly S; Spinks, Anneliese; Russell, Sally; McCrea, Rod; Stewart, Rodney; Gardner, John

    2013-01-15

    In light of the current and future threats to global water security the current research focuses on trialing interventions to promote urban water conservation. We report an experimental study designed to test the long-term impact of three different interventions on household water consumption in South East Queensland. Participants from 221 households were recruited and completed an initial survey, and their houses were fitted with smart water meters which measured total water usage at 5 s intervals. Households were allocated into one of four conditions: a control group and three interventions groups (water saving information alone, information plus a descriptive norm manipulation, and information plus tailored end-user feedback). The study is the first to use smart water metering technology as a tool for behaviour change as well as a way to test the effectiveness of demand management interventions. Growth curve modelling revealed that compared to the control, the three intervention groups all showed reduced levels of household consumption (an average reduction of 11.3 L per person per day) over the course of the interventions, and for some months afterwards. All interventions led to significant water savings, but long-term household usage data showed that in all cases, the reduction in water use resulting from the interventions eventually dissipated, with water consumption returning to pre-intervention levels after approximately 12 months. Implications for water demand management programs are discussed. PMID:23168251

  6. Crop Insurance Increases Water Withdrawals for Irrigation in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Deryugina, T.; Lin, X.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool that has been developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, it is not clear what the implications of crop insurance are for crop irrigation. By providing a guaranteed level of income in case of crop failure, crop insurance can reduce the farmer's incentive to irrigate. Thus, crop insurance can decrease water use in times of drought and promote water sustainability. However, to minimize this "moral hazard", the insurer may require farmers to irrigate crops more than necessary. Further, by shifting crop production, crop insurance may increase demand for water. Thus, it is unclear whether crop insurance increases or decreases crop water use. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation withdrawals in the United States. To establish causality, we exploit variation in crop insurance policies over time, using an instrumental variables approach. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, primarily from groundwater aquifers.

  7. A multi-scale relevance vector regression approach for daily urban water demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yun; Wang, Pu; Li, Chuan; Xie, Jingjing; Wang, Yin

    2014-09-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for economic and social developments. Daily water demand forecasting is an effective measure for scheduling urban water facilities. This work proposes a multi-scale relevance vector regression (MSRVR) approach to forecast daily urban water demand. The approach uses the stationary wavelet transform to decompose historical time series of daily water supplies into different scales. At each scale, the wavelet coefficients are used to train a machine-learning model using the relevance vector regression (RVR) method. The estimated coefficients of the RVR outputs for all of the scales are employed to reconstruct the forecasting result through the inverse wavelet transform. To better facilitate the MSRVR forecasting, the chaos features of the daily water supply series are analyzed to determine the input variables of the RVR model. In addition, an adaptive chaos particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to find the optimal combination of the RVR model parameters. The MSRVR approach is evaluated using real data collected from two waterworks and is compared with recently reported methods. The results show that the proposed MSRVR method can forecast daily urban water demand much more precisely in terms of the normalized root-mean-square error, correlation coefficient, and mean absolute percentage error criteria.

  8. Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

  9. Food vs. water: the magnitude and range of global tradeoffs in agricultural production and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Flörke, M.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Water is integral to agricultural production, and agriculture is by far the largest human use of water, so food security and water sustainability are inexorably linked. When water goes to food production, however, the benefits and costs are not uniformly distributed across the globe. We quantify the magnitude and global range of the multidimensional tradeoffs among food production, water consumption, and water quality impairment. To evaluate the productivity of water consumption in agriculture, we quantified the magnitude and global range of crop water productivity, the amount of food produced per unit of water consumed, for 16 major food crops (Brauman et al., 2013). We now expand on this, contextualizing the impact of high or low water productivity with information about water availability. Using outputs from the WaterGAP3 model (Flörke et al., 2013, Verzano et al. 2012), we map the burden of agricultural water consumption on total water availability. To incorporate impacts of agriculture on water quality, we include areas of excess nutrient application (Mueller et al., 2012). The integrated information about yield, water consumption, water availability, and nutrient application shows that benefits and impacts to water quantity and quality are not evenly distributed. Analogous to previous investigations of 'yield gaps,' which identified areas where biophysical conditions are sufficient for achieving yields higher than those that are attained (Licker et al., 2010), we show that in many places, for the given impacts to water, food production could be increased.

  10. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  11. Effect of shifting crop production for biofuel demand on soil and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of shifting cropping systems to dominantly corn for biofuels, in particular ethanol production, could have serious implications on soil and water quality. Proper land management for biofuels production in agriculture is critical to achieve because of maintaining the sustainability of lan...

  12. Impact of shifting crop production for biofuel demand on soil and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of shifting cropping systems to dominantly corn for biofuels, in particular ethanol production, could have serious implications on soil and water quality. Proper land management for biofuels production in agriculture is critical to achieve because of maintaining the sustainability of lan...

  13. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  14. Ultimate biochemical oxygen demand in semi-intensively managed shrimp pond waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three independent studies were conducted to quantified ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (UBOD) and the corresponding decomposition rate constant for production pond (average 21.5 ha each) waters and effluents on six semi-intensively managed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in Honduras. S...

  15. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  16. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  17. The potential for snow to supply human water demand in the present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Viviroli, Daniel; Singh, Deepti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-11-01

    Runoff from snowmelt is regarded as a vital water source for people and ecosystems throughout the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Numerous studies point to the threat global warming poses to the timing and magnitude of snow accumulation and melt. But analyses focused on snow supply do not show where changes to snowmelt runoff are likely to present the most pressing adaptation challenges, given sub-annual patterns of human water consumption and water availability from rainfall. We identify the NH basins where present spring and summer snowmelt has the greatest potential to supply the human water demand that would otherwise be unmet by instantaneous rainfall runoff. Using a multi-model ensemble of climate change projections, we find that these basins—which together have a present population of ∼2 billion people—are exposed to a 67% risk of decreased snow supply this coming century. Further, in the multi-model mean, 68 basins (with a present population of >300 million people) transition from having sufficient rainfall runoff to meet all present human water demand to having insufficient rainfall runoff. However, internal climate variability creates irreducible uncertainty in the projected future trends in snow resource potential, with about 90% of snow-sensitive basins showing potential for either increases or decreases over the near-term decades. Our results emphasize the importance of snow for fulfilling human water demand in many NH basins, and highlight the need to account for the full range of internal climate variability in developing robust climate risk management decisions.

  18. Water in India with reference to agriculture and population: some issues and patterns -- dynamic approaches needed for development.

    PubMed

    Roy, B K

    1990-03-01

    Population growth is increasing the demand for water in India, especially for agricultural purposes. Yet, the government of India has not included an assessment of water needs for an expanding population into its development strategy. The leading obstacle to such an assessment is lack of quality data. In fact, the latest data comes from the 1981 Census. A government official proposes to transform climate and water balance synthesis into crop regions as a means to evaluate the national or macro level effects on agriculture. Rice is the dominant crop of the eastern and coastal regions of India which have a humid and rainy climate. The acute to marginally dry crop regions grow jowar, maize, bajra, and ragi and face a water shortage. In dry northwestern India, developed irrigation systems sustain the wheat crop. Agricultural water needs depend on sufficient monsoon rain and/or irrigation. India has 5 microclimates: perhumid, humid, dry, semiarid, and arid regions. 40.7% of all of India which comprises 33.4% of the population is prone to drought. Rural-urban migration since 1960 has increased the urban population size in India, yet most cities' master plans for provision of safe drinking water for urban dwellers are only advisory rather than mandatory. In fact, 460,000 urban dwellers and many rural dwellers still depend on rivers, canals, or tanks which often are contaminated with sewage, toxins, and radioactive materials. Further, only 0.53% of the rural population has sanitation facilities. 5-level zoning (population-hydrological regions) for India would provide distributional aspects of water by major and minor surface water plans and groundwater, which in turn would bring about a practical infrastructure to different areas for agricultural and population needs. Much of the baseline data needed to develop these regions and to research this system already exists. PMID:12317929

  19. Attenuation of urban agricultural production potential and crop water footprint due to shading from buildings and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Tooke, Thoreau R.; Coops, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    Urban agriculture requires local water to replace ‘hydrologic externalities’ associated with food produced outside of the local area, with an accompanying shift of the water footprint (WF) for agricultural production from rural to urban areas. Water requirements of urban agriculture have been difficult to estimate due to the heterogeneity of shading from trees and buildings within urban areas. We developed CityCrop, a plant growth and evapotranspiration (ET) model that couples a 3D model of tree canopies and buildings derived from LiDAR with a ray-casting approach to estimate spatially-explicit solar inputs in combination with local climate data. Evaluating CityCrop over a 1 km2 mixed use, residential neighborhood of Vancouver Canada, we estimated median light attenuation to result in 12% reductions in both reference ET (ETo) and crop ET (ETc). However, median crop yields were reduced by only 3.5% relative to potential yield modeled without any light attenuation, while the median crop WF was 9% less than the WF for areas unimpeded by shading. Over the 75 day cropping cycle, median crop water requirements as ETc were 17% less than that required for a well-watered grass (as ETo). If all lawns in our modeled area were replaced with crops, we estimate that about 37% of the resident population could obtain the vegetable portion of their diet from within the local area over a 150 day growing season. However doing so would result in augmented water demand if watering restrictions apply to lawns only. The CityCrop model can therefore be useful to evaluate trade-offs related to urban agriculture and to inform municipal water policy development.

  20. High Resolution Modelling of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand, Crop Nutrient Usage and GHG emissions, Similkameen Watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmasoudi, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Kroebel, R.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.; McKenzie, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Similkameen watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada is expected to warm substantially in the coming decades. A higher proportion of winter rain to snow and an earlier onset of spring snowmelt are likely to result in lower spring stream flow peaks. The reduction in winter water storage, combined with longer, warmer, and drier summers, poses a challenge for water resources in an irrigation-based agricultural watershed. There are already substantial irrigation developments, and water demands are expected to increase to maintain current agricultural production, further stressing a shrinking summer water supply. Agriculture releases significant amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 8% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, excluding CO2 emissions from fuels. Agricultural GHG fluxes are complex but the active management of agricultural systems offers possibilities for mitigating GHG emissions. Although GHG emissions derived from soil have been researched for several decades, there are still geographic regions and agricultural systems that have not been well characterized. This work will address a series of questions for the Similkameen watershed. For a range of climate scenarios, we will: (i) use the GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model to simulate historical and future water supplies; (ii) link GENESYS and AquaCrop models to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity; and (iii) link GENESYS and HOLOS (whole-farm model and software program that estimates GHG emissions) to estimate farm and regional level GHG emissions and seasonal nutrient balance for the crops in the watershed.

  1. Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.; Robbins, F.V.; Barnes, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

  2. Review: Computer-based models for managing the water-resource problems of irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2015-09-01

    Irrigation is essential for achieving food security to the burgeoning global population but unplanned and injudicious expansion of irrigated areas causes waterlogging and salinization problems. Under this backdrop, groundwater resources management is a critical issue for fulfilling the increasing water demand for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses. Various simulation and optimization approaches were used to solve the groundwater management problems. This paper presents a review of the individual and combined applications of simulation and optimization modeling for the management of groundwater-resource problems associated with irrigated agriculture. The study revealed that the combined use of simulation-optimization modeling is very suitable for achieving an optimal solution for groundwater-resource problems, even with a large number of variables. Independent model tools were used to solve the problems of uncertainty analysis and parameter estimation in groundwater modelling studies. Artificial neural networks were used to minimize the problem of computational complexity. The incorporation of socioeconomic aspects into the groundwater management modeling would be an important development in future studies.

  3. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  4. Quantifying the crucial role of snow in supplying human water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Viviroli, D.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Snow is considered essential to ecosystems, people, and climate, regulating water availability by mediating runoff and soil moisture throughout the year, and altering planetary radiative balance. Like canary in a coalmine, snow also serves as a kind of sentinel system, providing a benchmark by which we can measure the advance of global warming. Yet recent analyses reveal that the relationship between snow and warming is more complex: Despite warming, for example, the magnitude of internal climate variability suggests some Northern Hemisphere regions may experience snow increases for at least the next 50 years. While studies demonstrate that snow supply is vital and in critical danger, such assessments are based only on projections of annualized supply-side changes, such as the fraction of total annual runoff coming from snowfall. These measures do not consider a region's unique seasonal patterns of water supply and, in particular, water demand. We therefore do not know snow's relative importance to each region's water supply portfolio, and thus how great a risk global warming presents to regional water availability. Here we present the first quantification of snow's observed role in fulfilling monthly water demand for people in the Northern Hemisphere given each basin's unique sub-annual patterns of snow accumulation and melt. This quantification also reconciles the requirements of ecosystems and includes the buffering capacity of existing artificial storage, such as dams and reservoirs. Our results provide a meaningful baseline against which projected snow changes (from global warming) or demand changes (from population or land-use change) can be evaluated to identify regions at acute risk of disequilibria between future snow water supply and its demand.

  5. Increasing Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture through Management of Soil Water Repellency to Optimize Soil and Water Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Gadd, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Water's ability to infiltrate and disperse in soils, and soil's ability to receive, transport, retain, filter and release water are important factors in the efficient use of water in agriculture. Deteriorating soil conditions, including development of soil water repellency, negatively impact hydrological processes and, consequently, the efficiency of rainfall and irrigation. Soil water repellency is increasingly being identified in diverse soils and cropping systems. Recently research has been conducted on the use of novel soil surfactants (co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside and block copolymer surfactants) to avoid or overcome soil water repellency and enhance water distribution in soils. Results indicate that this is an effective and affordable approach to maintaining or restoring soil and water productivity in irrigated cropping systems. Results from studies conducted in Australia and the United States to determine how this technology modifies soil hydrological behavior and crop yields will be presented. A range of soils and various crops, including potatoes, corn, apples and grapes, were included. Several rates were compared to controls for effect on soil moisture levels, soil water distribution, and crop yield. An economic analysis was also conducted in some trials. Treatments improved rootzone water status, significantly increased crop yield and quality, and in some cases allowed significant reductions in water requirements. Where assessed, a positive economic return was generated. This technology holds promise as a strategy for increasing efficiency of water use in agriculture.

  6. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  7. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  8. Water hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Carina C; Petersen, Cecilia Mattsson

    2007-01-01

    Water hyacinths are becoming a problem in lakes, ponds and waterways in many parts of the world. This paper contains a literature study of different ways to use water hyacinths, mainly in agricultural or alternative energy systems. The literature review indicated that water hyacinths can be rich in nitrogen, up to 3.2% of DM and have a C/N ratio around 15. The water hyacinth can be used as a substrate for compost or biogas production. The sludge from the biogas process contains almost all of the nutrients of the substrate and can be used as a fertiliser. The use of water hyacinth compost on different crops has resulted in improved yields. The high protein content makes the water hyacinth possible to use as fodder for cows, goats, sheep and chickens. Water hyacinth, due to its abundant growth and high concentrations of nutrients, has a great potential as fertiliser for the nutrient deficient soils of Africa and as feed for livestock. Applying the water hyacinths directly without any other processing than sun drying, seems to be the best alternative in small-scale use due to the relatively small losses of nutrients and workload required. To meet the ever-growing energy demand, biogas production could be one option but it requires investments and technological skills that would impose great problems in developing countries where the water hyacinth is often found. Composting as an alternative treatment has the advantage of a product that is easy to work into the soil compared with dried water hyacinths, because of the decomposed structure. Harvesting and transport of water hyacinths can be conducted manually on a small scale and does not require a new harvesting technique to be introduced. Transporting of fresh water hyacinths means, if used as fertiliser in amounts large enough to enhance or effect crop growth, an unreasonably large labour requirement. Based on the labour need and the limited access to technology, using dried water hyacinths, as green manure is a

  9. Risk-cost-benefit analysis of atrazine in drinking water from agricultural activities and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfamichael, Aklilu A.; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2005-05-01

    This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector by incorporating public attitude to pesticide management in the analysis. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the United States. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total economic surplus in the U.S. corn market for different atrazine application rates using estimated demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums for chemical-free and reduced-chemical corn indicate that if the society is willing to pay a price premium, risks can be reduced without a large reduction in the total economic surplus and net benefits may be higher. The results also show that this methodology provides an improved scientific framework for future decision making and policy evaluation in pesticide management.

  10. Water use, availability, and net demand in the Tennessee River watershed within Alabama, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Amy C.; Harper, Michael J.; Littlepage, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Survey of Alabama. Net water demand for the watershed was calculated by subtracting the Tennessee Valley Authority estimates of return flow from water withdrawals. The net water demand was 136 Mgal/d, which is less than 1 percent of the estimated water available.

  11. Integrating irrigation water demand, supply, and delivery management in a stochastic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Scott, Bradley W.

    1993-09-01

    Previously developed suites of models integrate irrigation water supply and demand management for simplified surface reservoir supply systems. A central stochastic dynamic programming model is supported by simulation models, including a soil water-plant growth model. That modeling is extended herein to include decisions about timing and quantity of reservoir water releases into the delivery system, resulting in the integration of supply, demand, and delivery management. Irrigators have rights to percentages of reservoir capacity, reservoir inflows, and downstream tributary flows. Natural rivers are the supply channels in the study area. Large on-farm water storages exist for storing regulated and unregulated river flows available to the irrigators. Farms can be many days flow from the reservoir, requiring orders for reservoir releases to be lodged before the arrival of a previous order. The probability of unregulated flows from tributaries downstream of the reservoir further complicates ordering decisions. Abandonment of irrigated area to rain-fed status occurs at two levels, forced abandonment if insufficient water is available at the farm when the irrigation-trigger soil water deficit is reached, and planned abandonment to save water for possible later use. The need for forced abandonment is determined by simulation models; planned abandonment decisions are derived by stochastic dynamic programming. Results show annual net revenue means and standard deviations as functions of different capacities of the on-farm storages and water supplies from either regulated or unregulated flows, or both.

  12. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Davijani, M.; Banihabib, M. E.; Nadjafzadeh Anvar, A.; Hashemi, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    In many discussions, work force is mentioned as the most important factor of production. Principally, work force is a factor which can compensate for the physical and material limitations and shortcomings of other factors to a large extent which can help increase the production level. On the other hand, employment is considered as an effective factor in social issues. The goal of the present research is the allocation of water resources so as to maximize the number of jobs created in the industry and agriculture sectors. An objective that has attracted the attention of policy makers involved in water supply and distribution is the maximization of the interests of beneficiaries and consumers in case of certain policies adopted. The present model applies the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to determine the optimum amount of water allocated to each water-demanding sector, area under cultivation, agricultural production, employment in the agriculture sector, industrial production and employment in the industry sector. Based on the results obtained from this research, by optimally allocating water resources in the central desert region of Iran, 1096 jobs can be created in the industry and agriculture sectors, which constitutes an improvement of about 13% relative to the previous situation (non-optimal water utilization). It is also worth mentioning that by optimizing the employment factor as a social parameter, the other areas such as the economic sector are influenced as well. For example, in this investigation, the resulting economic benefits (incomes) have improved from 73 billion Rials at baseline employment figures to 112 billion Rials in the case of optimized employment condition. Therefore, it is necessary to change the inter-sector and intra-sector water allocation models in this region, because this change not only leads to more jobs in this area, but also causes an improvement in the region's economic conditions.

  13. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  14. Influence of integrated watershed-scale agricultural conservation practices on lake water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed-scale management efforts to improve conservation of water resources in agricultural watersheds depend upon the effectiveness of integrated multiple agricultural best management practices at this scale. This requires large-scale, long-term (>10 y) studies measuring key water quality paramet...

  15. Climate change, water rights, and agriculture: A case study in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is important to agriculture and other consumptive uses in the arid and semiarid climate zones, but it has become increasingly uncertain under a changing climate. More important, how agricultural output will be affected may depend on how water resources are allocated based on the dominant sharing rule, according to Xu et al., who conducted a case study in Idaho.

  16. 78 FR 71724 - Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract Summaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... these approvals will expire if not renewed. (1) Recordations, Control Number 2140-0025 (2) Water Carrier Tariffs, Control Number 2140-26 (3) Agricultural Contract Summaries, Control Number 2140-0024 See 78 FR... Surface Transportation Board Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract...

  17. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant available water. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...

  18. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    rights data as well as instream flow requirements are incorporated to inform water allocation and curtailment decisions. This modeling framework is applied over the 1976-2006 period and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Development of this modeling framework is part of a larger effort to develop a regional-scale earth system model, "BioEarth". The goal of BioEarth is to understand the interactions between land use and water and nutrient cycling under decadal-scale climate variability to inform decisions related to agricultural and natural resources management.

  19. Agricultural drainage water management: Potential impact and implementation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  20. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River basin - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change, especially in the arid and semiarid tropics. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the Capibaribe River basin (CRB). The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-to-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now larger and more spatially concentrated, which increases water-scarcity effects. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES (Special Report: Emissions Scenarios) A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 26.0% translated to streamflow reduction of 60.0%. We used simulations from four members of the HadCM3 (UK Met Office Hadley Centre) perturbed physics ensemble, in which a single model structure is used and perturbations are introduced to the physical parameterization schemes in the model (Chou et al., 2012). We considered that the change of the water availability in the basin in the future scenarios must drive the water management and the development of adaptation strategies that will manage the water demand. Several adaptive responses are considered, including water-loss reductions, wastewater collection and reuse, and rainwater collection cisterns, which together have potential to reduce future water demand by 23.0%. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The simulations showed that the measures proposed and the water from interbasin transfer project of the São Francisco River had a positive

  1. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    PubMed

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-error<30%. In terms of magnitude, the results were as accurate as or better than those of more traditional (i.e., using areas that fluctuate based on water resource availability and prescribed crop factors) irrigation modelling. The RS

  2. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  3. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  4. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  5. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  6. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  7. Driving force analysis of the agricultural water footprint in China based on the LMDI method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfu; Chen, Bin

    2014-11-01

    China's water scarcity problems have become more severe because of the unprecedented economic development and population explosion. Considering agriculture's large share of water consumption, obtaining a clear understanding of Chinese agricultural consumptive water use plays a key role in addressing China's water resource stress and providing appropriate water mitigation policies. We account for the Chinese agricultural water footprint from 1990 to 2009 based on bottom up approach. Then, the underlying driving forces are decomposed into diet structure effect, efficiency effect, economic activity effect, and population effect, and analyzed by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results reveal that the Chinese agricultural water footprint has risen from the 94.1 Gm3 in 1990 to 141 Gm3 in 2009. The economic activity effect is the largest positive contributor to promoting the water footprint growth, followed by the population effect and diet structure effect. Although water efficiency improvement as a significant negative effect has reduced overall water footprint, the water footprint decline from water efficiency improvement cannot compensate for the huge increase from the three positive driving factors. The combination of water efficiency improvement and dietary structure adjustment is the most effective approach for controlling the Chinese agricultural water footprint's further growth. PMID:25289879

  8. A new emission-based approach for regulation of N losses from agricultural areas to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstand Poulsen, Jane; Kronvang, Brian; Bering Ovesen, Niels; Piil, Kristoffer; Kolind Hvid, Søren

    2015-04-01

    Demands for a reduction and hence regulation of nitrogen (N) emissions to streams, lakes and coastal areas are a central part of many river basin management plans under the EU Water Framework Directive. Therefore, large focus has been placed on exploring different mitigation options that can assist in reducing the N emission from agricultural areas. However, the spatial variability in landscape, geology and hydrology entails significant differences in the vulnerability of catchments to intense agricultural activities. Hence, if rigid regulations of N emissions are applied without considering this variability, it will not necessarily lead to an optimum balance between applied fertilisers, yields and loss of excess N to the surrounding surface waters. Therefore, the overall purpose of this pilot study is to develop a concept for regulation of nutrient emissions to surface waters based on a comprehensive stream monitoring design in order to measure the temporal and spatial transport of N at sub-catchment scale. The purpose of such a monitoring design is twofold: i) quantification of the actual N emissions from a given agricultural sub-catchment or even individual farms; ii) quantification at sub-catchment scale of nitrate retention that may ultimately lead to a more precise regulation of N emissions from agricultural areas to surface waters. In order to investigate down to which scale it is feasible to quantify N emissions to surface waters and to develop the best monitoring concept, three catchments subdivided into several sub-catchments in Denmark will be studied during the period 2014-2017. The catchments represent different landscapes and geological settings as well as three different hydrological regimes. In the three catchments, hydrometric stations have been established at the outlet of the drainage networks where continuous measurements are made of water stage. In addition daily water samples and weekly grab samples of water are taken and weekly discharge

  9. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  10. Soil water and shallow groundwater relations in an agricultural hillslope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow water tables can contribute water for plant use; therefore, plant-available water includes not only the water stored in the root zone, but also the water moving up from below the root zone. The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of water moving upward to the root zone. Automate...

  11. The Contribution of Agricultural Trade for Saving Blue Water in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, S.; Biewald, A.; Hoff, H.; Lotze-Campen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Trade can mitigate local water scarcity in water scarce regions, but does not always do so because of economic or other pressures to export water intensive products. To assess impacts of trade on blue and green water use in agriculture, we apply two dynamic, global and spatially explicit models. The vegetation and crop model LPJmL calculates water use and crop productivity. Based on the potential agricultural yield of LPJmL, the economic model MAgPIE_trade produces landuse pattern for the most important agricultural production in 10 economic world regions; bilateral trade is controlled by transport costs and trade barriers. We quantify the trade effect by comparing scenarios with and without trade for current and predicted future climatic conditions. The resulting differences in the spatial patterns (0.5° resolution) of agricultural production from MAgPIE_trade enables the quantification of the amount of goods produced for export. Using the consumptive green and blue water fluxes from LPJmL for each agricultural product, the export of virtual water uses are calculated so that water saving or consumption due to trade can be quantified. Although an interesting result in itself, an estimate for relaxation or intensification of water scarcity by trade is still missing. Here, the water shadow price from MAgPIE_trade as an indicator for water scarcity is related to the actual change in blue water usage. This relation is then taken as an indicator for the efficiency of trade on the local savings of blue water.

  12. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Joshua; Deryng, Delphine; Müller, Christoph; Frieler, Katja; Konzmann, Markus; Gerten, Dieter; Glotter, Michael; Flörke, Martina; Wada, Yoshihide; Best, Neil; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs M.; Folberth, Christian; Foster, Ian; Gosling, Simon N.; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Khabarov, Nikolay; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Olin, Stefan; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Satoh, Yusuke; Schmid, Erwin; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, and driven by outputs of general circulation models run under representative concentration pathway 8.5 as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Models project that direct climate impacts to maize, soybean, wheat, and rice involve losses of 400–1,400 Pcal (8–24% of present-day total) when CO2 fertilization effects are accounted for or 1,400–2,600 Pcal (24–43%) otherwise. Freshwater limitations in some irrigated regions (western United States; China; and West, South, and Central Asia) could necessitate the reversion of 20–60 Mha of cropland from irrigated to rainfed management by end-of-century, and a further loss of 600–2,900 Pcal of food production. In other regions (northern/eastern United States, parts of South America, much of Europe, and South East Asia) surplus water supply could in principle support a net increase in irrigation, although substantial investments in irrigation infrastructure would be required. PMID:24344283

  13. A Site-sPecific Agricultural water Requirement and footprint Estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-07-01

    The agricultural water footprint addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). By considering site-specific properties when calculating the crop water footprint, this methodology can be used to support decision making in the agricultural sector on local to regional scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows us to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirements and water footprints are assessed on a grid basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume inefficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water is defined as the water needed to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept, we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008, with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional estimation of crop water footprints.

  14. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture In The Central High Plains With Limited Irrigation Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. Irrigation water is applied through drip irrigation systems; precipitation and reference...

  15. When the 'soft-path' gets hard: demand management and financial instability for water utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past, cost benefit analysis (CBA) has been viewed as an effective means of evaluating water utility strategies, particularly those that were dependent on the construction of new supply infrastructure. As water utilities have begun to embrace 'soft-path' approaches as a way to reduce the need for supply-centric development, CBA fails to recognize some important financial incentives affected by reduced water consumption. Demand management, both as a short-term response to drought and in longer-term actions to accommodate demand growth, can introduce revenue risks that adversely affect a utility's ability to repay debt, re-invest in aging infrastructure, or maintain reserve funds for use in a short-term emergency. A utility that does not generate sufficient revenue to support these functions may be subject to credit rating downgrades, which in turn affect the interest rate it pays on its debt. Interest rates are a critical consideration for utility managers in the capital-intensive water sector, where debt payments for infrastructure often account for a large portion of a utility's overall costs. Even a small increase in interest rates can add millions of dollars to the cost of new infrastructure. Recent studies have demonstrated that demand management techniques can lead to significant revenue variability, and credit rating agencies have begun to take notice of drought response plans when evaluating water utility credit ratings, providing utilities with a disincentive to fully embrace soft-path approaches. This analysis examines the impact of demand management schemes on key credit rating metrics for a water utility in Raleigh, North Carolina. The utility's consumer base is currently experiencing rapid population growth, and demand management has the potential to reduce the dependence on costly new supply infrastructure but could lead to financial instability that will significantly increase the costs of financing future projects. This work analyzes how 'soft

  16. Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

  17. Overcoming constraints to the implementation of water demand management in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.; Hazelton, D.; Nkhuwa, D.; Robinson, P.; Tjijenda, K.; Chavula, G.

    This paper presents results of a study on water demand management status and overcoming constraints to implementation of water demand management in the southern African region, as part of Phase II of water demand management (WDM) programme implemented by the IUCN (The World Conservation Union). The study was conducted in Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The study methodology consisted of a survey of literature, and interviewing and communicating with stakeholders in order to learn from stakeholders on the critical constraints to WDM implementation and strategies to overcome them. The study has shown that, despite the potential savings that would accrue from implementation of WDM, the water sector across the southern African region continues to focus on water supply augmentation. There are inadequate financial and human resources for rehabilitation, operation and maintenance of water conveyance systems resulting in system leaks, which contribute to high levels of unaccounted-for water, a situation that masks the potential benefits of WDM. In most countries, the water sector operates on ad-hoc sub-sector water user objectives, which provided guidelines only for development and management purposes. Most of the institutional frameworks have remained diffuse, resulting into poor performance in the sector, and into crisis management in the water resources development. Though the WDM policy in most countries is already accessible through guidelines for catchment management institutions and water supply institutions; there is a lack of broad commitment to implementing them. In other countries the instruments are relatively new and have not been applied widely. Similarly, the effectiveness of instruments has not been well evaluated in most countries. In countries where policy is weak there is often a lack of clarity as to who is responsible for WDM implementation, and even less clarity on who is responsible for facilitating and monitoring

  18. Soil Water and Shallow Groundwater Relations in an Agricultural Hillslope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow water tables contribute to soil water variations under rolling topography, and soil properties contribute to shallow water table fluctutations. Preferential flow through large soil pores can cause a rise in the water table with little increase in soil water except near the soil surface. Late...

  19. Water-saving techniques in Chinese agriculture: water-saving irrigation and straw mulching for winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhu, Zixi; Zheng, Youfei; Fang, Wensong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the relationship between water balance and crop-water, water-saving irrigation model was integrated with monitoring and prediction of soil moisture, forming a system of decision-making of irrigation. It is demonstrated that straw mulching for winter wheat is an effective way to reduce soil evaporation at early stages and increase yield and improve water utilization efficiency. Combination of water-saving irrigation and straw mulching plays an important role in China water-saving agriculture.

  20. Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R.; Mcpherson, Timothy N.

    2015-03-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.

  1. Testing water demand management scenarios in a water-stressed basin in South Africa: application of the WEAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévite, Hervé; Sally, Hilmy; Cour, Julien

    Like many river basins in South Africa, water resources in the Olifants river basin are almost fully allocated. Respecting the so-called “reserve” (water flow reservation for basic human needs and the environment) imposed by the Water Law of 1998 adds a further dimension, if not difficulty, to water resources management in the basin, especially during the dry periods. Decision makers and local stakeholders (i.e. municipalities, water users’ associations, interest groups), who will soon be called upon to work together in a decentralized manner within Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) and Catchment Management Committees (CMCs), must therefore be able to get a rapid and simple understanding of the water balances at different levels in the basin. This paper seeks to assess the pros and cons of using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model for this purpose via its application to the Steelpoort sub-basin of the Olifants river. This model allows the simulation and analysis of various water allocation scenarios and, above all, scenarios of users’ behavior. Water demand management is one of the options discussed in more detail here. Simulations are proposed for diverse climatic situations from dry years to normal years and results are discussed. It is evident that the quality of data (in terms of availability and reliability) is very crucial and must be dealt with carefully and with good judgment. Secondly, credible hypotheses have to be made about water uses (losses, return flow) if the results are to be meaningfully used in support of decision-making. Within the limits of data availability, it appears that some water users are not able to meet all their requirements from the river, and that even the ecological reserve will not be fully met during certain years. But the adoption of water demand management procedures offers opportunities for remedying this situation during normal hydrological years. However, it appears that demand management alone will not

  2. The basin-level water demand management driven by dualistic water cycle and the development of Dualistic Model for Hai River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guiyu; Wang, Hao; Gan, Hong; Jia, Yangwen

    2010-05-01

    The basin water resources management (BWRM) is a coordinated project focused on the relationship between water supply and demand, which involves a united regulation and coordinated management process to maximize the benefits of available water resources, to improve the relationship between humans and water, and to develop economic systems and ecosystems. However, a water resources management system stresses different content depending on supply requirements, economic development and eco-environment protection policies in different social stages. At present, with high-intensity impact of human activities and natural precipitation reduction, contradiction between supply and demand water resources has become increasing prominent. Water shortage became a global problem. In limited supply condition water demand management becomes the focus of water resources management. However, since there is no need of technical support means, the present water demand management basically focuses on single linkages in the water cycle process, and falls short of investigation into the essence of water demand associated with the entire water cycle process. For the above reasons, selecting Haihe River basin as study area, the paper fully analyzes the "natural-artificial" dual water cycle, put forward the water demand management with "the water consumption (ET) management as the core, the seven total amount control target as the management objective. Addition, the paper achieves the quantitative for "ET management as the core, the seven total amount control indexes" by the development of Haihe River basin-level Dualsitic model

  3. Derivation of operation rules for reservoirs in parallel with joint water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang; Hu, Tiesong; Xiong, Lihua; Cao, Zhixian; Xu, Chongyu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the general optimality conditions of the commonly used operating policies for reservoirs in parallel with joint water demand, which are defined in terms of system-wide release rules and individual reservoir storage balancing functions. Following that, a new set of release rules for individual reservoirs are proposed in analytical forms by considering the optimality conditions for the balance of total water delivery utility and carryover storage value of individual reservoirs. Theoretical analysis indicates that the commonly used operating policies are a special case of the newly derived rules. The derived release rules are then applied to simulating the operation of a parallel reservoir system in northeastern China. Compared to the performance of the commonly used policies, some advantages of the proposed operation rules are illustrated. Most notably, less water shortage occurrence and higher water supply reliability are obtained from the proposed operation rules.

  4. Uncertainty in future irrigation water demand and risk of crop failure for maize in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Heidi; Gaiser, Thomas; Oomen, Roelof; Teixeira, Edmar; Zhao, Gang; Wallach, Daniel; Zimmermann, Andrea; Ewert, Frank

    2016-07-01

    While crop models are widely used to assess the change in crop productivity with climate change, their skill in assessing irrigation water demand or the risk of crop failure in large area impact assessments is relatively unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate which aspects of modeling crop water use (reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0), soil water extraction, soil evaporation, soil water balance and root growth) contributes most to the variability in estimates of maize crop water use and the risk of crop failure, and demonstrate the resulting uncertainty in a climate change impact study for Europe. The SIMPLACE crop modeling framework was used to couple the LINTUL5 crop model in factorial combinations of 2–3 different approaches for simulating the 5 aspects of crop water use, resulting in 51 modeling approaches. Using experiments in France and New Zeland, analysis of total sensitivity revealed that ET0 explained the most variability in both irrigated maize water use and rainfed grain yield levels, with soil evaporation also imporatant in the French experiment. In the European impact study, net irrigation requirement differed by 36% between the Penman and Hargreaves ET0 methods in the baseline period. Average EU grain yields were similar between models, but differences approached 1–2 tonnes in parts of France and Southern Europe. EU wide esimates of crop failure in the historical period ranged between 5.4 years for Priestley–Taylor to every 7.9 years for the Penman ET0 methods. While the uncertainty in absolute values between models was significant, estimates of relative changes were similar between models, confirming the utility of crop models in assessing climate change impacts. If ET0 estimates in crop models can be improved, through the use of appropriate methods, uncertainty in irrigation water demand as well as in yield estimates under drought can be reduced.

  5. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  6. A MODELING-GIS APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND WATER VULNERABILITY TO NONPOINT SOURCE IN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water pollution due to agriculture activities is a major source of concern. Vast agricultural lands constitute a nonpoint source for pollutants, such as pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, which threatens ground water resources and the integrity of aquatic and terrestria...

  7. The demand for water in rural areas: determinants and policy implications.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Improving the adequacy and quality of water supplies is a priority for rural development in developing countries. So far, the strategies of governments and international donors for tackling the problem have been supply-driven; the fundamental importance of demand in the selection of appropriate policies has been virtually ignored. The realization that effective policy and planning must take into account what the rural clients want and are prepared to pay for was the impetus for the World Bank's multicountry study of households' demand for improved water services. This article summarizes the findings of the 1987-90 investigation of determinants of rural demand in selected regions of Latin America, Africa, and South Asia. The research team used both direct (contingent valuation) surveys and indirect (revealed preference) methods to estimate households willingness to pay for different levels and types of improvement. The methodology produced some illuminating insights into how to decide what level of service is appropriate for a particular community and how the improved services should be paid for. The team identified 4 broad categories of village situations, with appropriate policies ranging from the provision of house connections at full cost of one extreme, to no improvement in traditional supplies at the other extreme. PMID:12317957

  8. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  9. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  10. Sustainability of least cost policies for meeting Mexico City's future water demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Timothy J.; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; DomíNguez-Mora, Ramón; Suffet, I. H.

    2000-08-01

    Meeting future water demand without degrading ecosystems is one important indicator of sustainable development. Using simulations, we showed that compared to existing policy, more sustainable water supply options are similar or cheaper in cost. We probabilistically forecasted the Mexico City metropolitan zone population for the year 2015 to be 23.5 million and total required water supply to be 106 m3 s-1. We optimized existing and potential supply sources from aquifers, surface water, treatment/reuse, and efficiency/demand management by cost to meet future supply needs; the applied source supply limits determined the degree of sustainability. In two scenarios to supply 106 m3 s-1, the business-as-usual scenario (zero sustainability) had an average relative unit cost of 1.133; while for the most sustainable scenario (it includes reducing potential supply basins' exploitation limits by 50%), the value was 1.121. One extreme scenario to supply the forecast's 95% confidence value (124 m3 s-1) showed little unit cost change (1.106). The simulation shows sustainable policies can be cost-effective.

  11. Transformation Of Arsenic In Agricultural Drainage Water Disposed Into An Evaporation Basin In California, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation basins have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, a high agricultural production area in USA. The irrigation drainage water contains elevated concentrations of trace elements, including S...

  12. Arsenic Speciation and Accumulation In Evapoconcentrating Waters Of Agricultural Evaporation Basins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To sustain agricultural productivity, evaporation basins (or ponds) have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, USA. The drainage water contains elevated concentration of trace elements including sele...

  13. Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

  14. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of

  15. [Association study between water quality of Chaohu Lake and resources input in agriculture of basin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In order to discuss the association between the water quality of Chaohu Lake and the resources input in agriculture of the basin, factors that may affect the lake eutrophication are chosen, such as surplus fertilizer, irrigated area with saved water, agricultural films, water and soil loss control and so on. The methods of correlation analysis and stepwise regression are used. Furthermore, a new method, combined with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, calculating the surplus fertilizer is designed. The results indicate that among various resources input in agriculture of the basin the surplus fertilizer, irrigated area with saved water and agricultural films have a great influence on Chaohu Lake eutrophication. And one year's lag phase between the water quality of Chaohu Lake and the surplus fertilizer is confirmed. Therefore, it is necessary to raise the utilization efficiency of fertilizer, to improve the irrigation way and to decrease the agricultural water consumption in order to conserve resources and to reduce the influence of agricultural production on the water quality of Chaohu Lake. PMID:23243852

  16. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. PMID:27208997

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  18. Grasses for biofuels: A low water-use alternative for cold desert agriculture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In arid regions, reductions in the amount of available agricultural water are fueling interest in alternative, low water-use crops. Perennial grasses have potential as low water-use biofuel crops. However, little is known about which perennial grasses can produce high quantity, high quality yields w...

  19. Water Quality Response to Changes in Agricultural Land Use Practices at Headwater Streams in Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poorly managed agricultural watersheds may be one of the most important contributors to high levels of bacterial and sediment loadings in surface waters. We investigated two cattle farms with differing management schemes to compare how physicochemical and meteorological parameter...

  20. Overcoming agricultural pollution of water: The challenge of integrating agricultural and environmental policies in the European union. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scheierling, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    In an effort to address the particular policy challenges posed by the agriculture/water quality dilemma, this study, focuses on the experience of the European Community (EC), where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. Agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at EC level, as well as national level, are examined, and new policy approaches that try to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations are discussed. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution, which might be useful in other parts of the world.

  1. Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Galloway, Joel M.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mau, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Bureau of Reclamation is working to meet its goal to issue a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Southern Delivery System project (SDS). SDS is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various EIS alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated water into the reservoir. Plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (water years 2000 through

  2. Predicting microbial water quality with models: Over-arching questions for managing risk in agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; Porter, Kenneth D H; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Muirhead, Richard W; Reaney, Sim M; Coffey, Rory; Kay, David; Milledge, David G; Hong, Eunmi; Anthony, Steven G; Page, Trevor; Bloodworth, Jack W; Mellander, Per-Erik; Carbonneau, Patrice E; McGrane, Scott J; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-15

    The application of models to predict concentrations of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in environmental systems plays an important role for guiding decision-making associated with the management of microbial water quality. In recent years there has been an increasing demand by policy-makers for models to help inform FIO dynamics in order to prioritise efforts for environmental and human-health protection. However, given the limited evidence-base on which FIO models are built relative to other agricultural pollutants (e.g. nutrients) it is imperative that the end-user expectations of FIO models are appropriately managed. In response, this commentary highlights four over-arching questions associated with: (i) model purpose; (ii) modelling approach; (iii) data availability; and (iv) model application, that must be considered as part of good practice prior to the deployment of any modelling approach to predict FIO behaviour in catchment systems. A series of short and longer-term research priorities are proposed in response to these questions in order to promote better model deployment in the field of catchment microbial dynamics. PMID:26657248

  3. Complex water management in modern agriculture: Trends in the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Samuel J; Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Deines, Jillian M; Pei, Lisi; Cotterman, Kayla A; Li, Haoyang; Liu, Xiao; Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W

    2016-10-01

    In modern agriculture, the interplay between complex physical, agricultural, and socioeconomic water use drivers must be fully understood to successfully manage water supplies on extended timescales. This is particularly evident across large portions of the High Plains Aquifer where groundwater levels have declined at unsustainable rates despite improvements in both the efficiency of water use and water productivity in agricultural practices. Improved technology and land use practices have not mitigated groundwater level declines, thus water management strategies must adapt accordingly or risk further resource loss. In this study, we analyze the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer as a framework to isolate the major drivers that have shaped the history, and will direct the future, of water use in modern agriculture. Based on this analysis, we conclude that future water management strategies can benefit from: (1) prioritizing farmer profit to encourage decision-making that aligns with strategic objectives, (2) management of water as both an input into the water-energy-food nexus and a key incentive for farmers, (3) adaptive frameworks that allow for short-term objectives within long-term goals, (4) innovative strategies that fit within restrictive political frameworks, (5) reduced production risks to aid farmer decision-making, and (6) increasing the political desire to conserve valuable water resources. This research sets the foundation to address water management as a function of complex decision-making trends linked to the water-energy-food nexus. Water management strategy recommendations are made based on the objective of balancing farmer profit and conserving water resources to ensure future agricultural production. PMID:27344509

  4. Future Proofing Water Policy and Catchment Management for a Changing Climate: A Case Study of Competing Demands and Water Scarcity in the River Thames and Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Crossman, J.; Jin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The River Thames Catchment is the major water supply system in Southern England and supplies all of London's water supply from either the River Lee (a tributary of the Thames) or the main river abstraction site at Teddington (see Figure 1) or from groundwater sources in London. There has been a measurable change in rainfall patterns over the past 250 years with reducing summer rainfall and, hence flows, over the past 40 years. In 1976, following 3 dry winters, the London Reservoirs were more or less empty and the river flow direction was reversed to ensure a supply of water for London. Recent climate change studies in the Thames catchments suggest an increasing threat to water supply and also damage to river water quality and ecology. In addition to a changing climate, population levels in London have risen in recent years and the catchment is increasingly vulnerable to land use change. Since the 1920s changes in land use have increased the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the catchment and this trend is predicted to be exacerbated as climate change reduces freshwater dilution. Also land use is predicted to change as agriculture becomes more intensive as farmers react to higher grain and food prices. At the same time rising water temperatures has exposed the river to the potential for toxic algal blooms, such as cyanobacteria. This doom and gloom story is being managed however using a range of policy instruments, led by central government and public and private organisations such as Thames Water and the Environment Agency. Measures such as new reservoirs, a water transfer scheme from Wales and water metering to reduce demand are all being actively pursued, as are land management measures to control diffuse pollution. In order to assess the effects of climate change on the Thames catchment a major modelling study has been undertaken. The Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) has been set up for the Thames to model flow, nitrogen, phosphorus and ecology. Climate

  5. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).

  6. MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS AND DEMAND IN AGRICULTURE BY REGIONS AND NATIONALLY, WITH ESTIMATION OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARCUS, PETER; HEADY, EARL O.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO ESTIMATE THE MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NATION FOR 144 REGIONS THE TYPES OF SKILLS AND WORK ABILITIES REQUIRED BY AGRICULTURE IN THE NEXT 15 YEARS, AND THE TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF EDUCATION NEEDED. THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS IS BEING MADE BY METHODS APPROPRIATE TO THE PHASES OF THE STUDY--(1) INTERRELATIONS AMONG…

  7. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  8. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were…

  9. [Developing models on water-saving agriculture through rainwater harvesting for supplemental irrigation in northern China semi-arid region].

    PubMed

    Sun, Huimin; Cheng, Manjin; Zheng, Dawei; Zhang, Jianxin

    2005-06-01

    Zhungeer of Inner Mongolia, an arsenic-bearing sandstone area of northern Loess Plateau, is one of the sites with most serious soil and water losses in China, while rainwater harvesting (RWH) for supplemental irrigation is the only approach to abate droughts in this region. In the ongoing water saving agriculture project, a national 863 project of China, Zhungeer was chosen as a demonstration zone of water-saving dryland agriculture through rainwater harvesting for supplemental irrigation in northern China semi-arid region. The traditional RWH and utilization lacks of holistic consideration, resulting in the blindness in engineering planning and production arrangement. Based on the analysis of the ecological, economic and societal conditions in the demonstration zone, this paper summarized the technological system of dryland cropping production centered on RWH for supplemental irrigation, and developed three models of RWH and highly effective crop-planting, RWH and ecological pasturing, and domestic RWH and economy. The water demand standards for integrative rainwater utilization in the demonstration zone were determined, and the ecological and socio-economic assessment on the three years implement effects of the models was conducted. PMID:16180756

  10. Scheduling and adaptation of London's future water supply and demand schemes under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, Ivana; Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Harou, Julien J.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-04-01

    The changing needs of society and the uncertainty of future conditions complicate the planning of future water infrastructure and its operating policies. These systems must meet the multi-sector demands of a range of stakeholders whose objectives often conflict. Understanding these conflicts requires exploring many alternative plans to identify possible compromise solutions and important system trade-offs. The uncertainties associated with future conditions such as climate change and population growth challenge the decision making process. Ideally planners should consider portfolios of supply and demand management schemes represented as dynamic trajectories over time able to adapt to the changing environment whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Decisions can be scheduled and adapted over the planning period to minimize the present cost of portfolios while maintaining the supply-demand balance and ecosystem services as the future unfolds. Yet such plans are difficult to identify due to the large number of alternative plans to choose from, the uncertainty of future conditions and the computational complexity of such problems. Our study optimizes London's future water supply system investments as well as their scheduling and adaptation over time using many-objective scenario optimization, an efficient water resource system simulator, and visual analytics for exploring key system trade-offs. The solutions are compared to Pareto approximate portfolios obtained from previous work where the composition of infrastructure portfolios that did not change over the planning period. We explore how the visual analysis of solutions can aid decision making by investigating the implied performance trade-offs and how the individual schemes and their trajectories present in the Pareto approximate portfolios affect the system's behaviour. By doing so decision makers are given the opportunity to decide the balance between many system goals a posteriori as well as

  11. Water balance in irrigation districts. Uncertainty in on-demand pressurized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco Vicente

    2015-04-01

    In on-demand pressurized irrigation distribution networks, applied water volume is usually controlled opening a valve during a calculated time interval, and assuming constant flow rate. In general, pressure regulating devices for controlling the discharged flow rate by irrigation units are needed due to the variability of pressure conditions. A pressure regulating valve PRV is the commonly used pressure regulating device in a hydrant, which, also, executes the open and close function. A hydrant feeds several irrigation units, requiring a wide range in flow rate. In addition, some flow meters are also available, one as a component of the hydrant and the rest are placed downstream. Every land owner has one flow meter for each group of field plots downstream the hydrant. Ideal PRV performance would maintain a constant downstream pressure. However, the true performance depends on both upstream pressure and the discharged flow rate. Theoretical flow rates values have been introduced into a PRV behavioral model, validated in laboratory, coupled with an on-demand irrigation district waterworks, composed by a distribution network and a multi-pump station. Variations on flow rate are simulated by taking into account the consequences of variations on climate conditions and also decisions in irrigation operation, such us duration and frequency application. The model comprises continuity, dynamic and energy equations of the components of both the PRV and the water distribution network. In this work the estimation of water balance terms during the irrigation events in an irrigation campaign has been simulated. The effect of demand concentration peaks has been estimated.

  12. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Mahantango Creek Watershed, Pennsylvania, United States: long-term water quality database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit (PSWMRU) has developed a long-term water quality database to support water quality research within the 7.3 km**2 WE-38 experimental watershed in east-central Pennsyl...

  13. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  14. A community demand-driven approach toward sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Brian; Sarisky, John; Gelting, Richard; Baffigo, Virginia; Seminario, Raul; Centurion, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    In September 2001, Cooperative Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Peru Country Office (CARE Peru), obtained funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to implement community-supported, condominial water and sanitation interventions in Manuel Cardozo Dávila, a settlement in Iquitos, Peru. With technical support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CARE Peru's Urban Environmental Health Models (Modelos Urbanos de Salud Ambiental [MUSA]) project built on previous work from implementing the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health in this same community. The project led to the municipal water supply distribution system being extended 1.3 kilometers into the Southern zone of Iquitos, where it connected to the condominial water system. Altogether, 1030 households were connected to the water supply system after the installation of a condominial water and sewerage system in Cardozo. Diarrheal disease decreased by 37% for children less than 5 years of age from 2003 to 2004. This paper illustrates the strategy used by CARE Peru in conjunction with the Cardozo community to assure that the local demand for improved water and sanitation was met. PMID:21680241

  15. Comparison of pesticide residues in surface water and ground water of agriculture intensive areas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The organochlorines (OClPs) and organophosphates (OPPs) pesticides in surface and ground water having intensive agriculture activity were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risks on human health. As per USEPA 8081 B method, liquid-liquid extraction followed by Gas-Chromatographic technique with electron capture detector and mass selective detector (GC-MS) were used for monitoring of pesticides. Among organochlorines, α,β,γ,δ HCH’s, aldrin, dicofol, DDT and its derivatives, α,β endosulphan’s and endosulphan-sulphate were analysed; dichlorovos, ethion, parathion-methyl, phorate, chlorpyrifos and profenofos were determined among organophosphates. As compared to ground water, higher concentrations of OClPs and OPPs were found in surface water. Throughout the monitoring study, α - HCH (0.39 μg/L in Amravati region),α - endosulphan (0.78 μg/L in Yavatmal region), chlorpyrifos (0.25 μg/L in Bhandara region) and parathion-methyl (0.09 μg/L in Amravati region) are frequently found pesticide in ground water, whereas α,β,γ-HCH (0.39 μg/L in Amravati region), α,β - endosulphan (0.42 μg/L in Amravati region), dichlorovos (0.25 μg/L in Yavatmal region), parathion-methyl (0.42 μg/L in Bhandara region), phorate (0.33 μg/L in Yavatmal region) were found in surface water. Surface water was found to be more contaminated than ground water with more number of and more concentrated pesticides. Among pesticides water samples are found to be more contaminated by organophosphate than organochlorine. Pesticides in the surface water samples from Bhandara and Yavatmal region exceeded the EU (European Union) limit of 1.0 μg/L (sum of pesticide levels in surface water) but were within the WHO guidelines for individual pesticides. PMID:24398360

  16. Assessment of the water supply:demand ratios in a Mediterranean basin under different global change scenarios and mitigation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Acuña, Vicenç; Vergoñós, Laura; Ziv, Guy; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-02-01

    Spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services such as water provisioning often imply that the demand for ecosystem services cannot be fulfilled at the local scale, but it can be fulfilled at larger scales (regional, continental). Differences in the supply:demand (S:D) ratio for a given service result in different values, and these differences might be assessed with monetary or non-monetary metrics. Water scarcity occurs where and when water resources are not enough to meet all the demands, and this affects equally the service of water provisioning and the ecosystem needs. In this study we assess the value of water in a Mediterranean basin under different global change (i.e. both climate and anthropogenic changes) and mitigation scenarios, with a non-monetary metric: the S:D ratio. We computed water balances across the Ebro basin (North-East Spain) with the spatially explicit InVEST model. We highlight the spatial and temporal mismatches existing across a single hydrological basin regarding water provisioning and its consumption, considering or not, the environmental demand (environmental flow). The study shows that water scarcity is commonly a local issue (sub-basin to region), but that all demands are met at the largest considered spatial scale (basin). This was not the case in the worst-case scenario (increasing demands and decreasing supply), as the S:D ratio at the basin scale was near 1, indicating that serious problems of water scarcity might occur in the near future even at the basin scale. The analysis of possible mitigation scenarios reveals that the impact of global change may be counteracted by the decrease of irrigated areas. Furthermore, the comparison between a non-monetary (S:D ratio) and a monetary (water price) valuation metrics reveals that the S:D ratio provides similar values and might be therefore used as a spatially explicit metric to valuate the ecosystem service water provisioning. PMID:24176705

  17. Impact of agriculture on surface water in Ireland Part I. General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, Paul F.

    1986-02-01

    The inland freshwaters of Ireland are generally of good quality, a condition at least partly attributable to the relatively small population and industrial base, which are mainly located in coastal areas. The wastes generated by agricultural activities greatly exceed those resulting from domestic and industrial activities. However, the bulk of these agricultural wastes are attributable to grazing livestock and are not likely to lead to pollution of waters. The disposal of manure slurries from intensive rearing operations and silage making are the main agricultural operations which have been implicated in pollution incidents, e.g., fish kills and lake eutrophication. Contamination of surface waters with nitrate and pesticides is not a significant problem at this stage, which reflects the relatively low usage of artificial fertilizers and biocides in Ireland. It is suggested that, in the long term, the main effect of agriculture on Irish surface waters will be eutrophication.

  18. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. PMID:26994788

  19. Irrigated Agriculture and Water Resources in the Western U.S. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trout, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture in semi-arid areas such as the western U.S. was created by diverting and pumping water from rivers and groundwater. With that water, highly productive irrigated agriculture produces 40% of the crop value and the large majority of the fruits, vegetables, and nuts in the U.S. Irrigation water use and area is declining in the West, due both to overexploitation and increasing competing needs, although productivity continues to increase. The challenges for irrigated agriculture are to maximize productivity per unit of water consumed, minimize negative environmental impacts, and make water available to other needs while sustaining food production and rural economies. Meeting these challenges require both technical and policy advances.

  20. TREATED WATER DEMAND AND THE ECONOMICS OF REGIONALIZATION. VOLUME 2. ECONOMICS OF REGIONALIZATION: THE ELECTRIC POWER EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two volume report examines the present and future demands and costs for residential water in view of the new requirements for water quality standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974. This volume investigates consolidation in the electric power supply industry as an...

  1. Estimating residential price elasticity of demand for water: A contingent valuation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John F.; Syme, Geoffrey J.

    1988-11-01

    Residential households in Perth, Western Australia have access to privately extracted groundwater as well as a public mains water supply, which has been charged through a two-part block tariff. A contingent valuation approach is developed to estimate price elasticity of demand for public supply. Results are compared with those of a multivariate time series analysis. Validation tests for the contingent approach are proposed, based on a comparison of predicted behaviors following hypothesised price changes with relevant independent data. Properly conducted, the contingent approach appears to be reliable, applicable where the available data do not favor regression analysis, and a fruitful source of information about social, technical, and behavioral responses to change in the price of water.

  2. Evaluation of golf courses water demand in southern of Portugal for the last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago Pedras, Celestina M.; Lança, Rui M.; Martins, Fernando; Fernandez, Helena; Vieira, Cristina; Monteiro, José Paulo; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Golf is an economic activity with a prominent position in the tourist-sport offer in the region of Algarve. Located in southern of Portugal, this region is the most suitable region for the growth of the golf industry. The climate is characterized by mild winters with slight rainfall and hot and dry summers. The region has an annual average temperature of 14oC and annual precipitation that rarely exceeds 500 mm year-1. Since most of the rainfall occurs concentrated in the winter, irrigation is needed during the remaining months of the year to meet the water demand from plants. A proper irrigation management will allow to optimize the use water, thus it constitutes a key issue for the sustainability of this activity in areas subjected to water scarcity. Currently, remote sensing provides the tools to assess the evolution of the greenish quality of the area in the golf courses. In this study, based on Landsat images, vegetation indices were calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), for the spring and summer seasons during the last 30 years. For the same period, according the data collected from weather stations distributed in the region, maps of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind were produced. According the current maintenance practices and irrigation cycles, maps of potential and real evapotranspiration and with basis on the water balance were calculated, and water deficit maps estimated. Upon crossing this information with the NDVI maps, trends were identified in the consumption of water for irrigation due to the growth of the occupied area by golf courses in the region of Algarve. Since drought problems tend to increase due to climate changes, it becomes relevant the need to conduct this study aiming the research of strategies to ensure the beneficial use of water on golf courses and other turfgrass areas. Keywords: evapotranspiration, golf, irrigation, NDVI, water deficit

  3. Using activated biochars to treat well water in agricultural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane or DBCP) is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to a maximum of 0.2 µg/L (0.2 ppb) in drinking water. DBCP was primarily used as an unclassified nematicide for vegetables and per...

  4. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  5. ET mapping for agricultural water management: present status and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance. Remote sensing based agrometeorological models are presently most suited for estimating crop water use at both field and regional scales. Numerous ET algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data acquired by ...

  6. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  7. Urban water demand forecasting and uncertainty assessment using ensemble wavelet-bootstrap-neural network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Mukesh K.; Adamowski, Jan

    2013-10-01

    A new hybrid wavelet-bootstrap-neural network (WBNN) model is proposed in this study for short term (1, 3, and 5 day; 1 and 2 week; and 1 and 2 month) urban water demand forecasting. The new method was tested using data from the city of Montreal in Canada. The performance of the WBNN method was compared with the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average model with exogenous input variables (ARIMAX), traditional NNs, wavelet analysis-based NNs (WNN), bootstrap-based NNs (BNN), and a simple naïve persistence index model. The WBNN model was developed as an ensemble of several NNs built using bootstrap resamples of wavelet subtime series instead of raw data sets. The results demonstrated that the hybrid WBNN and WNN models produced significantly more accurate forecasting results than the traditional NN, BNN, ARIMA, and ARIMAX models. It was also found that the WBNN model reduces the uncertainty associated with the forecasts, and the performance of WBNN forecasted confidence bands was found to be more accurate and reliable than BNN forecasted confidence bands. It was found in this study that maximum temperature and total precipitation improved the accuracy of water demand forecasts using wavelet analysis. The performance of WBNN models was also compared for different numbers of bootstrap resamples (i.e., 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500) and it was found that WBNN models produced optimum results with different numbers of bootstrap resamples for different lead time forecasts with considerable variability.

  8. New Demands, New Supplies: A National Look at the Water Balance of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. D.; Kobos, P.; Klise, G. T.; Krumhansl, J. L.; McNemar, A.

    2010-12-01

    Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. New demands, new supplies : a national look at the water balance of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; McNemar, Andrea , Morgantown, WV); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process.

  10. Assessment of Crop Water Requirement Methods for Annual Agricultural Water Allocation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghdasi, F.; Sharifi, M. A.; van der Tol, C.

    2010-05-01

    The potential use of remote sensing in water resource and in particular in irrigation management has been widely acknowledged. However, in reality, operational applications of remote sensing in irrigation management are few. In this study, the applicability of the main available remote sensing based techniques of irrigation management is evaluated in a pilot area in Iran. The evaluated techniques include so called Crop Water Requirement "CWR" methods for the planning of annual water allocation in irrigated agriculture. A total of 40 years of historical weather data were classified into wet, normal, and dry years using a Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). For each of these three classes the average CWR was calculated. Next, by applying Markov Chain Process to the time series of precipitation, the expected CWR for the forthcoming planning year was estimated. Using proper interpolation techniques the expected CWR at each station was converted to CWR map of the area, which was then used for annual water allocation planning. To estimate the crop water requirement, methods developed for the DEMETER project (DEMonstration of Earth observation Technologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) and Surface Energy Balance System "SEBS" algorithm were used, and their results were compared with conventional methods, including FAO-56 and lysimeter data amongst others. Use was made of both ASTER and MODIS images to determine crop water requirement at local and regional scales. Four methods of estimating crop coefficients were used: DEMETER Kc-NDVI, DEMETER Kc-analytical, FAO-56 and SEBS algorithm. Results showed that DEMETER (analytical approach) and FAO methods with lowest RMSE are more suitable methods for determination of crop coefficient than SEBS, which gives actual rather than potential evapotranspiration. The use of ASTER and MODIS images did not result in significantly different crop coefficients in the pilot area for the DEMETER analytical approach (α=0

  11. On the forest cover–water yield debate: from demand- to supply-side thinking

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, David; N Futter, Martyn; Bishop, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Several major articles from the past decade and beyond conclude the impact of reforestation or afforestation on water yield is negative: additional forest cover will reduce and removing forests will raise downstream water availability. A second group of authors argue the opposite: planting additional forests should raise downstream water availability and intensify the hydrologic cycle. Obtaining supporting evidence for this second group of authors has been more difficult due to the larger scales at which the positive effects of forests on the water cycle may be seen. We argue that forest cover is inextricably linked to precipitation. Forest-driven evapotranspiration removed from a particular catchment contributes to the availability of atmospheric moisture vapor and its cross-continental transport, raising the likelihood of precipitation events and increasing water yield, in particular in continental interiors more distant from oceans. Seasonal relationships heighten the importance of this phenomenon. We review the arguments from different scales and perspectives. This clarifies the generally beneficial relationship between forest cover and the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. While evidence supports both sides of the argument – trees can reduce runoff at the small catchment scale – at larger scales, trees are more clearly linked to increased precipitation and water availability. Progressive deforestation, land conversion from forest to agriculture and urbanization have potentially negative consequences for global precipitation, prompting us to think of forest ecosystems as global public goods. Policy-making attempts to measure product water footprints, estimate the value of ecosystem services, promote afforestation, develop drought mitigation strategies and otherwise manage land use must consider the linkage of forests to the supply of precipitation.

  12. Evaluation of water demand in golf courses from southern Portugal during the last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago Pedras, Celestina M.; Lança, Rui M.; Granja-Martins, Fernando M.; Neto-Paixão, Helena M.; Vieira, Cristina; Monteiro, José P.; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Golf is an economic activity with a prominent position in the tourist-sport offer in the region of Algarve. Located in southern of Portugal, this region is the most suitable region for the growth of the golf industry. The climate is characterized by mild winters with slight rainfall and hot and dry summers. The region has an annual average temperature of 14oC and annual precipitation that rarely exceeds 500 mm year-1. Since most of the rainfall occurs concentrated in the winter, irrigation is needed during the remaining months of the year to meet the water demand from plants. A proper irrigation management will allow to optimize the use water, thus it constitutes a key issue for the sustainability of this activity in areas subjected to water scarcity. Currently, remote sensing provides the tools to assess the evolution of the greenish quality of the area in the golf courses. In this study, based on Landsat images, vegetation indices were calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), for the spring and summer seasons during the last 30 years. For the same period, according the data collected from weather stations distributed in the region, maps of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and wind were produced. According the current maintenance practices and irrigation cycles, maps of potential and real evapotranspiration and with basis on the water balance were calculated, and water deficit maps estimated. Upon crossing this information with the NDVI maps, trends were identified in the consumption of water for irrigation due to the growth of the occupied area by golf courses in the region of Algarve. Since drought problems tend to increase due to climate changes, it becomes relevant the need to conduct this study aiming the research of strategies to ensure the beneficial use of water on golf courses and other turfgrass areas.

  13. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  14. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Shannon, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attachés, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly impact crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Although, historically, these analog years are identified through visual inspection, the qualitative nature of this methodology sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. One goal of this study is to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. This approach is based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). The derivation of AI will be described. Another goal of this study is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data). Five study areas and six growing seasons of data were analyzed (2003-2007 as potential analog years and 2008 as the target year). Results thus far show that, for all five areas, crop yield estimates derived from satellite-based precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface

  15. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  16. Assessment of rural ground-water contamination by agricultural chemicals in sensitive areas of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Kittleson, K.M.

    1988-04-01

    The vulnerability of drinking-water supplies to agricultural contamination in three Michigan counties is discussed. The results of nitrate and atrazine analysis of drinking water from 38 wells in those 3 counties is described. Widespread nitrate contamination was demonstrated in agricultural areas with vulnerable aquifers. In addition, atrazine, a widely used herbicide was found in 11 of the 38 wells samples, with concentrations and patterns not conforming to findings in other mid-western states. The need for a comprehensive inventory of the ground-water quality in rural areas of Michigan is emphasized in the report, which describes results from the first year of a 2-year study.

  17. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  18. Simultaneous concentration of bovine viruses and agricultural zoonotic bacteria from water using sodocalcic glass wool filters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficienc...

  19. Implementation and monitoring measures to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality: US experience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As European nations move toward compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive, national efforts to manage and regulate agricultural impacts on water quality in the US can provide useful guidance. Concentration of livestock and poultry production in the US has changed the distribution of nutrient...

  20. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create sustainable ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or su...

  1. Implementation and monitoring to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality: US experiance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As European nations move toward compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive, national efforts to manage and regulate agricultural impacts on water quality in the US can provide useful guidance. Concentration of livestock and poultry production in the US has changed the distribution of nutrient...

  2. Linking nitrogen management, seep chemistry, and stream water quality in two agricultural headwater watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian seepage zones in headwater agricultural watersheds represent important sources of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) to surface waters, often connecting N-rich groundwater systems to streams. In this study, we examined how NO3-N concentrations in seep and stream water were affected by NO3-N processin...

  3. Modeling water outflow from tile-drained agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovski, Vladimir; Trajanov, Aneta; Leprince, Florence; Džeroski, Sašo; Debeljak, Marko

    2015-02-01

    The estimation of the pollution risk of surface and ground water with plant protection products applied on fields depends highly on the reliable prediction of the water outflows over (surface runoff) and through (discharge through sub-surface drainage systems) the soil. In previous studies, water movement through the soil has been simulated mainly using physically-based models. The most frequently used models for predicting soil water movement are MACRO, HYDRUS-1D/2D and Root Zone Water Quality Model. However, these models are difficult to apply to a small portion of land due to the information required about the soil and climate, which are difficult to obtain for each plot separately. In this paper, we focus on improving the performance and applicability of water outflow modeling by using a modeling approach based on machine learning techniques. It allows us to overcome the major drawbacks of physically-based models e.g., the complexity and difficulty of obtaining the information necessary for the calibration and the validation, by learning models from data collected from experimental fields that are representative for a wider area (region). We evaluate the proposed approach on data obtained from the La Jaillière experimental site, located in Western France. This experimental site represents one of the ten scenarios contained in the MACRO system. Our study focuses on two types of water outflows: discharge through sub-surface drainage systems and surface runoff. The results show that the proposed modeling approach successfully extracts knowledge from the collected data, avoiding the need to provide the information for calibration and validation of physically-based models. In addition, we compare the overall performance of the learned models with the performance of existing models MACRO and RZWQM. The comparison shows overall improvement in the prediction of discharge through sub-surface drainage systems, and partial improvement in the prediction of the surface

  4. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  5. Development of a complete Landsat evapotranspiration and energy balance archive to support agricultural consumptive water use reporting and prediction in the Central Valley, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, A.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; McEvoy, D.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping evapotranspiration (ET) from agricultural areas in California's Central Valley is critical for understanding historical consumptive use of surface and groundwater. In addition, long histories of ET maps provide valuable training information for predictive studies of surface and groundwater demands. During times of drought, groundwater is commonly pumped to supplement reduced surface water supplies in the Central Valley. Due to the lack of extensive groundwater pumping records, mapping consumptive use using satellite imagery is an efficient and robust way for estimating agricultural consumptive use and assessing drought impacts. To this end, we have developed and implemented an algorithm for automated calibration of the METRIC remotely sensed surface energy balance model on NASA's Earth Exchange (NEX) to estimate ET at the field scale. Using automated calibration techniques on the NEX has allowed for the creation of spatially explicit historical ET estimates for the Landsat archive dating from 1984 to the near present. Further, our use of spatial NLDAS and CIMIS weather data, and spatial soil water balance simulations within the NEX METRIC workflow, has helped overcome challenges of time integration between satellite image dates. This historical and near present time archive of agricultural water consumption for the Central Valley will be an extremely useful dataset for water use and drought impact reporting, and predictive analyses of groundwater demands.

  6. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    PubMed

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy. PMID:27074925

  7. Participatory geographic information systems for agricultural water management scenario development: A Tanzanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie

    One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision

  8. Can rainfed agriculture adapt to uncertainty in availability of water in Indus Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Sen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding impacts of hydrological and climatological functions under changing climate on regional floods, droughts as well as agricultural commodities remain a serious challenge in tropical agricultural basins. These "tropical agricultural basins" are regions where: (i) the understanding on hydrologic functions (such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, vegetation) are not well established; (ii) increasing population is at the convergence of rural and urban boundaries; (iii) resilience and sustainability of the water resources under different climatic conditions is unknown; and, (iv) agriculture is the primary occupation for majority of the population. More than 95% of the farmed lands in tropical regions are rainfed and 60% of total agricultural production in South Asia relying on seasonal rainfall. Tropical regions frequently suffer from unexpected droughts and sudden flash floods, resulting in massive losses in human lives and affecting regional economy. Prediction of frequency, intensity and magnitude of floods in tropical regions is still a subject of debate and research. A clear example is from the massive floods in the Eastern Indus River in July 2010 that submerged 17 million acre of fertile cropland. Yet, seasonal droughts, such as 2014 rain deficits in Indus Basin, had no effects on annual crop yields - thus creating a paradox. Large amounts of groundwater is being used to supplement water needs for crops during drought conditions, leading to oversubscription of natural aquifers. Key reason that rainfed agriculture is relying heavily on groundwater is because of the uncertainty in timing and distribution of precipitation in the tropical regions, where such data are not routinely collected as well as the basins are transnational, thus limiting sharing of data. Assessment of availability of water for agricultural purposes a serious challenge in tropical regions. This study will provide a framework for using multi

  9. Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand, and negative effects of water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency. Total biomass is cumulated over the duration of the considered phase (e.g., plant cycle or vegetative phase). These durations are essentially constant for a given genotype provided that time is corrected for temperature (thermal time). Several ways of expressing thermal time are reviewed. Two alternative equations are presented, based either on the effect of transpiration, or on yield components. Their comparative interests and drawbacks are discussed. The genetic variability of each term of considered equations affects yield under water deficit, via mechanisms at different scales of plant organization and time. The effect of any physiological mechanism on yield of stressed plants acts via one of these terms, although the link is not always straightforward. Finally, I propose practical ways to compare the productivity of genotypes in field environments, and a “minimum dataset” of environmental data and traits that should be recorded for that. PMID:23423357

  10. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  11. Selection criteria for water disinfection techniques in agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Haute, Sam van; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This paper comprises a selection tool for water disinfection methods for fresh produce pre- and postharvest practices. A variety of water disinfection technologies is available on the market and no single technology is the best choice for all applications. It can be difficult for end users to choose the technology that is best fit for a specific application. Therefore, the different technologies were characterized in order to identify criteria that influence the suitability of a technology for pre- or postharvest applications. Introduced criteria were divided into three principal components: (i) criteria related to the technology and which relate to the disinfection efficiency, (ii) attention points for the management and proper operation, and (iii) necessities in order to sustain the operation with respect to the environment. The selection criteria may help the end user of the water disinfection technology to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant aspects to be considered for preliminary decision making on which technologies should be put to feasibility testing for water disinfection in pre- and postharvest practices of the fresh produce chain. PMID:24279431

  12. Optimizing the use of limited water in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 92% of freshwater withdrawals in Uzbekistan are used for irrigation, whereas in the United States, freshwater withdrawls account for about 33% of the total use. In Uzbekistan, most of the water suitable for irrigation has already been allocated. In the United States, groundwater depletion and ...

  13. Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The

  14. Assessment of environmental water demands (EWD) of forests for two distinct Indian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Devotta, Sukumar

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable use of water and land resources requires that these scarce resources be appropriately allocated among various competing human activities. Worldwide, there is a realization now that sustainable river basin management should be accorded the highest priority, because it deals not only with technical, but also with ecological and socioeconomic aspects, and thus calls for a multidisciplinary and integrated approach. However, most of the policy and planning documents have either remained silent, or have made only implicit reference to the importance of environmental water demand (EWD) and its quantification. Therefore, in the light of its importance, a methodology has been evolved in this article for quantifying EWD for various forested areas in two distinctly different Indian river basins: Brahmani (humid zone) and Sabarmati (dry zone). The article analyzes and discusses EWD estimates at three different spatial levels: river basins, states, and districts within them, and finally presents a comparative analysis of all these results. Findings of the present study will be immensely useful in understanding various ecological issues connected with water resource projects and proposals in these river basins. PMID:16362491

  15. Rapid Determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand of Water Using a Thermal Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Na; Wang, Jinqi; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a thermal biosensor with a flow injection analysis system for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water samples. Glucose solutions of different concentrations and actual water samples were tested, and their COD values were determined by measuring the heat generated when the samples passed through a column containing periodic acid. The biosensor exhibited a large linear range (5 to 3000 mg/L) and a low detection limit (1.84 mg/L). It could tolerate the presence of chloride ions in concentrations of 0.015 M without requiring a masking agent. The sensor was successfully used for detecting the COD values of actual samples. The COD values of water samples from various sources were correlated with those obtained by the standard dichromate method; the linear regression coefficient was found to be 0.996. The sensor is environmentally friendly, economical, and highly stable, and exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy. In addition, its response time is short, and there is no danger of hazardous emissions or external contamination. Finally, the samples to be tested do not have to be pretreated. These results suggest that the biosensor is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the COD values of actual wastewater samples. PMID:24915178

  16. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP. PMID:25465650

  17. Land use policy and agricultural water management of the previous half of century in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines land use policy and agricultural water management in Africa from 1962 to 2011. For this purpose, data were gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank Group. Using the FAO database, ten indices were selected: permanent crops to cultivated area (%), rural population to total population (%), total economically active population in agriculture to total economically active population (%), human development index, national rainfall index (mm/year), value added to gross domestic product by agriculture (%), irrigation water requirement (mm/year), percentage of total cultivated area drained (%), difference between national rainfall index and irrigation water requirement (mm/year), area equipped for irrigation to cultivated area or land use policy index (%). These indices were analyzed for all 53 countries in the study area and the land use policy index was estimated by two different formulas. The results show that value of relative error is <20 %. In addition, an average index was calculated using various methods to assess countries' conditions for agricultural water management. Ability of irrigation and drainage systems was studied using other eight indices with more limited information. These indices are surface irrigation (%), sprinkler irrigation (%), localized irrigation (%), spate irrigation (%), agricultural water withdrawal (10 km3/year), conservation agriculture area as percentage of cultivated area (%), percentage of area equipped for irrigation salinized (%), and area waterlogged by irrigation (%). Finally, tendency of farmers to use irrigation systems for cultivated crops has been presented. The results show that Africa needs governments' policy to encourage farmers to use irrigation systems and raise cropping intensity for irrigated area.

  18. Agricultural chemical interchange between ground water and surface water, Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota; a study description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the data collected in the Cedar River basin, Iowa and Minnesota, indicates that atrazine is consistently detected in the main-stem river at concentrations greater than 0.10 microgram per liter even during periods of extended base flow. The primary source of atrazine in the river during these periods of base flow is not known. This study is designed to determine how atrazine and other agricultural chemicals move between ground water and surface water in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to a river. A site has been selected in an unfarmed area adjacent to the Cedar River near Bertram, Iowa, to determine how the concentrations of agricultural chemicals in the alluvial aquifer change as a result of bank storage of surface water. Research also is planned to determine the contribution of agricultural chemicals discharged by the alluvial aquifer into the river during base flow.

  19. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a s